Wallpaper

Mary Cassatt's painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers.

Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well.

History

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon.

Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market.

During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

Use

Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath.

A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface.

You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish.

The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

References

  • History of Wallpaper

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'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). This condition has not been found in many other animals, and is not known to occur in humans. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. This is probably because rats are extremely sensitive to dietary protease inhibitors like those found in soybeans, which can disrupt the action of digestive enzymes needed to break down protein. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish. A 1985 animal study showed that young rats fed large amounts of soy products as their primary food source showed an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. The original paper in the journal Circulation: January 17,2006[4].

Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. [3]. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. The panel also found that soy isoflavones do not reduce post menopause "hot flashes" in women nor do isoflavones help prevent cancers of the breast, uterus or prostate. You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. In January , 2006 an American Heart Association review (in the journal Circulation) of a decade long study of soy protein benefits casts doubt on the FDA allowed "Heart Healthy" claim for soy protein. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface. The FDA granted this health claim for soy: "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." One serving, (1 cup or 240 mL) of soy milk, for instance, contains 6 or 7 grams of soy protein.

Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. On the basis of this research PTI, in 1998, filed a petition with FDA for a health claim that soy protein may reduce cholesterol and the risk of heart disease. A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Soy phytoestrogens (isoflavones: genistein and daidzein) adsorbed onto the soy protein were suggested as the agent reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath. However, High Density Lipoprotein HDL(good cholesterol) did not increase. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. This meta-analysis concluded that soy protein is correlated with significant decreases in serum cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein LDL (bad cholesterol) and triglyceride concentrations.

In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. Louis. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. 5) published a report from the University of Kentucky entitled, "Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Soy Protein Intake on Serum Lipids." It was financed by the PTI division of DuPont,"The Solae Co."[2] St. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. 333, No. Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. In 1995, the New England Journal of Medicine (Vol.

'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). Isoflavones are polyphenol compounds, produced primarily by beans and other legumes, including peanuts and chickpeas. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. Soybeans also contain isoflavones, forms of phytoestrogen that are considered by some nutritionists and physicians to be useful in the prevention of cancer, though very controversial and also blamed for some thyroid and reproductive health problems. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. They are also high in fiber and vitamin C. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world. In spite of the chelating effects of phytic acid, soybeans remain a good source of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and manganese.

Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. Scientific research [1] also indicates that it may reduce the risk of colon cancer. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. The Journal of Environmental Nutrition (April 2004 volume 27 issue 4) has also stated phytic acid may be considered a phytonutrient, providing an antioxidant effect. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. However, dietary mineral chelators help prevent over-mineralization of joints, blood vessels, and other parts of the body, which is most common in older persons. During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. For people with a particularly low intake of essential minerals, especially young children and those in developing countries, this effect can be undesirable.

By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market. Of any studied legume, whole soybeans have the highest levels of phytic acid, an organic acid and mineral chelator present in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds, which binds to certain ingested minerals: calcium, magnesium, iron, and especially zinc—in the intestinal tract, and reduces the amount the body assimilates. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. The only non-legume to have an almost identical protein profile to soy is the cereal oat (Avena sativa), and perhaps quinoa. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Soy protein is similar to that of other legume seeds, but has the highest yield per square meter of growing area, and is the least expensive source of dietary protein. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. For this reason, soy is important to many vegetarians and vegans.

Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body because of the body's inability to synthesize them. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Soybeans are a source of complete protein. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Concern is also for the high amounts of residual toxin since the herbicide is sprayed on the soya crop repeatedly during growth. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. As with other "Roundup Ready" crops, concern is expressed over damage to biodiversity through the loss of wildflowers removed by the roundup treatment, and consequent loss of insects and birds that depend on them.

These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. Currently, 80% of all soybeans cultivated for the commercial market are genetically modified. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. RR soybeans allow a farmer to reduce tillage or even to sow the seed directly into an unplowed field, known as 'No Plow' tillage. Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. Roundup kills conventional soybeans. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon. strain CP4, inserted, by means of a gene gun, into its genome that allows the transgenic plant to survive being sprayed by this non-selective, glyphosate-based herbicide.

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. In 1995, Monsanto introduced "Roundup Ready" (RR) soybeans that have had a complete copy of a gene (plasmid) from the bacteria, Agrobacterium sp. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well. Monsanto is the world's leader in genetically modified soy for the commercial market. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. Soybeans are one of the "Biotech Food" crops that are being genetically modified, and GMO soybeans are being used in an increasing number of products. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. Soybeans are also used as fermenting stock to make a brand of vodka.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Soybeans are also used in industrial products including oils, soap, cosmetics, resins, plastics, inks, crayons, solvents, and biodiesel. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Additionally, soy protein has been found to reduce renal excretion of calcium, an effect that is reinforced by the high potassium content of soy products. Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Tofu often contains high amounts of this important mineral since calcium salts are used to coagulate the protein in soy milk when creating tofu. History of Wallpaper. Many manufacturers of soy milk now sell calcium-enriched products as well.

Soy milk does not contain significant amounts of calcium, since the high calcium content of soybeans is bound to the insoluble constituents and remains in the pulp. These imitation products are derived from extensive processing to produce a texture and appearance similar to the real dairy-based ones. Many traditional dairy products have been imitated using processed soybeans, and imitation products such as soy milk, "soy yogurt" and "soy cream cheese" are readily available in most supermarkets. The formulas are sold in powdered, ready to feed, or concentrated liquid forms.

Infant formulas based on soy are used by lactose-intolerant babies; and for babies that are allergic to human milk proteins and cow milk proteins. It is the starting material for production of soy concentrate and soy protein isolate. Soy flour refers to defatted soybeans where special care was taken during desolventizing (not toasted) in order to minimize denaturation of the protein to retain a high Nitrogen Solubility Index (NSI), for uses such as extruder texturizing (TVP). Soybean meal, the material remaining after solvent extraction of soybean flakes, with a 50% soy protein content, toasted (a misnomer because the heat treatment is with moist steam), and ground, in a hammer mill, provided the energy for the American revolution, beginning in the 1930s, of growing farm animals such as poultry and swine on an industrial scale; and more recently the aquaculture of catfish.

The remaining soybean husks are used mainly as animal feed. New processes increasingly prepare protein isolates for use as food additives or health supplements. The oils are exported abroad, sold as vegetable oil, or end up in a wide variety of processed foods. The oils are blended for their applications, and sometimes hydrogenated.

The soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, rolled into flakes and solvent extracted with commercial hexane. Soybean oil extraction is performed on a large scale in the U.S. Soybean oil makes up 80% of the edible oil consumption in the United States. All commercial soybeans in the United States are yellow or yellow brown.

Soybeans having a dark colored seed coat, or even beans with a dark hilum will inadvertently leave dark specks in the flour, an undesirable factor when used in food products. In processing soybeans for oil extraction and subsequent soy flour production, selection of high quality, sound, clean, dehulled yellow soybeans is very important. Soybeans are also the primary ingredient involved in the production of soy sauce (or shoyu). Common forms of soy (or soya) include soy meal ( used as animal feed), soy flour, "soy milk", tofu, textured vegetable protein (TVP, which is made into a wide variety of vegetarian foods, some of them intended to imitate meat), tempeh, soy lecithin and soybean oil (aka "vegetable oil" in the USA).

The beans can be processed in a variety of ways. Soybeans prepared this way are a popular local snack in Hawai'i, where, as in Japan, China, and Korea, the bean and products made from the bean (miso, natto, tofu, douchi, doenjang, ganjang and others) are a significant part of the diet. Soybeans may be boiled whole in their green pod and served with salt, under the Japanese name edamame. A smaller percentage of soybeans are used directly for human consumption, particularly in Asia.

The bulk of the soybean crop is grown for oil production, with the high-protein defatted and "toasted" soy meal used as livestock feed. Soybeans are the most important cash crop in the United States and the leading agricultural export. Among the legumes, the soybean, also classed as an oilseed, is pre-eminent for its high (38-45%) protein content as well as its high (20%) oil content. The "garden" cultivars are generally not suitable for mechanical combine harvesting because they have a tendency for the pods to shatter on reaching maturity.

Tofu and soymilk producers prefer the higher protein cultivars bred from vegetable soybeans originally brought to the United States in the late 1930s. Vegetable types cook more easily, have a mild nutty flavor, better texture, are larger in size, higher in protein, and lower in oil than field types. Soybeans can be broadly classified as "vegetable" (garden) or field (oil) types. Peanuts, soybeans, sweet potatoes or other plants that would replenish the soil with nitrogen and minerals were planted for two years and then cotton on the third year.

He also encouraged farmers to use crop rotation. The first research on soybeans in the United States was conducted by George Washington Carver at Tuskeegee, Alabama, but he decided it was too exotic a crop for the poor black farmers of the South so he turned his attention to peanuts. Environmental groups, such as Greenpeace and the WWF, have reported that soybean cultivation and the threat to increase soybean cultivation in Brazil is destroying huge areas of Amazon rainforest and encouraging deforestation. Other leading producers are Brazil, Argentina, China, Japan, and India.

produced 75 million metric tons of soybeans in 2000, of which more than one-third was exported. The U.S. Soybeans are native to southeast Asia, but 45 percent of the world's soybean area, and 55 percent of production, is in the United States. Modern crop cultivars generally reach a height of 1 m or more, and take between 80-120 days from sowing to harvesting.

However, for best results an inoculum of the correct strain of bacteria should be mixed with the soybean(or any legume) seed before planting. Rhizobium japonicum; Jordan 1982). Soybeans, like most legumes perform nitrogen fixation by establishing a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum (syn. They can grow in a wide range of soils, with optimum growth in moist alluvial soils with a good organic content.

Cultivation is successful in climates with hot summers, with optimum growing conditions in mean temperatures of 20 °C to 30 °C; temperatures of below 20 °C and over 40 °C retard growth significantly. Soybeans did not become an important crop outside of Asia until about 1910. Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter in 1770 mentioning sending soybeans home from England. They were first introduced to Europe in the early 1700s and the United States in 1765, where it was first grown for hay.

Soybeans were used as food in eastern Asia long before written records, and it is still a major crop in China, Japan and Korea. A very small proportion of the crop is consumed directly for food by humans. The bulk of the crop is solvent extracted for vegetable oil and the defatted soy meal is used for animal feed. It is grown for its oil and protein.

Soybeans are an important global crop, with political ramifications. The scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum (colors include black, brown, buff, gray and yellow) and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water. The hull of the mature bean is hard, water resistant, and protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl (or "germ") from damage. Soybeans occur in various sizes, and in several hull or seed coat colors, including black, brown, blue, yellow, and mottled.

. The word soy is derived from the Japanese word shoyu (soy sauce/soya sauce). Beans are classed as pulses whereas soybeans are classed as oilseeds. However, it is known that the progenitor of the modern soybean was a vine-like plant, that grew prone on the ground.

It is a cultural variety (a cultigen) with a very large number of cultivars. Like corn and some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty. The small, inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers are borne in the axil of the leaf and are either white or purple; The fruit is a hairy pod that grow in clusters of 3-5, with each pod 3-8 cm (1-3 inches) long and usually containing 2-4 (rarely more) seeds 5-11 mm in diameter. The leaves are trifoliate (sometimes with 5 leaflets), the leaflets 6-15 cm (2-6 inches) long and 2-7 cm (1-3 inches) broad; they fall before the seeds are mature.

The pods, stems, and leaves are covered with fine brown or gray pubescence. It may grow prostrate, not growing above 20 cm (7.8 inches); up to stiffly erect plants growing to 2 meters (6.5 feet). It is an annual plant, which may vary in growth habit and height. Soybean(s) (U.S.) or Soya bean (UK) Glycine max is a species of legume, native to eastern Asia.

The lecithin content varies up to 15%. Lecithinated soy flour, is made by adding soybean lecithin to defatted, low fat or high fat soy flours to increase their dispersibility and impart emulsifying properties. High fat soy flour, is produced by adding back soybean oil to defatted flour, at the level of 15%. The lipid content varies according to specifications, usually between 4.5% and 9%.

Low fat soy flour, is made by adding back some oil to defatted soy flour. Due to its high oil content a specialized Alpine Fine Impact Mill must be used for grinding rather than the more common hammermill. Full-fat soy flour, is made from unextracted, dehulled beans, and contains about 18% to 20% oil. Defatted soy flour, is obtained from solvent extracted flakes, and contains less than 1% oil.

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