Wallpaper

Mary Cassatt's painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers.

Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well.

History

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon.

Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market.

During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

Use

Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath.

A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface.

You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish.

The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

References

  • History of Wallpaper

This page about wallpaper includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). Orbitzgames.com was launched in September 2005 as a showcase of all the promotional orbitz games produced to date. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. Claiming that, because Orbitz had violated their own contractual agreements, some readers - whose emails are also posted on that article - vowed never to use Orbitz. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish. Additionally, Maddox readers were further alienated due to this exchange, since Orbitz had shared information with other parties regarding an unsettled customer dispute. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. This is assuming there are no further airline or traffic delays.".

Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. Ouzonian's response to Orbitz's reply: "Hey, good point Orbitz, except that having 3 hours and 6 minutes to "connect to the other airport" is misleading because I don't need to simply "connect," I need to check in at least 2 hours before my flight...not to mention the time it would take to locate and walk to my terminal, check in my luggage, and stand in line. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. [This happened] in May of 2002 [and all sales] meet airline requirements for appropriate "minimum connection times"...there are significant inaccuracies in the information he provides...His flight was actually scheduled to depart at 12:45 pm so he had a total of 3 hours and 6 minutes to connect to the other airport, as opposed to the 2 hours and 21 minutes he claimed. You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. The readers forwarded those emails to Maddox, who posted it on his site:. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface. Orbitz responded to the many thousands of emails that Maddox readers sent to them.

Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. This story was read by over a hundred thousand people within less than a week, and instigated a boycott against the company by many of these readers. A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Maddox, recounted a less than satisfactory experience with Orbitz in which he was given an impossible itinerary which could not physically be fulfilled, and was not given a refund. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath. The author, George Ouzounian a.k.a. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. In March, 2005, Orbitz.com received email complaints numbering in the thousands from readers of a website called The Best Page in the Universe.

In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. Given Cendant's spate of acquisitions in Europe, there has been some speculation about Orbitz being exported to Europe as a brand or the continued use of acquired Cendant brands like ebookers and Octopus Travel. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. On September 29, 2004 Orbitz was acquired for $1.2 billion by New York-based Cendant Corporation. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. Additionally, changes in the marketplace had eroded both the advantages of the Most Favored Nation clause and the initial technological superiority of the Orbitz engine. Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Orbitz's rapid growth had leveled off, its online competitors' businesses had continued to grow apace, and no evidence was found of price fixing.

'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). In July 2003, the Department of Justice ruled that Orbitz was not a cartel and did not pose a threat to competition. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. In July, it withdrew its fares from Orbitz altogether. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. Southwest, which had opposed the project from the outset, claimed Orbitz misrepresented its prices and used its trademarks without permission. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world. Separately, Southwest Airlines filed a lawsuit against Orbitz for trademark infringement and false advertising in May 2001.

Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. Partly in response, Orbitz announced in May 2002 it would make its fares available to travel agents offline. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. The Interactive Travel Services Association (ITSA), an organization of Internet travel agencies, issued a report in December 2001 arguing that Orbitz was stifling its members. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. Among the concerns raised were these:. During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market. When the DOT permitted the company to move ahead in April 2001, the effort was switched to the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice and the U.S. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. Several consumer organizations lobbied the United States Department of Transportation to block the project from the outset, and some 23 state attorneys general also voiced concerns. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Even before the site began operating, however, the company faced intense antitrust scrutiny— after all, five of the six oligopolist "major" airlines, controlling 80 percent of the US air travel market, were collaborating. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. Beta testing began early the next year, and Orbitz.com officially launched in June 2001.

Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. It was code-named T2— some claimed, meaning "Travelocity Terminator"— but adopted the name Orbitz when it commenced corporate operations in February 2000. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Northwest Airlines, and United Airlines, subsequently joined by American Airlines, invested a combined $145 million to start the project in November 1999. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Orbitz constituted the airline industry's response to the rise of online travel agencies such as Expedia and Travelocity and trailed its major competitors by several years. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. .

These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. As such, it searches the entire inventory of available prices simultaneously, rather than retrieving a representative subset. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. Orbitz differs from competitors in that it neither consolidates inventory (such as Priceline.com) nor provides a gateway to a so-called global distribution system (GDS) (such as Travelocity), but directly searches for inventory in and retrieves information for bookings from the computer reservation systems (CRSs) or inventory management systems of travel suppliers such as airlines. Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. Katz, Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, has led the company since July 2000; he had previously served as President and CEO of Swissair. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon. It was traded on the NASDAQ exchange under the ticker symbol "ORBZ." Jeffrey G.

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Its flagship site, Orbitz.com, utilizes the QPX search ITA Software and a proprietary booking system originally called "Direct Connect", and now know as "Supplier Link", given the name "Orbot." Orbitz also operates portals for business purchasers of travel and travel vendors, and is a partner of "opaque" booking site Hotwire.com. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well. is an Internet travel company based in Chicago, since 2004 a part of the Cendant Corporation. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. Orbitz, Inc. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. Cendant.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. drops investigation into Orbitz. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. MSNBC: U.S. Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Information Week: Cendant Buys Orbitz For $1.2 Billion. History of Wallpaper. technical problems on Orbitz.com were misrepresenting the true costs of tickets to customers.

that the airlines would coordinate efforts secretly to reduce discounts. that Computer Reservation System fee discounts extended to partner airlines would undermine competitors and damage the fledgling online travel industry. the airlines' agreement to release certain discount fares only to Orbitz, at the expense of its online and offline competitors. above all, the so-called Most Favored Nation provision, by which the airlines agreed not to cut deals with competing sites under more favorable terms than with Orbitz.

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