Wallpaper

Mary Cassatt's painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers.

Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well.

History

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon.

Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market.

During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

Use

Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath.

A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface.

You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish.

The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

References

  • History of Wallpaper

This page about wallpaper includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about wallpaper
News stories about wallpaper
External links for wallpaper
Videos for wallpaper
Wikis about wallpaper
Discussion Groups about wallpaper
Blogs about wallpaper
Images of wallpaper

'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). The following is a list, divided in historical periods, of the greatest players in the history of Juventus. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. In terms of league championships (called Albo d'Oro (palmarés) ), the club is the most successful in Italian football. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish. As of January 31, 2006. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. .

Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. The previous record holder was Giampiero Boniperti, who scored 182 goals for the club. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. On January 10, 2006 Alessandro Del Piero became the all time leading goalscorer for Juventus when he scored three times in a match against Fiorentina and took his total goals for the club to 185. You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. The sale of Zinedine Zidane to Real Madrid of Spain was the most expensive in football to date, costing the Spanish club over $64 million (US), which is accurately £48 million. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface. Juventus is now a corporation, listed on the Borsa Italiana.

Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. In fact, Juventus won the Italian Championship 28 times, more than any other Italian club; no other club has won the championship over 20 times, but the closest one to that objective is AC Milan. A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. The two stars on the Juventus shirt signify they have won the Scudetto over 20 times. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath. Most of its players remained with Juventus until the end of their careers; many still work for the club or for Fiat (or related companies). The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. Until recently, Juventus' players had to wear short (and regular) hair; the club also provided the team with official formal wear (made by famous tailors) and forced them to complete their educational studies.

In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. The club is also one of only four to have won all three major European trophies. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. They have won 28 Italian titles and nine Coppa Italias to date, both national records. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. However, in 1999, due to their poor domestic season, they were forced into the ignominy of entering the UEFA Intertoto Cup in order to qualify for Europe. Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Juventus also won the Cup Winners' Cup in 1984 and two more UEFA Cup (1990, 1993).

'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). Juventus repeated the success by winning the Champions League for a second time in 1996, and have not won it again since, the closest chance being when they lost to AC Milan in the 2003 final due to losing in a penalty shootout. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. The height of European success was not reached until 1985, when they won the European Champions Cup, but this success was largely overshadowed by the Heysel disaster that had occurred during the final between Juventus and Liverpool. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. Post-war the club was very successful domestically, winning its tenth championship in 1961, but did not win any European titles until 1977 with the UEFA Cup. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world. In 1933, they began playing at the Stadio Comunale.

Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. From 1931, the club won five consecutive Italian league championships (Italian scudetto). The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. In 1923, the Agnelli family (owners of Fiat) gained control of the club, and built a private stadium in Villar Perosa (near Turin) and a complete series of facilities and services. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The team won a previous version of the national league titles as early as 1905, but did not win their second until 1926. During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. was founded in November 1897 by students from Massimo D'Azeglio Lyceum, in a "legendary" bench in one of Turin's boulevard, Re Umberto boulevard.

By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market. Juventus F.C. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. This arrangement will end after the 2004–05 season, when Torino Calcio will open a new ground of its own. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. The club's stadium is the 69,041-seat Stadio Delle Alpi, which it currently shares with Torino Calcio. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. When the club decided to change these, it was decided to import kits in the red of Nottingham Forest, but a mix-up by the supplier meant that the team got the Notts County black and white instead.

Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Originally the team played in pink shirts (pink being the cheapest material available) with a black tie. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. The team gets its black-and-white striped kits from English side Notts County. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. The team typically plays in black-and-white striped shirts and black shorts (but for decades in white shorts), and is nicknamed la Vecchia Signora (the Old Lady), bianconeri (black-and-white's), zebre (zebras), or deprecatively gobbi (humpbacks) by the opponents. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Juventus are widely regarded as one of the world's top clubs.

These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. It competes in Serie A. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. Juventus Football Club (Latin for Youth, pronounced yoo-VEHN-toos) is one of Italy's oldest and greatest football clubs, based in Turin, Piedmont. Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. Robert Kovac. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon. David Trézéguet.

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Mauro Camoranesi. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well. Lilian Thuram. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. Fabio Cannavaro. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. Zlatan Ibrahimović.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Pavel Nedvěd. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Patrick Vieira. Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Emerson. History of Wallpaper. Gianluca Zambrotta.

Gianluigi Buffon. Alen Boksic. Paolo Montero. Edgar Davids.

Filippo Inzaghi. Christian Vieri. Antonio Conte. Fabrizio Ravanelli.

Alessandro Del Piero. Angelo Di Livio. Roberto Baggio. Gianluca Vialli.

Zinédine Zidane. Didier Deschamps. Ciro Ferrara. Angelo Peruzzi.

Paolo Rossi. Marco Tardelli. Franco Causio. Gaetano Scirea.

Antonio Cabrini. Claudio Gentile. Dino Zoff. Andreas Möller.

Stefan Reuter. Thomas Häßler. Jürgen Kohler. Michael Laudrup.

Stefano Tacconi. Liam Brady. Michel Platini. Zbigniew Boniek.

Franco Causio. Pietro Anastasi. Giuseppe Furino. Fabio Capello.

Antonello Cuccureddu. Roberto Bettega. Roberto Boninsegna. Helmut Haller.

Luis Del Sol. José Altafini. John Charles. Omar Sivori.

Giampiero Boniperti. Ermes Muccinelli. Carlo Parola. Felice Borel.

Giovanni Ferrari. Luis Monti. Raimundo Orsi. Umberto Caligaris.

Virginio Rosetta. Giampiero Combi. First team in Europe to win Champions League/Cup Winners Cup/UEFA Cup. 1985, 1996.

Intercontinental Cups: 2

    . 1999. Intertoto Cups: 1
      . 1985, 1996.

      European Super Cups: 2

        . 1976-77, 1989-90, 1992-93. UEFA Cups: 3
          . 1983-84.

          Cup Winners' Cups: 1

            . 1984-85, 1995-96. European Cups: 2
              . 1995, 1997, 2002, 2003.

              Italian Supercups: 4

                . 1937-38, 1941-42, 1958-59, 1959-60, 1964-65, 1978-79, 1982-83, 1989-90, 1994-95. Italian Cups: 9
                  . 1905, 1925-26, 1930-31, 1931-32, 1932-33, 1933-34, 1934-35, 1949-50, 1951-52, 1957-58, 1959-60, 1960-61, 1966-67, 1971-72, 1972-73, 1974-75, 1976-77, 1977-78, 1980-81, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1994-95, 1996-97, 1997-98, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2004-05.

                  Italian Championships: 28

                    .

09-16-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List