Wallpaper

Mary Cassatt's painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers.

Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well.

History

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon.

Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market.

During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

Use

Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath.

A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface.

You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish.

The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

References

  • History of Wallpaper

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'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). A new chairman of the Authority has yet to be announced. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. This occured after government proposals to add the tournament to the list of sports events which must be broadcast on free-to-air terrestrial television, to which British Sky Broadcasting, the rights holders, are objecting. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish. On 11 January 2006, Fintan Drury resigned as chairman of RTÉ, citing a potential conflict of interest in his role as an advisor to the organisers of the Ryder Cup golf tournament, and as chairman of a broadcaster involved in a row over broadcasting rights. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. The new Authority will hold office for not more than three years.

Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. The other members of the Authority are Maria Killian, Patricia King, Ian Malcolm, Patrick Marron, Una Ní Chonaire, Emer Finnan, Stephen O'Byrnes and Joe O'Brien. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Fintan Drury, chairman of Platinum sports management, and also chairman of Paddy Power plc, was appointed chairman of RTÉ. You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. On 29 June 2005 the Minister for Communications, Marine, and Natural Resources, appointed the members of a new RTÉ Authority, replacing the previous one appointed in June 2000. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface. Legislation on this matter is still to be published.

Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. In 2004, RTÉ and the Minister for Communications, Marine, and Natural Resources agreed that in future, RTÉ would operate under a Public Service Broadcasting Charter.It is intended that future legislation will abolish the current RTÉ legal structure and change the station into a company incorporated under the Companies' Acts, and separate its regulatory role. A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. These directives where generally reissued on an annual basis until the final one of 1993[4]. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath. RTÉ was now explicity banned from broadcasting statements by spokespersons of Sinn Fein, the Provisional IRA, or any other terrorist organisation banned in Northern Ireland by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. In 1977, Conor Cruise O'Brien, the then Minister, issued a new directive in the form of the Broadcasting Authority Act, 1960 (Section 31) Order, 1977.

In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. Following this, Collins dismissed the entire RTÉ Authority over an interview with an (unidentified on-air) source which had been the then chief of staff of the Provisional IRA. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In 1971, the first such directive was issued by Gerry Collins, directing RTÉ not to broadcast "any matter that could be calculated to promote the aims or activities of any organisation which engages in, promotes, encourages or advocates the attaining of any particular objectives by violent means". Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. Under Section 31 of the Broadcasting Authority Act 1960 the Minister for Posts and Telegraphs of the day could direct RTÉ "not to broadcast any matter, or any matter of any particular class". Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. The name of the authority was changed to Radio Telefis Éireann under the Broadcasting Authority (Amendment) Act 1966, and both the radio and television services became known as RTÉ in that year.

'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). Eamonn Andrews was the first Chairman of Radio Éireann, the first director general was Edward Roth. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. The existing Radio Éireann service was transfered to the new authority, which was also to make provision for the new television service (Télifis Éireann) which opened on 31st December 1961. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. In 1960, RTÉ was established (as Radio Éireann) under the Broadcasting Authority Act 1960, the principal legislation under which it operates. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world. From that date, until June 1960, the broadcasting service (2RN, then later Radio Éireann) operated as a section of the Department of Posts and Telgraphs, and those working for the service were directly employed by the Irish Government and regarded as civil servants.

Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. Broadcasting in Ireland began in 1926 with 2RN in Dublin. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. For history on the broadcasting service prior to 1960, see Minister for Posts and Telegraphs and RTÉ Radio 1). However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. For details on this history of the various services see the separate articles on these services. During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. (This section deals with the history of RTÉ as an organisation.

By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market. The licence fee does not fund 2FM, RTÉ Aertel, RTÉ Guide or the website rte.ie. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. These two sources are approximately split in a 50:50 ratio. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. RTÉ receives income from two main sources:. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. The Director-General heads the Executive Board of RTÉ, which comprises the companies top management and includes the Chief Financial Officer, the Director of Communications and the Managing Directors of the Television, Radio, and News IBD's.

Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. The RTÉ Authority appoints the Director General of RTÉ who in effect fulfils the dual role of Chief Executive and of Editor in Chief. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. The RTÉ Irish language channel, TG4, is operated as an subsidiary of RTÉ (Serbhisí Telefis na Gaelige Teoranta) prior to its intended ultimate separation from RTÉ. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. The RTÉ organisation is divided into six integrated business divisions (IBD's): RTÉ Television, RTÉ Radio, RTÉ News, RTÉ Network, RTÉ Publishing & RTÉ Performing Groups) together with Central Shared Services (People Payments, Procurement, Treasury, IT Infrastructure, Audience Research, FOI, and Property & Site Facilities)and a Group HQ. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. The RTÉ Authority is both the custodian of RTÉ and its regulator.

These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. The members of the RTÉ Authority are appointed by the Cabinet upon the recommendation of the Minister for Communications, Marine & Natural Resources. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. RTÉ operates as a statutory corporation.Its board is known as the RTÉ Authority. Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. RTÉ Network (branded as "RTÉNL") is operated through a wholly owned subsidiary company, RTÉ Network Transmission Limited,and provides transmission services for all of RTÉ's own channels and also for competing stations such as TV3 Ireland and Today FM. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon. RTÉ Music's slogan is RTÉ - Supporting the Arts.

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. These groups perform regularly in the National Concert Hall and The Helix in Dublin. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well. RTÉ Performing Groups supports two full-time orchestras - the RTÉ Concert Orchestra and RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra - as well as the RTÉ Vanbergh String Quartet, RTÉ Philharmonic Choir, and RTÉ Cór na nÓg. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. Its commercial telecoms business provides both SMS and IVR telecoms services to all of RTÉ's broadcast services and channels. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. In addition RTÉ Publishing operates a teletext service on both RTÉ One and RTÉ Two, called RTÉ Aertel, which has news, sport, and programme support information.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Live streams of all of RTÉ's national radio networks are available online. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. It operates all of RTÉ's many websites - branded as rte.ie,and providing online news, sport, and entertainment services. Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. RTÉ Publishing has four main constituent parts: Print Publishing, E-Publishing (both WEB & Teletext), Commercial Telecoms & Digital Consumer Technology Incubation.The division publishes the RTÉ Guide and sells DVDs and VHS videos of RTÉ Television programmes, and audio tapes and compact discs of RTÉ radio programmes. History of Wallpaper. Each genre operates broadly under a Commissioning Editor, except for RTÉ News and Current Affairs which are separately structured and controlled.

Since 2003, RTÉ has branded its television programmes under a number of a number of different genres. A DAB version of at least Radio 1 will begin along the east coast of Ireland on 1 January 2006. The main difference between this and the main FM feed is the inclusion of several RTÉ Radio na Gaeltachta programmes. A slightly adapted version of Radio One is broadcast on longwave, Sky Digital and Hotbird as RTÉ Europe.

Formerly RTE operated RTÉ Radio Cork (previously Cork 89FM), a local radio service in Cork, but this closed down in the early 2000s. RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, an exclusively Irish language service, first began broadcasting in 1972. RTÉ 2FM is a popular music and chat channel, while RTÉ Lyric FM serves the interests of classical music and the arts. Broadcasting on Radio 1 provides comprehensive coverage of news, current affairs, music, drama and variety features, agriculture, education, religion and sport, mostly in English but also some Irish.

Now, RTÉ has a nation-wide communications network with an increasing emphasis on regional news-gathering and input. Radio Éireann and Telefís Éireann were both renamed Radio Telefís Éireann in 1966. Radio Athlone became known as "Radio Éireann" in 1938. 2RN, 6CK and Athlone became known as "Radio Athlone" or "Raidio Áth Luain".

A high power station was established in Athlone in 1932 to co-incide with the staging of the Eucharistic Congress. 6CK was established in Cork in 1927, however 6CK was mostly a relay of 2RN. Regular Irish radio broadcasting began on January 1, 1926. The first voice broadcast of 2RN, the original radio callsign for Radio 1, took place on November 14, 1925 when Seamus Clandillon, the 2RN station director said, "Seo Raidió 2RN, Baile Átha Cliath ag tástáil", meaning "This is Radio 2RN, Dublin testing".

See also: List of RTÉ television programming. RTÉ introduced on-screen logos (or 'bugs') for RTÉ One and RTÉ Two in 2004. RTÉ carried the 2003 Special Olympics World Summer Games opening and closing ceremonies live for the first time in the history of the games together with extensive radio and television coverage of the events. In the 1990s, more competition came from satellite television, especially from Sky based in the UK.

RTÉ's approach was pragmatic, as it introduced cable television in the 1970s, initially known as RTÉ Relays, and subsequently as Cablelink, although it later sold its stake in the company, which is now known as NTL Ireland. From the outset, RTÉ had faced competition from British TV channels such as those of the BBC and UTV, broadcasting from Northern Ireland, whose signal spilt over into the Republic. RTÉ's TV channels are not available to Sky subscribers in Great Britain, although between 1997 and 2002, Tara Television carried a mix of RTÉ One and Two programmes before disputes with RTÉ over payment led to its closure.[3] Owing to rights issues, it would be difficult and costly for RTÉ to broadcast its channels in the whole of the UK, but it continues to express an interest in providing a similar channel to Tara. The channels are also available via satellite on Sky Digital, although these are encrypted and anyone wishing to view the channels needs to obtain a Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland subscription (they are part of the Variety Mix under the new pricing system, or the Family Pack in the pre-2005 system).

RTÉ One, RTÉ Two and TG4 are also available in Northern Ireland via terrestrial overspill or on cable (coverage and inclusion on cable systems varies). Most of the broadcasts are in English, including programming imported from the UK, US, Australia and New Zealand. Presently, both RTÉ One and RTÉ Two provide round-the-clock broadcasts seven days a week, providing comprehensive coverage of news, current affairs, sport, music, drama and entertainment. Although Irish language programmes, such as Nuacht (the news) and Léargas (insight) have been an integral part of the schedule, in 1996 a new Irish-language TV service, Teilifís na Gaeilge, since renamed TG4, began broadcasting for the first time.

The few Irish language programmes provided by RTÉ were now broadcast on Network 2, although RTÉ One now broadcasts Irish language programmes. All sports coverage was transferred to the newly renamed channel, along with all children's programmes. In the early 1980s RTÉ 2 became Network 2. The opening night featured a gala variety show from the Cork Opera House.

The new television channel went on the air on November 2, 1978. As a consequence, the original RTE 2 schedule had many live relays of British programmes, however, there were also some original RTE2 programming. RTÉ 2's remit was to provide alternative television. In 1977 a new Fianna Fáil government came to power and as one of its many promises, the government quickly authorised a second channel to be run by RTÉ.

All of RTÉ's studios at Nutley Lane, Donnybrook were equipped for colour broadcasts by 1976. The next phase was colour outside broadcasts, and the first was the 1971 Eurovision Song Contest, the first of many such productions by RTÉ. The first programme made in colour by RTÉ was a 7 Days documentary special called "John Hume's Derry". RTÉ made its first colour transmissions in 1969.

The Late Late Show, which began in July 1962 and is still running as of 2006, and its original host, Gay Byrne, pioneered many of these discussions and has been credited with being a major influence in the changing social structure of Ireland. Topics which were hitherto not discussed in Ireland, such as abortion, contraception and various other controversial topics, were now openly being discussed in television studios. Television opened up a completely new world to the Irish people. The show, which was a countdown to the New Year, was hosted by the Chairman of the Radio Eireann Authority, Eamonn Andrews, with appearances by Patrick O'Hagan, the Artane Boys Band and Micheál Ó Hehir.

Following this a live concert was broadcast from the Gresham Hotel in Dublin. Lemass. There were other messages from Cardinal d'Alton and An Taoiseach, Seán F. He went on to say that "Like atomic energy, it can be used for incalculable good but it can also do irreparable harm".

The opening address by President of Ireland Eamon de Valera described the benefits and disadvantages of the new medium. Telefís Éireann began broadcasting at 7:00pm on December 31, 1961. .
.

General management of the organisation is in the hands of the Executive Board headed by the Director-General. RTÉ is a statutory body run by an authority appointed by the Irish Government. The radio service began on January 1, 1926, while regular television broadcasts began on December 31, 1961. It both produces programmes and broadcasts on television, radio and the Internet.

Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ; Irish for "Radio [and] Television [of] Ireland") is the national publicly-funded broadcaster of the Republic of Ireland. Commercial Revenue including the sale of advertising and sponsorship. This money is collected by An Post on behalf of the Minister for Communications, Marine, and Natural Resources. All owners of television sets in the State must pay a fee of €155 in order to legally possess any piece of equipment capable of receiving television signals (not necessarily RTÉ).

The television licence fee. RTÉ Young Peoples Programmes mainly on RTÉ Two, including The Den. RTÉ Sport covering the Irish sport and such foreign events as the FA Premier League and Six Nations Rugby. RTÉ News & Current Affairs see RTÉ News.

RTÉ Music all types of music, including Classical, traditional Irish and pop/rock. RTÉ History documentaries on Eamon de Valera and the Irish Press, Lord Haw-Haw, Kevin O'Higgins, Women of the Goldrush and Secret Sights; and The Colony, a reality show where an Irish family will live as early 19th century colonists in New South Wales. RTÉ Factual documentaries Legal Eagles looking at the Law Library, Maybe Baby, which follows couples as they try to conceive through IVF and Desperately Seeking Surgery about cosmetic surgery. RTÉ Entertainment chatshows The Late Late Show and Tubridy Tonight, and gameshows You're A Star and Winning Streak.

RTÉ Education programmes aimed at students and adults, including Read Write Now, an adult literacy aid. RTÉ Drama the flagship of which is the soap opera Fair City. RTÉ Diversity religion, disability, Irish language and minority programming. RTÉ Arts producing documentaries on such Irish arts figures as Seán O'Casey, John McGahern, Patrick Kavanagh, Eileen Gray, Spike Milligan and Rory Gallagher, and a weekly magazine show, The View, presented by John Kelly.

RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta (the Irish language station targeted at the gaeltacht, the Irish language speaking community of Ireland). RTÉ Lyric FM (classical music plus jazz, world music and arts). 2FM (formerly Radio 2, the RTÉ rock and pop music station). RTÉ Radio 1 (music and speech based broadcasting).

TG4 (formerly called Teilifís na Gaeilge, "Irish language Television".TG4 is operated separately from the rest of RTÉ and its management reports directly to the Director General rather than as part of RTÉ Television.). RTÉ Two (known from 1988 to 2004 as Network 2). RTÉ One (launched in 1961 as Telefís Éireann, or simply RTÉ when there was just one station).

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