Wallpaper

Mary Cassatt's painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers.

Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well.

History

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon.

Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market.

During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

Use

Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath.

A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface.

You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish.

The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

References

  • History of Wallpaper

This page about wallpaper includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). See also: Cuisine of Asia. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. See also: Cuisine of India. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish. One characteristic component of the cuisines of these regions is rice and curry dishes. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Cuisines of the Indian subcontinent includes cuisines from the peninsular region of South Asia, which includes India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, usually also Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan.

Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. See also: Cuisine of the Middle East. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. See also: Cuisine of Africa. You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. See also: Cuisine of the Mediterranean. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface. See also: Cuisine of Europe.

Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. See also: Latin American cuisine, Cuisine of South America. A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. See also: Cuisine of the Caribbean. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath. See also: Cuisine of the United States. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. See also: Canadian cuisines.

In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. However, the traditional European cuisine has been adapted to a greater or lesser degree and many local ingredients and techniques have been added to the tradition. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. Cuisines of the Americas are based on the cuisines of the countries from which the immigrant peoples came, primarily Europe. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. Please help complete it. Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. It is organized roughly by geographical area, starting in the Western hemisphere and working Eastward and from North to South.

'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). It is incomplete. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. The following section is an overview of world cuisines. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. There are also different cultural attitudes to food, for example:. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world. It has 70,000 adherents in 50 countries.

Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. The Slow Food movement is a global effort to preserve local plants, animals, and techniques of food preparation. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Increasingly, experts hold that it further includes the raw ingredients and original plants and animals from which they come. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. In addition to food, a cuisine is also often held to include beverages, including wine, liquor, tea, coffee and other drinks. During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. New cuisines are constantly evolving, as certain aesthetics rise and fall in popularity among professional chefs and their clientele.

By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market. Today almost every locale in the world has access to not only its traditional cuisine, but also to many other world cuisines, as well. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. The last century or so has produced enormous improvements in food production, preservation, storage and shipping. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. . Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. (For example, the "Asian" dish chop suey clearly reflected the adaptation of Chinese immigrant cooking styles to the different ingredients available in North America.).

Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Religious food laws can also exercise a strong influence on cuisine. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. A cuisine (from French cuisine, meaning "cooking; culinary art; kitchen"; itself from Latin coquina, meaning the same; itself from the Latin verb coquere, meaning "to cook") is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a place of origin. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Vegetarian cuisine.

These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. Vegan cuisine. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. Living foods diet. Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. Jewish cuisine. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon. Fusion cuisine.

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Fast Food, and its nemesis Slow Food which preserves regional cuisines. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well. Nauru. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. Polynesia. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. New Zealand.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Fiji. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Hawaii. Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Australia. History of Wallpaper. Vietnam.

Tibet. Thailand. Singapore. The Philippines.

Mongolia. Ipoh. Penang. Malaysia

    .

    Laos. Korea. Japan. Indonesia.

    Taiwanese. Szechuan. Shanghai. Mandarin.

    Islamic. Hunan. Hakka. Chiuchow.

    Cantonese. Chinese Buddhist. China

      . Cambodia.

      Sri Lankan cuisine. Sri Lanka

        . Pakistani cuisine. Pakistan
          .

          Bangladeshi cuisine. Bangladesh

            . Anglo-Indian Cuisine. Oriya Cuisine.

            Bihari Cuisine. Assamese cuisine. West Bengali Cuisine. East Indian Cuisines

              .

              Gujarati cuisine. Rajasthani Cuisine. Goan cuisine. Malvani cuisine.

              Maharashtrian cuisine. West Indian cuisines

                . Tamil cuisine. Karnataka cuisine.

                Andhra cuisine. Kerala cuisine. South Indian cuisines

                  . Benarasi cuisine.

                  Kashmiri cuisine. Punjabi cuisine. North Indian cuisines

                    . India
                      .

                      Persian cuisine. Lebanon. Kosher cuisine. Assyrian cuisine.

                      Arab cuisine. South Africa. Morocco. Ethiopia.

                      West Africa. Armenia. Serbia. Turkey.

                      Romania. Greece. Croatia. Bulgaria.

                      Albania. Cuisines of the Balkans

                        . Lebanon. Sicily.

                        Italy excluding Sicily. Catalonia. Spain

                          . Portugal.

                          Sweden. Slovakia. Russian. Polish.

                          Hungary. Norway. Provencal. French

                            .

                            Finland. Germany. Denmark. Modern British.

                            British

                              . Belgium. Austrian. Native American.

                              Andes Region. Venezuela. Uruguay. Cuisine of El Salvador.

                              Peru. Paraguay. Nicaragua:. Mexico.

                              Cuba. Costa Rica. Colombia. Brazil.

                              Bolivia. Argentina. Puerto Rico. Jamaica.

                              Dominican republic. Cuba. Tex-Mex. Southwest

                                .

                                Soul food. Creole. Cajun. Southern

                                  .

                                  Puerto Rico. Pennsylvania Dutch. New York City. New England.

                                  Native American. Midwest. Hawaii. Kentucky.

                                  Floribbean. Fast food. Euro-asian cuisine (a type of Fusion cuisine). California.

                                  Barbecue. Chinese American. Vegetarian. Vancouver.

                                  Toronto. Québécois. Fusion. First Nations.

                                  Fast food. Canadian Chinese cuisine. Atlantic Canada. Not drinking tea in the right way is considered to be an act of barbarism.

                                  In Japan, Tea drinking is a fine-art and there is an elaborate ceremony about it. Thus the stomach is considered to be a homagunda (holy fire) and all the food consumed is an offering to the holy fire. In India, consumption of food is regarded as an offering, a Yajna.

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