Wallpaper

Mary Cassatt's painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers.

Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well.

History

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon.

Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market.

During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

Use

Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath.

A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface.

You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish.

The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

References

  • History of Wallpaper

This page about wallpaper includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about wallpaper
News stories about wallpaper
External links for wallpaper
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'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). These items are not allowed to be sold on Trade Me, and if done so the auction will be withdrawn by a site administrator. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. . Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish. Fraud is usually reported by members via 'Community Watch' or Scambusters [4] who monitor online fraud in New Zealand. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. PayPal is not required as Australian buyers can pay by cheque which many New Zealand banks will negotiate free of charge.

Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. Most trades are quickly settled by bank transfer or bank deposit, and Australian sellers are required to have a New Zealand bank account. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Around 20,000 international members were affected, but payment can now be settled through New Zealand's banking system. You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. To minimize payment problems and reduce fraud, Trade Me restricted membership to New Zealand and Australian residents in 2005. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface. Members in New Zealand can become 'Address Verified' by confirming their street address, and those who are not may be blocked from bidding.

Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. Some of these features include 'Buy Now', 'Auto bidding' and the Safe Trader escrow service. A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Trade Me shares many features with other online auction websites, such as the American auction giant Ebay. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath. As members cannot hide their Trade Me identity, controversal postings or flame wars have occasionally resulted in auction interference by aggrieved members. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. People also ask questions and seek advice on the messageboard, making it one of the most active online communities in New Zealand.

In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. Trade Me also has a general messageboard, where Kiwis from all walks of life and ages participate in discussions on a variety of casual topics. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. These statistics make Trade Me seem very popular since New Zealand only has a population of around 4,100,000 people. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. Trade Me currently has 1,140,000 active members who can only have one Trade Me account. Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. During peak hours, Trade Me has approximately 50,000 people online, and 565,000 auctions running.

'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). It is New Zealand's largest company of its type, and became the most popular website in the country in 2005. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. Other websites owned by Trade Me are FindSomeone [1], OldFriends [2] and SafeTrader [3]. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. Trade Me is an online auction web site based in Wellington, New Zealand, established in 1999 by Sam Morgan. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world. Wholesale lists.

Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. Veterinary Medicines. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. VCDs. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. Uniforms for NZ emergency services. During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. Tobacco (tobacco-related items and collectibles are allowed).

By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market. Software that interfaces with the Trade Me website. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. Services. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Recreational drugs. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. Offensive weapons.

Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Nazi memorabilia. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Menacing dogs. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Medicine and supplements. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Lottery and raffle tickets.

These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. Human bodies or body parts. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. Fireworks. Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. eBooks and downloadable media. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon. Copyrighted items and content (including replicas).

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Backup or copied software, CDRs or DVDRs. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well. Alcohol (alcohol related collectibles are allowed). All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. [5]. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. Currently it has the highest number of questions asked and answered.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. News of the auction reached some New Zealand papers which ran a story on it. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. The auction was withdrawn shortly before its close time by the seller. Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. In late 2005, a time machine was offered for sale through auction or swap for "anti gravity machine", with the highest bid reaching $300,000,000,001,999. History of Wallpaper. The auction was one of the most viewed auctions in Trade Me's history, and the seller received approximately 200 questions about the paperclip, all of which he answered in a humorous fashion.

In 2005, a red paperclip allegedly sold for $749.00. 1 November 2005 - New icon for brand new listings . 11 November 2005 - Buy now price shown on category pages (rather than having to go into the auction to see the buy now) . 11 November 2005 - Local tag displayed in auctions (there is now an icon in auctions saying if the item up for auction is located in the same province of New Zealand) .

When viewing an enlarged photo you can now see thumbnails for all images without having to return to the listing itself. 21 November 2005 - Improved photo page to make it easier to browse photos. 28 November 2005 - Email to watchers when Buy Now added (watchers will receive an e-mail if the seller of an item has added a buy now price to the listing). 28 November 2005 - Date and time on answers and comments (questions and answers on auctions now have the time they were asked and answered).

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