Wallpaper

Mary Cassatt's painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers.

Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well.

History

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon.

Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market.

During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

Use

Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath.

A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface.

You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish.

The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

References

  • History of Wallpaper

This page about wallpaper includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). Key Performance Indicator press release for the quarter to 30 June 2005, 25 July 2005. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 1 Vodafone Group Plc. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish. Vodafone's accounts for the years shown in the table below include a great number of one off transactions, and apart from noting the rapid expansion of the group, no conclusions about underlying trends should be drawn from the figures without examining the accounts in more detail. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Despite the reported losses it is in reality a highly profitable company, and this is reflected in the fact that it is consistently one of the top twenty companies in the world by market capitalisation.

Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. However this write off of goodwill is purely an accounting adjustment and does not affect Vodafone's cash position or its ability to pay dividends. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. As UK GAAP requires goodwill to be written off against the profit and loss account Vodafone has shown large statutory losses since then. You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. By the end of its key acquisition drive, which ran from 1999 to 2002, Vodafone had more than £100 billion of goodwill on its balance sheet. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface. The following table shows Vodafone's results under UK generally accepted accounting principles (UK GAAP).

Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. This is a common practice in the mobile telecommunciations industry. A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. if an operator in which it has a 30% stake has 10 million customers that equals 3 million proportionate Vodafone customers. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath. Vodafone also produces proportionate customer number figures on a similar basis, eg. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. Proportionate turnover is not an official accounting measure and Vodafone's proportionate turnover should be compared with other companies' statutory turnover.

In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. For example, if a business in which it owns a 45% stake has turnover of £10 billion, that equals £4.5 billion of proportionate turnover for Vodafone. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In order to provide additional information on the overall scale and growth trends of its business it publishes "proportionate turnover" figures and these are included in the tables below. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. Vodafone has some large minority stakes, in particular in Verizon Wireless in the United States and SFR in France, which are not included in its consolidated turnover. Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. It has issued results amended to IFRS standards for its 31 March 2004 and 31 March 2005 year ends for information purposes, and these are shown in the first table below.

'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). From its 31 March 2006 year end onwards Vodafone will report its results in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. Key Performance Indicator press release for the quarter to 30 June 2005, 25 July 2005. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. 1 Vodafone Group Plc. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world.
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Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. Although the announcement only says that the two groups are partnering to deliver international roaming services, subsequent press releases of the Vodafone Group indicates that it has 27 (now 31) Partner Networks, therefore the 13 networks of America Movil in the agreement are considered Partner Networks. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Included in the agreement are the 13 networks owned and controlled by America Movil (except Tracfone in the United States), and the various operating companies of Vodafone and its Partner Networks. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The services include Voice and GPRS Roaming services, Preferred Roaming and Virtual Home Environment. During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. The agreement involves co-operation on international services and roaming.

By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market. Latin America On 15 November 2005, Vodafone Group announced a group-wide co-operation agreement with America Movil of Mexico. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. However, Cingular Wireless (a joint venture of SBC Communications (now AT&T) and BellSouth) ultimately outbid Vodafone and took control of AT&T Wireless, and Vodafone's relationship with Verizon has continued. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. As AT&T Wireless used the GSM standard, this would have resolved all the above problems. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. Had this bid been successful, Vodafone would presumably have sold its stake in Verizon Wireless, and then rebranded the resultant business as Vodafone.

Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Perhaps as a consequence of these reasons, Vodafone made a bid for the entirety of AT&T Wireless when that company was for sale in 2004. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. operations, and (perhaps more importantly) has no control of dividend policy at Verizon Wireless and is therefore entirely at the mercy of Verizon management with respect to cash flow from Verizon Wireless to Vodafone. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Vodafone is thus unable to use the Vodafone brand for its U.S. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. The other two stem from the fact that Vodafone has does not have management control over Verizon Wireless.

These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. and other networks. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. The first is the above-mentioned incompatibility with the GSM standard used by Vodafone's other networks, and the consequent difficulty of offering roaming between Vodafone's U.S. Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. This relationship has been quite profitable for Vodafone, but there have historically been three problems with it. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon. However, Verizon Communications—the company formed when Bell Atlantic and GTE merged on June 30, 2000—owns a majority of Verizon Wireless and Vodafone's branding is not used, nor is the network compatible with GSM phones.

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. wireless assets and began operations on April 4, 2000. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well. The first wireless business with a national footprint in the U.S., Verizon Wireless was composed of Bell Atlantic's and Vodafone AirTouch's U.S. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. In September 1999, Vodafone Airtouch announced a $70-billion joint venture with Bell Atlantic Corp. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. in June 1999 and changed its name to Vodafone Airtouch Plc.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Before this joint venture was formed, Vodafone merged with AirTouch Communications of the U.S. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. United States In the United States, Vodafone owns 44.4%1 of Verizon Wireless, the country's second largest mobile carrier. Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Vodafone currently operates in the following countries in the Americas region. History of Wallpaper. Vodafone and Telkom will then have a 50% stake each in Vodacom.


. The proporationate customer numbers are as at 31 December 2005. Vodafone currently operates in the following countries in the Middle East and Africa region. The proportionate customer numbers are at 31 December 2005:.

Vodafone currently operates in the following countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The proportionate customer numbers are for 31 December 2005:. Vodafone currently operates in the following countries in Europe. .

Vodafone is listed on the London Stock Exchange as Vodafone Group (LSE: VOD.L) and New York Stock Exchange, symbol VOD. In the U.S., these customers come via its minority stake in Verizon Wireless, and in the other five markets Vodafone has majority-controlled subsidiaries. The six markets where it has more than ten million proportionate customers are the United Kingdom; Germany, the United States, Italy, Japan, and Spain. On this measure it is the second-largest mobile telecom group in the world behind China Mobile.

[1] ("Proportionate customers" means, for example, that if Vodafone has a 30% stake in a business with a million customers, that is counted as 300,000). At 31 December 2005 Vodafone had 179.3 million proportionate customers in 27 markets across 5 continents. It is the largest mobile telecommunications network company in the world by turnover, with equity interests in 27 countries and Partner Networks (networks in which it has no equity stake) in a further 31 countries. Vodafone Group plc (the name stands for VOice-DAta-FONE) is a British mobile phone operator headquartered in Newbury, Berkshire, England.

December, 2003). BBC News (1. Man Utd rings up £36m shirt deal. December, 2004).

BBC Sport (16. Ferrari extend sponsorship deal. December, 2000). BBC Sport (11.

ECB dials up £12m deal. New Zealand Warriors Rugby League team (until 2007). UEFA Champions League from the 2006/7 season. McLaren Formula One constructor (from 2007).

Ferrari Formula One constructor (until 2006). Newbury AFC (The football club from Newbury, where Vodafone was founded.). Manchester United football till the end of 2005/6 soccer season, which ends Vodafone's four-year shirt deal, two years earlier than planned. Vodafone Oaks and Vodafone Derby horse races at Epsom.

England cricket team. DTM (the German touring car series). David Beckham A two-year deal that was signed in 2002, later extended by another 12 months then ended in July 2005. Daily Express Life Savers Awards.

Clare GAA, Ireland (formerly sponsored by Eircell). Vodafone announces it plans to purchase a controlling interest in VenFin, and then shed VenFin's other assets. 3 November 2005: Vodafone announces that it is in exclusive talks to buy the 15% stake of VenFin in Vodacom Group, reaching agreement the following day. 3 November 2004: Vodafone announced that its South African affiliate Vodacom has agreed to introduce Vodafone's international services, such as Vodafone live! and partner agreements, to its local market.

The second agreement involves the co-operation in Bahrain and the branding of the network as MTC-Vodafone. 29 December 2003: Vodafone signs another Partner Network Agreement with Kuwait's MTC group. The agrrement involved the rebranding of MTC to MTC-Vodafone. 18 September 2002: Vodafone signs a Partner Network Agreement with MTC group of Kuwait.

May 1998: Vodafone Egypt network went live under the name ClickGSM. 25 January 2006: Indonesia, Malaysia, and Sri Lanka are added to the Vodafone footprint as Vodafone Group signs a partner network agreement with Telekom Malaysia. 22 December 2005: Vodafone announces the completion of the acquisition of the 10% stake in Bharti Televentures of India. The acquisition involves two separate transactions.

28 October 2005: Vodafone announces the acquisition of a 10 per cent stake in India's Bharti Televentures, which operates the largest mobile phone network in India under the brand name AirTel. October 2005: Vodafone begins releasing 3G technology in Australia. August 2005: Vodafone released 3G technology in New Zealand. April 2005: Smartone changed the name of its brand from Smartone to 'Smartone-Vodafone'.

October 1st 2003: Vodafone changed the name of its Japanese subsidiary from J-Phone to 'Vodafone', and the name of J-Phone's mobile internet service from J-Sky to Vodafone Live!. 3 November 2003: M1, as a Partner Network is added to the Vodafone footprint. December 2002: J-Phone's 3G network went live. 1999-2000: J-Phone launched the J-sky mobile internet service in response to DoCoMo's i-Mode service.

November 1998: Vodafone purchased BellSouth New Zealand, and it became known as Vodafone New Zealand. July 1994: Vodafone Fiji's network went live. October 1993: Vodafone Australia's network went live. July 1993: BellSouth New Zealand's network went live.

Vodafone Hungary also adopts the new corporate logo. 01 February 2006: Oskar Vodafone drops the Oskar name and becomes Vodafone Czech Republic, adopting the new corporate logo of the group. 05 January 2006: The group announces the completion of the sale of Vodafone Sweden to Telenor. December 2005: Vodafone Spain becomes the second member of the group to adopt the new corporate logo.

[2]. 13 December 2005: Vodafone won an auction to buy Turkey's second-largest mobile phone company, Telsim, for $4.5 billion. After the sale, Vodafone Sweden will become a Partner Network of the Vodafone Group, Plc. The sale will be completed by the end of calendar year 2005.

31 October 2005: Vodafone reached an agreement to sell Vodafone Sweden to Telenor, the largest provider of telecommunications services in Norway, for approximately Euro 1 billion. 28 October 2005: Connex in Romania is rebranded as Connex-Vodafone. (The rebranding of Oskar-Vodafone and Connex-Vodafone also does not use the Sim Card pattern.). Also, various operating companies start to drop the use of the SIM card pattern in the company logo.

17 October 2005: Vodafone Portugal launches a new corporate logo, dropping the speech mark in the O's of the company name, and using the colour silver instead of white, but still retaining the red background. 1 July 2005: Oskar of Czech Republic is rebranded as Oskar-Vodafone. Vodafone also bought Czech mobile operator Oskar. June 2005: Vodafone increased its participation in Romania's Connex to 99%.

November 2004: Vodafone introduced 3G services into Europe. Cyta agreed to rename its mobile phone operations to Cytamobile-Vodafone. 20 February 2004: Vodafone signed a Partner Network Agreement with Cyta of Cyprus. 16 February 2004: Vodafone signed a Partner Network Agreement with Luxembourg's LuxGSM.

21 July 2003: Lithuania is added to Vodafone's worldwide network, with the signing of a Partner Network agreement with Bité. The company is the result of the partnering of Og with Vodafone. 16 April 2003: Og Vodafone is introduced in the Icelandic market. As a result, Vodafone adds Austria, Croatia, and Slovenia in its partner network.

7 January 2003: Vodafone signed a group-wide Partner agreement with mobilkom austria. Radiolinja (Eesti) would later change its name to Elisa. 3 December 2002: Vodafone brand is introduced in the Estonian market with signing of a Partner Network Agreement with Radiolinja (Eesti). 2002: Vodafone rebranded Japan's J-sky mobile internet service as Vodafone live!™ as its mobile customer portal.

Radiolinja later changed its named to Elisa. 2 February 2002: Finland is added into Vodafone's mobile community, as Radiolinja is signed as a Partner Network. (i.e., TDC Mobil-Vodafone; Elisa-Vodafone; Bité-Vodafone etc.). Vodafone services would be marketed under the dual-brand scheme, where the Vodafone brand is added at the end of the local brand.

The concept would be used to extend the Vodafone brand and services into markets where it does not have stakes in local operators. The new concept involves the introduction of Vodafone international services to the local market, without the need of investment by Vodafone. 17 December 2001: Vodafone intoduces the concept of "Partner Network" by signing TDC Mobil of Denmark. 2001-2002: Vodafone acquired Japan's third largest mobile operator J-Phone, which had introduced camera phones first in Japan.

2001: Vodafone took over Eircell, then part of eircom in Ireland and rebranded it Vodafone Ireland. 2001-04-16 First 3G voice call on Vodafone United Kingdom's 3G network. 28 July 2000: Reverts to its former name, Vodafone Group Plc. The deal is one of the largest in European history.

February - April 2000: Vodafone enters German market by buying mobile network operator Mannesmann Mobilfunk GmbH & Co KG. wireless assets and began operations on 4 April 2000. to be called Verizon Wireless, which was composed of the two companies' U.S. 21 September 1999: Vodafone Airtouch announces a $70-billion joint venture with Bell Atlantic Corp.

of the U.S., and changes its name to Vodafone Airtouch Plc. 30 June 1999: Vodafone Group Plc merges with AirTouch Communications, Inc. The logo often appears on the outline of a SIM card. Company introduces new logo, known as the Speechmark, as it is a quotation mark in a circle; the O's in the Vodafone logotype are opening and closing quotation marks, suggesting conversation.

November 1995: Vodafone Spain's (still as "Airtel") network went live. September 1995: Vodafone Italy's (still as "Omnitel") network went live. July 1993: Vodafone Ireland's GSM network went live, as Eircell; a ETACS network had operated from ~1985. July 1993: Vodafone Greece's network went live.

October 1992: Vodafone Portugal's (still as "Telecel, Comunicações Pessoais, SA") network went live. September 1992: Vodafone Sweden's network went live. July 1992: Vodafone United Kingdom's GSM network went live. June 1992: Vodafone Germany's (still as "Mannesmann Mobilfunk GmbH") network went live.

October 1991: Racal Telecom is demerged from Racal Electronics and becomes Vodafone Group. The first call was made to the Vodafone head office—which was at that point above a curry house in Newbury, where the company remains today (but now in a custom-built HQ building). This event was staged, due to a network failure; the first calls actually being made the next day. 1985-01-01: First phone call on Vodafone United Kingdom's analogue network.

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