Wallpaper

Mary Cassatt's painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers.

Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well.

History

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon.

Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market.

During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

Use

Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath.

A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface.

You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish.

The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

References

  • History of Wallpaper

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'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). See also Webpage (Graphics), PDF (Layers), Mapquest, Google Maps, Google Earth or Yahoo! Maps. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. Navy SEALs and Counter-Strike, that players choose to compete on, as a synonym for level. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish. The word "map" has also been used to describe places within video games, such as SOCOM II: U.S. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. For example:.

Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. From the computer scientist's standpoint, zooming in entails one or a combination of:. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. In-car satellite navigation systems are computerised maps with route-planning and advice facilities which monitor by satellite the position of the user. You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. Interactive, computerised maps are commercially available, allowing users to zoom in or zoom out (respectively meaning to increase or decrease the scale), sometimes by replacing one map with another of different scale, centred where possible on the same point. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface. Even when GIS is not involved, most cartographers now use a variety of computer graphics programs to generate new maps.

Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. Much of cartography, especially at the data-gathering survey level, has been subsumed by Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. From the last quarter of the 20th century, the indispensable tool of the cartographer has been the computer. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath. This allows the pilots to plot a great-circle route approximation on a flat, two-dimensional chart. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. The cone intersects the sphere (the earth) at one or two parallels which are chosen as standard lines.

In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. Airplane pilots use aeronautical charts based on a Lambert conformal conic projection, in which a cone is laid over the section of the earth to be mapped. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. Perhaps the best-known world-map projection is the Mercator Projection, originally designed as a form of nautical chart. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. Maps that depict the surface of the Earth also use a projection, a way of translating the three-dimensional real surface of the geoid to a two-dimensional picture. Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Geological maps show not only the physical surface, but characteristics of the underlying rock, fault lines, and subsurface structures.

'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). The most important purpose of the political map is to show territorial borders; the purpose of the physical is to show features of geography such as mountains, soil type or land use. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. Maps of the world or large areas are often either 'political' or 'physical'. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. For example, a road map may or may not show railroads, and if it does, it may show them less clearly than highways. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world. With the end-user similarly in mind, cartographers will censor the content of the space depicted by a map in order provide a useful tool to that user.

Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. In fact, most commercial navigational maps, such as road maps and town plans, sacrifice an amount of accuracy in scale to deliver a greater visual usefulness to its user, for example by exaggerating the width of roads. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. The simple maps shown on some directional road signs are further examples of this kind. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. This is not a cartogram (since there is no consistent measure of distance) but a topological map that also depicts approximate bearings. During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. A famous example of a map without scale is the London Underground map, which best fulfils its purpose by being less physically accurate and more visually communicative to the hurried glance of the commuter.

By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market. Maps which use some quality other than physical area to determine relative size are called cartograms. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. For example, maps designed for the hiker are often scaled at the ratio 1:24,000, meaning that 1 of any unit of measurement on the map corresponds to 24,000 of that same unit in reality; while maps designed for the motorist are often scaled at 1:250,000. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. A larger scale shows more detail, thus requiring a larger map to show the same area. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. Many but not all maps are drawn to a scale, allowing the reader to infer the actual sizes of, and distances between, depicted objects.

Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. If the map is prepared on a table, to be attached to the ceiling, then on the table it is a mirror image of a normal map. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Occasionally a map is on a ceiling, correctly showing directions; in that case, looking up we have in clockwise direction forward, left, backward, and right. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. For a vertically positioned map representing a horizontal area true orientation is not possible, of course, but it is sometimes approximated by putting the forward direction up. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. The practice of navigating in this way is orienteering.

These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. If a person is located at an identifiable point within the area of such a map, then the map can be oriented in such a way that every point on the map lies in the same direction as the corresponding point in reality. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. Maps that don't put north at the top:. Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. Conventionally, on most geometrically accurate maps text is upright when the map is oriented with the north up, hence north is identified with the top of a sheet. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military, such as the British Ordnance Survey (now a civilian government agency internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work).

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys, carried out by municipalities, utilities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, and other local agencies. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well. Community maps, including GreenMaps, are growing in importance. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. Road maps are perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical and nautical charts, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. This conceit is elaborated in a one-paragraph story by Jorge Luis Borges and Adolfo Bioy Casares, generally known in English as "On Exactitude in Science".

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. A character notes some practical difficulties with this map and states that "we now use the country itself, as its own map, and I assure you it does nearly as well". Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Lewis Carroll made this point humorously in Sylvie and Bruno with his mention of a fictional map that had "the scale of a mile to the mile". Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. It is, of course, this abstraction that makes them useful. History of Wallpaper. Because maps are abstract representations of the world, they are not neutral documents and must be carefully interpreted.

Harley, Mark Monmonier, and Denis Wood. Even today, maps can be powerful rhetorical tools beyond their purely practical value, and this has been the source of much fruitful map criticism over the last twenty years, notably in the works of J.B. By contrast, navigational (or "Portolan") charts of the Mediterranean from the same period are remarkably accurate. Medieval "T-O" maps, for example, show Jerusalem at the centre of the world, and in some cases related the "body" of the Earth to the body of Christ.

Pre-modern maps, and mapping traditions outside the Western tradition, often merge geography with non-scientific cosmography, showing the relationship of the viewer to the universe. While we tend to think of maps today as products of a rationalistic, scientific world-view, maps also have a mythic quality. 142]. [Harvey 2000, p.

One of the oldest surviving maps is painted on a wall of the Catal Huyuk settlement in south-central Anatolia (now Turkey); it dates from about 6200 BC. Map-making dates back to the Stone Age and appears to predate written language by several millennia. . The science and art of map-making is cartography.

Most usually a map is a two-dimensional, geometrically accurate representation of a three-dimensional space. A map is a simplified depiction of a space, a navigational aid which highlights relations between objects within that space. http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Cartography.html. Andrews University, 2002.

Scotland : St. Robertson, The History of Cartography. and E.F. O'Connor, J.J.

Mark Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps, [ISBN 0226534219]. [ISBN 0767908260, cited above; also ISBN 0375501517]. New York : Random House, 2000. Miles Harvey, The Island of Lost Maps: A True Story of Cartographic Crime.

David Buisseret, ed., Monarchs, Ministers and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992, [ISBN 0226079872]. For a single raster graphics image (2) applies until the pixels in the image file correspond to the pixels of the display, thereafter (3) applies. The map may also have layers which are partly raster graphics and partly vector graphics. Similarly, a road represented by a double line may or may not become wider when one zooms in.

Text is not necessarily enlarged when zooming in. (1) may apply to the text (displaying labels for more features), while (2) applies to the rest of the image. (2) may apply to text and (3) to the outline of a map feature such as a forest or building. The increase in detail is, of course, limited to the information contained in the file: enlargement of a curve may eventually result in a series of standard geometric figures such as straight lines or arcs of circles.

Typically (2) applies to a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. A variation of this method is that interpolation is performed. enlarging the same map with the pixels enlarged (replaced by rectangles of pixels); no additional detail is shown, but, depending on the quality of one's vision, possibly more detail can be seen; if a computer display does not show adjacent pixels really separate, but overlapping instead (this does not apply for an LCD, but may apply for a cathode ray tube), then replacing a pixel by a rectangle of pixels does show more detail. enlarging the same map without enlarging the pixels, hence show more detail.

replacing the map by a more detailed one. Medieval European T and O maps such as the Hereford Mappa Mundi were centred on Jerusalem, with East at the top. Labels on the map are oriented in such a way that you cannot read them properly unless you put the imperial palace above your head. Old maps of Edo show the Japanese imperial palace as the "top," but also at the centre, of the map.

Other modern maps put south on top, generally either out of a sense of playful confusion or to make a political statement about the North-South divide. These are primarily intended as novelty and tourist maps. To someone used to seeing the map the other way around, this map may appear to be "upside down". Some rectangular maps produced in Australia show the south pole at the top.

Dymaxion maps. Polar maps.

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