Wallpaper

Mary Cassatt's painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers.

Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well.

History

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon.

Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market.

During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world.

Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

Use

Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath.

A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface.

You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish.

The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. 'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen).

References

  • History of Wallpaper

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'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). It is also home to one of the largest mosques in Latin America, serving Argentina's small Muslim community. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. The country also hosts the largest Jewish population in Latin America, about 395,379 strong. Warning: Only soak what you intend to remove today...if it dries, the glue is reactivated and hardens to an almost impossible to remove finish. Traditional Protestant communities are also present. After about three applications and some waiting...the paper (even multiple layers) can be removed easily with the aid of a putty knife. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) number over 330,300, the seventh largest concentration in the world[3].

Soak thoroughly....wait and soak again. Evangelical churches gained a place in Argentina especially since the 1980s and now number more than 3.5 million or 10%. Then spray on warm water or a mixture of warm water and vinegar. Roman Catholicism is supported by the state, as stipulated in the Constitution. You can also lightly score the old paper with a tool that looks like a hand sander with sharp wheels/teeth. The majority of Argentina's population (80%) is at least nominally Roman Catholic. The drywall remains undamaged, whereas often with steaming approach underlying plaster can end up crumbling leaving an uneven surface. Argentina is an overwhelmingly Christian country.

Wallwik uses no caustic chemicals and no heavy steam equipment -- just water, and a small amount of Wallwik Power solution, a scoring tool & Wallwik fabric. The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, with most speakers located in the basin of the Río de la Plata. A newer method of wallpaper stripping is the Wallwik approach, which is to apply damp sheets of wallwik fabric to the wallpaper. Argentina is the largest Spanish-speaking community that employs voseo (the use of the pronoun vos instead of , associated with some alternate verb conjugations). However, care must be taken to prevent damage to the drywall underneath. There are, for example many Welsh-speaking villages in Patagonia and German-speaking cities in Córdoba and Buenos Aires. The steam dissolves the wallpaper paste, allowing the wallpaper to be peeled off. The only official language is Spanish, although some immigrants and indigenous communities have retained their original languages in specific points of the country.

In fact, one of the ways to remove wallpaper is to apply steam, usually from a wallpaper steamer that consists of a reservoir of water, an electric heating element, and a hose to direct the steam at the wallpaper. Also see the list of people from Argentina. For example, bathroom wallpaper may deteriorate rapidly due to excessive steam. For the traditional Buenos Aires dance, see tango. Additionally, wallpaper is not suitable for all areas. For a prevalent custom among Argentines, see mate. Like paint, wallpaper requires proper surface preparation before application. See also the articles on the cuisine, the music, and the football of Argentina.

'Wallpaper' is the term used in Microsoft Windows, while the Mac OS avoids mixing metaphors by calling it a 'desktop picture' (prior to Mac OS X, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen). Musicians such as Martha Argerich and composers like Lalo Schifrin have become internationally famous. The terms wallpaper and desktop picture refer to an image used as a background on a computer screen, usually for the desktop of a graphical user interface. European classical music is well-considered in Argentina, with the Colón Theater one of the best opera houses in the world. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper. Buenos Aires is also considered the techno/electronica country in Latin America, that started with little raves, and nowadays is home of important events such as Creamfields (which has the world record of 65,000 people), South American Music Conference and many more. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world. First during the 1970s and then again at the mid 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, national rock and roll and pop music experienced bursts of popularity, with many new bands (such as Soda Stereo and Sumo) and composers (like Charly García and Fito Páez) becoming important referents of national culture.

Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. Since the 1970s rock and roll is also widely appreciated in Argentina. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Tango lyrics can be considered a kind of poetry. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. It must be noted that while tango refers mostly to a particular dancing music for foreigners, the music together with the lyrics (often sung in a kind of slang called lunfardo) are what most Argentinians primarily mean by tango. During the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. In modern Argentina, tango music is enjoyed in its own right, especially since the radical Astor Piazzolla redefined the music of Carlos Gardel.

By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market. The best-known element of Argentine culture is probably their music and dance, particularly tango. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again - Cromwell's regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. The city of Mar del Plata organizes its own festival dedicated to this art. During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, England became an austere and dull country, and the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Even low-budget productions, however, have obtained prizes in cinema festivals (such as Cannes). Unable to import tapestries and without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper. Argentine cinema has achieved international recognition with films such as "The Official Story" and "Nine Queens", though it has only rarely been taken into account by mainstream popular viewers who prefer Hollywood-type movies.

Wallpaper became very popular in England following Henry VIII's excommunication from the Catholic Church - English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe and increased wars. Buenos Aires is undeniably the most European city in South America, due both to the prevalence of people of Italian and Spanish descent and to conscious imitation. Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries. Argentine culture has been primarily informed and influenced by its European roots. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms. There was a substantial immigration from other Latin American countries during the 1990s from Bolivia, Paraguay and Chile number about 2,000,000 and 4,000,000. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. There are also smaller numbers of people from the Indian subcontinent.

These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. The first Asian-Argentines were of Japanese descent, but Koreans, Vietnamese, and Chinese soon followed. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. Small numbers of people from Far East Asia have also settled Argentina, mainly in Buenos Aires. Wallpaper gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. Middle Eastern immigrants, including Syrians, Lebanese, Turks, number about 500,000, mainly in urban areas. Modern-style wallpaper, with block designs in continuous patterns, was developed in 1675 by the French engraver, Jean Papillon. It is the largest Jewish community in Latin America and fifth largest in the world.

Wallpaper can be traced back to 200BC when the Chinese, inventors of paper itself, pasted rice paper on their walls. The overwhelming majority of Argentina's Jewish community, numbering about 395,379 [2], also derives from immigrants of Northern and Eastern European origin — Ashkenazi Jews. Currently "Wallpaper" is used as a term for Computer Wallpaper as well. Other important immigrant groups came from Germany (German colonies were settled in the provinces of Entre Ríos, Misiones, Formosa, Córdoba and the Patagonian region, as well as in Buenos Aires itself), France (mostly settled in Buenos Aires city and province), Scandinavia (especially Sweden) the United Kingdom and Ireland (Buenos Aires and Patagonia) and Eastern European nations, such as Poland, Russia, Ukraine and the Balkans region (especially Croatia and Serbia) and others. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. The Patagonian Chubut Valley has a significant Welsh-descended population and retains many aspects of Welsh culture. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. Waves of immigrants from European countries arrived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. As of 2001, 2.8% of Argentine households include at least one person that identifies as belonging to an indigenous group. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. The indigenous Amerindian (poorly estimated between 1.5% and 5%) and identifiably mestizo populations (estimated at around 13%) are concentrated in the provinces of the north, northwest and south. Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Those who claimed their ancestry as Spanish — or Spanish and another ancestry, such as Spanish-Italian — were most likely to have some remnant Amerindian ancestry; a legacy of the almost complete absorption of colonial Argentina's mestizo majority by the post-colonial mass migratory influx of Europeans. History of Wallpaper. Recent genetic research suggests that around 56% of Argentinians, however, possess at least some indigenous Amerindian ancestry [1].

The basic demographic stock (85% of the population) is made up of descendants of the Spanish colonists, augmented by descendants of later Italian, Spanish and other European settlers. Unlike most of its neighbouring countries, Argentina's population descends overwhelmingly from Europeans. Some of them are homeless, and there is at least one small non-profit humanitarian organisation which distributes free food to some of them most days of the week. The situation in 2005 is much improved, but there are still large numbers of unemployed people that beg for some money or food, especially in the outskirts of Buenos Aires.

The influx of foreign currency from exports created such a huge trade surplus that the Central Bank was forced to buy dollars from the market, which it continues to do at the time, to be accumulated as reserves. Capital flight decreased, and foreign investment slowly returned. In 2003, import substitution policies and soaring exports, coupled with a lower inflation and expansive economic measures, triggered a surge in the GDP, which was repeated in 2004, creating jobs and encouraging internal consumption. However, careful spending control and heavy taxes on now soaring exports gave the state the tools to regain resources and conduct monetary policy.

By 2002 Argentina had defaulted on its debt, its GDP had shrunk, unemployment was over 18%, the peso had devalued 75% after being floated, and inflation was hitting again. Inflation dropped and GDP grew, but external economic shocks and failures of the system diluted its benefits, causing it to crumble in slow motion, from 1995 and up to the collapse in 2001. The government then embarked on a path of trade liberalisation, deregulation, and privatisation. dollar and limited the growth in the monetary base.

S. In 1991, the government pegged the peso to the U. Since the late 1970s the country piled up public debt and was plagued by bouts of high inflation. Today, while a significant segment of the population is still financially well-off, they stay in sharp contrast with millions who live in poverty or on the brink of it.

The country historically had a large middle class, compared to other Latin American countries, but this segment of the population was decimated by a succession of economic crises. Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Its area is about 2 km², and the population about 200 people. According to the terms of the agreement, Martín García is to be devoted exclusively to a natural preserve.

An agreement reached by Argentina and Uruguay in 1973 reaffirmed Argentine jurisdiction over the island, ending a century-old dispute between the two countries. It is situated near the confluence of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers, a mere kilometre inside Uruguayan waters, about 3.5 km from the Uruguayan coastline, near the small city of Martín Chico (itself about halfway between Nueva Palmira and Colonia). There is one Argentine exclave: the island of Martín García (co-ordinates 34°11′S 58°15′W). The Argentine climate is predominantly temperate with extremes ranging from subtropical in the north to arid/sub-Antarctic in far south.

The latter two flow together before meeting the Atlantic Ocean, forming the estuary of the Río de la Plata. Major rivers include the Paraguay, Bermejo, Colorado, Uruguay and the largest river, the Paraná. Argentina can roughly be divided into three parts: the fertile plains of the Pampas in the central part of the country, the centre of Argentina's agricultural wealth; the flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in the southern half down to Tierra del Fuego; and the rugged Andes mountain range along the western border with Chile, with the highest point being the Cerro Aconcagua at 6,960 m. In descending order by number of inhabitants, the major cities in Argentina are Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario, Mendoza, La Plata, Tucumán, Mar del Plata, Salta, Santa Fe, and Bahía Blanca.

The general layout of the cities is called a damero, that is, a checkerboard, since it is based on a pattern of square blocks, though modern developments sometimes depart from it (for example, the city of La Plata, built at the end of the 19th century, is organised as a checkerboard plus diagonal avenues at fixed intervals). A cathedral and important government buildings often face the plaza. Many towns and cities are built like Spanish cities around a main square called a plaza. Argentina's urban areas have a European look, reflecting the influence of their European settlers.

Many slums (villas miseria) sprouted in the outskirts of the largest cities, inhabited by empoverished low-class urban dwellers and migrants from smaller towns in the interior of the country. dollar exchange rate fixed and low. S. The 1990s saw many rural towns become ghost towns when train services were abandoned and local products manufactured on a small scale were replaced by massive amounts of imported cheap goods, in part because of the monetary policy which kept the U.

Since the 1930s many rural workers have moved to the big cities. Most European immigrants to Argentina (coming in great waves especially around the First and the Second World Wars) settled in the cities, which offered jobs, education, and other opportunities that enabled newcomers to enter the middle class. Together with their respective metropolitan areas, the second and third largest cities in Argentina, Córdoba and Rosario, each comprise about 1.3 million inhabitants. About 2.7 million people live in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, and roughly 11.5 million in Greater Buenos Aires (2001), making it one of the largest urban conglomerates in the world.

Though the law was never formally repealed, it has become a mere historical relic, and the project has been forgotten. Studies were underway when hyperinflation, in 1989, killed off the project. During the presidency of Raúl Alfonsín a law was passed ordering the move of the federal capital to Viedma, a city in the Patagonic province of Río Negro. Buenos Aires has been the capital of Argentina since its unification, but there have been projects to move the administrative centre elsewhere.

* The current official name for the federal district is "Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires". Argentina is divided into 23 provinces (provincias; singular: provincia), and 1 autonomous city (commonly known as capital federal), marked with an asterisk:. Argentina is currently prompting the Mercosur as its first external priority. taylor is very weird.

In 2003, Néstor Kirchner became the president, and started implementing new policies based on re-industrialisation, import substitution, increased exports, consistent fiscal surplus, and high exchange rate. The peso's almost 12-year-old link with the dollar was abandoned, resulting in massive currency depreciation and inflation, in turn triggering a spike in unemployment and poverty. Argentina defaulted on its international debt obligations. Several new presidents followed in quick succession.

Next month, amidst bloody riots, President de la Rúa resigned. The Asian financial crisis in 1998 precipitated an outflow of capital that mushroomed into a recession, which led to a total freezing of the bank accounts (the corralito), and culminated in a financial panic in November 2001. The Menem and de la Rúa administrations faced diminished competitiveness of exports, massive imports which damaged national industry and reduced employment, chronic fiscal and trade deficits, and the contagion of several economic crises. These reforms contributed to significant increases in investment and growth with stable prices through most of the 1990s.

President Carlos Menem imposed peso-dollar fixed exchange rate in 1991 to stop hyperinflation, and adopted far-reaching market-based policies, dismantling protectionist barriers and business regulations, and implementing a privatisation program. Failure to resolve endemic economic problems and an inability to maintain public confidence caused his early departure. Raúl Alfonsín's Radical government took steps intending to account for the "disappeared", establishing civilian control of the armed forces and consolidating democratic institutions. Democracy was restored in 1983.

Economic problems, charges of corruption, public revulsion in the face of human rights abuses and, finally, the country's 1982 defeat in the Falklands War discredited the Argentine military regime. Among them Argentine dictators Leopoldo Galtieri and Roberto Viola. financed School of the Americas. Many of the military leaders that took part in the Dirty War were trained in the U.S.

The armed forces repressed opposition using harsh illegal measures (the "Dirty War"); thousands of dissidents were "disappeared", while the SIDE cooperated with the CIA, DINA and other South American intelligence agencies in Operation Condor. His wife succeeded him in office, but a military coup removed her from office in 1976, and the armed forces formally exercised power through a junta in charge of the self-appointed National Reorganisation Process, until 1983. Perón died in 1974. During this period, extremists on the left and right carried out terrorist acts with a frequency that threatened public order.

When military governments failed to revive the economy and suppress escalating terrorism in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the way was open for Perón's return to the presidency in 1973, with his third wife, María Estela Isabel Martínez de Perón, as Vice President. In the 1950s and 1960s, military and civilian administrations traded power. The Revolución Libertadora of 1955 deposed him.
Political change led to the presidency of Juan Perón in 1946, who aimed at empowering the working class and greatly expanded the number of unionised workers.

The military forced Hipólito Yrigoyen from power in 1930 leading to another decade of Conservative rule. Conservative forces dominated Argentine politics until 1916, when their traditional rivals, the Radicals, won control of the government. From 1880 to 1930 Argentina became one of the ten wealthiest nations. In the 1880s the "Conquest of the Desert" subdued or exterminated the remaining native tribes throughout Patagonia.

Foreign investment and immigration from Europe aided the introduction of modern agricultural techniques and integration of Argentina into the world economy in the late 19th century. Centralist and federationist groups were in conflict, until national unity was established and the constitution promulgated in 1853. Independence from Spain was declared on July 9, 1816. Spain established a permanent colony on the site of Buenos Aires in 1580, and the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776.

Europeans arrived in 1502. The native people known as Diaguita lived in northwestern Argentina on the edge of the expanding Inca Empire; the Guaraní lived farther east. The area of present Argentina was sparsely populated until it was colonised by Europeans. The name Argentina was first used in Ruy Diaz de Guzman's 1612 book Historia del descubrimiento, población, y conquista del Río de la Plata (History of the discovery, population, and conquest of the Río de la Plata), naming the territory Tierra Argentina (land of silver).

The Spaniards named the river of Solís, Río de la Plata (River of Silver). The legend of Sierra del Plata — a mountain rich in silver — reached Spain around 1524. Indigenous people gave silver gifts to the survivors of the shipwrecked expedition, who were led by Juan Díaz de Solís. The name Argentina derives from the Latin argentum (silver) and the first Spanish conquerors to the Río de la Plata.

. The country is formally named República Argentina (Argentine Republic), while for purposes of legislation the form Nación Argentina (Argentine Nation) is used. By area, it is the second largest country of South America after Brazil and the 8th largest country in the world. Under the name of Argentine Antarctica, it claims around 1,000,000 km² of Antarctica, overlapping other claims by Chile and the United Kingdom.

It also claims the British overseas territories of the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It is bordered by Paraguay and Bolivia in the north, Brazil and Uruguay in the northeast, and Chile in the west and south. IPA [reˈpuβlika aɾxɛnˈtina]) is a country in South America, situated between the Andes in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east and south. Argentina (pron.


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