Vietnam

Motto: Độc lập - Tự do - Hạnh phúc

(Vietnamese, "Independence, liberty, happiness")

Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca
Capital Hanoi
21°2′ N 105°51′ E
Largest city Ho Chi Minh City
Official language(s) Vietnamese
Government President
Prime Minister
Communist single-party state
Trần Đức Lương
Phan Văn Khải
Independence
Declared
Recognized
From France
September 2, 1945
1954
Area
 • Total
 • Water (%)
 
329,560 km² (65th)
1.3
Population
 • 2005 est.
 • 1999 census

 • Density
 
83,535,576 (13th)
76,323,173

253/km² (31st)
GDP (PPP)
 • Total
 • Per capita
2005 estimate
$231.6 billion (39th)
$2,782 (131st)
HDI (2003) 0.704 (108th) – medium
Currency đồng (₫) (VND)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
(UTC+7)
(UTC+8, does not observe)
Internet TLD .vn
Calling code +84

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, or Vietnam, is a communist country in Southeast Asia. Situated in eastern Indochina, it borders China, Laos, Cambodia, as well as the South China Sea.

Terminology

The name of the country comes from the Vietnamese Việt Nam, which is in turn a reordering of Nam Việt, the name of an ancient kingdom from the ancestral Vietnamese that covered much of today's northern Vietnam. Its cognate name in Chinese, Yuè Nán (越南; Yut6 Naam4 in Cantonese) means "southern extension".

History

Vietnamese legends hold that native people populated and civilized the land more than 4,000 years ago. Chinese historical records tell of an indigenous people that existed about 2,500 years ago. Some historians, both in Asia and in the West, hold that the various peoples of today's Vietnam were brought together by a Qin Dynasty-era general who was fed up with the despotic rule of the Qin Shi Huang (First emperor of China proper) and escaped to the "southern Yue [Viet] mountains" to set up his own kingdom. He and his soldiers conquered the land and established a civilized society modeled after ancient Chinese customs. This Chinese general adopted the native language (which sounded similar to southern Chinese dialects anyway) and married local women, who gave birth to sons that inherited the kingdom. Whether this is indeed historically true or not is still subject to debate.

What is known for sure is that for most of the period from 207 BC to the early 10th century, it was under the rule of successive dynasties of China. Sporadic independence movements were attempted, but were quickly extinguished by the Chinese army. In 939, the Vietnamese defeated Chinese forces at the Bach Dang River and gained independence. They gained complete autonomy a century later. For most of its history, Vietnam has been strongly influenced by its much bigger northern neighbor, China. However, during the rule of the Tran Dynasty, it defeated three Mongol attempts of invasion by the Yuan Dynasty. Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Le Dynasty 1400s, especially with the emperor Le Thanh Tong. Between the 13th and 17th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). They eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and much of the Khmer empire. The independent period ended in the mid-19th century, when the country was colonized by France.

French rule continued until World War II, when Japan briefly occupied Vietnam and used the country as a base to launch attacks against the rest of Indochina and India. When the war ended, France attempted to re-establish control but failed, after they were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. The Geneva Accords subsequently divided the country into North Vietnam and South Vietnam, separated by a demilitarized zone.

During the Cold War, the North was supported by China and the Soviet Union while the South was supported by United States.

The conflict quickly escalated into the Vietnam War. The war continued even after the Paris Peace Accords on January 27, 1973, which formally recognized the sovereignty of both sides.

The Bản Giốc Falls in Cao Bằng, North Vietnam

All American troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. By April 30, 1975, North Vietnam had overtaken South Vietnam and by 1976, Vietnam was officially unified under the North Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

After reunification, political and economic conditions deteriorated to near-famine conditions. Millions of South Vietnamese became boat people over the next two decades. In late 1978, the Cambodian people, with the support of the Vietnamese army, removed the Khmer Rouge from power. Only one month later, however, partially in retaliation, China launched a short-lived incursion into Vietnam: the Sino-Vietnamese War.

In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam implemented economic reforms known as đổi mới (renovation). During much of the 1990s, economic growth was rapid, and Vietnam reintegrated into the international community. It reestablished diplomatic relations with the United States in 1995, one year after the United States' trade embargo on Vietnam was repealed.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Vietnam

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is governed through a highly centralized system dominated by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), which was formerly the Vietnamese Labor Party (1951-1976). The Socialist Republic of Vietnam exists today as a communist state. From 2001 until now, Nong Duc Manh has been General Secretary of CPV. Senior Politburo members (Trần Đức Lương, Phan Văn Khải, Nguyễn Văn An, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, Lê Hồng Anh, Phạm Văn Trà and Trương Quang Được) concurrently hold high positions in the Government and the National Assembly.

There are no legal opposition parties in Vietnam, although a number of opposition groups do exist scattered overseas among exile communities within countries such as France and the United States. These communities have supported demonstrations and civil disobedience against the government. The most prominent are the Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League, and the Government of Free Vietnam. The Government of Free Vietnam has claimed responsibility for a number of guerilla raids into Vietnam, which the Vietnamese government has denounced as terrorism.

Former political parties include the nationalist Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng of Nguyễn Thái Học, the Can Lao party of the Ngô Đình Diệm government and the Viet Nam Duy Tan Hoi of Phan Bội Châu during the colonial period.

Vietnam is a member of the United Nations, La Francophonie, ASEAN, and APEC, and applied for membership to the World Trade Organization in 2001.

Provinces

Main article: Provinces of Vietnam

Vietnam's capital (thủ đô, singular and plural) is Hà Nội (Hà Nội). There are also four municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc Trung ương, singular and plural) existing at provincial level: Cần Thơ, Đà Nẵng, Hải Phòng, and Hồ Chí Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh). Ho Chi Minh City was formerly known as Sài Gòn (Sài Gòn). Now, Saigon is understood as heart of the city (central area of the District 1).

Besides the five cities, the country is divided into fifty-nine provinces (tỉnh, singular and plural): An Giang, Bắc Giang, Bắc Cạn, Bạc Liêu, Bắc Ninh, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu, Bến Tre, Bình Định, Bình Dương, Bình Phước, Bình Thuận, Cà Mau, Cao Bằng, Đắk Lắk, Đắk Nông, Điện Biên, Đồng Nai, Đồng Tháp, Gia Lai, Hà Giang, Hải Dương, Hà Nam, Hà Tây, Hà Tĩnh, Hòa Bình, Hậu Giang, Hưng Yên, Khánh Hòa, Kiên Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Châu, Lâm Đồng, Lạng Sơn, Lào Cai, Long An, Nam Định, Nghệ An, Ninh Bình, Ninh Thuận, Phú Thọ, Phú Yên, Quảng Bình, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Quảng Ninh, Quảng Trị, Sóc Trăng, Sơn La, Tây Ninh, Thái Bình, Thái Nguyên, Thanh Hóa, Thừa Thiên-Huế, Tiền Giang, Trà Vinh, Tuyên Quang, Vĩnh Long, Vĩnh Phúc, Yên Bái.

Geography

Map of Vietnam

Main article: Geography of Vietnam

The country is approximately 331,688 square kilometers (128,066 mi²) in area, which is slightly larger than New Mexico and slightly smaller than Germany. The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20 percent. Mountains account for 40 percent, hills 40 percent, and forests 75 percent. The northern part of the country consists of highlands and the Red River Delta. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 metres (10,312 ft). The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Dai Truong Son (central mountains) with high plateaus, and the Mekong River Delta.

The climate is tropical and monsoonal; humidity averages 84 percent throughout the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 120 to 300 centimetres (47 to 118 inches), and annual temperatures vary between 5°C (41°F) and 37°C (99°F).

Land boundaries: Total: 4,639 km (2,883 mi) Border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km (763 mi), China 1,281 km (796 mi), Laos 2,130 m (1,324 mi)

Economy

Main article: Economy of Vietnam

In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam formally abandoned Marxist economic planning and began introducing market elements as part of a broad economic reform package called "đổi mới" ("Renovation").

In many ways, this followed the Chinese model and achieved similar results. On the one hand, Vietnam achieved around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2002, making it the world's second-fastest growing economy. Simultaneously, investment grew three-fold and domestic savings quintupled.

On the other hand, urban unemployment has been rising steadily in recent years due to high numbers of migration from the countryside to the cities, and rural unemployment, estimated to be up to 35% during nonharvest periods, is already at critical levels. Layoffs in the state sector and foreign-invested enterprises combined with the lasting effects of a previous military demobilization further exacerbated the unemployment situation. The country is attempting to become a member of the WTO. Vietnam, however, is still a relatively poor country with GDP of US$227.2 billion (est., 2004). This translates to US$2700 per capita. Inflation rate is estimated at 14% per year in 2004. This figure has been scaled down by the Government to 9.5% per annum to avoid the ‘double digit’ classification.

The spending power of the public has noticeably increased. The reason lies in the high property prices. In Hanoi, the capital, property prices can be as high as those in Tokyo or New York City. This has amazed many people because GDP per capita of this city is around US$1,000 per annum. The booming prices have given the poor land owners the opportunity to sell their homes for inflated prices. Corruption, bribery and embezzlement committed by many government officials have pushed property prices even higher, as real estate investment is a popular form of money laundering.

Tourism has become an increasingly important industry in Vietnam. Many of the over 3 million annual visitors are Vietnam war veterans.

Demographics

Street scene in Haiphong

Main article: Demographics of Vietnam

According to official figures from the 1999 census, of Vietnam's then population of 76.3m, the largest of 54 government recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam were:

  1. Viet/Kinh: 65.8m (86.2%)
  2. Tày: 1.5m (1.9%)
  3. Thái: 1.3m (1.7%)
  4. Mường: 1.1m (1.5%)
  5. Khmer Krom: 1.1m (1.4%)
  6. Hoa: 0.9m (1.1%)
  7. Nun: 0.9m (1.1%)
  8. Hmong: 0.8m (1.0%)

The majority ethnic Vietnamese, also called Viet or Kinh, make up about 86 percent of the nation's population. They are concentrated largely in the alluvial deltas and in the coastal plains and have little in common with the minority peoples of the highlands, whom they have historically regarded as hostile and barbaric. A homogenous social group, the Viet exert influence on national life through their control of political and economic affairs and their role as purveyors of the dominant culture. By contrast, the ethnic minorities, except for the Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) and the Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese), are found mostly in the highlands that cover two-thirds of the national territory.

Religion

On the way to the Perfume Pagoda outside Hanoi

According to the 1999 Socialist Republic of Vietnam's census numbers, eighty percent of Vietnamese subscribe to no religion. But according to the majority of other sources, Vietnamese people are predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. Mainstream Pure Land schools and Zen-inspired syncretists); with a sizeable Roman Catholic following, Protestant, Cao Đài, and Hoa Hao minorities. The largest Protestant churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church. Membership to Sunni and Bashi Islam are usually accredited to the ethnic Cham minority, but there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents to Islam in the southwest.

Minorities

The Tay people live primarily in the mountains and foothills of northern Vietnam. Their language is a member of the Tai languages, belonging to the Central Tai subgroup and closely related to the Zhuang language of southern China.

Thái is a name used by Vietnamese authorities for a group of people also from the mountainous northern region of Vietnam and whom western linguists say actually speak separate languages: Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, Tai Hang Tong, Tày Tac, and Tai Thanh. All these languages are closely related and belong to the Southwestern Tai subgroup of the Tai languages. This official "Thái" ethnicity should not be confused with the Thai people of Thailand. The Thai people of Thailand speak languages belonging to the Lao-Phutai branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup, while the "Thái" of Vietnam speak languages belonging to the East Central branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup. Although the Thái ethnicity is officially recognized in Vietnam, western linguistics do not recognize it and prefer to classify Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, etc., as separate ethnic groups, in which case the Mường minority moves to second largest minority of Vietnam, Khmer Krom move to third position, and Hoa to fourth position.

The Mường live in the mountains of north central Vietnam and speak a Mon-Khmer language closely related to the Vietnamese language.

The Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) live in the fertile delta of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and are ethnically the same as the Khmer people who make up the majority of the population of Cambodia. There is no consensus on the exact number of Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) living in Vietnam. The Vietnamese government reported 1,055,174 Khmer Krom at the 1999 census.

The Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese) are mainly lowlanders and, more specifically, urban dwellers. They speak predominantly Cantonese (known to the Vietnamese as Quảng Đông), but there are also speakers of Hakka (Khách Gia), Min Nan/Hokkien/Fujian (Mân Nam/Phúc Kiến), Chaozhou (Triều Châu), etc. Up to the 1979 Vietnamese census, the Hoa were the largest minority of Vietnam. However, since the North Vietnamese took over South Vietnam in 1975 many Hoa left Vietnam, especially in the 1980s, so that at the 1999 census the Hoa were only the fifth largest minority (or the fourth largest if the Thái are not considered as an homogenous ethnic group).

Beyond these five largest ethnic minorities, there are 48 other minorities officially recognized by the Vietnamese government, giving a total of 53 minorities altogether. Many of these 53 minority groups only have a few thousand members or so. Vietnam also has a small number of racial Eurasians, people of Asian and Caucasian (mostly white, but also Indian) parentage. Most of them are descendants of Vietnamese people mixed with either early French settlers or white American soldiers and personnel (or both), during the colonial period and Vietnam War. There are also a few of those descended from Indian or Pakistani setttlers also during the colonial era. There are some who are racially mixed with blacks as well, another product during the Vietnam War from American soldiers. Mixed race individuals face the most discrimination in Vietnamese society and government, especially ones who are product of American soldiers (white or black) from the Vietnam War.

Officially, the ethnic minorities are referred to as "national minorities". The French used the name Montagnard (plural Montagnards, meaning "mountain people") to call all the minorities (except the Khmer Krom and the Hoa), no matter what their actual language. The name Montagnard is still sometimes used today. Sometimes, the name Montagnard is used specifically for the Mường ethnic group.

Human Rights NGOs point out the Vietnamese government's poor record with respect to ethnic minorities. In particular, the large Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) minority of southern Vietnam is denied elementary human rights in an effort by the Vietnamese government to Vietnamize the Khmer Krom, or force them to leave their native land and relocate to Cambodia. The Vietnamese government is afraid that the large native Khmer Krom population in the Mekong delta could allow Cambodia to officially claim back the fertile areas of the delta that were annexed by Vietnam more than 200 years ago. On the other hand, some in the Vietnamese government still pursue the centuries old policy of colonizing Khmer land, and it was reported that in the 1980s and 1990s some local Vietnamese officials have pushed the Cambodian-Vietnamese border several kilometers inside Cambodian territory, annexing tens of Cambodian villages, in violation of international treaties, thus further increasing the ethnic Khmer population inside Vietnam.

Further north, there have been reports of tensions with the Tày people due to the government sponsored relocation of ethnic Vietnamese from the lowlands to the highlands inhabited by the Tày and other minorities. Protests and demonstrations by highland minorities have been reported.

Percentage of ethnic Vietnamese

According to the 1999 census, ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) numbered 65,795,718 and thus accounted for 86.2% of the total population of Vietnam.

In terms of land area, the ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country).

The birth rate of the ethnic Vietnamese (and also the Hoa), which historically has been very high, decreased significantly since the 1980s and is now reaching much lower levels, comparable to the birth rates in Thailand or Malaysia. The birth rate of the minorities is still very high, comparable to birth rates in Cambodia or Laos.

As a result, the ethnic minorities are now growing at a faster rate than the ethnic Vietnamese, which means that the percentage of ethnic Vietnamese in the total population is slowly decreasing year after year. According to official figures, at the 1979 census the ethnic Vietnamese accounted for 87.4% of the total population. The figure was down to 86.9% at the 1989 census, and 86.2% at the 1999 census.

Languages

According to official figures, 86.2% of the population speak Vietnamese as a native tongue.

Various other languages are spoken by the several minority groups in Vietnam. The most spoken languages are: Tày (1.5 million), Mường (1.2 million), Khmer (1.05 million), Cantonese (870,000, this figure also includes speakers of other Chinese dialects), Nung (860,000), HMông (790,000), and Tai Dam (700,000).

French, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by some (mostly older) Vietnamese as a second language. Russian- and to a much lesser extent Czech or Polish- is often known among "baby-boomers" whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc. In recent years, English has become a more popular language to learn and is increasingly used in business, among other things.

See also: List of ethnic groups in Vietnam

Culture

Main article: Culture of Vietnam

In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. In the 16th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters called Chữ Nôm. The celebrated epic Đoạn trường tân thanh (or Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du is written in Chữ Nôm. During the French colonial period, Quốc Ngữ, the romanized Vietnamese alphabet representation of spoken Vietnamese, became popular and brought literacy to the masses.

Due to Vietnam's long association with China, Vietnamese culture remains strongly Confucian with its emphasis on familial duty. Education is highly prized. Historically, passing the imperial Mandarin exams was the only means for Vietnamese people to socially advance themselves.

The majority of Vietnamese are adherents to Mahayana Buddhism, influenced by Confucianism and Daoism, and with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship. Others say that the Vietnamese' second religion is superstition and fatalism, brought on by the decades of war.

Vietnam's cuisine and music have three distinct flavors, related to Vietnam's three regions: Bắc or North, Trung or Central, and Nam or South. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest and is traditionally more formal. Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe. Central classical music shows the influences of Champa culture with its melancholic melodies. Southern music exudes a lively laissez faire attitude. Vietnamese cuisine is based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. Its characteristic flavor is sweet (sugar), spicy (serrano peppers), and flavored by a variety of mints.

See also:


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See also:. Apart from Ramsay Street, there are many other places inside and around the fictional suburb of Erinsborough that have been in Neighbours, including:. Its characteristic flavor is sweet (sugar), spicy (serrano peppers), and flavored by a variety of mints. There is a separate article about past Neighbours characters.. Vietnamese cuisine is based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. The list shows the guest characters who are in the show at the moment. Southern music exudes a lively laissez faire attitude. Unlike main characters, they do not appear in the opening titles.

Central classical music shows the influences of Champa culture with its melancholic melodies. These can range from single episode appearances, to two or three month stints of weekly appearances, to intermittent appearances over several years. Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe. Guest characters on Neighbours are played by actors who do not have a long term contract to appear (almost) every week. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest and is traditionally more formal. See also: Karl and Susan Kennedy. Vietnam's cuisine and music have three distinct flavors, related to Vietnam's three regions: Bắc or North, Trung or Central, and Nam or South. For more information see The Robinson Family.

Others say that the Vietnamese' second religion is superstition and fatalism, brought on by the decades of war. After dying out in the 1990s, they have been revived with the return of original cast member Paul. The majority of Vietnamese are adherents to Mahayana Buddhism, influenced by Confucianism and Daoism, and with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship. One of the original families in the street. Historically, passing the imperial Mandarin exams was the only means for Vietnamese people to socially advance themselves. See also: Karl and Susan Kennedy. Education is highly prized. The table is based on their first ever appearances, the episode number of which is shown in brackets.

Due to Vietnam's long association with China, Vietnamese culture remains strongly Confucian with its emphasis on familial duty. The characters marked with asterisks have had more than one spell on the show, with gaps of several years between them. During the French colonial period, Quốc Ngữ, the romanized Vietnamese alphabet representation of spoken Vietnamese, became popular and brought literacy to the masses. The list on the right shows the current (Australian) cast in order of seniority by first appearance. The celebrated epic Đoạn trường tân thanh (or Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du is written in Chữ Nôm. Most main characters feature for at least two years, but only a fairly small minority last for more than five years. In the 16th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters called Chữ Nôm. (The actors all get a month off at the same time for their main holidays).

In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. These are the current main characters, who each appear in two or three episodes every week, apart from fairly rare breaks for the actors' other real life commitments. Main article: Culture of Vietnam. Spoiler warning: This list is based on the Australian cast, and will sometimes reflect arrivals and departures which have not been broadcast in the UK.. See also: List of ethnic groups in Vietnam. The identity of the bomber will be uncovered during 2006. In recent years, English has become a more popular language to learn and is increasingly used in business, among other things. Dylan and Connor, who believe Dylan is wanted for armed robbery, survived washed up on a desolate beach and decided to fake their own deaths by assuming new identities, but they recently came back to Erinsborough.

Russian- and to a much lesser extent Czech or Polish- is often known among "baby-boomers" whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc. Susan was missing for a few days but eventually rescued. French, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by some (mostly older) Vietnamese as a second language. Paul, Elle, Izzy, Alex and Sky were quickly found and taken to hospital. The most spoken languages are: Tày (1.5 million), Mường (1.2 million), Khmer (1.05 million), Cantonese (870,000, this figure also includes speakers of other Chinese dialects), Nung (860,000), HMông (790,000), and Tai Dam (700,000). David, Liljana and Serena were killed, although only David's body has been recovered. Various other languages are spoken by the several minority groups in Vietnam. The bomb soon went off, sending the plane crashing into the ocean below.

According to official figures, 86.2% of the population speak Vietnamese as a native tongue. think about your life and everything you've done.'. The figure was down to 86.9% at the 1989 census, and 86.2% at the 1999 census. During the flight Izzy discovered a note to her saying 'To my one and only.. According to official figures, at the 1979 census the ethnic Vietnamese accounted for 87.4% of the total population. A time bomb had also been planted in the plane's undercarriage. As a result, the ethnic minorities are now growing at a faster rate than the ethnic Vietnamese, which means that the percentage of ethnic Vietnamese in the total population is slowly decreasing year after year. Late in the 2005 season (broadcast in January 2006 in the UK) came a highly dramatic storyline where a large contingency of Ramsay Street regulars went on a joyflight on a Douglas DC-3 aircraft over Bass Strait.

The birth rate of the minorities is still very high, comparable to birth rates in Cambodia or Laos. After over a year of manipulation, Izzy's lies came to light in a spectacular fashion, and despite a last ditch attempt by Izzy to gain Karl's sympathy by falsely claiming that she was raped, Karl finally dumped Izzy for good. The birth rate of the ethnic Vietnamese (and also the Hoa), which historically has been very high, decreased significantly since the 1980s and is now reaching much lower levels, comparable to the birth rates in Thailand or Malaysia. The break up of long time married couple Karl and Susan Kennedy and soon after Joe and Lyn Scully has also been a great source of interest to viewers, especially since it has led to a long running storyline in which Izzy Hoyland duped Karl into believing that he was the father of her unborn child continuing the charade long after she tragically miscarried in November 2004. In terms of land area, the ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country). The character of Sindi Watts has also been involved in storylines involving stripping and more recently prostitution. According to the 1999 census, ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) numbered 65,795,718 and thus accounted for 86.2% of the total population of Vietnam. The second storyline to touch on this taboo subject was the plotline in which Harold Bishop became obsessed with a younger woman who bore an uncanny resemblance to his deceased daughter, Kerry (in fact, the character was played by Linda Hartley-Clark, who did indeed play Kerry Bishop years earlier.) The pair went as far as sharing a kiss, which ultimately made Harold 'snap out' of his obsession.

Protests and demonstrations by highland minorities have been reported. There was also not one but two incest storylines; the first involving Serena Bishop and Luka Dokic, who embarked on an intimate relationship, blissfully ignorant of the fact theat they were half-siblings, sharing a mother, Liljana Bishop. Further north, there have been reports of tensions with the Tày people due to the government sponsored relocation of ethnic Vietnamese from the lowlands to the highlands inhabited by the Tày and other minorities. Recently, the show has depicted a lesbian storyline involving Sky Mangel and Lana Crawford. On the other hand, some in the Vietnamese government still pursue the centuries old policy of colonizing Khmer land, and it was reported that in the 1980s and 1990s some local Vietnamese officials have pushed the Cambodian-Vietnamese border several kilometers inside Cambodian territory, annexing tens of Cambodian villages, in violation of international treaties, thus further increasing the ethnic Khmer population inside Vietnam. In the past two years this has started to change, with the show now regularly featuring its teenage characters discussing issues such as sex and contraception in a manner which has not been seen on the show since the mid 1990s. The Vietnamese government is afraid that the large native Khmer Krom population in the Mekong delta could allow Cambodia to officially claim back the fertile areas of the delta that were annexed by Vietnam more than 200 years ago. In the late 1990s, Neighbours gained the reputation as being a somewhat conservative soap with topics such as sex generally not being included in the storylines due to its early evening timeslot in Australia and the United Kingdom (Earlier storylines involving controversial topics such as incest and teenage sex were often censored by the BBC in the UK, which may account for the reluctance on the part of producers to depict controversial issues).

In particular, the large Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) minority of southern Vietnam is denied elementary human rights in an effort by the Vietnamese government to Vietnamize the Khmer Krom, or force them to leave their native land and relocate to Cambodia. Today the show revolves around the Scully, Hoyland, Timmins and Kinski families, along with several other residents who live in Ramsay Street. Human Rights NGOs point out the Vietnamese government's poor record with respect to ethnic minorities. However, one of the original characters, Paul Robinson, made a return to the show in the final episode of 2004 and became a regular character in early 2005. Sometimes, the name Montagnard is used specifically for the Mường ethnic group. Until recently, both the Ramsays and the Robinsons had been written out of the series, with the sole exception of the Bishop family (who are related to the Ramsays through the marriage of Harold Bishop to the late Madge Ramsay). The name Montagnard is still sometimes used today. Daphne's death in 1988 is still considered as one of the most emotional moments on the show.

The French used the name Montagnard (plural Montagnards, meaning "mountain people") to call all the minorities (except the Khmer Krom and the Hoa), no matter what their actual language. Another popular couple in the show's early days was the pairing of Des Clarke and Daphne Lawrence, a couple who also lived on Ramsay Street alongside the Ramsays and the Robinsons. Officially, the ethnic minorities are referred to as "national minorities". Their Romeo and Juliet style romance culminated in a wedding was keenly anticipated by viewers and is still fondly regarded today as being one of the high points of the series. Mixed race individuals face the most discrimination in Vietnamese society and government, especially ones who are product of American soldiers (white or black) from the Vietnam War. The show initially gained notoriety for its depiction of the teenage romance of Scott Robinson and Charlene Mitchell. There are some who are racially mixed with blacks as well, another product during the Vietnam War from American soldiers. In the beginning, the show mainly focused on two families, the Robinsons and the Ramsays (after whom "Ramsay Street" is named) who were as the name of the show suggests, neighbours.

There are also a few of those descended from Indian or Pakistani setttlers also during the colonial era. [2]. Most of them are descendants of Vietnamese people mixed with either early French settlers or white American soldiers and personnel (or both), during the colonial period and Vietnam War. He won the case and was awarded AUS$196,709 (£84,416) plus interest and costs. Vietnam also has a small number of racial Eurasians, people of Asian and Caucasian (mostly white, but also Indian) parentage. Connor admitted that he had had problems in the period prior to receiving a final warning in April 2003, but contested Grundy's claims that he has acted unprofessionally immediately prior to his dismissal in September 2003. Many of these 53 minority groups only have a few thousand members or so. This behaviour has been connected to the actor's period of drug use after the death of his brother.[1].

Beyond these five largest ethnic minorities, there are 48 other minorities officially recognized by the Vietnamese government, giving a total of 53 minorities altogether. Evidence presented in court in October 2005 described alleged on-set problems such as arguments with cast and crew, lateness and absenteeism. However, since the North Vietnamese took over South Vietnam in 1975 many Hoa left Vietnam, especially in the 1980s, so that at the 1999 census the Hoa were only the fifth largest minority (or the fourth largest if the Thái are not considered as an homogenous ethnic group). After being fired from the series former cast member Shane Connor filed for wrongful dismissal. Up to the 1979 Vietnamese census, the Hoa were the largest minority of Vietnam. These episodes are also about three months behind the Australian network. They speak predominantly Cantonese (known to the Vietnamese as Quảng Đông), but there are also speakers of Hakka (Khách Gia), Min Nan/Hokkien/Fujian (Mân Nam/Phúc Kiến), Chaozhou (Triều Châu), etc. It also airs every evening on Irish TV station RTÉ Two at 5.30.

The Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese) are mainly lowlanders and, more specifically, urban dwellers. It has been long aired by Television New Zealand and screens twice daily at 5:05am and 5:30pm. The Vietnamese government reported 1,055,174 Khmer Krom at the 1999 census. It was the sixth Australian soap opera to be aired in the United States (The Sullivans, Prisoner, Home and Away, Paradise Beach and Pacific Drive are the other five). There is no consensus on the exact number of Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) living in Vietnam. After a couple of weeks, the show moved to a late-night time slot and eventually left the air entirely. The Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) live in the fertile delta of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and are ethnically the same as the Khmer people who make up the majority of the population of Cambodia. At first, it was shown in the afternoon opposite higher-rated American soaps such as The Young and the Restless and All My Children, which gave the show anemic ratings from the first airing; the people who would be most interested in the show were watching other, more established serials.

The Mường live in the mountains of north central Vietnam and speak a Mon-Khmer language closely related to the Vietnamese language. Episodes from 1999 were aired for a six-week trial basis on the American channel Oxygen in March of 2004. Although the Thái ethnicity is officially recognized in Vietnam, western linguistics do not recognize it and prefer to classify Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, etc., as separate ethnic groups, in which case the Mường minority moves to second largest minority of Vietnam, Khmer Krom move to third position, and Hoa to fourth position. The show has also been sold to networks in many other countries. The Thai people of Thailand speak languages belonging to the Lao-Phutai branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup, while the "Thái" of Vietnam speak languages belonging to the East Central branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup. The episodes in the UK are now generally shown between one and three months after they are seen in Australia, as the BBC often removes the show from its schedule during major sports tournaments such as Wimbledon and bank holidays in order to take into account the fact that the show usually takes a four week break over the Christmas/New Year in Australia for the Southern Hemisphere summer. This official "Thái" ethnicity should not be confused with the Thai people of Thailand. In the late 1980s it regularly had a UK audience in the tens of millions and was sometimes watched by more people than the population of Australia at that time.

All these languages are closely related and belong to the Southwestern Tai subgroup of the Tai languages. BBC One began by screening it at lunchtime, but it was soon given an early evening repeat slot by controller Michael Grade on the advice of his daughter. Thái is a name used by Vietnamese authorities for a group of people also from the mountainous northern region of Vietnam and whom western linguists say actually speak separate languages: Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, Tai Hang Tong, Tày Tac, and Tai Thanh. The show is also popular in the United Kingdom where it quickly gained a cult following after it began to be broadcast there in 1986. Their language is a member of the Tai languages, belonging to the Central Tai subgroup and closely related to the Zhuang language of southern China. . The Tay people live primarily in the mountains and foothills of northern Vietnam. Neighbours celebrated its 20th Anniversary in 2005 with a special episode which featured appearances from several former members of the cast.

Membership to Sunni and Bashi Islam are usually accredited to the ethnic Cham minority, but there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents to Islam in the southwest. One of the most enduring characters currently on the show is Harold Bishop, played by actor Ian Smith who has also written many of the scripts for the show. The largest Protestant churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church. Actor Alan Dale who had previously starred in The Young Doctors, played the central character of Jim Robinson for the show's first seven years and is now a recognisable star in US series such as 24 and The O.C.. Mainstream Pure Land schools and Zen-inspired syncretists); with a sizeable Roman Catholic following, Protestant, Cao Đài, and Hoa Hao minorities. Many successful Australian actors and singers had some of their earliest work on Neighbours, including Kylie Minogue, Jesse Spencer, Guy Pearce, Russell Crowe (brief extra appearance), Natalie Imbruglia, Jason Donovan, Holly Valance, Mark Little, Radha Mitchell, Delta Goodrem and Natalie Bassingthwaighte of the band Rogue Traders. But according to the majority of other sources, Vietnamese people are predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. Other locations often mentioned (and sometimes seen) in the show include West Waratah, Waratah Heights and Anson's Corner.

According to the 1999 Socialist Republic of Vietnam's census numbers, eighty percent of Vietnamese subscribe to no religion. Erinsborough is often contrasted with the neighbouring, and equally fictitious, suburb of Eden Hills. By contrast, the ethnic minorities, except for the Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) and the Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese), are found mostly in the highlands that cover two-thirds of the national territory. The show is filmed in Melbourne, and for street scenes uses Pin Oak Court in Vermont South, a suburb in eastern Melbourne. A homogenous social group, the Viet exert influence on national life through their control of political and economic affairs and their role as purveyors of the dominant culture. Though it is not commonly mentioned so as to not alienate viewers in other Australian cities, Erinsborough (an anagram of 'Or Neighbours') is undoubtedly supposed to be a suburb of Melbourne. They are concentrated largely in the alluvial deltas and in the coastal plains and have little in common with the minority peoples of the highlands, whom they have historically regarded as hostile and barbaric. The show features a regular turnover of attractive young actors mixed in with the more stable cast of older people.

The majority ethnic Vietnamese, also called Viet or Kinh, make up about 86 percent of the nation's population. The series follows the daily lives of several families who live in the fictional Ramsay Street, Erinsborough – although in fact it is restricted to the small cul-de-sac of six houses at the end of the street – and includes the usual soap staples of births, deaths, and marriages. According to official figures from the 1999 census, of Vietnam's then population of 76.3m, the largest of 54 government recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam were:. The show was created by Reg Watson and is produced by the Reg Grundy Organisation. Main article: Demographics of Vietnam. It began screening on that channel in early 1986 and has remained popular with its core teenage audience ever since. Many of the over 3 million annual visitors are Vietnam war veterans. The series was immediately picked-up by rival Network Ten.

Tourism has become an increasingly important industry in Vietnam. It originally aired on the Seven Network in Australia in 1985; however, they cancelled the series later that year. Corruption, bribery and embezzlement committed by many government officials have pushed property prices even higher, as real estate investment is a popular form of money laundering. Neighbours is a long-running Australian soap opera, running daily episodes of 22 minutes (excluding commercials). The booming prices have given the poor land owners the opportunity to sell their homes for inflated prices. For the 1952 film of the same name, please see Neighbours (film). This has amazed many people because GDP per capita of this city is around US$1,000 per annum. This article is about the soap opera Neighbours.

In Hanoi, the capital, property prices can be as high as those in Tokyo or New York City. Elliot Park: Another surrounding suburb of Erinsborough. The reason lies in the high property prices. Ansons Corner: Ansons Corner is another suburb near Erinsborough. The spending power of the public has noticeably increased. West Waratah: West Waratah is a poor suburb near Erinsborough. This figure has been scaled down by the Government to 9.5% per annum to avoid the ‘double digit’ classification. It contains an expensive private school, Eden Hills Grammar and Eden Hills University.

Inflation rate is estimated at 14% per year in 2004. Eden Hills: Eden Hills is the rich suburb near Erinsborough. This translates to US$2700 per capita. It was originally owned by Lou Carpenter and Ben Atkins, since then Drew Kirk bought into the business and Stuart Parker and Steph Hoyland have both worked there. Vietnam, however, is still a relatively poor country with GDP of US$227.2 billion (est., 2004). Carpenter's Mechanics: Carpenter's Mechanics is a garage to which the residents take their cars if they need mechanical attention. The country is attempting to become a member of the WTO. It was originally owned by Madge and Harold Bishop and former employees include Felicity Scully, Tad Reeves and Sky Mangel.

Layoffs in the state sector and foreign-invested enterprises combined with the lasting effects of a previous military demobilization further exacerbated the unemployment situation. Grease Monkeys: Grease Monkeys is Erinsborough's fast food restaurant, in which many of the younger members of the cast dine regulary. On the other hand, urban unemployment has been rising steadily in recent years due to high numbers of migration from the countryside to the cities, and rural unemployment, estimated to be up to 35% during nonharvest periods, is already at critical levels. Residents who have worked there include Pam Willis, Dee Bliss, Darcy Tyler and Karl Kennedy. Simultaneously, investment grew three-fold and domestic savings quintupled. Erinsborough Hospital: Erinsborough Hospital is where the residents of Erinsborough go to if they need major medical attention. On the one hand, Vietnam achieved around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2002, making it the world's second-fastest growing economy. The school is also occasionally used for community events, such as the Serbian Youth Night.

In many ways, this followed the Chinese model and achieved similar results. Previous principals have been Dorothy Burke and Susan Kennedy (as she was known when she was the permanent principal, before her amnesia-resulting accident). In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam formally abandoned Marxist economic planning and began introducing market elements as part of a broad economic reform package called "đổi mới" ("Renovation"). co-ordinator Susan Kinski is acting principal whilst Candace is on leave. Main article: Economy of Vietnam. The current principal is Candace Barkham, although V.C.E. Land boundaries: Total: 4,639 km (2,883 mi) Border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km (763 mi), China 1,281 km (796 mi), Laos 2,130 m (1,324 mi). Erinsborough High School: Erinsborough High School is Erinsborough and West Waratah's high school, which many teenage residents have attended, as well as teachers including Dorothy Burke, Lisa Elliott, Tess Bell, Evan Hancock, Libby Kennedy, Susan Kinski and Paul Robinson.

Annual rainfall ranges from 120 to 300 centimetres (47 to 118 inches), and annual temperatures vary between 5°C (41°F) and 37°C (99°F). It has had such employees as Felicity Scully, Lyn Scully and Janelle Timmins. The climate is tropical and monsoonal; humidity averages 84 percent throughout the year. A Good Hair Day: "A Good Hair Day" is a salon owned by Gino Esposito. The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Dai Truong Son (central mountains) with high plateaus, and the Mekong River Delta. It was extensively damaged in the fire in 2004, but has recently been rebuilt. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 metres (10,312 ft). As of 2003 the legal firm "Tim Collins and Associates" has shared the building with the medical centre.

The northern part of the country consists of highlands and the Red River Delta. Erinsborough Medical Centre: Erinsborough Medical Centre used to be Paul's office at Lassiter's Hotel, but was then bought by Karl Kennedy and converted into a medical centre. Mountains account for 40 percent, hills 40 percent, and forests 75 percent. Lassiter's Hotel also has branches in Darwin, London, Montana and New York. The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20 percent. It has had such employees as Felicity Scully, Paul Robinson, Toadfish Rebecchi, Melanie Pearson, Christina Alessi and Taj Coppin. The country is approximately 331,688 square kilometers (128,066 mi²) in area, which is slightly larger than New Mexico and slightly smaller than Germany. It is currently owned by Paul Robinson.

Main article: Geography of Vietnam. Rosemary Daniels and the Daniels/Robinson Corporation then bought the Erinsborough branch, and was owned by Lambert Industries until the destruction of the complex in 2004. Besides the five cities, the country is divided into fifty-nine provinces (tỉnh, singular and plural): An Giang, Bắc Giang, Bắc Cạn, Bạc Liêu, Bắc Ninh, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu, Bến Tre, Bình Định, Bình Dương, Bình Phước, Bình Thuận, Cà Mau, Cao Bằng, Đắk Lắk, Đắk Nông, Điện Biên, Đồng Nai, Đồng Tháp, Gia Lai, Hà Giang, Hải Dương, Hà Nam, Hà Tây, Hà Tĩnh, Hòa Bình, Hậu Giang, Hưng Yên, Khánh Hòa, Kiên Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Châu, Lâm Đồng, Lạng Sơn, Lào Cai, Long An, Nam Định, Nghệ An, Ninh Bình, Ninh Thuận, Phú Thọ, Phú Yên, Quảng Bình, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Quảng Ninh, Quảng Trị, Sóc Trăng, Sơn La, Tây Ninh, Thái Bình, Thái Nguyên, Thanh Hóa, Thừa Thiên-Huế, Tiền Giang, Trà Vinh, Tuyên Quang, Vĩnh Long, Vĩnh Phúc, Yên Bái. Lassiter's Hotel: Lassiter's Hotel was originally owned by Jack Lassiter. Now, Saigon is understood as heart of the city (central area of the District 1). Max originally wanted to call it "Max-Iz", but Izzy decided to change the name to "Scarlet Bar" at the last minute. Ho Chi Minh City was formerly known as Sài Gòn (Sài Gòn). Max ended his partnership with Lou and started a partnership with his sister Izzy, and they built "Scarlet Bar" on the site that "Lou's Place" had previously stood.

There are also four municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc Trung ương, singular and plural) existing at provincial level: Cần Thơ, Đà Nẵng, Hải Phòng, and Hồ Chí Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh). In 2004, it was set on fire and burnt to the ground. Vietnam's capital (thủ đô, singular and plural) is Hà Nội (Hà Nội). It has previously been "The Waterhole", "Chez Chez" and "Lou's Place", and has had such owners as Paul Robinson, Lou Carpenter and Cheryl Stark. Main article: Provinces of Vietnam. Scarlet Bar: Scarlet Bar is a Bar/Restaurant owned by Paul Robinson and leased to Max and Isabelle Hoyland. Vietnam is a member of the United Nations, La Francophonie, ASEAN, and APEC, and applied for membership to the World Trade Organization in 2001. They got the Coffee Shop rebuilt, and renamed it "The General Store".

Former political parties include the nationalist Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng of Nguyễn Thái Học, the Can Lao party of the Ngô Đình Diệm government and the Viet Nam Duy Tan Hoi of Phan Bội Châu during the colonial period. Harold and Isabelle ended their partnership, and he started a partnership with Lou. The Government of Free Vietnam has claimed responsibility for a number of guerilla raids into Vietnam, which the Vietnamese government has denounced as terrorism. In the 2004 Season finale, Lou's Place was set alight and burned down, while "The Coffee Shop", although not being totally destroyed, needed major repairs and renovations. The most prominent are the Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League, and the Government of Free Vietnam. Throughout its time it has had many other owners as well, including Madge Bishop and Isabelle Hoyland, and has also gone by the names "The Hungry Bite", "The Holy Roll" and "The Coffee Shop". These communities have supported demonstrations and civil disobedience against the government. It was originally owned by Daphne Lawrence under the name "Daphne's".

There are no legal opposition parties in Vietnam, although a number of opposition groups do exist scattered overseas among exile communities within countries such as France and the United States. The General Store: The General Store is a Cafe/Post Office/Basic Stationery store, that is owned by Lou Carpenter and Harold Bishop. Senior Politburo members (Trần Đức Lương, Phan Văn Khải, Nguyễn Văn An, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, Lê Hồng Anh, Phạm Văn Trà and Trương Quang Được) concurrently hold high positions in the Government and the National Assembly. The Lassiter's Complex includes:

    . From 2001 until now, Nong Duc Manh has been General Secretary of CPV. When Neighbours switched from the Seven Network to Network Ten, the producers decided to convert an old set on the Channel Ten backlot that had been built for the shortlived 1981 series Holiday Island into the Lassiter's Complex. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam exists today as a communist state. Lassiter's Complex: Lassiter's Complex is the most common location used in Neighbours besides Ramsay Street, and it has been a regular occurrence since 1986.

    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is governed through a highly centralized system dominated by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), which was formerly the Vietnamese Labor Party (1951-1976). Kim did not contact any of his children at Janelle's request, but recently turned up in Ramsay street after the disappearance of Dylan after the plane crash. Main article: Politics of Vietnam. Kim turned his family down, and as a result of this, Janelle left him, blaming him for turning down the one opportunity they had to start a "real family". It reestablished diplomatic relations with the United States in 1995, one year after the United States' trade embargo on Vietnam was repealed. Kim rebelled against his family, who in turn offered him a second chance giving Kim and Janelle a big home to live in, with all the comforts. During much of the 1990s, economic growth was rapid, and Vietnam reintegrated into the international community. Seen as a bludging surfer, Kim comes from a wealthy family, but they didn't want him to marry Janelle.

    In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam implemented economic reforms known as đổi mới (renovation). Kim Timmins (Brett Swain) (2005 onwards) - The father of the Timmins family. Only one month later, however, partially in retaliation, China launched a short-lived incursion into Vietnam: the Sino-Vietnamese War. Recently Steph has been having recurring dreams about him due to her pregnancy, and is unsure what they mean. In late 1978, the Cambodian people, with the support of the Vietnamese army, removed the Khmer Rouge from power. Was killed after being thrown from a horse. Millions of South Vietnamese became boat people over the next two decades. Drew Kirk (Dan Paris) (1998-2002, 2005) - Libby's husband, Ben's father, former mechanic at the garage.

    After reunification, political and economic conditions deteriorated to near-famine conditions. Recently returned to Ramsay Street to see her family, and is feeling left out due to Bree's friendship with Rachel. By April 30, 1975, North Vietnam had overtaken South Vietnam and by 1976, Vietnam was officially unified under the North Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. She left Erinsborough to go to a private music school. All American troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. She was good friends with Bree and Lisa, and she came second in the Erinsborough High spelling bee. The war continued even after the Paris Peace Accords on January 27, 1973, which formally recognized the sovereignty of both sides. She then started going out with a rich kid named Caleb but broke up with him afterwards.

    The conflict quickly escalated into the Vietnam War. Used to date a kid named Declan for a while until her friend Lisa stole him off her. During the Cold War, the North was supported by China and the Soviet Union while the South was supported by United States. Summer Hoyland (Marisa Siketa) (2002-2005) - The 14 year old daughter of Max. The Geneva Accords subsequently divided the country into North Vietnam and South Vietnam, separated by a demilitarized zone. He fled but was recently recaptured and put into jail to join wrongfully accused Dylan and Stingray. When the war ended, France attempted to re-establish control but failed, after they were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. Recently he escaped prison, returned to Ramsay Street and kidnapped Stingray and forced Dylan to commit armed robbery as revenge.

    French rule continued until World War II, when Japan briefly occupied Vietnam and used the country as a base to launch attacks against the rest of Indochina and India. He pressured Dylan into helping him rob the "Scarlet Bar", but Dylan set him up and called the cops on him. The independent period ended in the mid-19th century, when the country was colonized by France. He is trying to steal Dylan's job with Paul. They eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and much of the Khmer empire. Reuben "Roo" Hausman (Richard Cawthorne) (2005) - Dylan's friend from Colac who has just got out of jail to come and see Dylan. Between the 13th and 17th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). He is now currently running an Erinsborough musical which now stars Ned Parker, after he fired Cory for not being homosexual like he was leading on to be.

    Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Le Dynasty 1400s, especially with the emperor Le Thanh Tong. He became good friends with Lou during early 2005, and they would go to parties with a lot of beautiful women, which made Harold very jealous. However, during the rule of the Tran Dynasty, it defeated three Mongol attempts of invasion by the Yuan Dynasty. He is mostly used as a comedy character. For most of its history, Vietnam has been strongly influenced by its much bigger northern neighbor, China. He is one of Oscar's godparents. They gained complete autonomy a century later. While they were hating eachother, Lyn read a newspaper article and discovered Gino isn't Italian, and instead is an Aussie whose real name is Ray Murphy.

    In 939, the Vietnamese defeated Chinese forces at the Bach Dang River and gained independence. Used to be Lyn's enemy, but now they are good friends. Sporadic independence movements were attempted, but were quickly extinguished by the Chinese army. Gino Esposito (Claude Stevens) (Shane McNamara) (2000-2005, 2006) - Flamboyant hairdresser in his late 50s who owns the A Good Hair Day salon, Lyn's employer. What is known for sure is that for most of the period from 207 BC to the early 10th century, it was under the rule of successive dynasties of China. She in now going out with Janae's ex-boyfriend Mike, and recently got into a fight with her at Schoolies Week. Whether this is indeed historically true or not is still subject to debate. Karen Chambers (Cherise Donovan) (2005) - One of Janae's enemies from Colac.

    This Chinese general adopted the native language (which sounded similar to southern Chinese dialects anyway) and married local women, who gave birth to sons that inherited the kingdom. He ran into Janae and her new boyfriend Boyd again at Schoolies, in which his new girlfriend Karen had a few arguments with Janae. He and his soldiers conquered the land and established a civilized society modeled after ancient Chinese customs. He learnt kickboxing, and beat up Dylan a few times, until Dylan finally managed to get the better of him. Some historians, both in Asia and in the West, hold that the various peoples of today's Vietnam were brought together by a Qin Dynasty-era general who was fed up with the despotic rule of the Qin Shi Huang (First emperor of China proper) and escaped to the "southern Yue [Viet] mountains" to set up his own kingdom. He pressured Janae into having unprotected sex with him, and she then dumped him a second time that same day. Chinese historical records tell of an indigenous people that existed about 2,500 years ago. with her the next day.

    Vietnamese legends hold that native people populated and civilized the land more than 4,000 years ago. He dumped Shazza for Janae, but Janae then dumped him after he kept trying to get her to make out with all his friends. Its cognate name in Chinese, Yuè Nán (越南; Yut6 Naam4 in Cantonese) means "southern extension". Mike Pill (Alexander Capell) (2005) - Shazza and Janae's ex-boyfriend. The name of the country comes from the Vietnamese Việt Nam, which is in turn a reordering of Nam Việt, the name of an ancient kingdom from the ancestral Vietnamese that covered much of today's northern Vietnam. But Steiger was quick to reprimand Stuart when the young constable defied orders and ran into a gas-filled laboratory to rescue the Kinski children, Rachel and Zeke. . Steiger has acted almost as a father figure to Stuart Parker, encouraging him to remain in the force and reassuring him when he feared he was becoming paranoid.

    Situated in eastern Indochina, it borders China, Laos, Cambodia, as well as the South China Sea. Steiger again revealed his aggressive side when forced to interview Paul Robinson after the temporary disappearance of Isabelle Hoyland. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, or Vietnam, is a communist country in Southeast Asia. He was equally stern and quick-witted in interrogations with Boyd Hoyland (following the death of his father's erstwhile friend, Gus). (Vietnamese, "Independence, liberty, happiness"). Steiger cuts a fearsome character in the Erinsborough neighbourhood, and caused massive upset in the Bishop household when he arrived to seize David's computer (Paul had framed David for fraud - embezzling 40,000 dollars from the Helen Daniels trust). Music of Vietnam. When Stuart was temporarily blinded, Steiger provided him with work as the police station's telephone operator.

    Cuisine of Vietnam. Steiger is seen as a hard-nosed taskmaster by his young recruits, but has a compassionate inner self. Hmong: 0.8m (1.0%). Arrested David Bishop for fraud, and was also in charge of investigating Gus's murder, the disappearance of Izzy, and the 2005 plane crash. Nun: 0.9m (1.1%). Used to bully Stuart when Stu was at the Police Academy, but is now good friends with him. Hoa: 0.9m (1.1%). Allan Steiger (Joe Clements) (2004, 2005) - High ranking police officer often seen around Erinsborough.

    Khmer Krom: 1.1m (1.4%). Senior Sgt. Mường: 1.1m (1.5%). Joe also claims B5 has a romantic interest in Audrey, as the only time B5 moves faster than a slow walk is to chase Audrey. Thái: 1.3m (1.7%). Bouncer 5 (occasionally abbreviated to B5) (2005 onwards) - A lazy greyhound that Joe Mangel is unsuccessfully trying to train to become a racing dog. Tày: 1.5m (1.9%). He brought him home and it was decided that they would keep him.

    Viet/Kinh: 65.8m (86.2%). Joe Scully accidentally ran over Harvey, a stray dog, on his building site. Harvey the dog (2000 onwards) - The Scully's family dog. However, Sarah recently revealed in Annalise's documentary that she knew all along that the dog Toadie sent her was not the real Bob. When she asked for him to join her in her new home abroad, Toadie and Stu duped her by sending a lookalike in his place.

    Bob the dog (1997 onwards) - originally belonged to Sarah Beaumont. Joe Mangel claims that Audrey has a romantic interest in Bouncer 5. She survived, and now lives with Libby's mother Susan. Ran away a while ago only to be found when Mal Kennedy accidentally ran her over.

    Audrey the dog (2002 onwards) - originally owned by Libby Kennedy, named after Audrey Hepburn. Casserole "Cassie" the sheep (1995-2006) - Cassie the sheep is to die this year, a funeral to be shown in the next few months. However when Karl used to live in the house, Dahl sometimes made him angry. When Brett left, he gave Dahl to Libby to look after and it has lived in the Kennedy house ever since.

    Lata gave the bird to her boyfriend Brett Stark when they were forced to break up by Lata's brother Vikram. Dahl the galah (1994 onwards) - A galah that originally belonged to Lata Chatterji. His recent failed attempt at internet dating also made him realise his feelings for Susan are still strong. Was recently accused of taking advantage of Janae after becoming a school counselor, and his career was almost destroyed, but the matter was cleared up soon afterwards.

    He has now found out that he was not the father of Izzy's baby. Went to Africa for a month to work for Médecins Sans Frontières, and has recently come back. Nearly died from a heart attack after breaking up with Izzy, and then got back together with her a few weeks later. In 2004 he broke up with Susan and became involved with Isabelle "Izzy" Hoyland, eventually leaving Susan for her.

    His thirty-year marriage to Susan hit the rocks after he became involved with his receptionist Sarah Beaumont years ago, but faith was restored soon after. Karl Kennedy (Alan Fletcher) (1994 onwards) - Local GP and frustrated would-be rock star. Dr. Patrick is reportedly leaving early this year.

    After pursuing an open relationship with Serena Bishop (despite age differences) he was thought lost at sea after the plane crash where Serena also lost her life, but as it turns out was actually hiding from confessing to embezzling money from Bounce. His current career is working in the bikini shop "Bounce". Was in a relationship with Carmella Camenetti, who was recently stalked by her bodyguard Frank, but she ended it after the stalking incident. Has one daughter, Maddy, with Lori Lee, whom he rarely sees.

    Romantically linked with Michelle Scully, but had an affair with Lori Lee while Michelle was abroad. Connor O'Neill (Patrick Harvey) (2002-2006) - Young, slightly naïve, Irish immigrant, works at "Scarlet Bar" and "Bounce", former co-host of the wrestling show "Choke-hold" with Toadie, boyfriend of Serena Bishop. Since being kicked out of his house by Paul Robinson, he was forced to move into Number 30, and now has to live in a tent in a caravan park. He went to jail but was later released after an appeal hearing conducted by lawyer Toadfish Rebecchi.

    Louis "Lou" Thomas Carpenter (Tom Oliver) (1988, 1992 onwards) - businessman, once mayor, widower to Cheryl Stark, Dungeons and Dragons player, former co-owner of the pub "Lou's Plaice" (with Max Hoyland) before it burnt down, co-owner of "The General Store" with Harold Bishop and owner of the garage "Carpenter's Mechanics" Has a long-standing chalk-and-cheese friendship with Harold Bishop. Erinsborough competition. He won the "Bounce" Mr. Ned Parker (Daniel O’Connor) (2005 onwards) - Stuart Parker's little brother who has recently arrived in Erinsborough to help Stuart through his ordeal with Sindi - despite their parents' wishes, as it was lambing season on their farm in Oakey.

    Sindi has since been declared unstable and committed to psychiatric institution, leaving a heartbroken Stuart devastated. His devout Catholic aunt Raylene recently arrived in Erinsborough to see if Sindi was suitable for him, but she left in disgust after she found out they had lied to her about many things, including Connor being a priest. Engaged to Sindi Watts after she proposed to him at the Scarlet Bar. He was temporarily blind after rescuing Sindi from an explosion in the Lassiters Complex which destroyed Lou's Place, The Coffee Shop and several other buildings, but got his eyesight back after a $50,000 operation.

    Had previous relationships with Dione Bliss and Felicity Scully, before he finally married Sindi. Lost everything when fleeced by a cult. Former mechanic, now a police officer, husband of Sindi Watts. Stuart Parker (Blair McDonough) (2001-2006) - Cousin of Libby's late husband Drew and friend of Toadfish.

    Her brother Robert arrives in 2006 and her mother Gail also returns to Ramsay Street after seventeen years this year. Elle should be fifteen or sixteen but her age has been increased to nineteen for plot purposes. She has a romantic interest in Ned Parker. She recently returned to Erinsborough to see her father, and had an intense dislike of Izzy until Izzy saved her life during the plane crash.

    Lucinda "Elle" Robinson (Pippa Black) (2005 onwards) - Daughter of Paul and Gail Robinson, and the sister of Amy, Andrew, Cameron and Robert Robinson. Although he survived with only minor injuries, he has sworn revenge on his unknown would-be murderer. In the last episode for 2005, Paul Robinson was strangled by Harold Bishop. They currently live together with Paul's daughter Lucinda 'Elle'.

    After the controversial planecrash, Paul decided to give Izzy another chance knowing however that she does not love him in return. The relationship with Izzy appears to have come to an end in early November with Karl's revelation that Izzy phoned him a week before and declared he was her one true love. Izzy's plans have come under attack by the returning Lucinda (Elle) Robinson. Recently, he embarked on an ill-advised relationship with Izzy Hoyland who has tricked him into believing that she loves him so that she has a place to live.

    Rosemary and Lucy returned to Paul's side in the aftermath and helped him back on his foot. After a deal with the developers Affirmicon fell through, Paul was chased off a cliff by their heavies and had to have his leg amputated. He wasted no time in subtly tearing apart the marriage of David and Liljana Bishop, resulting in the brief arrest of David on false fraud charges and a short-lived affair with Liljana. His return has been controversial due to what has been regarded as out of character behavior from many long term fans.

    He appeared on the last episode of the year where Lassiters was burnt down (Paul being responsible however his secret not yet out in the open, only known by Isabelle Hoyland). He finally returned to Ramsay Street in 2004. Paul returned to Australia in 1997 after the death of Helen and was sentenced to three years prison. He returned in 1993 for Helen's birthday but the celebration was ruined when he was forced to flee the country on fraud charges.

    Paul eventually left Ramsay St in 1992 to run the Lassiters hotel in Hawaii. After their divorce, Paul met and married Christina Alessi. While in charge, Paul Hired Gail Lewis, who would become his true love before their marriage collapsed due to Gail's emotional disturbance while pregnant with Paul's children (Cameron, Lucinda and Robert). Paul became embittered and was given control of the Lassiters complex by his Aunt Rosemary.

    In 1985 Paul married Terry Inglis Robinson, but their happiness didn't last when Terry shot Paul in their home. Paul was her self-confessed favorite. Paul's grandmother, Helen Daniels moved into the Robinson house and doted on all the kids. Anne died giving birth to Lucy.

    His sister Julie was born the year afterwards followed by brother Scott, half brother Glen and finally his beloved little sister Lucy Robinson in 1975. Son of local engineer Jim Robinson and his wife Anne, Paul was born in 1963. Paul Robinson (Stefan Dennis) (1985-1992, 1993, 2004 onwards) - Businessman. Katya Kinski (Dichen Lachman) (2005 onwards) - Alex's first daughter who ran away from home when she was 16 and has recently been found by Rachel and Zeke just in time before Alex's passing.

    He recently stopped speaking as he thinks he killed his father by wishing that he was the one who died instead of his mother and not retracting the wish. He was the boyfriend of Bree Timmins for a while until Bree broke up with him because of his inability to lie to his father. Ezekiel "Zeke" Kinski (Matthew Werkmeister) (2005 onwards) - Extremely intelligent son of Alex Kinski and brother of Rachel and Katya. She recently broke into her father's university office with Stingray to steal his turtle which made her feel a little better about having to cope with Alex's death.

    When she found out about her father's illness, she ran away, and was soon found tearing down the Christmas stockings and the tree in Susan's house. She dated a Year 10 boy named Jake Rinter against her father's will but broke up with him after he made it clear he wanted her to go further than she was willing to. She has become fast friends with Bree Timmins. Rachel and her brother were home schooled by their parents until their mother died and they started attending Erinsborough High School.

    Rachel Kinski (Caitlin Stasey) (2005 onwards) - Daughter of Alex Kinski and sister of Zeke and Katya. She and Alex made their marriage vows just before he passed away. She was, however, found three days after the crash with no injury. Recently a passenger on the joy-flight to Tasmania that ended in a tragic crash, it was thought Susan was lost at sea.

    Plans for it were revived when Alex's condition became stable. Soon to be married, when Susan learned of his terminal illness, the wedding was called off. During 2005, Susan met Alex Kinski, and they formed a fast relationship. She was romantically involved with Bobby Hoyland, but eventually found out about his indiscretions with Janelle and Lyn.

    After the divorce with Karl, she was in a relationship with a former priest named Tom Scully, but he ended the relationship. Susan Kinski (previously Kennedy, maiden name Smith) (Jackie Woodburne) (1994 onwards) - Widow of Alex Kinski, ex wife of Karl, mother to Malcolm, Libby and Billy, grandmother to Ben, English teacher and previously headmaster. She recently overcame a drug addiction, and is now in an open relationship with Paul. She was found alive, and Paul's name cleared.

    Karl kicked her out, and she ran off, leaving Paul Robinson under suspicion for her murder. She forced Izzy to tell Karl the secret. Susan looked at Izzy's confidential medical records and discovered that father of the baby was unknown. Darcy Tyler, who knows the secret about her baby and was put into a coma by Izzy, has woken up, and forced her to gave him a favourable testimony at his sentencing hearing in order to keep her secret safe.

    Recently broke up with Karl, due to an affair with Paul Robinson, but got back together with him shortly afterwards. She is no longer pregnant, owing to a miscarriage. Has also had affairs with Jack Scully and Gus Cleary, who is the biological father of her unborn child. She moved in with Karl Kennedy after he broke up with Susan and for a long period claimed (falsely) that Karl is the father of her unborn baby.

    Isabelle "Izzy" Hoyland (Natalie Bassingthwaighte) (2003 onwards) - sister of Max, ex-business partner of Harold Bishop in the coffee shop, co-owner of "Scarlet Bar" with Max, girlfriend of Paul Robinson. He has decided to pursue a career in medicine, and in his second attempt at his VCEs he came in the top one percent of students in the state to win a place at medical school. He has now started a relationship with Janae. He offered to help Kayla raise her baby, Ashley, but eventually they realised that it wouldn't have worked, as Kayla was still in love with Ashley's father, Anthony.

    He broke up with Sky after he found out she kissed Dylan while he was in a coma. This was removed, but the surgery put him in a coma for a short while, but he woke up after his grandfather came to see him. He was mistakenly diagnosed as having Adolescent Schizophrenia but the symptoms were due to a large frontal lobe brain tumour. He was put up a grade, but flunked his year 12 exams and got a job at a gym, whose manager persuaded him to take up body building and take human growth hormone.

    Had a dispute with a guy named Travis Dean about space to put up posters, which resulted in Travis threatening Boyd's family. Boyd Hoyland (Kyal Marsh) (2002 onwards) - teenage son of Max, skater and ex-boyfriend of Sky Mangel, to whom he lost his virginity in 2004. At the start of 2006, it was revealed that Steph's breast cancer had returned. Steph and Max were recently overcome with joy after finding out that Steph is, in fact pregnant.

    After a few weeks of drama, Kayla finally told the biological father, Anthony, who had been kept in the dark about her pregnancy, that baby Ashley was his and they decided to raise her together, leaving Steph heartbroken once more. Unfortunately, just as she was about to adopt Kayla's baby, Kayla announced that she and Boyd were going to raise the baby themselves. She managed to appeal her verdict with some money given to her by Bobby, and therefore was able to apply for adoption. Was found guilty of the murder of her biological grandfather Charlie Cassidy (although innocent), but was given a suspended sentence.

    Was undergoing IVF treatment with Max, but it failed. Daughter of Joe and Lyn. Stephanie "Steph" Hoyland (nee Scully) (Emma Roche) (Carla Bonner) (1999 onwards) - 20-something mechanic and biker chick, overcame cancer and is married to the love of her life, Max Hoyland. Max was overjoyed to discover, on his 40th birthday, that his wife Steph is pregnant with their first child.

    He and Steph were going to adopt a baby girl off Kayla, but eventually Kayla decided to raise the baby with her boyfriend, the baby's biological father. His father Bobby recently returned to see Max and Izzy, and Max didn't want anything to do with him, but after he decided to accept him, Bobby ran away again. Co-owner of "Scarlet Bar" with his sister Izzy. Former co-owner of the pub "Lou's Place" (with Lou Carpenter), before it burnt down.

    His first wife died several years ago, leaving him to raise Summer and Boyd by himself. Max Hoyland (Stephen Lovatt) (2002 onwards) - father of two, married to Steph (not mother of Summer and Boyd), son of Bobby and Rosie Hoyland. Was married to Dee Bliss (before she went missing after their car careened off a cliff after the ceremony, presumed drowned), ex-boyfriend of Sindi Watts. He is a sometime tearaway, now a respectable lawyer and part-time wrestler called "The Lawman", former co-host of the wrestling show "Choke-Hold" (on the fictional Channel 44) with Connor, currently owns the bikini store called "Bounce", which was given to him by a law client.

    The Timminses are his cousins. Jarrod "Toadfish" (or "Toadie") Rebecchi (Ryan Moloney) (1995 onwards) - The Rebecchis were once one of the main families on Ramsay Street, but only Toadie remains. He has now been set free. Scott recently went to court charged with armed robbery as an accomplice of his brother Dylan.

    Former boyfriend of Serena, who he broke up with after Boyd and Sky broke up, because he had found about Serena and Boyd's fling. Used to go out with a girl named Shazza, to whom he lost his virginity, but soon broke up with her. Has 3 brothers and 2 sisters (Dwayne, Brandon, Dylan; Bree, Janae). Boyfriend of Serena Bishop.

    Diagnosed with ADHD, although this was never fully confirmed. Scott "Stingray" Timmins (Ben Nicholas) (2004 onwards) - teenage cousin of Toadfish, and "favourite" son of Janelle Timmins. She came first place in the Erinsborough High spelling bee, and then won the national finals, winning her family $15000. Her mother makes her very nervous, and causes her to vomit.

    She really enjoys reading. She is an interesting character, who has aspects both like a sweet little girl and also a schemer. Breeana "Bree" Timmins (Sianoa Smit-McPhee) (2005 onwards) - The youngest of the Timmins children, friend of Summer Hoyland, Rachel Kinski and Zeke Kinski, who she has a romantic interest in. She then started a relationship with Boyd Hoyland.

    She has counselling sessions with Karl, in which she eventually developed a dependence on Karl, which led to Janelle thinking that Karl was taking advantage of Janae, almost destroying Karl's career. Mike pressured her into having unprotected sex with him, and she dumped him shortly afterwards. She then met up with Chris Cousens who spiked her drink and tried to take advantage of her, but Scott, Dylan and Bree arrived in the nick of time to help her. She is very flirtatious, and in her own opinion, "Janae Timmins is a dead set hottie." She stole Shazza's boyfriend, Mike.

    Janae Timmins (Eliza Taylor-Cotter) (2005 onwards) - Janelle's daughter, Dylan and Stingray's younger sister, older sister of Bree, ex-girlfriend of Mike Pill (to whom she lost her virginity), nemises of Serena Bishop. The two brothers had a brief period in jail, before Stuart went undercover as an inmate and got them released. He made his way back to Erinsborough and revealed himself at his own wake when he discovered that his brother was likely to be imprisoned too, because he had not blamed the robbery all on Dylan. After recently being involved in the plane crash at sea, Dylan attempted to stage his own death by avoiding the search and rescue teams in an attempt to start a new life after being charged with armed robbery.

    When Paul Robinson's leg was infected and it needed to be amputated, Dylan forged Paul's signature to save his life. After some help from Paul Robinson, he and Sky, with the help of other residents, managed to bring down Affirmacon. When he and Sky tried to save some animals that had been poisoned in the contaminated Lassiter's lake, he then got poisoned himself, and is now susceptible to cancer and other ailments. Paul convinced him to set up his friend Roo to be arrested by the police in an attempted robbery of "Scarlet Bar".

    Dylan is currently repeating year 12, and is also doing part time business work for Paul Robinson. Now released and trying to reform himself, he is constantly being put down by his mother. Was formerly a high-school dropout in juvenile detention. Dylan Timmins (Damien Bodie) (2005 onwards) - Stingray's brother, and boyfriend of Sky Mangel.

    Lyn recently kicked her and her family out onto the streets to live in a caravan park, but recently let them back into her home. Wrote a novel about her life in Ramsay Street, which Nina Tucker's singing manager, Melody Jones, would like to publish. Had a small fling with Bobby Hoyland. She has recently found happiness again with the return of her husband, Kim, after she struggled to provide for a family of six children on her own (4 of which are in Erinsborough, currently), when her husband left her.

    A bitter, lazy woman, used frequently in comical storylines on the programme, who used to make money from injury scams. Wife of Kim, Big Kev's sister, Lyn's apprentice at The Salon. Janelle Timmins (nee Rebecchi) (Nell Feeney) (2004, 2005 onwards) - Mother from Colac, to Dwayne, Dylan, Brandon, Janae, Scott "Stingray", and Bree. Originally, Karl was to be Oscar's fourth godparents, but was replaced by Gino.

    His godparents are Lyn's mother Valda, Harold Bishop (for helping the Scullys through many situations), Susan (for being a good friend) and Gino (Lyn's employer at the hairdressers). His mother had post-natal depression when he was born, but once diagnosed, she was able to recover. Oscar Scully (Ingo Dammer-Smith) (2003 onwards) - infant son of Lyn and Joe Scully. Joe is torn, but Lyn finally makes him see that he has to prioritise his son and that, if they were meant to be, Joe will come back to her.

    However, their celebration is cut short when Toby (Joe’s son) calls and requests Joe’s help in setting up a new farm he’s bought. She was romantically involved with Bobby Hoyland, until she found out he had cheated on her with Susan, and is now engaged to Joe Mangel.Joe and Lyn decide to free-fall and give their relationship a go. Janelle and the other Timmins are currently living in her house with her. Recently dated Andy Tanner, who left his wife for Lyn, but ended it shortly afterwards.

    Has slight problems with shoplifting. When Oscar was born, she got post-natal depression and even left Oscar alone in the car once. Mother of Stephanie, Jack, Felicity, Michelle and Oscar. Recently split up with her long-time husband, Joe.

    Lynette "Lyn" Scully (nee O'Rourke) (Janet Andrewartha) (1999 onwards) - mildly neurotic hairdresser, works for Gino. Sky was recently involved in the 2005 plane crash, but recovered with no injuries. Sky and Dylan managed to find dirt on Affirmacon, the company who contaminated Lassiters Lake and want to build the Erinbrough Mall, and with the help of other residents managed to bring Affirmacon down. She and Boyd broke up after Boyd found out she kissed Dylan while he was in hospital and Dylan soon became her boyfriend.

    Developed a close personal friendship with Gabby Walker, because of the similarity she had with her mother. Became best friends with Lana Crawford after they initially hated each other, and Sky helped Lana come out of the closet. Sky Mangel (Miranda Fryer) (Stephanie McIntosh) (1988-1991, 2003 onwards) - Harold's teenage granddaughter, daughter of Kerry Bishop (deceased) and step-daughter of Joe Mangel, ex-girlfriend of Boyd Hoyland, to whom she lost her virginity, currently dating Dylan Timmins. In the next season in 2006, Harold treats the unsuspecting Paul with apparent concern and kindness.

    In the last episode for 2005, Harold attempts to strangle Paul Robinson. During the crash of the joy-flight plane in 2005, Harold lost his son David, David's wife Liljana, and grand-daughter Serena. However, the stroke brought out some elements of his personality which had been previously hidden from his loved ones and the audience. He recently suffered a stroke, but has since recovered.

    Five years later, however, in one of the show's more unlikely storylines, Harold reappeared in Erinsborough as a Salvation Army worker named Ted. Harold was given up for dead in 1991, when it was thought he had been washed out to sea. Harold Bishop (Ian Smith) (1987-1991, 1996 onwards) - former coffee-shop owner (before it burned down), General Store co-owner, devout Christian, Salvation Army member, tuba player, slightly naïve, often comic relief, widower of the late Madge Bishop, father of David and Kerry Bishop, grandfather of Sky Mangel and Serena Bishop.

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