Vietnam

Motto: Độc lập - Tự do - Hạnh phúc

(Vietnamese, "Independence, liberty, happiness")

Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca
Capital Hanoi
21°2′ N 105°51′ E
Largest city Ho Chi Minh City
Official language(s) Vietnamese
Government President
Prime Minister
Communist single-party state
Trần Đức Lương
Phan Văn Khải
Independence
Declared
Recognized
From France
September 2, 1945
1954
Area
 • Total
 • Water (%)
 
329,560 km² (65th)
1.3
Population
 • 2005 est.
 • 1999 census

 • Density
 
83,535,576 (13th)
76,323,173

253/km² (31st)
GDP (PPP)
 • Total
 • Per capita
2005 estimate
$231.6 billion (39th)
$2,782 (131st)
HDI (2003) 0.704 (108th) – medium
Currency đồng (₫) (VND)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
(UTC+7)
(UTC+8, does not observe)
Internet TLD .vn
Calling code +84

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, or Vietnam, is a communist country in Southeast Asia. Situated in eastern Indochina, it borders China, Laos, Cambodia, as well as the South China Sea.

Terminology

The name of the country comes from the Vietnamese Việt Nam, which is in turn a reordering of Nam Việt, the name of an ancient kingdom from the ancestral Vietnamese that covered much of today's northern Vietnam. Its cognate name in Chinese, Yuè Nán (越南; Yut6 Naam4 in Cantonese) means "southern extension".

History

Vietnamese legends hold that native people populated and civilized the land more than 4,000 years ago. Chinese historical records tell of an indigenous people that existed about 2,500 years ago. Some historians, both in Asia and in the West, hold that the various peoples of today's Vietnam were brought together by a Qin Dynasty-era general who was fed up with the despotic rule of the Qin Shi Huang (First emperor of China proper) and escaped to the "southern Yue [Viet] mountains" to set up his own kingdom. He and his soldiers conquered the land and established a civilized society modeled after ancient Chinese customs. This Chinese general adopted the native language (which sounded similar to southern Chinese dialects anyway) and married local women, who gave birth to sons that inherited the kingdom. Whether this is indeed historically true or not is still subject to debate.

What is known for sure is that for most of the period from 207 BC to the early 10th century, it was under the rule of successive dynasties of China. Sporadic independence movements were attempted, but were quickly extinguished by the Chinese army. In 939, the Vietnamese defeated Chinese forces at the Bach Dang River and gained independence. They gained complete autonomy a century later. For most of its history, Vietnam has been strongly influenced by its much bigger northern neighbor, China. However, during the rule of the Tran Dynasty, it defeated three Mongol attempts of invasion by the Yuan Dynasty. Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Le Dynasty 1400s, especially with the emperor Le Thanh Tong. Between the 13th and 17th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). They eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and much of the Khmer empire. The independent period ended in the mid-19th century, when the country was colonized by France.

French rule continued until World War II, when Japan briefly occupied Vietnam and used the country as a base to launch attacks against the rest of Indochina and India. When the war ended, France attempted to re-establish control but failed, after they were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. The Geneva Accords subsequently divided the country into North Vietnam and South Vietnam, separated by a demilitarized zone.

During the Cold War, the North was supported by China and the Soviet Union while the South was supported by United States.

The conflict quickly escalated into the Vietnam War. The war continued even after the Paris Peace Accords on January 27, 1973, which formally recognized the sovereignty of both sides.

The Bản Giốc Falls in Cao Bằng, North Vietnam

All American troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. By April 30, 1975, North Vietnam had overtaken South Vietnam and by 1976, Vietnam was officially unified under the North Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

After reunification, political and economic conditions deteriorated to near-famine conditions. Millions of South Vietnamese became boat people over the next two decades. In late 1978, the Cambodian people, with the support of the Vietnamese army, removed the Khmer Rouge from power. Only one month later, however, partially in retaliation, China launched a short-lived incursion into Vietnam: the Sino-Vietnamese War.

In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam implemented economic reforms known as đổi mới (renovation). During much of the 1990s, economic growth was rapid, and Vietnam reintegrated into the international community. It reestablished diplomatic relations with the United States in 1995, one year after the United States' trade embargo on Vietnam was repealed.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Vietnam

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is governed through a highly centralized system dominated by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), which was formerly the Vietnamese Labor Party (1951-1976). The Socialist Republic of Vietnam exists today as a communist state. From 2001 until now, Nong Duc Manh has been General Secretary of CPV. Senior Politburo members (Trần Đức Lương, Phan Văn Khải, Nguyễn Văn An, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, Lê Hồng Anh, Phạm Văn Trà and Trương Quang Được) concurrently hold high positions in the Government and the National Assembly.

There are no legal opposition parties in Vietnam, although a number of opposition groups do exist scattered overseas among exile communities within countries such as France and the United States. These communities have supported demonstrations and civil disobedience against the government. The most prominent are the Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League, and the Government of Free Vietnam. The Government of Free Vietnam has claimed responsibility for a number of guerilla raids into Vietnam, which the Vietnamese government has denounced as terrorism.

Former political parties include the nationalist Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng of Nguyễn Thái Học, the Can Lao party of the Ngô Đình Diệm government and the Viet Nam Duy Tan Hoi of Phan Bội Châu during the colonial period.

Vietnam is a member of the United Nations, La Francophonie, ASEAN, and APEC, and applied for membership to the World Trade Organization in 2001.

Provinces

Main article: Provinces of Vietnam

Vietnam's capital (thủ đô, singular and plural) is Hà Nội (Hà Nội). There are also four municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc Trung ương, singular and plural) existing at provincial level: Cần Thơ, Đà Nẵng, Hải Phòng, and Hồ Chí Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh). Ho Chi Minh City was formerly known as Sài Gòn (Sài Gòn). Now, Saigon is understood as heart of the city (central area of the District 1).

Besides the five cities, the country is divided into fifty-nine provinces (tỉnh, singular and plural): An Giang, Bắc Giang, Bắc Cạn, Bạc Liêu, Bắc Ninh, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu, Bến Tre, Bình Định, Bình Dương, Bình Phước, Bình Thuận, Cà Mau, Cao Bằng, Đắk Lắk, Đắk Nông, Điện Biên, Đồng Nai, Đồng Tháp, Gia Lai, Hà Giang, Hải Dương, Hà Nam, Hà Tây, Hà Tĩnh, Hòa Bình, Hậu Giang, Hưng Yên, Khánh Hòa, Kiên Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Châu, Lâm Đồng, Lạng Sơn, Lào Cai, Long An, Nam Định, Nghệ An, Ninh Bình, Ninh Thuận, Phú Thọ, Phú Yên, Quảng Bình, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Quảng Ninh, Quảng Trị, Sóc Trăng, Sơn La, Tây Ninh, Thái Bình, Thái Nguyên, Thanh Hóa, Thừa Thiên-Huế, Tiền Giang, Trà Vinh, Tuyên Quang, Vĩnh Long, Vĩnh Phúc, Yên Bái.

Geography

Map of Vietnam

Main article: Geography of Vietnam

The country is approximately 331,688 square kilometers (128,066 mi²) in area, which is slightly larger than New Mexico and slightly smaller than Germany. The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20 percent. Mountains account for 40 percent, hills 40 percent, and forests 75 percent. The northern part of the country consists of highlands and the Red River Delta. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 metres (10,312 ft). The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Dai Truong Son (central mountains) with high plateaus, and the Mekong River Delta.

The climate is tropical and monsoonal; humidity averages 84 percent throughout the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 120 to 300 centimetres (47 to 118 inches), and annual temperatures vary between 5°C (41°F) and 37°C (99°F).

Land boundaries: Total: 4,639 km (2,883 mi) Border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km (763 mi), China 1,281 km (796 mi), Laos 2,130 m (1,324 mi)

Economy

Main article: Economy of Vietnam

In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam formally abandoned Marxist economic planning and began introducing market elements as part of a broad economic reform package called "đổi mới" ("Renovation").

In many ways, this followed the Chinese model and achieved similar results. On the one hand, Vietnam achieved around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2002, making it the world's second-fastest growing economy. Simultaneously, investment grew three-fold and domestic savings quintupled.

On the other hand, urban unemployment has been rising steadily in recent years due to high numbers of migration from the countryside to the cities, and rural unemployment, estimated to be up to 35% during nonharvest periods, is already at critical levels. Layoffs in the state sector and foreign-invested enterprises combined with the lasting effects of a previous military demobilization further exacerbated the unemployment situation. The country is attempting to become a member of the WTO. Vietnam, however, is still a relatively poor country with GDP of US$227.2 billion (est., 2004). This translates to US$2700 per capita. Inflation rate is estimated at 14% per year in 2004. This figure has been scaled down by the Government to 9.5% per annum to avoid the ‘double digit’ classification.

The spending power of the public has noticeably increased. The reason lies in the high property prices. In Hanoi, the capital, property prices can be as high as those in Tokyo or New York City. This has amazed many people because GDP per capita of this city is around US$1,000 per annum. The booming prices have given the poor land owners the opportunity to sell their homes for inflated prices. Corruption, bribery and embezzlement committed by many government officials have pushed property prices even higher, as real estate investment is a popular form of money laundering.

Tourism has become an increasingly important industry in Vietnam. Many of the over 3 million annual visitors are Vietnam war veterans.

Demographics

Street scene in Haiphong

Main article: Demographics of Vietnam

According to official figures from the 1999 census, of Vietnam's then population of 76.3m, the largest of 54 government recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam were:

  1. Viet/Kinh: 65.8m (86.2%)
  2. Tày: 1.5m (1.9%)
  3. Thái: 1.3m (1.7%)
  4. Mường: 1.1m (1.5%)
  5. Khmer Krom: 1.1m (1.4%)
  6. Hoa: 0.9m (1.1%)
  7. Nun: 0.9m (1.1%)
  8. Hmong: 0.8m (1.0%)

The majority ethnic Vietnamese, also called Viet or Kinh, make up about 86 percent of the nation's population. They are concentrated largely in the alluvial deltas and in the coastal plains and have little in common with the minority peoples of the highlands, whom they have historically regarded as hostile and barbaric. A homogenous social group, the Viet exert influence on national life through their control of political and economic affairs and their role as purveyors of the dominant culture. By contrast, the ethnic minorities, except for the Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) and the Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese), are found mostly in the highlands that cover two-thirds of the national territory.

Religion

On the way to the Perfume Pagoda outside Hanoi

According to the 1999 Socialist Republic of Vietnam's census numbers, eighty percent of Vietnamese subscribe to no religion. But according to the majority of other sources, Vietnamese people are predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. Mainstream Pure Land schools and Zen-inspired syncretists); with a sizeable Roman Catholic following, Protestant, Cao Đài, and Hoa Hao minorities. The largest Protestant churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church. Membership to Sunni and Bashi Islam are usually accredited to the ethnic Cham minority, but there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents to Islam in the southwest.

Minorities

The Tay people live primarily in the mountains and foothills of northern Vietnam. Their language is a member of the Tai languages, belonging to the Central Tai subgroup and closely related to the Zhuang language of southern China.

Thái is a name used by Vietnamese authorities for a group of people also from the mountainous northern region of Vietnam and whom western linguists say actually speak separate languages: Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, Tai Hang Tong, Tày Tac, and Tai Thanh. All these languages are closely related and belong to the Southwestern Tai subgroup of the Tai languages. This official "Thái" ethnicity should not be confused with the Thai people of Thailand. The Thai people of Thailand speak languages belonging to the Lao-Phutai branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup, while the "Thái" of Vietnam speak languages belonging to the East Central branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup. Although the Thái ethnicity is officially recognized in Vietnam, western linguistics do not recognize it and prefer to classify Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, etc., as separate ethnic groups, in which case the Mường minority moves to second largest minority of Vietnam, Khmer Krom move to third position, and Hoa to fourth position.

The Mường live in the mountains of north central Vietnam and speak a Mon-Khmer language closely related to the Vietnamese language.

The Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) live in the fertile delta of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and are ethnically the same as the Khmer people who make up the majority of the population of Cambodia. There is no consensus on the exact number of Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) living in Vietnam. The Vietnamese government reported 1,055,174 Khmer Krom at the 1999 census.

The Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese) are mainly lowlanders and, more specifically, urban dwellers. They speak predominantly Cantonese (known to the Vietnamese as Quảng Đông), but there are also speakers of Hakka (Khách Gia), Min Nan/Hokkien/Fujian (Mân Nam/Phúc Kiến), Chaozhou (Triều Châu), etc. Up to the 1979 Vietnamese census, the Hoa were the largest minority of Vietnam. However, since the North Vietnamese took over South Vietnam in 1975 many Hoa left Vietnam, especially in the 1980s, so that at the 1999 census the Hoa were only the fifth largest minority (or the fourth largest if the Thái are not considered as an homogenous ethnic group).

Beyond these five largest ethnic minorities, there are 48 other minorities officially recognized by the Vietnamese government, giving a total of 53 minorities altogether. Many of these 53 minority groups only have a few thousand members or so. Vietnam also has a small number of racial Eurasians, people of Asian and Caucasian (mostly white, but also Indian) parentage. Most of them are descendants of Vietnamese people mixed with either early French settlers or white American soldiers and personnel (or both), during the colonial period and Vietnam War. There are also a few of those descended from Indian or Pakistani setttlers also during the colonial era. There are some who are racially mixed with blacks as well, another product during the Vietnam War from American soldiers. Mixed race individuals face the most discrimination in Vietnamese society and government, especially ones who are product of American soldiers (white or black) from the Vietnam War.

Officially, the ethnic minorities are referred to as "national minorities". The French used the name Montagnard (plural Montagnards, meaning "mountain people") to call all the minorities (except the Khmer Krom and the Hoa), no matter what their actual language. The name Montagnard is still sometimes used today. Sometimes, the name Montagnard is used specifically for the Mường ethnic group.

Human Rights NGOs point out the Vietnamese government's poor record with respect to ethnic minorities. In particular, the large Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) minority of southern Vietnam is denied elementary human rights in an effort by the Vietnamese government to Vietnamize the Khmer Krom, or force them to leave their native land and relocate to Cambodia. The Vietnamese government is afraid that the large native Khmer Krom population in the Mekong delta could allow Cambodia to officially claim back the fertile areas of the delta that were annexed by Vietnam more than 200 years ago. On the other hand, some in the Vietnamese government still pursue the centuries old policy of colonizing Khmer land, and it was reported that in the 1980s and 1990s some local Vietnamese officials have pushed the Cambodian-Vietnamese border several kilometers inside Cambodian territory, annexing tens of Cambodian villages, in violation of international treaties, thus further increasing the ethnic Khmer population inside Vietnam.

Further north, there have been reports of tensions with the Tày people due to the government sponsored relocation of ethnic Vietnamese from the lowlands to the highlands inhabited by the Tày and other minorities. Protests and demonstrations by highland minorities have been reported.

Percentage of ethnic Vietnamese

According to the 1999 census, ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) numbered 65,795,718 and thus accounted for 86.2% of the total population of Vietnam.

In terms of land area, the ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country).

The birth rate of the ethnic Vietnamese (and also the Hoa), which historically has been very high, decreased significantly since the 1980s and is now reaching much lower levels, comparable to the birth rates in Thailand or Malaysia. The birth rate of the minorities is still very high, comparable to birth rates in Cambodia or Laos.

As a result, the ethnic minorities are now growing at a faster rate than the ethnic Vietnamese, which means that the percentage of ethnic Vietnamese in the total population is slowly decreasing year after year. According to official figures, at the 1979 census the ethnic Vietnamese accounted for 87.4% of the total population. The figure was down to 86.9% at the 1989 census, and 86.2% at the 1999 census.

Languages

According to official figures, 86.2% of the population speak Vietnamese as a native tongue.

Various other languages are spoken by the several minority groups in Vietnam. The most spoken languages are: Tày (1.5 million), Mường (1.2 million), Khmer (1.05 million), Cantonese (870,000, this figure also includes speakers of other Chinese dialects), Nung (860,000), HMông (790,000), and Tai Dam (700,000).

French, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by some (mostly older) Vietnamese as a second language. Russian- and to a much lesser extent Czech or Polish- is often known among "baby-boomers" whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc. In recent years, English has become a more popular language to learn and is increasingly used in business, among other things.

See also: List of ethnic groups in Vietnam

Culture

Main article: Culture of Vietnam

In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. In the 16th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters called Chữ Nôm. The celebrated epic Đoạn trường tân thanh (or Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du is written in Chữ Nôm. During the French colonial period, Quốc Ngữ, the romanized Vietnamese alphabet representation of spoken Vietnamese, became popular and brought literacy to the masses.

Due to Vietnam's long association with China, Vietnamese culture remains strongly Confucian with its emphasis on familial duty. Education is highly prized. Historically, passing the imperial Mandarin exams was the only means for Vietnamese people to socially advance themselves.

The majority of Vietnamese are adherents to Mahayana Buddhism, influenced by Confucianism and Daoism, and with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship. Others say that the Vietnamese' second religion is superstition and fatalism, brought on by the decades of war.

Vietnam's cuisine and music have three distinct flavors, related to Vietnam's three regions: Bắc or North, Trung or Central, and Nam or South. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest and is traditionally more formal. Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe. Central classical music shows the influences of Champa culture with its melancholic melodies. Southern music exudes a lively laissez faire attitude. Vietnamese cuisine is based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. Its characteristic flavor is sweet (sugar), spicy (serrano peppers), and flavored by a variety of mints.

See also:


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See also:. This allows them to be trained to behave in a way that is not specifically the most natural to their breed; nevertheless, the accumulated experience of thousands of years shows that some combinations of nature and nurture are quite daunting, for instance, training whippets to guard flocks of sheep. Its characteristic flavor is sweet (sugar), spicy (serrano peppers), and flavored by a variety of mints. Of course, dogs in general possess a significant ability to modify their behavior according to experience, including adapting to the behavior of their "pack leaders"—again, humans. Vietnamese cuisine is based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. The example of canine neoteny goes even further, in that the various breeds are differently neotenized according to the type of behavior that was selected. Southern music exudes a lively laissez faire attitude. Compared to wolves, many adult dog breeds retain such juvenile characteristics as soft fuzzy fur, round torsos, large heads and eyes, ears that hang down rather than stand erect, etc.; characteristics which are shared by most juvenile mammals, and therefore generally elicit some degree of protective and nurturing behavior cross-species from most adult mammals, including humans, who term such characteristics "cute" or "appealing".

Central classical music shows the influences of Champa culture with its melancholic melodies. This paedomorphic selection naturally results in a retention of juvenile physical characteristics as well. Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe. This is true of many domesticated animals, including human beings themselves, who have many characteristics similar to young bonobo. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest and is traditionally more formal. As with many species, the young wolves are more social and less dominant than adults; therefore, the selection for these characteristics, whether deliberate or inadvertent, is more likely to result in a simple retention of juvenile characteristics into adulthood than to generate a complex of independent new changes in behavior. Vietnam's cuisine and music have three distinct flavors, related to Vietnam's three regions: Bắc or North, Trung or Central, and Nam or South. This rapid evolution of dogs from wolves is an example of neoteny or paedomorphism.

Others say that the Vietnamese' second religion is superstition and fatalism, brought on by the decades of war. Deliberately crossing two or more breeds is also a manner of establishing new breeds. The majority of Vietnamese are adherents to Mahayana Buddhism, influenced by Confucianism and Daoism, and with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship. However, without genetic testing of the parents, the crosses can sometimes end up inheriting genetic defects that occur in both parental breeds. Historically, passing the imperial Mandarin exams was the only means for Vietnamese people to socially advance themselves. Such deliberate crosses may display hybrid vigor and other desirable traits, but can also lack one or more of the desired traits of their parents, such as temperament or a particular color or coat. Education is highly prized. Sometimes mixed-breed dogs are deliberately bred, for example, the Cockapoo, a mixture of Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle.

Due to Vietnam's long association with China, Vietnamese culture remains strongly Confucian with its emphasis on familial duty. Mixed breeds, or dogs with no purebred ancestry, are not inherently "better" or "worse" than purebred dogs as companions, pets, working dogs, or competitors in dog sports. During the French colonial period, Quốc Ngữ, the romanized Vietnamese alphabet representation of spoken Vietnamese, became popular and brought literacy to the masses. Mixed-breed dogs or Mongrels are dogs that do not belong to specific breeds, being mixtures of two or more in variant percentages. The celebrated epic Đoạn trường tân thanh (or Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du is written in Chữ Nôm. In February 2004, the Canine Studies Institute in Aurora, Ohio, arranged recognized breeds of dogs into ten categories. In the 16th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters called Chữ Nôm. The behavior and appearance of a dog of a particular breed can be predicted fairly accurately, while mixed-breed dogs show a broader range of innovative appearance and behavior.

In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. These problems are not limited to purebred dogs and can affect mixed-breed populations. Main article: Culture of Vietnam. Even prize-winning purebred dogs sometimes possess crippling genetic defects due to inbreeding. See also: List of ethnic groups in Vietnam. These considerations come into play among breeders who enter their dogs in dog shows. In recent years, English has become a more popular language to learn and is increasingly used in business, among other things. Other organizations define a breed more loosely, such that an individual may be considered of one breed as long as 75% of its parentage is of that breed.

Russian- and to a much lesser extent Czech or Polish- is often known among "baby-boomers" whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc. Dogs that are bred in this manner often end up with severe health or behavioural problems. French, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by some (mostly older) Vietnamese as a second language. Some groups use a definition that ultimately requires extreme inbreeding to qualify due to the low gene pool. The most spoken languages are: Tày (1.5 million), Mường (1.2 million), Khmer (1.05 million), Cantonese (870,000, this figure also includes speakers of other Chinese dialects), Nung (860,000), HMông (790,000), and Tai Dam (700,000). The definition of a dog breed is a matter of some controversy. Various other languages are spoken by the several minority groups in Vietnam. Despite these differences, dogs are able to distinguish dogs from other kinds of animal.

According to official figures, 86.2% of the population speak Vietnamese as a native tongue. Because of this, some breeds are highly specialized, and there is extraordinary morphological diversity across different breeds. The figure was down to 86.9% at the 1989 census, and 86.2% at the 1999 census. Many of these are the product of a deliberate process of artificial selection. According to official figures, at the 1979 census the ethnic Vietnamese accounted for 87.4% of the total population. A few basic breed types have evolved gradually during the domesticated dog's relationship with man over the last 10,000 or more years, but most modern breeds are of relatively recent derivation. As a result, the ethnic minorities are now growing at a faster rate than the ethnic Vietnamese, which means that the percentage of ethnic Vietnamese in the total population is slowly decreasing year after year. Many dogs, especially outside the United States and Western Europe, belong to no recognized breed.

The birth rate of the minorities is still very high, comparable to birth rates in Cambodia or Laos. As all dog breeds have been derived from mixed-breed dog populations, the term "purebred" has meaning only with respect to a certain number of generations. The birth rate of the ethnic Vietnamese (and also the Hoa), which historically has been very high, decreased significantly since the 1980s and is now reaching much lower levels, comparable to the birth rates in Thailand or Malaysia. There are numerous dog breeds, over 800 being recognized by various kennel clubs worldwide. In terms of land area, the ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country). In a number of countries around the world, apart from being kept as pets, certain breeds of dogs are slaughtered as a source of meat and specifically raised on farms for that purpose. According to the 1999 census, ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) numbered 65,795,718 and thus accounted for 86.2% of the total population of Vietnam. The relationship is theorized to have developed in this way.

Protests and demonstrations by highland minorities have been reported. With their sharp senses, they would also be valuable as an alarm against marauding predators. Further north, there have been reports of tensions with the Tày people due to the government sponsored relocation of ethnic Vietnamese from the lowlands to the highlands inhabited by the Tày and other minorities. Canines would have been beneficial by chasing away other vermin or scavengers. On the other hand, some in the Vietnamese government still pursue the centuries old policy of colonizing Khmer land, and it was reported that in the 1980s and 1990s some local Vietnamese officials have pushed the Cambodian-Vietnamese border several kilometers inside Cambodian territory, annexing tens of Cambodian villages, in violation of international treaties, thus further increasing the ethnic Khmer population inside Vietnam. Canines who attacked people or their children were likely killed or driven away, while those more friendly animals survived. The Vietnamese government is afraid that the large native Khmer Krom population in the Mekong delta could allow Cambodia to officially claim back the fertile areas of the delta that were annexed by Vietnam more than 200 years ago. Wild canines who scavenged around human habitations received more food than their more skittish or fearful counterparts.

In particular, the large Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) minority of southern Vietnam is denied elementary human rights in an effort by the Vietnamese government to Vietnamize the Khmer Krom, or force them to leave their native land and relocate to Cambodia. It is also now generally believed that initial domestication was through mutual desire. Human Rights NGOs point out the Vietnamese government's poor record with respect to ethnic minorities. Domestication of a wild dog may occur within one or two human generations with deliberate selective breeding. Sometimes, the name Montagnard is used specifically for the Mường ethnic group. Current research indicates that domestication, or the attributes of a domesticated animal, can occur much more quickly than previously believed. The name Montagnard is still sometimes used today. While some dog breeds possess one of these characteristics, they rarely possess both.

The French used the name Montagnard (plural Montagnards, meaning "mountain people") to call all the minorities (except the Khmer Krom and the Hoa), no matter what their actual language. Wolves typically have a "brush tail" and erect ears. Officially, the ethnic minorities are referred to as "national minorities". The phenotypic characteristic that distinguish a wolf from a dog are tenuous. Mixed race individuals face the most discrimination in Vietnamese society and government, especially ones who are product of American soldiers (white or black) from the Vietnam War. The general reproductive isolation which is required to define dogs and wolves as separate species is purely a result of lack of opportunity, stemming from a general mutual unfamiliarity, suspicion, mistrust, and fear. There are some who are racially mixed with blacks as well, another product during the Vietnam War from American soldiers. Additionally, unintentional crossbreeding occurs simply because dogs and wolves live in the same environment.

There are also a few of those descended from Indian or Pakistani setttlers also during the colonial era. This interbreeding still occurs with dogs living in the Arctic region, where the attributes of the wolf that enable survival in a hostile environment are valued by humans. Most of them are descendants of Vietnamese people mixed with either early French settlers or white American soldiers and personnel (or both), during the colonial period and Vietnam War. The Eastern Timber Wolf is a direct ancestor to most, if not all, of the North American northern sled dog types. Vietnam also has a small number of racial Eurasians, people of Asian and Caucasian (mostly white, but also Indian) parentage. The Chinese wolf is probably ancestor to the Pekingese and toy spaniels, although it is also probable that descendants of the Chinese and European wolves encountered each other over the millennia, contributing to many of the oriental toy breeds. Many of these 53 minority groups only have a few thousand members or so. The European wolf, in turn, may have contributed many of its attributes to the Spitz dog types, most terriers, and many of today's sheepdogs.

Beyond these five largest ethnic minorities, there are 48 other minorities officially recognized by the Vietnamese government, giving a total of 53 minorities altogether. The Tibetan Mastiff is an example of an ancient breed. However, since the North Vietnamese took over South Vietnam in 1975 many Hoa left Vietnam, especially in the 1980s, so that at the 1999 census the Hoa were only the fifth largest minority (or the fourth largest if the Thái are not considered as an homogenous ethnic group). The Indian wolf is also thought to have bred with descendants of the European wolf to create the Mastiffs and eventually leading to the development of such diverse breeds as the Pug, the Saint Bernard, and the Bloodhound. Up to the 1979 Vietnamese census, the Hoa were the largest minority of Vietnam. Many of today's wild dogs, such as the dingo, the dhole and pariah dogs, are descended from this wolf. They speak predominantly Cantonese (known to the Vietnamese as Quảng Đông), but there are also speakers of Hakka (Khách Gia), Min Nan/Hokkien/Fujian (Mân Nam/Phúc Kiến), Chaozhou (Triều Châu), etc. The Indian Wolf is thought to have contributed to the development of more breeds of dogs than other subspecies.

The Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese) are mainly lowlanders and, more specifically, urban dwellers. For example, the Japanese wolf and the Eastern Timber Wolf posses different distinctive colouration, hunting and social structures. The Vietnamese government reported 1,055,174 Khmer Krom at the 1999 census. Although all wolves belong to the species Canis lupus, there are (or were) many subspecies that had developed a distinctive appearance, social structure, and other traits. There is no consensus on the exact number of Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) living in Vietnam. The detailed history remains unexplored and until further evidence is available, the following section on wolf ancestors must be considered purely speculative. The Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) live in the fertile delta of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and are ethnically the same as the Khmer people who make up the majority of the population of Cambodia. Their results indicate multiple independent origins of dogs and/or of frequent interbreeding between early proto-dogs and wolves throughout a vast geographic range.

The Mường live in the mountains of north central Vietnam and speak a Mon-Khmer language closely related to the Vietnamese language. Verginelli examined ancient DNA evidence from five prehistoric Italian canids carbon-dated to between 15,000 and 3,000 years old, 341 wolves from several populations worldwide, and 547 purebred dogs. Although the Thái ethnicity is officially recognized in Vietnam, western linguistics do not recognize it and prefer to classify Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, etc., as separate ethnic groups, in which case the Mường minority moves to second largest minority of Vietnam, Khmer Krom move to third position, and Hoa to fourth position. On balance, and in agreement with the archaeological evidence, 15,000 years ago is the most likely time for the wolf-dog divergence. The Thai people of Thailand speak languages belonging to the Lao-Phutai branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup, while the "Thái" of Vietnam speak languages belonging to the East Central branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup. (2005), however, suggest both sets of dates must be reevaluated in light of recent findings showing that poorly calibrated molecular clocks have systematically overestimated the age of geologically recent events. This official "Thái" ethnicity should not be confused with the Thai people of Thailand. Verginelli et al.

All these languages are closely related and belong to the Southwestern Tai subgroup of the Tai languages. (2002) indicated a "common origin from a single gene pool for all dog populations" between 40,000 and 15,000 years ago in East Asia. Thái is a name used by Vietnamese authorities for a group of people also from the mountainous northern region of Vietnam and whom western linguists say actually speak separate languages: Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, Tai Hang Tong, Tày Tac, and Tai Thanh. Vilà, Savolainen, and colleagues (1997) concluded that dogs split off from wolves between 75,000 and 135,000 years ago, while a subsequent analysis by Savolainen et al. Their language is a member of the Tai languages, belonging to the Central Tai subgroup and closely related to the Zhuang language of southern China. Genetic analyses have so far yielded divergent results. The Tay people live primarily in the mountains and foothills of northern Vietnam. Dog burials at the Mesolithic cemetery of Svaerdborg in Denmark suggest that in ancient Europe dogs were valued companions.

Membership to Sunni and Bashi Islam are usually accredited to the ethnic Cham minority, but there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents to Islam in the southwest. Rock art and skeletal remains indicate that by 14,000 years ago, dogs were present from North Africa across Eurasia to North America. The largest Protestant churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church. Remains of smaller dogs from Mesolithic (Natufian) cave deposits in the Middle East, dated to around 12,000 years ago, have been interpreted as descendants of a lighter Southwest Asian wolf, Canis lupus arabs. Mainstream Pure Land schools and Zen-inspired syncretists); with a sizeable Roman Catholic following, Protestant, Cao Đài, and Hoa Hao minorities. Their likely ancestor is the large northern Holarctic wolf, Canis lupus lupus. But according to the majority of other sources, Vietnamese people are predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. The earliest dog fossils, two crania from Russia and a mandible from Germany, date from 13,000 to 17,000 years ago.

According to the 1999 Socialist Republic of Vietnam's census numbers, eighty percent of Vietnamese subscribe to no religion. Domesticated dogs may have interbred with local populations of wild wolves on several occasions (so-called introgression). By contrast, the ethnic minorities, except for the Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) and the Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese), are found mostly in the highlands that cover two-thirds of the national territory. Fossil bone morphologies and genetic analysis of current and ancient dog and wolf populations have not yet been able to conclusively determine whether all dogs descend from a single domestication event, or whether dogs were domesticated independently in more than one location. A homogenous social group, the Viet exert influence on national life through their control of political and economic affairs and their role as purveyors of the dominant culture. Converging archaeological and genetic evidence indicate a time of domestication in the late Upper Paleolithic close to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, between 17,000 and 14,000 years ago. They are concentrated largely in the alluvial deltas and in the coastal plains and have little in common with the minority peoples of the highlands, whom they have historically regarded as hostile and barbaric. Wolf remains have been found in association with hominid remains dating from 400,000 years ago.

The majority ethnic Vietnamese, also called Viet or Kinh, make up about 86 percent of the nation's population. The relationship between man and canine has deep roots. According to official figures from the 1999 census, of Vietnam's then population of 76.3m, the largest of 54 government recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam were:. As reflected in the nomenclature, dogs are a subspecies of wolf and are thus still able to interbreed. Main article: Demographics of Vietnam. Molecular systematics indicate that the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) descends from one or more populations of wild wolves (Canis lupus). Many of the over 3 million annual visitors are Vietnam war veterans. In the UK, it is illegal to kill dogs, even if they are on your private land; you are required to contact your local Police Force, DogsTrust, or the local branch of the RSPCA, who will arrange its collection.

Tourism has become an increasingly important industry in Vietnam. Feral dogs often form predatory packs that attack livestock and occasionally also prove dangerous to humans. Corruption, bribery and embezzlement committed by many government officials have pushed property prices even higher, as real estate investment is a popular form of money laundering. Abandoned domestic dogs who become feral are particularly dangerous; they lack the survival skills of wild canines, as well as the genetic and learned fear of the humans' world. The booming prices have given the poor land owners the opportunity to sell their homes for inflated prices. Bodies are sometimes tied to fences as warning to other dogs, especially in rural United States and Canada. This has amazed many people because GDP per capita of this city is around US$1,000 per annum. Wild dogs are shot by farmers in an effort to protect livestock.

In Hanoi, the capital, property prices can be as high as those in Tokyo or New York City. The same creatures that wolves, coyotes, and foxes attack as prey, especially sheep and poultry, are similarly attractive prey to dogs. The reason lies in the high property prices. In most jurisdictions, dogs are destroyed for killing other creatures, so dogs should be prevented from any encounter with livestock or wildlife that might lead to a predatory response. The spending power of the public has noticeably increased. With formidable skills and weapons as hunters as well as large and unfussy appetites, dogs often menace livestock and wildlife. This figure has been scaled down by the Government to 9.5% per annum to avoid the ‘double digit’ classification. Canine aggression upon humans is ordinarily not tolerated, but any human aggression against an animal having formidable means of self-defense is foolhardy in the extreme.

Inflation rate is estimated at 14% per year in 2004. There are hundreds of shades of provocation that may or may not lead to an attack upon a human. This translates to US$2700 per capita. Provocation can range from something as seemingly innocuous as a toddler pulling a dog's tail, in which case the dog might nip to discourage the behavior, to something completely inobvious to humans, such as an odor or a movement that sets a dog off, to blatant human aggression or violence towards a dog, causing it to defend itself. Vietnam, however, is still a relatively poor country with GDP of US$227.2 billion (est., 2004). However, their sharp teeth and claws can inflict injury in an attack; a large dog can knock a human down. The country is attempting to become a member of the WTO. After thousands of years of domestication and selective breeding for dogs whose aggression towards humans goes no further than a ferocious bark that strongly indicates dislike of a human behavior, most dogs are unlikely to attack people.

Layoffs in the state sector and foreign-invested enterprises combined with the lasting effects of a previous military demobilization further exacerbated the unemployment situation. Animals are often given attributes such as "loyal", "cute", and "guardian", but these all have the potential to lure people into a false sense of security. On the other hand, urban unemployment has been rising steadily in recent years due to high numbers of migration from the countryside to the cities, and rural unemployment, estimated to be up to 35% during nonharvest periods, is already at critical levels. Humans have a tendency to anthropomorphize animals, particularly pets such as dogs, which are generally portrayed as being "man's best friend". Simultaneously, investment grew three-fold and domestic savings quintupled. More research is needed to determine the intelligence level of dogs, and the motivations behind their responses to their masters. On the one hand, Vietnam achieved around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2002, making it the world's second-fastest growing economy. Despite understandably positive interpretations by dog owners, it is questionable whether these animals are truly capable of feeling emotions on a human level.

In many ways, this followed the Chinese model and achieved similar results. Nevertheless, it is often unwise to anthropomorphize the responses of dogs. In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam formally abandoned Marxist economic planning and began introducing market elements as part of a broad economic reform package called "đổi mới" ("Renovation"). Some research demonstrates that dogs are able to convey a depth of emotion not seen to the same extent in any other animal; this is purportedly due to their closely-knit development with modern man, and the survival-benefits of such communication as dogs became more dependent on humans for sustenance. Main article: Economy of Vietnam. Many dogs are reported to have separation anxiety if their owner is away for an extended period of time. Land boundaries: Total: 4,639 km (2,883 mi) Border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km (763 mi), China 1,281 km (796 mi), Laos 2,130 m (1,324 mi). Empirically, dogs are quite dependent on human companionship and may suffer poor health in its absence.

Annual rainfall ranges from 120 to 300 centimetres (47 to 118 inches), and annual temperatures vary between 5°C (41°F) and 37°C (99°F). Many dog owners consider having unconditional acceptance from a friend who is always happy to see them to be quite utilitarian, particularly if the dog also leads them to regular exercise. The climate is tropical and monsoonal; humidity averages 84 percent throughout the year. Consequently, dogs are popular as pets and companions, independent of any utilitarian considerations. The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Dai Truong Son (central mountains) with high plateaus, and the Mekong River Delta. Relationships between humans and dogs are often characterized by strong emotional bonds. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 metres (10,312 ft). Excitement is evident as they see the hunters load weapons, take to the field, and begin the hunt.

The northern part of the country consists of highlands and the Red River Delta. Hunters with dogs report the satisfaction that the dogs seem to exhibit. Mountains account for 40 percent, hills 40 percent, and forests 75 percent. Many hound breeds are excellent at treeing raccoons during hunting season. The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20 percent. When trained, beagles are particularly adept at chasing through thick briars and brush after rabbits. The country is approximately 331,688 square kilometers (128,066 mi²) in area, which is slightly larger than New Mexico and slightly smaller than Germany. They typically have large, gentle muzzles to mitigate any potential damage to the game.

Main article: Geography of Vietnam. They can follow hand, verbal, and whistle commands at great distance as the hunter directs them to the downed bird. Besides the five cities, the country is divided into fifty-nine provinces (tỉnh, singular and plural): An Giang, Bắc Giang, Bắc Cạn, Bạc Liêu, Bắc Ninh, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu, Bến Tre, Bình Định, Bình Dương, Bình Phước, Bình Thuận, Cà Mau, Cao Bằng, Đắk Lắk, Đắk Nông, Điện Biên, Đồng Nai, Đồng Tháp, Gia Lai, Hà Giang, Hải Dương, Hà Nam, Hà Tây, Hà Tĩnh, Hòa Bình, Hậu Giang, Hưng Yên, Khánh Hòa, Kiên Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Châu, Lâm Đồng, Lạng Sơn, Lào Cai, Long An, Nam Định, Nghệ An, Ninh Bình, Ninh Thuận, Phú Thọ, Phú Yên, Quảng Bình, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Quảng Ninh, Quảng Trị, Sóc Trăng, Sơn La, Tây Ninh, Thái Bình, Thái Nguyên, Thanh Hóa, Thừa Thiên-Huế, Tiền Giang, Trà Vinh, Tuyên Quang, Vĩnh Long, Vĩnh Phúc, Yên Bái. At command, they dive into the icy water, swim out and retrieve the birds one by one. Now, Saigon is understood as heart of the city (central area of the District 1). They can spend long hours in a duck blind and, after the hunter has fired at multiple ducks or geese, they can visually spot and remember the location of downed birds. Ho Chi Minh City was formerly known as Sài Gòn (Sài Gòn). As water dogs, the retrievers are unsurpassed.

There are also four municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc Trung ương, singular and plural) existing at provincial level: Cần Thơ, Đà Nẵng, Hải Phòng, and Hồ Chí Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh). Once the hunter approaches, at his command they will flush the birds to fly and for the hunter to shoot at. Vietnam's capital (thủ đô, singular and plural) is Hà Nội (Hà Nội). They have a native ability to discover and "hold" upland game birds; to freeze them momentarily on the ground with their silent, elongated pointing stance. Main article: Provinces of Vietnam. Setters in particular have a long history as upland gun dogs. Vietnam is a member of the United Nations, La Francophonie, ASEAN, and APEC, and applied for membership to the World Trade Organization in 2001. This often strengthens the bond between human and dog, since they must trust one another in a variety of environments and must learn how the other works and thinks.

Former political parties include the nationalist Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng of Nguyễn Thái Học, the Can Lao party of the Ngô Đình Diệm government and the Viet Nam Duy Tan Hoi of Phan Bội Châu during the colonial period. Many people compete with their dogs in a variety of dog sports, including agility, flyball, and many others. The Government of Free Vietnam has claimed responsibility for a number of guerilla raids into Vietnam, which the Vietnamese government has denounced as terrorism. Dogs are also used for searching for or rescuing people and animals, such as in avalanches, at disaster sites, and for missing people or pets. The most prominent are the Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League, and the Government of Free Vietnam. Most modern working dogs are put in positions which capitalize on their sensory or strength and endurance advantages over normal humans. These communities have supported demonstrations and civil disobedience against the government. Dogs have served as guides for the blind, as commandos, and have flown into outer space.

There are no legal opposition parties in Vietnam, although a number of opposition groups do exist scattered overseas among exile communities within countries such as France and the United States. There are service dogs, guard dogs, hunting dogs, and herding dogs. Senior Politburo members (Trần Đức Lương, Phan Văn Khải, Nguyễn Văn An, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, Lê Hồng Anh, Phạm Văn Trà and Trương Quang Được) concurrently hold high positions in the Government and the National Assembly. Many breeds of dogs, but not least German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, and Border Collie are commonly used as working dogs. From 2001 until now, Nong Duc Manh has been General Secretary of CPV. An assertive dog may consider itself the alpha animal, considering its human master to be subordinate. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam exists today as a communist state. The dog is always aware of its rank relative to other individuals in the group.

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is governed through a highly centralized system dominated by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), which was formerly the Vietnamese Labor Party (1951-1976). Dogs thrive in human society because their relationships with humans mimic their natural social patterns. Main article: Politics of Vietnam. Dog society can be thought of as dog packs characterized by a companionate hierarchy, in which each individual has a rank, and in which there is intense loyalty within the group. It reestablished diplomatic relations with the United States in 1995, one year after the United States' trade embargo on Vietnam was repealed. Dogs thrive in small social groups or packs which, from their viewpoint, can include humans. During much of the 1990s, economic growth was rapid, and Vietnam reintegrated into the international community. The relationship between dogs and humans is rooted in history and dogs coexist with humans in a variety of ways.

In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam implemented economic reforms known as đổi mới (renovation). Most dog owners have a large collection of stories about their dogs recognizing individuals by their footsteps outside the door, and so on. Only one month later, however, partially in retaliation, China launched a short-lived incursion into Vietnam: the Sino-Vietnamese War. This ability to read and deliver nonverbal cues makes dogs expert at reading human beings, as well, often even more so than other humans are, who rely on language. In late 1978, the Cambodian people, with the support of the Vietnamese army, removed the Khmer Rouge from power. Physiologically, this correlates with such features as a large number of nerves innervating the facial muscles of dogs, allowing subtle control of a wide variety of facial expressions; in contrast to cats, for instance, who have many fewer nerves governing their facial muscles, resulting in a smaller repertoire or "vocabulary" of expressions. Millions of South Vietnamese became boat people over the next two decades. The requirements of coordinating complex social behavior requires that canines have the ability to sense and deliver a wide variety of cues via body language, more so than for even humans, who can use language for the same purpose.

After reunification, political and economic conditions deteriorated to near-famine conditions. All dogs have a tremendous capacity to learn complex social behavior and to interpret varied body language and sounds, and, like many predators, can react to and learn from novel situations. By April 30, 1975, North Vietnam had overtaken South Vietnam and by 1976, Vietnam was officially unified under the North Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Gastric torsion and bloat is a dangerous problem in some large-chested breeds. All American troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. Dogs are also susceptible to the same ailments that humans are, including diabetes, epilepsy, cancer, and arthritis. The war continued even after the Paris Peace Accords on January 27, 1973, which formally recognized the sovereignty of both sides. Some breeds of dogs are also prone to certain genetic ailments, such as hip dysplasia, luxating patellas, cleft palate, blindness, or deafness.

The conflict quickly escalated into the Vietnam War. Internal parasites include hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms, and heartworms. During the Cold War, the North was supported by China and the Soviet Union while the South was supported by United States. Common external parasites are various species of fleas, ticks, and mites. The Geneva Accords subsequently divided the country into North Vietnam and South Vietnam, separated by a demilitarized zone. Diseases commonly associated with dogs include rabies (hydrophobia), canine parvovirus, and canine distemper, and pulmonic stenosis, although there are many others. When the war ended, France attempted to re-establish control but failed, after they were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. Dogs are susceptible to various diseases, ailments, and poisons, some of which affect humans in the same way, others of which are unique to dogs.

French rule continued until World War II, when Japan briefly occupied Vietnam and used the country as a base to launch attacks against the rest of Indochina and India. It is said that the animals, not just dogs, could sense the tsunami and could therefore flee for life. The independent period ended in the mid-19th century, when the country was colonized by France. For example, during the tsunami in Southern Asia recently, many animals were seen days before fleeing to the hills. They eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and much of the Khmer empire. The evolutionary ability of sensing weather can be traced back to when wolves used it to move the pack into proper shelter before a dangerous storm. Between the 13th and 17th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). This is due to their keen ability to detect fluctuations in barometric pressure and can explain a dog's anxiety before and during a storm.

Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Le Dynasty 1400s, especially with the emperor Le Thanh Tong. Dogs also have the ability to sense inclement weather (mainly thunderstorms) many miles away. However, during the rule of the Tran Dynasty, it defeated three Mongol attempts of invasion by the Yuan Dynasty. It has been observed that a lost dog can often find its way home, sometimes traveling over long distances. For most of its history, Vietnam has been strongly influenced by its much bigger northern neighbor, China. An intensive search for a scent, for instance searching a ship for contraband, can actually be very fatiguing for a dog, and the dog must be motivated to continue this hard work for a long period of time. They gained complete autonomy a century later. In any event, it is established by those who train tracking dogs that it is impossible to teach the dog how to track any better than it does naturally; the object instead is to motivate it properly, and teach it to maintain focus on a single track and ignore any others that might otherwise seem of greater interest to an untrained dog.

In 939, the Vietnamese defeated Chinese forces at the Bach Dang River and gained independence. The characteristics and behavior of these two types of scent trail would seem, after some thought, to be quite different, the air scent being intermittent but perhaps less obscured by competing scents, whereas the ground scent would be relatively permanent with respect to careful and repetitive search by the dog, but would seem to be much more contaminated with other scents. Sporadic independence movements were attempted, but were quickly extinguished by the Chinese army. What information a dog actually detects when he is scenting is not perfectly understood; although once a matter of debate, it now seems to be well established that dogs can distinguish two different types of scents when trailing, an air scent from some person or thing that has recently passed by, as well as a ground scent that remains detectable for a much longer period. What is known for sure is that for most of the period from 207 BC to the early 10th century, it was under the rule of successive dynasties of China. Some breeds have been selectively bred for excellence in detecting scents, even compared to their canine brethren. Whether this is indeed historically true or not is still subject to debate. Dogs have nearly 220 million smell-sensitive cells over an area about the size of a pocket handkerchief (compared to 5 million over an area the size of a postage stamp for humans).

This Chinese general adopted the native language (which sounded similar to southern Chinese dialects anyway) and married local women, who gave birth to sons that inherited the kingdom. They can identify a sound's location much faster than a human can, and they can hear sounds up to four times the distance that humans can. He and his soldiers conquered the land and established a civilized society modeled after ancient Chinese customs. Dogs detect sounds as low as the 16 to 20 Hz frequency range (compared to 20 to 70 Hz for humans) and as high as 70,000 to 100,000 Hz (compared to 20,000 Hz for humans)2, and in addition have a degree of ear mobility that helps them to rapidly pinpoint the exact location of a sound. Some historians, both in Asia and in the West, hold that the various peoples of today's Vietnam were brought together by a Qin Dynasty-era general who was fed up with the despotic rule of the Qin Shi Huang (First emperor of China proper) and escaped to the "southern Yue [Viet] mountains" to set up his own kingdom. Some breeds, particularly the best sighthounds, have a field of vision up to 270° (compared to 100° to 120° for humans), although broad-headed breeds with their eyes set forward have a much narrower field of vision, as low as 180°.1, 2. Chinese historical records tell of an indigenous people that existed about 2,500 years ago. Because the lenses of dogs' eyes are flatter than humans', they cannot see as much detail; on the other hand, their eyes are more sensitive to light and motion than humans' eyes.

Vietnamese legends hold that native people populated and civilized the land more than 4,000 years ago. It has also been suggested that dogs see in varieties of purple/violet and yellow shades. Its cognate name in Chinese, Yuè Nán (越南; Yut6 Naam4 in Cantonese) means "southern extension". Dogs were thought to be dichromats and thus, by human standards, color blind.1, 2 New research is now being explored that suggests that dogs may actually see some colour, but not to the extent that humans do. The name of the country comes from the Vietnamese Việt Nam, which is in turn a reordering of Nam Việt, the name of an ancient kingdom from the ancestral Vietnamese that covered much of today's northern Vietnam. Dogs are predators and scavengers, possessing sharp teeth and strong jaws for attacking, holding, and tearing their food. . Within the range of extremes, dogs generally share attributes with their wild ancestors, the wolves.

Situated in eastern Indochina, it borders China, Laos, Cambodia, as well as the South China Sea. Modern dog breeds show more variation in size, appearance, and behavior than any other domestic animal. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, or Vietnam, is a communist country in Southeast Asia. Many veterinarians recommend that owners neuter/spay their pets around the age of 5 months. (Vietnamese, "Independence, liberty, happiness"). A female dog can become pregnant on her first heat cycle (which can take place as early as six months), and should be kept away from intact male dogs, including littermates, over the age of 4 months. Music of Vietnam. Contrary to myth, it is not required for a female dog to either experience a heat cycle or have puppies before spaying, and likewise, a male dog does not need the experience of mating before neutering; these myths are responsible for numerous unnecessary health problems and unwanted puppies.

Cuisine of Vietnam. The hormonal changes involved are sure to change the animal's personality somewhat, and some object to this angle as the sterilization in itself could be carried out without the excision of organs. Hmong: 0.8m (1.0%). Spaying and neutering can also help prevent hormone-driven diseases such as breast cancer and prostate cancer, as well as undesired hormone-driven behaviors. Nun: 0.9m (1.1%). It is also common for adult stray dogs who are placed in animal shelters to be euthanized due to lack of space and resources. Hoa: 0.9m (1.1%). Unwanted puppies are abandoned, eaten, or sometimes disposed of in an inhumane fashion.

Khmer Krom: 1.1m (1.4%). Dog experts advise that dogs not intended for further breeding should be spayed or neutered so that they do not have undesired puppies. Mường: 1.1m (1.5%). Spaying or neutering refers to the removal of the male testicles or the female ovaries and uterus, in order to remove the capability to procreate, and to kill the libido. Thái: 1.3m (1.7%). For example, the Bulldog often requires artificial insemination and almost always requires cesarean section for giving birth. Tày: 1.5m (1.9%). Some breeds have been developed to emphasize certain physical traits beyond the point at which they can safely bear litters on their own.

Viet/Kinh: 65.8m (86.2%). Since a mother can only provide nutrients and care to a limited number of offspring, humans must assist in the care and feeding when the litter exceeds approximately eight puppies. An average litter consists of about six puppies, though this number may vary widely based on the breed of dog. Dogs bear their litters roughly 9 weeks after fertilization. This rule is altered in domesticated animals since larger litters are often favoured for economic reasons.

A general rule of thumb is that a mammal will produce half as many offspring as the number of teats on the mother. The different rates of maturation are responsible for the menarche, not the chronological age. Like most mammals, the age that a bitch first comes into season is mostly a function of her current body weight as a proportion of her body weight when fully mature. Most bitches come into season for the first time between 6 and 12 months, although some larger breeds delay until as late as 2 years.

Conversely, undomesticated canine species experience estrus once a year, typically in late winter. This is also called in season or in heat. The amount of time between cycles varies greatly among different dogs, but a particular dog's cycle tends to be consistent through her life. The ability of female domestic dog to come into estrus at any time of the year and usually twice a year is also valued.

In domestic dogs, one of the behaviours that is noted is the abolition of the pair bond seen in wild canines. As with most domesticated species, one of the first and strongest effects seen from selective breeding is selection for cooperation with the breeding process as directed by humans. Dog owners may accidentally allow their pets to breed without regard to bloodlines. Dog breeders also have accurate information on the complexities of the reproductive process for the breed of dog that they are accustomed to handling.

Dog breeders have access to records which allow them to accurately guess which characteristics will "breed true" in a particular dog. Breeders who do this are usually experienced in this process. Sometimes dogs are bred to create puppies to sell, or sometimes to carry on an award-winning purebred line. Among professional breeders, dogs are only allowed to mate for a specific purpose.

Dogs also may find some poisons attractive, including antifreeze and snail bait. Alcoholic beverages pose much the same temptation and hazard to dogs as to humans. Some human medications, such as acetaminophen/paracetamol (Tylenol), are highly toxic to dogs. Some foods commonly enjoyed by humans are dangerous to dogs, including chocolate (Theobromine poisoning), onions, grapes and raisins, Macadamia nuts, and hops.

For a discussion on one use of treats in training, see clicker training. Such dogs might consider anything dropped by humans, including small but indigestible objects (such as marbles, coins, rings, etc.), to be treats as well, which could be dangerous to the dogs when ingested. Many dogs consider anything given to them directly by hand to be a treat, even the food they are accustomed to at meal time. Eating grass might make the dog vomit, so one explanation is that dogs eat grass to remove unwanted content from their stomachs.

Explanations abound, but rationales such as that it neutralizes acid are just guesses. Dogs sometimes eat grass, a harmless activity. This research is also true of other mammals. It has also been noted that extremely stressful conditions, such as the Iditarod race and scientific studies of similar conditions, suggest that high-protein diets including meat help prevent damage to muscle tissue.

In the wild these diets are typically pursued in the absence of available meat. Some sources suggest that a dog fed on a stict vegetarian diet may develop dilated cardiomyopathy since it lacks L-carnitine.[3]. Domestic dogs can survive healthily on a reasonable and carefully designed vegetarian diet, particularly if eggs and milk products are included. Wild canines not only eat available plants to obtain key amino acids, but may also obtain nutrients from vegetable matter from the stomach contents of their herbivorous prey.

Dogs are able to healthily digest a variety of foods including vegetables and grains, and in fact can consume a large proportion of these in their diet. Unlike an obligate carnivore, such as a cat, a dog is not dependent on meat protein in order to fulfill its dietary requirements. The classification in the Order Carnivora does not necessarily mean that a dog's diet must be restricted to meat. Presently, there is academic discussion as to whether domestic dogs are omnivores or carnivores.

For a detailed discussion on what dog intelligence is, see dog intelligence. Anecdotal evidence suggests that dogs have a reasonably high intelligence. Among dog lovers, dogs are generally valued for their intelligence. They have small, tight feet, and walk on their toes.

Its skeleton provides the ability to run and leap. Like most other predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, and teeth for catching, holding, and tearing. Although selective breeding has changed the appearance of many breeds, all dogs retain the basic ingredients from their distant ancestors. Many additional terms are used for dogs that are not purebred; see Terms for mixed-breed dogs.

The word is sometimes used to refer collectively to any mammal belonging to the family Canidae (as in "the dog family"), such as wolves, foxes and coyotes. Dog, in common usage, refers to the domestic pet dog, Canis lupus familiaris (originally classified as Canis familiaris by Linnaeus in 1758, but reclassified as a subspecies of the wolf, Canis lupus, by the Smithsonian Institution and the American Society of Mammalogists in 1993). . In other cultures, some dogs are used as food.

Dogs have lived with and worked with humans in so many roles that their loyalty has earned them the sobriquet "man's best friend." Conversely, some cultures consider dogs to be unclean. In many countries, the most common and perhaps most important role of dogs is as companions. For dogs that do not have traditional jobs, a wide range of dog sports provide the opportunity to exhibit their natural skills. Dogs fill a variety of roles in human society and are often trained as working dogs.

Dogs, like humans, are highly social animals and pack hunters; this similarity in their overall behavioral pattern accounts for their trainability, playfulness, and ability to fit into human households and social situations. For example, heights at the withers range from just a few inches (such as the Chihuahua) to roughly three feet (such as the Irish Wolfhound), and colors range from white to black, with reds, grays (usually called blue), and browns occurring in a tremendous variation of patterns. In this time, the dog has developed into hundreds of breeds with a great degree of variation. Dogs were first domesticated from wolves at least 15000 years ago[1] but perhaps as long as 150,000 years ago based on recent genetic fossil evidence and DNA evidence[2].

The dog is a canine mammal of the Order Carnivora. It too has the body plan of an adult canine predator. The least paedomorphic behavior pattern may be that of the basenji, bred in Africa to hunt alongside humans almost on a peer basis; this breed is often described as highly independent, neither needing nor appreciating a great deal of human attention or nurturing, often described as "catlike" in its behavior. Terriers similarly have adult aggressive behavior, famously coupled with a lack of juvenile submission, and display correspondingly adult physical features such as erect ears, although many breeds have also been selected for size and sometimes dwarfed legs to enable them to pursue prey in their burrows.

This contrasts with sighthounds, who pursue and attack perceived prey on sight, and who maintain the mature canine body type with erect ears, lean bodies, and adult coats. Scenthounds maintain an intermediate body type and behavior pattern that causes them to actually pursue prey by tracking their scent, but tend to refrain from actual individual attacks in favor of vocally summoning the pack leaders (in this case, humans) to do the job. Their physical characteristics are closer to that of the mature wild canine than the sheepdog breeds, but they typically do not have erect ears, etc. Similarly, they seize dead or wounded prey and bring it back to the "pack", even though they did not attack it themselves, that is, "retrieving" behavior.

They identify potential prey and freeze into immobility, for instance, but refrain from then stalking the prey as an adult predator would do next; this results in the "pointing" behavior for which such dogs are bred. Gun dog breeds used in hunting—that is, pointers, setters, spaniels, and retrievers—have an intermediate degree of paedomorphism; they are at the point where they share in the pack's hunting behavior, but are still in a junior role, not participating in the actual attack. (Compare to the physical appearance of the border collie, a sheep herding dog, whose physical configuration is closer to that of an adult wild canine and who therefore has a greater capacity to frighten sheep into a desired pattern of movement, along with the more adult aggressive temperament to do so). In addition, they retain very juvenile physical characteristics such as round bodies and heads, soft coats, ears that hang down, and so on, which do not elicit fear responses from the sheep in the way that an appearance similar to that of an adult wolf would.

Livestock guardian dogs retain the most juvenile characteristics: they stay close to home with their foster "litter" (which might include a flock of sheep), rather than going out hunting, they have almost no predatory behavior (which would be disastrous in the vicinity of such a natural prey stimulus as sheep), they respond to perceived threats with a lot of vocalization and attempts to alert and engage the dominant individuals in their "pack" (i.e. humans) whenever possible, engaging in actual combat only as a last resort. Canine in common usage is a synonym for dog or an adjective meaning dog; for example, in the common expression "canine companion". Pooch, Poochie, Pup, Puppy, Doggy, Doggie are all informal and affectionate terms for a dog often used by children. Puppy is a juvenile dog.

Pack is used to denote a group of dogs. Bitch is a female dog. Dog is also a term used by breeders to specifically denote a male domestic dog.

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