Vietnam

Motto: Độc lập - Tự do - Hạnh phúc

(Vietnamese, "Independence, liberty, happiness")

Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca
Capital Hanoi
21°2′ N 105°51′ E
Largest city Ho Chi Minh City
Official language(s) Vietnamese
Government President
Prime Minister
Communist single-party state
Trần Đức Lương
Phan Văn Khải
Independence
Declared
Recognized
From France
September 2, 1945
1954
Area
 • Total
 • Water (%)
 
329,560 km² (65th)
1.3
Population
 • 2005 est.
 • 1999 census

 • Density
 
83,535,576 (13th)
76,323,173

253/km² (31st)
GDP (PPP)
 • Total
 • Per capita
2005 estimate
$231.6 billion (39th)
$2,782 (131st)
HDI (2003) 0.704 (108th) – medium
Currency đồng (₫) (VND)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
(UTC+7)
(UTC+8, does not observe)
Internet TLD .vn
Calling code +84

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, or Vietnam, is a communist country in Southeast Asia. Situated in eastern Indochina, it borders China, Laos, Cambodia, as well as the South China Sea.

Terminology

The name of the country comes from the Vietnamese Việt Nam, which is in turn a reordering of Nam Việt, the name of an ancient kingdom from the ancestral Vietnamese that covered much of today's northern Vietnam. Its cognate name in Chinese, Yuè Nán (越南; Yut6 Naam4 in Cantonese) means "southern extension".

History

Vietnamese legends hold that native people populated and civilized the land more than 4,000 years ago. Chinese historical records tell of an indigenous people that existed about 2,500 years ago. Some historians, both in Asia and in the West, hold that the various peoples of today's Vietnam were brought together by a Qin Dynasty-era general who was fed up with the despotic rule of the Qin Shi Huang (First emperor of China proper) and escaped to the "southern Yue [Viet] mountains" to set up his own kingdom. He and his soldiers conquered the land and established a civilized society modeled after ancient Chinese customs. This Chinese general adopted the native language (which sounded similar to southern Chinese dialects anyway) and married local women, who gave birth to sons that inherited the kingdom. Whether this is indeed historically true or not is still subject to debate.

What is known for sure is that for most of the period from 207 BC to the early 10th century, it was under the rule of successive dynasties of China. Sporadic independence movements were attempted, but were quickly extinguished by the Chinese army. In 939, the Vietnamese defeated Chinese forces at the Bach Dang River and gained independence. They gained complete autonomy a century later. For most of its history, Vietnam has been strongly influenced by its much bigger northern neighbor, China. However, during the rule of the Tran Dynasty, it defeated three Mongol attempts of invasion by the Yuan Dynasty. Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Le Dynasty 1400s, especially with the emperor Le Thanh Tong. Between the 13th and 17th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). They eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and much of the Khmer empire. The independent period ended in the mid-19th century, when the country was colonized by France.

French rule continued until World War II, when Japan briefly occupied Vietnam and used the country as a base to launch attacks against the rest of Indochina and India. When the war ended, France attempted to re-establish control but failed, after they were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. The Geneva Accords subsequently divided the country into North Vietnam and South Vietnam, separated by a demilitarized zone.

During the Cold War, the North was supported by China and the Soviet Union while the South was supported by United States.

The conflict quickly escalated into the Vietnam War. The war continued even after the Paris Peace Accords on January 27, 1973, which formally recognized the sovereignty of both sides.

The Bản Giốc Falls in Cao Bằng, North Vietnam

All American troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. By April 30, 1975, North Vietnam had overtaken South Vietnam and by 1976, Vietnam was officially unified under the North Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

After reunification, political and economic conditions deteriorated to near-famine conditions. Millions of South Vietnamese became boat people over the next two decades. In late 1978, the Cambodian people, with the support of the Vietnamese army, removed the Khmer Rouge from power. Only one month later, however, partially in retaliation, China launched a short-lived incursion into Vietnam: the Sino-Vietnamese War.

In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam implemented economic reforms known as đổi mới (renovation). During much of the 1990s, economic growth was rapid, and Vietnam reintegrated into the international community. It reestablished diplomatic relations with the United States in 1995, one year after the United States' trade embargo on Vietnam was repealed.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Vietnam

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is governed through a highly centralized system dominated by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), which was formerly the Vietnamese Labor Party (1951-1976). The Socialist Republic of Vietnam exists today as a communist state. From 2001 until now, Nong Duc Manh has been General Secretary of CPV. Senior Politburo members (Trần Đức Lương, Phan Văn Khải, Nguyễn Văn An, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, Lê Hồng Anh, Phạm Văn Trà and Trương Quang Được) concurrently hold high positions in the Government and the National Assembly.

There are no legal opposition parties in Vietnam, although a number of opposition groups do exist scattered overseas among exile communities within countries such as France and the United States. These communities have supported demonstrations and civil disobedience against the government. The most prominent are the Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League, and the Government of Free Vietnam. The Government of Free Vietnam has claimed responsibility for a number of guerilla raids into Vietnam, which the Vietnamese government has denounced as terrorism.

Former political parties include the nationalist Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng of Nguyễn Thái Học, the Can Lao party of the Ngô Đình Diệm government and the Viet Nam Duy Tan Hoi of Phan Bội Châu during the colonial period.

Vietnam is a member of the United Nations, La Francophonie, ASEAN, and APEC, and applied for membership to the World Trade Organization in 2001.

Provinces

Main article: Provinces of Vietnam

Vietnam's capital (thủ đô, singular and plural) is Hà Nội (Hà Nội). There are also four municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc Trung ương, singular and plural) existing at provincial level: Cần Thơ, Đà Nẵng, Hải Phòng, and Hồ Chí Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh). Ho Chi Minh City was formerly known as Sài Gòn (Sài Gòn). Now, Saigon is understood as heart of the city (central area of the District 1).

Besides the five cities, the country is divided into fifty-nine provinces (tỉnh, singular and plural): An Giang, Bắc Giang, Bắc Cạn, Bạc Liêu, Bắc Ninh, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu, Bến Tre, Bình Định, Bình Dương, Bình Phước, Bình Thuận, Cà Mau, Cao Bằng, Đắk Lắk, Đắk Nông, Điện Biên, Đồng Nai, Đồng Tháp, Gia Lai, Hà Giang, Hải Dương, Hà Nam, Hà Tây, Hà Tĩnh, Hòa Bình, Hậu Giang, Hưng Yên, Khánh Hòa, Kiên Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Châu, Lâm Đồng, Lạng Sơn, Lào Cai, Long An, Nam Định, Nghệ An, Ninh Bình, Ninh Thuận, Phú Thọ, Phú Yên, Quảng Bình, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Quảng Ninh, Quảng Trị, Sóc Trăng, Sơn La, Tây Ninh, Thái Bình, Thái Nguyên, Thanh Hóa, Thừa Thiên-Huế, Tiền Giang, Trà Vinh, Tuyên Quang, Vĩnh Long, Vĩnh Phúc, Yên Bái.

Geography

Map of Vietnam

Main article: Geography of Vietnam

The country is approximately 331,688 square kilometers (128,066 mi²) in area, which is slightly larger than New Mexico and slightly smaller than Germany. The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20 percent. Mountains account for 40 percent, hills 40 percent, and forests 75 percent. The northern part of the country consists of highlands and the Red River Delta. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 metres (10,312 ft). The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Dai Truong Son (central mountains) with high plateaus, and the Mekong River Delta.

The climate is tropical and monsoonal; humidity averages 84 percent throughout the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 120 to 300 centimetres (47 to 118 inches), and annual temperatures vary between 5°C (41°F) and 37°C (99°F).

Land boundaries: Total: 4,639 km (2,883 mi) Border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km (763 mi), China 1,281 km (796 mi), Laos 2,130 m (1,324 mi)

Economy

Main article: Economy of Vietnam

In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam formally abandoned Marxist economic planning and began introducing market elements as part of a broad economic reform package called "đổi mới" ("Renovation").

In many ways, this followed the Chinese model and achieved similar results. On the one hand, Vietnam achieved around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2002, making it the world's second-fastest growing economy. Simultaneously, investment grew three-fold and domestic savings quintupled.

On the other hand, urban unemployment has been rising steadily in recent years due to high numbers of migration from the countryside to the cities, and rural unemployment, estimated to be up to 35% during nonharvest periods, is already at critical levels. Layoffs in the state sector and foreign-invested enterprises combined with the lasting effects of a previous military demobilization further exacerbated the unemployment situation. The country is attempting to become a member of the WTO. Vietnam, however, is still a relatively poor country with GDP of US$227.2 billion (est., 2004). This translates to US$2700 per capita. Inflation rate is estimated at 14% per year in 2004. This figure has been scaled down by the Government to 9.5% per annum to avoid the ‘double digit’ classification.

The spending power of the public has noticeably increased. The reason lies in the high property prices. In Hanoi, the capital, property prices can be as high as those in Tokyo or New York City. This has amazed many people because GDP per capita of this city is around US$1,000 per annum. The booming prices have given the poor land owners the opportunity to sell their homes for inflated prices. Corruption, bribery and embezzlement committed by many government officials have pushed property prices even higher, as real estate investment is a popular form of money laundering.

Tourism has become an increasingly important industry in Vietnam. Many of the over 3 million annual visitors are Vietnam war veterans.

Demographics

Street scene in Haiphong

Main article: Demographics of Vietnam

According to official figures from the 1999 census, of Vietnam's then population of 76.3m, the largest of 54 government recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam were:

  1. Viet/Kinh: 65.8m (86.2%)
  2. Tày: 1.5m (1.9%)
  3. Thái: 1.3m (1.7%)
  4. Mường: 1.1m (1.5%)
  5. Khmer Krom: 1.1m (1.4%)
  6. Hoa: 0.9m (1.1%)
  7. Nun: 0.9m (1.1%)
  8. Hmong: 0.8m (1.0%)

The majority ethnic Vietnamese, also called Viet or Kinh, make up about 86 percent of the nation's population. They are concentrated largely in the alluvial deltas and in the coastal plains and have little in common with the minority peoples of the highlands, whom they have historically regarded as hostile and barbaric. A homogenous social group, the Viet exert influence on national life through their control of political and economic affairs and their role as purveyors of the dominant culture. By contrast, the ethnic minorities, except for the Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) and the Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese), are found mostly in the highlands that cover two-thirds of the national territory.

Religion

On the way to the Perfume Pagoda outside Hanoi

According to the 1999 Socialist Republic of Vietnam's census numbers, eighty percent of Vietnamese subscribe to no religion. But according to the majority of other sources, Vietnamese people are predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. Mainstream Pure Land schools and Zen-inspired syncretists); with a sizeable Roman Catholic following, Protestant, Cao Đài, and Hoa Hao minorities. The largest Protestant churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church. Membership to Sunni and Bashi Islam are usually accredited to the ethnic Cham minority, but there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents to Islam in the southwest.

Minorities

The Tay people live primarily in the mountains and foothills of northern Vietnam. Their language is a member of the Tai languages, belonging to the Central Tai subgroup and closely related to the Zhuang language of southern China.

Thái is a name used by Vietnamese authorities for a group of people also from the mountainous northern region of Vietnam and whom western linguists say actually speak separate languages: Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, Tai Hang Tong, Tày Tac, and Tai Thanh. All these languages are closely related and belong to the Southwestern Tai subgroup of the Tai languages. This official "Thái" ethnicity should not be confused with the Thai people of Thailand. The Thai people of Thailand speak languages belonging to the Lao-Phutai branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup, while the "Thái" of Vietnam speak languages belonging to the East Central branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup. Although the Thái ethnicity is officially recognized in Vietnam, western linguistics do not recognize it and prefer to classify Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, etc., as separate ethnic groups, in which case the Mường minority moves to second largest minority of Vietnam, Khmer Krom move to third position, and Hoa to fourth position.

The Mường live in the mountains of north central Vietnam and speak a Mon-Khmer language closely related to the Vietnamese language.

The Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) live in the fertile delta of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and are ethnically the same as the Khmer people who make up the majority of the population of Cambodia. There is no consensus on the exact number of Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) living in Vietnam. The Vietnamese government reported 1,055,174 Khmer Krom at the 1999 census.

The Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese) are mainly lowlanders and, more specifically, urban dwellers. They speak predominantly Cantonese (known to the Vietnamese as Quảng Đông), but there are also speakers of Hakka (Khách Gia), Min Nan/Hokkien/Fujian (Mân Nam/Phúc Kiến), Chaozhou (Triều Châu), etc. Up to the 1979 Vietnamese census, the Hoa were the largest minority of Vietnam. However, since the North Vietnamese took over South Vietnam in 1975 many Hoa left Vietnam, especially in the 1980s, so that at the 1999 census the Hoa were only the fifth largest minority (or the fourth largest if the Thái are not considered as an homogenous ethnic group).

Beyond these five largest ethnic minorities, there are 48 other minorities officially recognized by the Vietnamese government, giving a total of 53 minorities altogether. Many of these 53 minority groups only have a few thousand members or so. Vietnam also has a small number of racial Eurasians, people of Asian and Caucasian (mostly white, but also Indian) parentage. Most of them are descendants of Vietnamese people mixed with either early French settlers or white American soldiers and personnel (or both), during the colonial period and Vietnam War. There are also a few of those descended from Indian or Pakistani setttlers also during the colonial era. There are some who are racially mixed with blacks as well, another product during the Vietnam War from American soldiers. Mixed race individuals face the most discrimination in Vietnamese society and government, especially ones who are product of American soldiers (white or black) from the Vietnam War.

Officially, the ethnic minorities are referred to as "national minorities". The French used the name Montagnard (plural Montagnards, meaning "mountain people") to call all the minorities (except the Khmer Krom and the Hoa), no matter what their actual language. The name Montagnard is still sometimes used today. Sometimes, the name Montagnard is used specifically for the Mường ethnic group.

Human Rights NGOs point out the Vietnamese government's poor record with respect to ethnic minorities. In particular, the large Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) minority of southern Vietnam is denied elementary human rights in an effort by the Vietnamese government to Vietnamize the Khmer Krom, or force them to leave their native land and relocate to Cambodia. The Vietnamese government is afraid that the large native Khmer Krom population in the Mekong delta could allow Cambodia to officially claim back the fertile areas of the delta that were annexed by Vietnam more than 200 years ago. On the other hand, some in the Vietnamese government still pursue the centuries old policy of colonizing Khmer land, and it was reported that in the 1980s and 1990s some local Vietnamese officials have pushed the Cambodian-Vietnamese border several kilometers inside Cambodian territory, annexing tens of Cambodian villages, in violation of international treaties, thus further increasing the ethnic Khmer population inside Vietnam.

Further north, there have been reports of tensions with the Tày people due to the government sponsored relocation of ethnic Vietnamese from the lowlands to the highlands inhabited by the Tày and other minorities. Protests and demonstrations by highland minorities have been reported.

Percentage of ethnic Vietnamese

According to the 1999 census, ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) numbered 65,795,718 and thus accounted for 86.2% of the total population of Vietnam.

In terms of land area, the ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country).

The birth rate of the ethnic Vietnamese (and also the Hoa), which historically has been very high, decreased significantly since the 1980s and is now reaching much lower levels, comparable to the birth rates in Thailand or Malaysia. The birth rate of the minorities is still very high, comparable to birth rates in Cambodia or Laos.

As a result, the ethnic minorities are now growing at a faster rate than the ethnic Vietnamese, which means that the percentage of ethnic Vietnamese in the total population is slowly decreasing year after year. According to official figures, at the 1979 census the ethnic Vietnamese accounted for 87.4% of the total population. The figure was down to 86.9% at the 1989 census, and 86.2% at the 1999 census.

Languages

According to official figures, 86.2% of the population speak Vietnamese as a native tongue.

Various other languages are spoken by the several minority groups in Vietnam. The most spoken languages are: Tày (1.5 million), Mường (1.2 million), Khmer (1.05 million), Cantonese (870,000, this figure also includes speakers of other Chinese dialects), Nung (860,000), HMông (790,000), and Tai Dam (700,000).

French, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by some (mostly older) Vietnamese as a second language. Russian- and to a much lesser extent Czech or Polish- is often known among "baby-boomers" whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc. In recent years, English has become a more popular language to learn and is increasingly used in business, among other things.

See also: List of ethnic groups in Vietnam

Culture

Main article: Culture of Vietnam

In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. In the 16th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters called Chữ Nôm. The celebrated epic Đoạn trường tân thanh (or Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du is written in Chữ Nôm. During the French colonial period, Quốc Ngữ, the romanized Vietnamese alphabet representation of spoken Vietnamese, became popular and brought literacy to the masses.

Due to Vietnam's long association with China, Vietnamese culture remains strongly Confucian with its emphasis on familial duty. Education is highly prized. Historically, passing the imperial Mandarin exams was the only means for Vietnamese people to socially advance themselves.

The majority of Vietnamese are adherents to Mahayana Buddhism, influenced by Confucianism and Daoism, and with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship. Others say that the Vietnamese' second religion is superstition and fatalism, brought on by the decades of war.

Vietnam's cuisine and music have three distinct flavors, related to Vietnam's three regions: Bắc or North, Trung or Central, and Nam or South. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest and is traditionally more formal. Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe. Central classical music shows the influences of Champa culture with its melancholic melodies. Southern music exudes a lively laissez faire attitude. Vietnamese cuisine is based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. Its characteristic flavor is sweet (sugar), spicy (serrano peppers), and flavored by a variety of mints.

See also:


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See also:. There are two theories about the origin of the name "Hitler":. Its characteristic flavor is sweet (sugar), spicy (serrano peppers), and flavored by a variety of mints. Over the years various investigative reporters have attempted to track down other distant relatives of the Führer; many are now alleged to be living inconspicuous lives and have long since changed their last name. Vietnamese cuisine is based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. It is claimed that none of William Hitler's children had any children of their own, which would put an end to the Hitler bloodline. Southern music exudes a lively laissez faire attitude. With his wife Phyllis, he eventually moved to Long Island, New York and had four sons.

Central classical music shows the influences of Champa culture with its melancholic melodies. The most prominent, and longest-living direct descendants of Adolf Hitler's father, Alois, was his nephew William Patrick Hitler. Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe. Paula Hitler, the last living member of Adolf Hitler's immediate family, passed away in 1960. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest and is traditionally more formal. Hitler's alleged health problems have long been the subject of debate, and he has variously been suggested to have suffered from irritable bowel syndrome, skin lesions, irregular heartbeat, tremors on the left side of his body, syphilis, Parkinson's disease and a strongly suggested addiction to methamphetamines. Vietnam's cuisine and music have three distinct flavors, related to Vietnam's three regions: Bắc or North, Trung or Central, and Nam or South. While some Revisionist historians note Hitler's attempts to improve the economic and political standing and conditions of his people and claim his tactics were in essence no different from those of many other leaders in history, his methods and legacy, as interpreted by most historians, have caused him to be one of the most despised leaders in history.

Others say that the Vietnamese' second religion is superstition and fatalism, brought on by the decades of war. Bal Thackeray, leader of the right-wing Shiv Sena party in the Indian state of the Maharashtra, declared in 1995 that he was an admirer of Hitler. The majority of Vietnamese are adherents to Mahayana Buddhism, influenced by Confucianism and Daoism, and with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship. Future Egyptian President Anwar Sadat wrote favourably of Hitler in 1953. Historically, passing the imperial Mandarin exams was the only means for Vietnamese people to socially advance themselves. Despite this there have been instances of public figures referring to his legacy in neutral or even favourable terms, particularly in South America, the Islamic World and parts of Asia. Education is highly prized. The display of swastikas or other Nazi symbols is prohibited in Germany and political extremists are generally under surveillance by the Verfassungsschutz, one of the federal or state-based offices for the protection of the constitution.

Due to Vietnam's long association with China, Vietnamese culture remains strongly Confucian with its emphasis on familial duty. Reproductions in Germany are generally authorized only for scholarly purposes and in heavily commented form. During the French colonial period, Quốc Ngữ, the romanized Vietnamese alphabet representation of spoken Vietnamese, became popular and brought literacy to the masses. The copyright of Hitler's book Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is held by the Free State of Bavaria and will expire in 2015. The celebrated epic Đoạn trường tân thanh (or Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du is written in Chữ Nôm. Historical and cultural portrayals of Hitler in the west are almost uniformly negative, often neglecting to mention the adulation the German people bestowed on Hitler during his lifetime, though the vast majority of present-day Germans share a negative view of Hitler. In the 16th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters called Chữ Nôm. Since the defeat of Germany in World War II, Hitler, the Nazi Party and the results of Nazism have been regarded in most of the world as synonymous with evil.

In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. On 8 May 1945, in Reims, France, the German armed forces surrendered unconditionally ending the war in Europe and with the creation of the Allied Control Council on 5 June 1945, the Four Powers assumed "supreme authority with respect to Germany." Adolf Hitler's proclaimed Thousand Year Reich had lasted 12 years. Main article: Culture of Vietnam. However, Goebbels and his wife Magda committed suicide on 1 May 1945. See also: List of ethnic groups in Vietnam. In his will he dismissed other Nazi leaders and appointed Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz as Reichspräsident (President of Germany) and Goebbels as Reichskanzler (Chancellor of Germany). In recent years, English has become a more popular language to learn and is increasingly used in business, among other things. Millions of Germans were dead with millions more wounded or homeless.

Russian- and to a much lesser extent Czech or Polish- is often known among "baby-boomers" whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc. At the time of Hitler's death most of Germany's infrastructure and major cities were in ruins and he had left explicit orders to complete the destruction. French, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by some (mostly older) Vietnamese as a second language. intelligence operative in late 1945. The most spoken languages are: Tày (1.5 million), Mường (1.2 million), Khmer (1.05 million), Cantonese (870,000, this figure also includes speakers of other Chinese dialects), Nung (860,000), HMông (790,000), and Tai Dam (700,000). "I would have preferred it if he'd followed his original ambition and become an architect." — Paula Hitler, Hitler's younger sister, during an interview with a U.S. Various other languages are spoken by the several minority groups in Vietnam. In April 1970, when the facility was about to be turned over to the East German government, the remains were reportedly exhumed, thoroughly cremated, and the ashes finally dumped unceremoniously into the Elbe.

According to official figures, 86.2% of the population speak Vietnamese as a native tongue. To avoid any possibility of creating a potential shrine the remains of Hitler and Braun were repeatedly moved, then secretly buried by SMERSH at their new headquarters in Magdeburg. The figure was down to 86.9% at the 1989 census, and 86.2% at the 1999 census. When Russian forces reached the Chancellory they found his body and an autopsy was performed using dental records (and German dental assistants who were familiar with them) to confirm the identification. According to official figures, at the 1979 census the ethnic Vietnamese accounted for 87.4% of the total population. Hitler's body and that of Eva Braun (his long-term mistress whom he had married the day before) were put in a bomb crater, partially burned with petrol by Führerbunker aides and hastily buried in the Chancellory garden as Russian shells poured down and Red Army infantry continued to advance only two or three hundred metres away. As a result, the ethnic minorities are now growing at a faster rate than the ethnic Vietnamese, which means that the percentage of ethnic Vietnamese in the total population is slowly decreasing year after year. When after intense street-to-street combat Soviet troops were spotted within a block or two of the Reich Chancellory in the city centre, Hitler committed suicide in the Führerbunker on April 30, 1945 by means of a self-delivered shot to the head (it is likely he simultaneously bit into a cyanide ampoule).

The birth rate of the minorities is still very high, comparable to birth rates in Cambodia or Laos. Hitler angrily reacted by dismissing both Himmler and Göring from all their offices and the party, declaring them traitors. The birth rate of the ethnic Vietnamese (and also the Hoa), which historically has been very high, decreased significantly since the 1980s and is now reaching much lower levels, comparable to the birth rates in Thailand or Malaysia. Meanwhile Hermann Göring sent a telegram from Bavaria in which he argued that since Hitler was cut off in Berlin, as Hitler's designated successor he should assume leadership of Germany. In terms of land area, the ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country). SS leader Heinrich Himmler tried on his own to inform the Allies (through the Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte) that Germany was prepared to discuss surrender terms. According to the 1999 census, ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) numbered 65,795,718 and thus accounted for 86.2% of the total population of Vietnam. Hitler's closest lieutenants urged him to flee to Bavaria or Austria to make a last stand in the mountains, but he seemed determined to either live or die in the capital.

Protests and demonstrations by highland minorities have been reported. In April 1945 Soviet forces were at the gates of Berlin. Further north, there have been reports of tensions with the Tày people due to the government sponsored relocation of ethnic Vietnamese from the lowlands to the highlands inhabited by the Tày and other minorities. This gave more time for the killing of Jews and others, Hitler's main agenda by now. On the other hand, some in the Vietnamese government still pursue the centuries old policy of colonizing Khmer land, and it was reported that in the 1980s and 1990s some local Vietnamese officials have pushed the Cambodian-Vietnamese border several kilometers inside Cambodian territory, annexing tens of Cambodian villages, in violation of international treaties, thus further increasing the ethnic Khmer population inside Vietnam. The Germans had lost the war from a military perspective, but Hitler allowed no negotiation with the Allied forces, and as a consequence the German military forces continued to fight. The Vietnamese government is afraid that the large native Khmer Krom population in the Mekong delta could allow Cambodia to officially claim back the fertile areas of the delta that were annexed by Vietnam more than 200 years ago. The western allies were also rapidly advancing into Germany.

In particular, the large Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) minority of southern Vietnam is denied elementary human rights in an effort by the Vietnamese government to Vietnamize the Khmer Krom, or force them to leave their native land and relocate to Cambodia. By the end of 1944, the Red Army had driven the last German troops from Soviet territory and began charging into Central Europe. Human Rights NGOs point out the Vietnamese government's poor record with respect to ethnic minorities. The main resistance movement was destroyed although smaller isolated groups such as Die Rote Kapelle continued to operate. Sometimes, the name Montagnard is used specifically for the Mường ethnic group. He ordered savage reprisals, resulting in the executions of more than 4,000 people (often by starvation in solitary confinement followed by slow strangulation). The name Montagnard is still sometimes used today. In July 1944 one of them, Claus von Stauffenberg, planted a bomb at Hitler's military headquarters in Rastenburg (the so-called July 20 Plot), but Hitler narrowly escaped death.

The French used the name Montagnard (plural Montagnards, meaning "mountain people") to call all the minorities (except the Khmer Krom and the Hoa), no matter what their actual language. Realists in the German army knew defeat was inevitable and some officers plotted to remove Hitler from power. Officially, the ethnic minorities are referred to as "national minorities". On June 6, 1944 the Western allied armies landed in northern France in what was the largest amphibious operation ever conducted, Operation Overlord. Mixed race individuals face the most discrimination in Vietnamese society and government, especially ones who are product of American soldiers (white or black) from the Vietnam War. Throughout 1943 and 1944, the Soviet Union steadily forced Hitler's armies into retreat along the eastern front. There are some who are racially mixed with blacks as well, another product during the Vietnam War from American soldiers. Hitler's ally Benito Mussolini was overthrown in 1943 after Operation Husky, an American and British invasion of Sicily.

There are also a few of those descended from Indian or Pakistani setttlers also during the colonial era. Other conditions that are suspected by some to have caused some (at least) of his symptoms are methamphetamine addiction and syphilis. Most of them are descendants of Vietnamese people mixed with either early French settlers or white American soldiers and personnel (or both), during the colonial period and Vietnam War. The biographer Ian Kershaw believes he suffered from Parkinson's disease. Vietnam also has a small number of racial Eurasians, people of Asian and Caucasian (mostly white, but also Indian) parentage. His left hand started shaking uncontrollably. Many of these 53 minority groups only have a few thousand members or so. Hitler's health was deteriorating too.

Beyond these five largest ethnic minorities, there are 48 other minorities officially recognized by the Vietnamese government, giving a total of 53 minorities altogether. From this point on, the quality of Hitler's military judgement became increasingly erratic and Germany's military and economic position deteriorated. However, since the North Vietnamese took over South Vietnam in 1975 many Hoa left Vietnam, especially in the 1980s, so that at the 1999 census the Hoa were only the fifth largest minority (or the fourth largest if the Thái are not considered as an homogenous ethnic group). Both defeats were turning points in the war, although the latter is more commonly considered primary. Up to the 1979 Vietnamese census, the Hoa were the largest minority of Vietnam. In February of 1943, the lengthy Battle of Stalingrad ended with the complete encirclement and destruction of the German 6th Army. They speak predominantly Cantonese (known to the Vietnamese as Quảng Đông), but there are also speakers of Hakka (Khách Gia), Min Nan/Hokkien/Fujian (Mân Nam/Phúc Kiến), Chaozhou (Triều Châu), etc. In late 1942, German forces under Feldmarschall Erwin Rommel were defeated in the second battle of El Alamein, thwarting Hitler's plans to seize the Suez Canal and the Middle East.

The Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese) are mainly lowlanders and, more specifically, urban dwellers. Hitler reacted by ordering brutal reprisals, including the massacre of Lidice. The Vietnamese government reported 1,055,174 Khmer Krom at the 1999 census. In May 1942 Reinhard Heydrich, a high-ranking SS officer and one of Hitler's favourite subordinates and possible political heir, was assassinated by British-trained Czech operatives in Prague. There is no consensus on the exact number of Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) living in Vietnam. Hitler's declaration of war against the United States on December 11, 1941, (which arguably was called for by Germany's treaty with Japan) set him against a coalition that included the world's largest empire (the British Empire), the world's greatest industrial and financial power (the USA), and the world's largest army (the Soviet Union). The Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) live in the fertile delta of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and are ethnically the same as the Khmer people who make up the majority of the population of Cambodia. German forces, however, were stopped short of Moscow in December 1941 by the Russian winter and fierce Soviet resistance (see Battle of Moscow), and the invasion failed to achieve the quick triumph over the Soviet Union which Hitler had anticipated.

The Mường live in the mountains of north central Vietnam and speak a Mon-Khmer language closely related to the Vietnamese language. This invasion, code-named Operation Barbarossa, seized huge amounts of territory, including the Baltic states, Belarus, and Ukraine, along with the encirclement and destruction of many Soviet forces. Although the Thái ethnicity is officially recognized in Vietnam, western linguistics do not recognize it and prefer to classify Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, etc., as separate ethnic groups, in which case the Mường minority moves to second largest minority of Vietnam, Khmer Krom move to third position, and Hoa to fourth position. On June 22, 1941, Hitler gave the signal for three million German troops to attack the Soviet Union, breaking the non-aggression pact he had concluded with Stalin less than two years earlier. The Thai people of Thailand speak languages belonging to the Lao-Phutai branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup, while the "Thái" of Vietnam speak languages belonging to the East Central branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup. Air superiority for the invasion, code-named Operation Sealion, could not be assured and Hitler ordered bombing raids to be carried out on British cities, including London and Coventry, mostly at night. This official "Thái" ethnicity should not be confused with the Thai people of Thailand. However, the Luftwaffe failed to defeat the RAF by the end of October 1940.

All these languages are closely related and belong to the Southwestern Tai subgroup of the Tai languages. The attacks began by pounding the RAF airbases and the radar stations protecting South-East England. Thái is a name used by Vietnamese authorities for a group of people also from the mountainous northern region of Vietnam and whom western linguists say actually speak separate languages: Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, Tai Hang Tong, Tày Tac, and Tai Thanh. After having his overtures for peace systematically rejected by the British Government, now led by Winston Churchill, Hitler ordered bombing raids on the British Isles, leading to the Battle of Britain, a prelude of the planned German invasion. Their language is a member of the Tai languages, belonging to the Central Tai subgroup and closely related to the Zhuang language of southern China. Britain, whose defeated forces had evacuated France from the coastal town of Dunkirk, continued to fight with Canadian forces in the Battle of the Atlantic. The Tay people live primarily in the mountains and foothills of northern Vietnam. This series of victories convinced his main ally, Benito Mussolini of Italy, to join the war on Hitler's side in May 1940.

Membership to Sunni and Bashi Islam are usually accredited to the ethnic Cham minority, but there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents to Islam in the southwest. France surrendered on June 22, 1940. The largest Protestant churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church. In May 1940, Hitler ordered his forces to attack France, conquering the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium in the process. Mainstream Pure Land schools and Zen-inspired syncretists); with a sizeable Roman Catholic following, Protestant, Cao Đài, and Hoa Hao minorities. In April 1940, he ordered German forces to march into Denmark and Norway. But according to the majority of other sources, Vietnamese people are predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. After conquering Western Poland by the end of September, Hitler built up his forces much further during the so-called Phony War.

According to the 1999 Socialist Republic of Vietnam's census numbers, eighty percent of Vietnamese subscribe to no religion. Not long after this (September 17) Soviet forces invaded eastern Poland. By contrast, the ethnic minorities, except for the Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) and the Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese), are found mostly in the highlands that cover two-thirds of the national territory. Britain and France, who had guaranteed assistance to Poland, declared war on Germany. A homogenous social group, the Viet exert influence on national life through their control of political and economic affairs and their role as purveyors of the dominant culture. On September 1, Germany invaded the western portion of Poland. They are concentrated largely in the alluvial deltas and in the coastal plains and have little in common with the minority peoples of the highlands, whom they have historically regarded as hostile and barbaric. Britain had not been able to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for an alliance against Germany, and, on August 23, 1939, Hitler concluded a secret non-aggression pact (the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) with Stalin on which it was likely agreed that Soviet Union and Nazi Germany would partition Poland.

The majority ethnic Vietnamese, also called Viet or Kinh, make up about 86 percent of the nation's population. After that, Hitler was claiming territories ceded to Poland under the Versailles Treaty. According to official figures from the 1999 census, of Vietnam's then population of 76.3m, the largest of 54 government recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam were:. Hitler ordered Germany's army to enter Prague on March 10, 1939 and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. Main article: Demographics of Vietnam. British prime minister Neville Chamberlain hailed this agreement as "Peace in our time", but by giving way to Hitler's military demands Britain and France also left Czechoslovakia to Hitler's mercy. Many of the over 3 million annual visitors are Vietnam war veterans. As a result of the summit, Hitler was TIME magazine's Man of the Year in 1938.

Tourism has become an increasingly important industry in Vietnam. This led to the Munich Agreement of September 1938, which authorized the annexation and immediate military occupation of these districts by Germany. Corruption, bribery and embezzlement committed by many government officials have pushed property prices even higher, as real estate investment is a popular form of money laundering. Next, he intensified a crisis over the German-speaking Sudetenland districts of Czechoslovakia. The booming prices have given the poor land owners the opportunity to sell their homes for inflated prices. On March 12, 1938, Hitler pressured his native Austria into unification with Germany (the Anschluss) and made a triumphal entry into Vienna. This has amazed many people because GDP per capita of this city is around US$1,000 per annum. Days later, on February 22, Hitler was recorded saying to his closest associates, "we shall regain our health only by eliminating the Jews".

In Hanoi, the capital, property prices can be as high as those in Tokyo or New York City. The records of this meeting provide the clearest evidence of central planning for the Holocaust. The reason lies in the high property prices. To make for smoother intra-governmental cooperation in the implementation of this "Final Solution" to the "Jewish question", the Wannsee conference was held near Berlin on January 20, 1942, with fifteen senior officials participating, led by Reinhard Heydrich and Adolf Eichmann. The spending power of the public has noticeably increased. During interrogations by Soviet intelligence officers declassified over fifty years later, Hitler's valet Heinz Linge and his military aide Otto Gunsche said Hitler had "pored over the first blueprints of gas chambers.". This figure has been scaled down by the Government to 9.5% per annum to avoid the ‘double digit’ classification. While no specific order from Hitler authorizing the mass killing of the Jews has surfaced, there is documentation showing that he approved the Einsatzgruppen and the evidence also suggests that sometime in the fall of 1941 Himmler and Hitler agreed in principle on mass extermination by gassing.

Inflation rate is estimated at 14% per year in 2004. The massacres that led to the coining of the word "genocide" (the Endlösung der jüdischen Frage or "Final Solution of the Jewish Question") were planned and ordered by leading Nazis, with Himmler playing a key role. This translates to US$2700 per capita. This industrial-scale genocide in Europe is referred to as the Holocaust (the term is also used by some authors in a narrower sense, to refer specifically to the unprecedented destruction of European Jewry in particular). Vietnam, however, is still a relatively poor country with GDP of US$227.2 billion (est., 2004). Along with Jews, non-Jewish Poles (over 3 million of whom died), alleged communists or political opposition, members of resistance groups, homosexuals, dissenting Roman Catholics and Protestants, Roma, the physically handicapped and mentally retarded, Soviet prisoners of war, Jehovah's Witnesses, anti-Nazi clergy, trade unionists, and psychiatric patients were killed. The country is attempting to become a member of the WTO. Besides being gassed to death, many also died of starvation and disease while working as slave labourers.

Layoffs in the state sector and foreign-invested enterprises combined with the lasting effects of a previous military demobilization further exacerbated the unemployment situation. Between 1939 and 1945 the SS, assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, systematically killed about 11 million people, (about 5-6 million of whom are believed to have been Jews[4]) in concentration camps, ghettos and mass executions, or through less systematic methods elsewhere. On the other hand, urban unemployment has been rising steadily in recent years due to high numbers of migration from the countryside to the cities, and rural unemployment, estimated to be up to 35% during nonharvest periods, is already at critical levels. Then on November 5, 1937, at the Reich Chancellory, Adolf Hitler held a secret meeting and stated his plans for acquiring "living space" (Lebensraum) for the German people. Simultaneously, investment grew three-fold and domestic savings quintupled. They were collectively known as the Axis Powers. On the one hand, Vietnam achieved around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2002, making it the world's second-fastest growing economy. This alliance was later expanded to include Japan, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria.

In many ways, this followed the Chinese model and achieved similar results. An Axis was declared between Germany and Italy by Galeazzo Ciano, foreign minister of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini on October 25, 1936. In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam formally abandoned Marxist economic planning and began introducing market elements as part of a broad economic reform package called "đổi mới" ("Renovation"). Hitler sent troops to support Franco and Spain served as a testing ground for Germany's new armed forces and their methods, including the bombing of undefended towns such as Guernica, which was destroyed by the Luftwaffe in April 1937, prompting Pablo Picasso's famous eponymous painting (see Guernica). Main article: Economy of Vietnam. In July 1936 the Spanish Civil War began when the military, led by General Francisco Franco, rebelled against the elected Popular Front government of Spain. Land boundaries: Total: 4,639 km (2,883 mi) Border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km (763 mi), China 1,281 km (796 mi), Laos 2,130 m (1,324 mi). When Britain and France did nothing, he grew bolder.

Annual rainfall ranges from 120 to 300 centimetres (47 to 118 inches), and annual temperatures vary between 5°C (41°F) and 37°C (99°F). In March 1936 Hitler again violated the Treaty of Versailles by reoccupying the demilitarized zone in the Rhineland. The climate is tropical and monsoonal; humidity averages 84 percent throughout the year. For the first time in a generation, Germany's armed forces were as strong as those of her antagonistic neighbour, France. The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Dai Truong Son (central mountains) with high plateaus, and the Mekong River Delta. The enlistment of vast numbers of men and women in the new military seemed to solve unemployment problems but seriously distorted the economy. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 metres (10,312 ft). He set about building a massive military machine, including a new Navy (the Kriegsmarine) and an Air Force (the Luftwaffe).

The northern part of the country consists of highlands and the Red River Delta. In March 1935 Hitler repudiated the Treaty of Versailles by reintroducing conscription in Germany. Mountains account for 40 percent, hills 40 percent, and forests 75 percent. Throughout the 1930s the Propaganda Ministry disseminated anti-Semitic propaganda. The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20 percent. From 1941 Jews were required to wear a yellow Star of David in public. The country is approximately 331,688 square kilometers (128,066 mi²) in area, which is slightly larger than New Mexico and slightly smaller than Germany. Between November 1938 and September 1939 more than 180,000 Jews fled Germany and the Nazis seized whatever property they left behind.

Main article: Geography of Vietnam. In 1938 a pogrom orchestrated by Joseph Goebbels and endorsed by Hitler called Kristallnacht destroyed many Jewish businesses and synagogues and resulted in about 100 deaths. Besides the five cities, the country is divided into fifty-nine provinces (tỉnh, singular and plural): An Giang, Bắc Giang, Bắc Cạn, Bạc Liêu, Bắc Ninh, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu, Bến Tre, Bình Định, Bình Dương, Bình Phước, Bình Thuận, Cà Mau, Cao Bằng, Đắk Lắk, Đắk Nông, Điện Biên, Đồng Nai, Đồng Tháp, Gia Lai, Hà Giang, Hải Dương, Hà Nam, Hà Tây, Hà Tĩnh, Hòa Bình, Hậu Giang, Hưng Yên, Khánh Hòa, Kiên Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Châu, Lâm Đồng, Lạng Sơn, Lào Cai, Long An, Nam Định, Nghệ An, Ninh Bình, Ninh Thuận, Phú Thọ, Phú Yên, Quảng Bình, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Quảng Ninh, Quảng Trị, Sóc Trăng, Sơn La, Tây Ninh, Thái Bình, Thái Nguyên, Thanh Hóa, Thừa Thiên-Huế, Tiền Giang, Trà Vinh, Tuyên Quang, Vĩnh Long, Vĩnh Phúc, Yên Bái. The policy was successful in causing the emigration of many thousands but nevertheless turned increasingly violent in the mid to late 1930s. Now, Saigon is understood as heart of the city (central area of the District 1). To indicate their Jewishness, Jews were forced to adopt a second name and had their papers stamped with a big red "J". Ho Chi Minh City was formerly known as Sài Gòn (Sài Gòn). Under the 1935 Nuremberg Laws Jews lost their German citizenship and were expelled from government employment, their professions and most forms of economic activity.

There are also four municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc Trung ương, singular and plural) existing at provincial level: Cần Thơ, Đà Nẵng, Hải Phòng, and Hồ Chí Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh). The racial policies of Nazi Germany during the early to mid-1930s included the harassment and persecution of Jews through legislation, restrictions on civil rights and limiting their economic opportunities. Vietnam's capital (thủ đô, singular and plural) is Hà Nội (Hà Nội). This was implemented not only against political enemies such as communists but also against perceived "asocials" such as habitual criminals and the work-shy along with "racial enemies," mainly Jews. Main article: Provinces of Vietnam. The Gestapo-SS complex (the SS and Gestapo organizations) were primarily responsible for repression in the Nazi state. Vietnam is a member of the United Nations, La Francophonie, ASEAN, and APEC, and applied for membership to the World Trade Organization in 2001. In 1932 Hitler was instrumental in initiating the design work on the car that later became the Volkswagen Beetle.[3].

Former political parties include the nationalist Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng of Nguyễn Thái Học, the Can Lao party of the Ngô Đình Diệm government and the Viet Nam Duy Tan Hoi of Phan Bội Châu during the colonial period. Had the railroad been built, its gauge would have been three metres, even wider than the old Great Western Railway of Britain. The Government of Free Vietnam has claimed responsibility for a number of guerilla raids into Vietnam, which the Vietnamese government has denounced as terrorism. Although Hitler made plans for a Breitspurbahn (broad gauge railroad network), they were pre-empted by World War II. The most prominent are the Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League, and the Government of Free Vietnam. Olympia, the movie about the games and documentary propaganda films for the German Nazi Party were directed by Hitler's personal filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. These communities have supported demonstrations and civil disobedience against the government. In 1936 Berlin hosted the summer Olympic games, which were opened by Hitler and choreographed to demonstrate Aryan superiority over all other races.

There are no legal opposition parties in Vietnam, although a number of opposition groups do exist scattered overseas among exile communities within countries such as France and the United States. Hitler's government sponsored architecture on an immense scale, with Albert Speer becoming famous as the first architect of the Reich. Senior Politburo members (Trần Đức Lương, Phan Văn Khải, Nguyễn Văn An, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, Lê Hồng Anh, Phạm Văn Trà and Trương Quang Được) concurrently hold high positions in the Government and the National Assembly. This revitalising of industry and infrastructure came at the expense of the overall standard of living, at least for those not affected by the chronic unemployment of the later Weimar Republic, since wages were slightly reduced in pre-war years despite a 25% increase in the cost of living (Shirer 1959). From 2001 until now, Nong Duc Manh has been General Secretary of CPV. Hitler's policies emphasised the importance of family life: Men were the "breadwinners", while women's priorities were to lie in bringing up children and in household work. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam exists today as a communist state. Hitler also oversaw one of the largest infrastructure improvement campaigns in German history, with the construction of dozens of dams, autobahns, railroads and other civil works.

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is governed through a highly centralized system dominated by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), which was formerly the Vietnamese Labor Party (1951-1976). The negative effects of this inflation were offset in later years by the acquisition of foreign gold from the treasuries of conquered nations. Main article: Politics of Vietnam. Much of the financing for Hitler's reconstruction and rearmament came from currency manipulation by Hjalmar Schacht, including the clouded credits through the Mefo bills. It reestablished diplomatic relations with the United States in 1995, one year after the United States' trade embargo on Vietnam was repealed. Given this, claims that the German economy achieved near full employment are at least partly artifacts of propaganda from the era. During much of the 1990s, economic growth was rapid, and Vietnam reintegrated into the international community. The unemployment rate was cut substantially, mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs.

In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam implemented economic reforms known as đổi mới (renovation). Nazi policies towards women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to bear children and keep house. Only one month later, however, partially in retaliation, China launched a short-lived incursion into Vietnam: the Sino-Vietnamese War. Hitler oversaw one of the greatest expansions of industrial production and civil improvement Germany had ever seen, mostly based on debt flotation and expansion of the military. In late 1978, the Cambodian people, with the support of the Vietnamese army, removed the Khmer Rouge from power. Having secured supreme political power without an electoral mandate from the majority of Germans, Hitler went on to gain their support by persuading most Germans he was their saviour from the Depression, the Communists, the Versailles Treaty, and the Jews along with other "undesirable" minorities. Millions of South Vietnamese became boat people over the next two decades. Combining the highest offices in state, military and party in his hand, Hitler had attained supreme rule that could no longer be legally challenged.

After reunification, political and economic conditions deteriorated to near-famine conditions. In a mid-August plebiscite these acts found the approval of 90% of the electorate. By April 30, 1975, North Vietnam had overtaken South Vietnam and by 1976, Vietnam was officially unified under the North Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Thereby Hitler also became supreme commander of the military, which swore their military oath not to the state or the constitution but to Hitler personally. All American troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. Rather than holding new presidential elections, Hitler's cabinet passed a law proclaiming the presidency dormant and transferred the role and powers of the head of state to Hitler as Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor). The war continued even after the Paris Peace Accords on January 27, 1973, which formally recognized the sovereignty of both sides. Soon after, president Paul von Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934.

The conflict quickly escalated into the Vietnam War. Opponents unconnected with the SA were also murdered, notably Gregor Strasser and former Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher. During the Cold War, the North was supported by China and the Soviet Union while the South was supported by United States. Meanwhile the SA was growing into an independent power of its own and Hitler used allegations of a plot by the SA leader Ernst Röhm to purge the paramilitary force's leadership during the Night of the Long Knives. The Geneva Accords subsequently divided the country into North Vietnam and South Vietnam, separated by a demilitarized zone. Hitler also used the SA paramilitary to push Hugenberg into resigning and proceeded to politically isolate Vice Chancellor von Papen. When the war ended, France attempted to re-establish control but failed, after they were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. Labour unions were merged with employers' federations into an organisation under Nazi control and the autonomy of state governments was severely diminished.

French rule continued until World War II, when Japan briefly occupied Vietnam and used the country as a base to launch attacks against the rest of Indochina and India. All other political parties dissolved themselves. The independent period ended in the mid-19th century, when the country was colonized by France. The SPD was banned but not before itself assenting to Communist party proscription with the fortnight. They eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and much of the Khmer empire. With this combination of legislative and executive power, Hitler's government further suppressed the remaining political opposition. Between the 13th and 17th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). The Enabling Act was dutifully renewed every four years, even through World War II.

Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Le Dynasty 1400s, especially with the emperor Le Thanh Tong. Thus all parties present, of which minor others there were several, but excepting the Social Democrats, voted assent. However, during the rule of the Tran Dynasty, it defeated three Mongol attempts of invasion by the Yuan Dynasty. During this speech, Ludwig Kaas is recorded as having been told on his enquiry, that the letter of general Constitutional guarantee "was being typed-up," and despite earlier warning from the ex-Centre Chancellor Brüning, who had experience in such promises, Kaas silently cast the Centre and BVPlarge bloc-vote. For most of its history, Vietnam has been strongly influenced by its much bigger northern neighbor, China. Social Democrat Otto Wels denounced the treachery of the Act, motivating an enraged Hitler to berate this temerity and to threaten all Leftist parties with physical eradication. They gained complete autonomy a century later. Some SA paramilitaries served as guards within while large groups outside the building shouted slogans and threats towards the Social Democrats.

In 939, the Vietnamese defeated Chinese forces at the Bach Dang River and gained independence. At the later session for the voting, the still Communist-depleted assembly met under extreme turbulent circumstances. Sporadic independence movements were attempted, but were quickly extinguished by the Chinese army. Kaas gave his speech, voicing the Centre's support for the bill amid "concerns put aside.". What is known for sure is that for most of the period from 207 BC to the early 10th century, it was under the rule of successive dynasties of China. On 23 March the Reichstag assembled and effort was made by Hitler to continue with the apparent constitutional dignity of the Ceremonial Opening, and he gave a careful and welcoming speech emphasizing, in co-ordination with the Papal Prelate and Centre Party Chairman Kaas, the importance of both Christian denominations to German culture. Whether this is indeed historically true or not is still subject to debate. On this basis the Centre Party agreed on the morning of 23 March to assent to the Enabling Act.

This Chinese general adopted the native language (which sounded similar to southern Chinese dialects anyway) and married local women, who gave birth to sons that inherited the kingdom. However beyond these guarantees, developed in Committee from 20 March, was a decisive promise by Hitler to Kaas of further written general constitutional guarantees. He and his soldiers conquered the land and established a civilized society modeled after ancient Chinese customs. These concerned Catholic civil service trade unions belonging to the Centre Party along with educational freedom and autonomy of the Catholic Church. Some historians, both in Asia and in the West, hold that the various peoples of today's Vietnam were brought together by a Qin Dynasty-era general who was fed up with the despotic rule of the Qin Shi Huang (First emperor of China proper) and escaped to the "southern Yue [Viet] mountains" to set up his own kingdom. The Centre Party was split on this issue, but had negotiated with Hitler to support the parliamentary bill in return for his government giving sundry guarantees. Chinese historical records tell of an indigenous people that existed about 2,500 years ago. Efforts towards this drastic 4-year abandonment of democracy had been continuous off and on for some period, perhaps since the Centre Chairman Ludwig Kaas had independently contacted now Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen on 6 March.

Vietnamese legends hold that native people populated and civilized the land more than 4,000 years ago. The bill required a two-thirds majority in order to pass and the Nazis still needed support from other parties. Its cognate name in Chinese, Yuè Nán (越南; Yut6 Naam4 in Cantonese) means "southern extension". The government in the newly elected Reichstag brought to its table the Enabling Act which was to give Hitler's cabinet legislative powers. The name of the country comes from the Vietnamese Việt Nam, which is in turn a reordering of Nam Việt, the name of an ancient kingdom from the ancestral Vietnamese that covered much of today's northern Vietnam. At an impressive opening ceremony of the Reichstag, held in the replacement parliament building on 21 March, both Hindenburg and the world press were impressed by Hitler's apparent acceptance of constitutional government. . This amounted to a change of procedure categorising them as voluntarily absent and achieved thereby the necessary long-term Hitler aim of legal appearance for NSDAP policy of subverting democracy from within.

Situated in eastern Indochina, it borders China, Laos, Cambodia, as well as the South China Sea. The manner in which Hitler excluded them and their mandates from parliament revolved on an Interior Minister settlement with the Reichstag Elders. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, or Vietnam, is a communist country in Southeast Asia. Hitler's extant parliamentary majority was however to be much exacerbated through the un-constitutional preventive detention of the Communist deputies, carried over from before the elections. (Vietnamese, "Independence, liberty, happiness"). This brought the coalition between them and the DNVP into a slim but absolute majority. Music of Vietnam. The Nazis received an increase to 43.9% of the vote.

Cuisine of Vietnam. On 6 March 1933, after elections marred by paramilitary violence the Communists' vote decreased by 4 per cent, and the Social Democrats' by 2 per cent, with thus their representation in the Reichstag little changed. Hmong: 0.8m (1.0%). This period was characterised by extremely strong anti-Semitic and anti-Communist propaganda. Nun: 0.9m (1.1%). Despite evident questions concerning the perpetration of the Reichstag Fire, and resulting calls for cancellation of the elections, Hitler successfully utilised the full novel force of State broadcasting and aviation in a massive modern general election campaign. Hoa: 0.9m (1.1%). After the Reichstag was set on fire (for which the communists were blamed), the Reichstag Fire Decree (28 February) suspended basic rights including habeas corpus and in the resulting legal confusion the entire Communist Party and some quarter of the SPD were un-constitutionally arrested, put to flight or murdered under this general cover.

Khmer Krom: 1.1m (1.4%). On the morning of January 30, 1933, in Hindenburg's office, Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor during what some observers later described as a brief and simple ceremony. Mường: 1.1m (1.5%). Von Papen wanted to use Hitler as a figure-head, but the Nazis had gained key positions, most notably the Ministry of the Interior. Thái: 1.3m (1.7%). Hitler and two other Nazi ministers (Frick, Göring) were to be contained by a framework of conservative cabinet ministers, most notably by von Papen as Vice-Chancellor and by Hugenberg as Minister of Economics. Tày: 1.5m (1.9%). Finally, the President reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler Chancellor of a coalition government formed by the NSDAP and DNVP.

Viet/Kinh: 65.8m (86.2%). The businessmen also wrote letters to Hindenburg, urging him to appoint Hitler as leader of a government "independent from parliamentary parties" which could turn into a movement that would "enrapture millions of people."[2]. They financially supported the Nazi Party, which had been brought to the brink of bankruptcy by the cost of heavy campaigning. Also involved were Hjalmar Schacht, Fritz Thyssen and other leading German businessmen. Meanwhile von Papen, resentful because of his dismissal, tried to get his revenge on Schleicher by working towards the General's downfall, through forming an intrigue with the camarilla and Alfred Hugenberg, media mogul and chairman of the DNVP.

In January 1933 however, Schleicher had to admit failure in these efforts and asked Hindenburg for emergency powers along with the same postponement of elections that he had opposed earlier, to which the President reacted by dismissing Schleicher. Hindenburg at first accepted this, but after General Kurt von Schleicher and the military withdrew their support, Hindenburg instead dismissed von Papen and appointed Schleicher, who promised he could secure a majority government by negotiations with both the Social Democrats, the trade unions, and dissidents from the Nazi party under Gregor Strasser. After von Papen failed to secure a majority he proposed to dissolve the parliament again along with an indefinite postponement of elections. This time, the Nazis lost some votes but still remained the largest party in the Reichstag.

After a vote of no-confidence in the von Papen government, supported by 84% of the deputies, the new Reichstag was dissolved and new elections were called in November. In both negotiations Hitler demanded that he, as leader of the strongest party, must be Chancellor, but President Hindenburg consistently refused to appoint the "Bohemian private" to the Chancellorship. Hitler however rejected this offer and put further pressure on von Papen by entertaining parallel negotiations with the Centre Party, von Papen's former party, which was bent on bringing down the renegade von Papen. Von Papen tried to convince Hitler to become Vice-Chancellor and enter a new government with a parliamentary basis.

The Nazis had become the largest party in the Reichstag without which no stable government could be formed. In these elections, the Nazis achieved their biggest success yet and won 230 seats. Von Papen was bent on authoritarian rule and since in the Reichstag only the conservative DNVP supported his administration, he immediately called for new elections in July. Hindenburg appointed the nobleman Franz von Papen as chancellor, heading a "cabinet of barons".

This culminated in May 1932 with the resignation of the Brüning cabinet. President Hindenburg, influenced by the Camarilla, became increasingly estranged from Brüning and pushed his Chancellor to move the government in a decidedly authoritarian and right-wing direction. The new German citizen ran against Hindenburg, who was supported by the Republican parties, and the Communist candidate, and came in second on both rounds, attaining more than 35% of the vote during the second one in April. In February however, the state government of Brunswick, in which the Nazi Party participated, appointed Hitler to some minor administrative post and also gave him citizenship.

Though Hitler had left Austria in 1913, he still had not acquired German citizenship and hence could not run for public office. In 1932 Hitler intended to run against the aging President Paul von Hindenburg in the scheduled presidential elections. The event is viewed as having caused lasting turmoil for him. Geli was much younger than he was and had used his gun, drawing rumours of a relationship between the two.

Meanwhile in September 1931 Hitler's niece Geli Raubal was found dead in her bedroom in his Munich apartment (his half-sister Angela and her daughter Geli had been with him in Munich since 1929), an apparent suicide. Hitler received little response from the urban working classes and traditionally Catholic regions. Under these circumstances, Hitler appealed to the bulk of German farmers, war veterans and the middle-class who had been hard-hit by both the inflation of the 1920s and the unemployment of the Depression. Brüning's measure of budget consolidation and financial austerity brought little economic improvement and was extremely unpopular.

The republican parties lost their majority and their ability to resume the Grand Coalition, while the Nazis suddenly rose from relative obscurity to win 18.3% of the vote along with 107 seats in the Reichstag, becoming the second largest party in Germany. The Reichstag's initial opposition to Brüning's measures led to premature elections in September 1930. Tolerated by the majority of parties, the exception soon became the rule and paved the way for authoritarian forms of government. The new Chancellor Heinrich Brüning, lacking a majority in parliament, had to implement his measures through the President's emergency decrees.

As the parties loyal to the republic found themselves unable to agree on counter-measures, their Grand Coalition broke up and was replaced by a minority cabinet. The Weimar Republic had never been firmly rooted and was openly opposed by right-wing conservatives, Communists and the Nazis. The political turning point for Hitler came when the Great Depression hit Germany in 1930. Ernst Röhm, Hitler's long-time associate and leader of the SA, ridiculed Hitler as "Adolphe Legalité" and resigned from his post.

Some party members, especially in the paramilitary SA, opposed this strategy. Having failed in overthrowing the Republic by a coup, Hitler now pursued the "strategy of legality": this meant formally adhering to the rules of the Weimar Republic until he had legally gained power and then to transform democracy into a totalitarian state. The party learned quickly and soon a more subtle propaganda emerged, combining anti-Semitism with an attack on the failures of the "Weimar system" and the parties supporting it. Most Germans bitterly resented these terms but early Nazi attempts to gain support by blaming these humiliations on "international Jewry" were not particularly successful with the electorate.

Germany had lost economically important territory in Europe along with its colonies and in admitting to sole responsibility for the war had agreed to pay a huge reparations bill totaling 32 billion marks. A key element of Hitler's appeal was his ability to convey a sense of offended national pride caused by the Treaty of Versailles imposed on the defeated German Empire by the Entente. Consistent with Hitler's disdain for democracy, all power and authority devolved from the top down. Leaders were not elected by their group but were rather appointed by their superior and were answerable to them while demanding unquestioning obedience from their inferiors.

After this encounter, Hitler centralized the party even more and asserted the Führerprinzip as the basic principle of party organization. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Gauleiter Nord-West became an internal opposition, threatening Hitler's authority, but this faction was defeated at the Bamberg Conference (1926), during which Goebbels joined Hitler. Gregor, joined by his younger brother Otto and Joseph Goebbels, steered an increasingly independent course, emphasizing the socialist element in the party's programme. Gregor Strasser, who in 1924 had been elected to the Reichstag, was authorized by Hitler to organise the party in northern Germany.

To spread the party to the north, Hitler also assimilated independent groups, such as the Nuremberg-based Wistrich, led by Julius Streicher, who now became Gauleiter of Franconia. Though the Hitler Putsch had given Hitler some national prominence, his party's mainstay was still Munich. Instead, he began a long effort to rebuild the dwindling party. At the time of Hitler's release, the political situation in Germany had calmed down, which hampered Hitler's opportunities for agitation.

Meanwhile, as he was considered relatively harmless, Hitler was released in December 1924. It was published in two volumes in 1925 and 1926 respectively, but did not sell very well until Hitler came to power (though by the late 1930s nearly every household in Germany had a copy of it). The book, dedicated to Thule Society member Dietrich Eckart, was both an autobiography and an exposition of his political ideology. While at Landsberg he dictated his political book Mein Kampf (My Struggle) to his deputy Rudolf Hess.

For the crime of conspiracy to commit treason Hitler was sentenced to five years' imprisonment at Landsberg prison where he received favoured treatment from the guards and had much fan mail from admirers. He was given almost unlimited amounts of time to present his arguments to the court along with a large body of the German people, and his popularity soared when he voiced basic nationalistic sentiments shared by the public. During Hitler's trial in April 1924 sympathetic magistrates allowed Hitler to turn his debacle into a propaganda stunt. He was soon arrested for high treason and appointed Alfred Rosenberg and later Gregor Strasser as temporary leader of the party but found himself in an environment somewhat receptive to his beliefs.

Hitler fled to the home of friends and contemplated suicide. That night they prepared resistance measures against the coup and in the morning, when the Nazis marched from the beer hall to the Bavarian War Ministry to overthrow what they saw as Bavaria's traitorous government as a start to their "March on Berlin," the army quickly dispersed them (Ludendorff was wounded and a few other Nazis were killed). Unknown to him, Kahr and the other detainees had been released on Ludendorff's orders after he obtained their word not to interfere. A surprised Hitler had them arrested and proceeded with the coup.

However on November 8, 1923 Kahr and the military withdrew their support during a meeting in the Bürgerbräu beer hall. As political posters show, Ludendorff, Hitler and the heads of the Bavarian police and military planned on forming a new government. Hitler and Ludendorff obtained the clandestine support of Gustav von Kahr, Bavaria's de facto ruler along with leading figures in the Reichswehr and the police. His aim was to emulate Mussolini's "March on Rome" by a "March on Berlin" but this abortive coup was later known as the Hitler Putsch (and sometimes as Beerhall Putsch).

Encouraged by this early support, Hitler decided to use Ludendorff as a front in an attempt to seize power in the turbulent year 1923. He also attracted the attention of local business interests, was accepted into influential circles of Munich society and became associated with wartime General Erich Ludendorff during this time. Early followers included Rudolf Hess, the former air force pilot Hermann Göring, and the flamboyant army captain Ernst Röhm, who became head of the Nazis' paramilitary organization, the SA, which protected meetings and attacked political opponents. Hitler's beer hall oratory, attacking Jews, socialists and liberals, capitalists and communists, began attracting adherents.

Hitler changed the name of the party to the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP). At the next gathering on July 29, 1921, Adolf Hitler was introduced as Führer of the Nazi Party, marking the first time this title was publicly used. Hitler received 543 votes for and only one against. The executive committee of the Nazi Party eventually backed down and Hitler's demands were put to a vote of party members.

Hitler responded to its publication in a Munich newspaper by suing for libel and later won a small settlement. Meanwhile an anonymous pamphlet appeared entitled Adolf Hitler: Is he a traitor?, attacking Hitler's lust for power and criticizing the violence-prone men around him. Infuriated committee members (including founder Anton Drexler) held out at first. When they realized the loss of Hitler would effectively mean the end of the Party, he seized the moment and announced he would return on the condition that he was made chairman and given dictatorial powers.

Hitler rushed back to Munich and countered them by tendering his resignation from the Party on July 11, 1921. To weaken Hitler's position they formed an alliance with a group of socialists from Augsburg. The Party was still run by an executive committee whose original members considered Hitler to be overbearing and even dictatorial. Hitler traveled to Berlin to visit nationalist groups during the summer of 1921 and in his absence there was an unexpected revolt among his own Nazi Party leadership in Munich.

Gradually they noticed Adolf Hitler and his growing movement as a vehicle to hitch themselves to. The German Workers' Party was centred in Munich which had become a hotbed of reactionary German nationalists who included Army officers determined to crush Marxism and undermine or even overthrow the young German democracy centred in Berlin. Hitler gained notoriety outside of the Party for his rowdy, polemic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians and groups (especially Marxists) and always the Jews. To publicize the meeting, he sent out two truckloads of Party supporters to drive around with swastikas, cause a commotion and throw out leaflets, their first use of this tactic.

In February, Hitler spoke before a crowd of nearly six thousand in Munich. By early 1921, Adolf Hitler was becoming highly effective at speaking in front of ever larger crowds. Hitler was discharged from the army in March, 1920 and (with his former superiors' continued encouragement) began participating full time in the party's activities. Here Hitler also met Dietrich Eckart, one of the early founders of the party, member of Thule Society.[1].

During his inspection of the party, Hitler was impressed with Drexler's anti-Semitic, nationalist and anti-Marxist ideas. In July 1919, Hitler was appointed a V-Mann (Verbindungsmann is the German term for a police spy) of "Aufklärungskommando" ("Intelligence Commando") of the Reichswehr, for the purpose of influencing other soldiers towards similar ideas and was assigned to infiltrate a small nationalist party, the German Workers' Party (DAP). The scapegoats were found in "international Jewry," communists and politicians across the party spectrum, especially the parties of the Weimar Coalition, who were deemed "November criminals". A key purpose of this group was to create a scapegoat for the outbreak of the war and Germany's defeat.

He took part in "national thinking" courses organised by the Education and Propaganda Department (Dept Ib/P) of the Bavarian Reichswehr Group, Headquarters 4 under Captain Mayr. After the war, Hitler remained in the army, which was mainly engaged in suppressing socialist uprisings breaking out across Germany, including Munich (Bavarian Soviet Republic), where Hitler returned in 1919. The treaty was perceived by most Germans as a humiliation and was an important factor in both the social and political conditions encountered by Hitler and his National Socialist Party as they sought power. The Treaty of Versailles imposed crippling reparations and other economically damaging sanctions, declaring Germany guilty for the horrors of the Great War.

These politicians were later dubbed the November criminals. Like many other German nationalists, Hitler believed in the Dolchstoßlegende ("dagger-stab legend") which claimed that the army, "undefeated in the field," had been "stabbed in the back" by civilian leaders and Marxists back on the home front. He was shocked by Germany's capitulation in November 1918 even while the German army still held enemy territory. Hitler had long admired Germany and during the war he had become a passionate German patriot, although he did not become a German citizen until 1932.

Two passages in Mein Kampf mention the use of poison gas:. Meanwhile he was treated by a military physician and specialist in psychiatry who reportedly diagnosed the corporal as "incompetent to command people" and "dangerously psychotic." His commander at the time said, "I will never promote this hysteric!" (cited from Haiden, 1937) However, historian Sebastian Haffner, referring to Hitler's experience at the front, suggests he did have at least some understanding of the military. Hitler later said it was during this experience that he became convinced the purpose of his life was to save Germany. Research by Bernhard Horstmann indicates the blindness may have been the result of a hysterical reaction to Germany's defeat.

On October 15, 1918, shortly before the end of the war, Hitler was admitted to a field hospital, temporarily blinded by a poison gas attack. One comrade later remarked, "we all grumbled on him and found it intolerable that we had a white raven among us." (Haiden, 1936). "Respect the superior, don't contradict anybody, obey blindly," he said, describing his attitude while on trial for his Beer Hall Putsch in 1924. Hitler was considered a "correct" soldier but was reportedly unpopular with his comrades because of an uncritical attitude towards officers.

He received the Wound Badge later that year, as his injury was the direct result of hostile fire. During October 1916 in northern France, Hitler was wounded in the leg, but returned to the front in March 1917. He was twice cited for bravery in action, receiving the Iron Cross, Second Class in December 1914 and the Iron Cross, First Class in August 1918, an honour rarely given to a Gefreiter (he was not a German citizen at the time and so could not be promoted to non-commissioned officer status). Unlike his fellow soldiers, Hitler reportedly never complained about the food or hard conditions, preferring to talk about art or history.

His behaviour as a soldier was considered somewhat sloppy, but he readily volunteered for dangerous missions such as taking dispatches to and from fighting areas. He also drew some cartoons and instructional drawings for the army newspaper. Hitler saw active service in France and Belgium as a messenger for the 16th Bavarian reserve infantry regiment, which exposed him to enemy fire. However, when Germany entered World War I in August 1914, he immediately enlisted in the Bavarian army.

After a physical exam (during which his height was measured at 1.73 m, or 5 ft 8 in) and a contrite plea, he was deemed unfit for service and allowed to return to Munich. Moving to Munich also helped him escape military service in Austria for a time, but the Austrian army later arrested him. In Munich, he became more interested in architecture and the writings of Houston Stewart Chamberlain. He later wrote in Mein Kampf that he had always longed to live in a German city.

Hitler received a small inheritance from his father in May 1913 and moved to Munich. However, according to August Kubizek, his close friend and roommate at the time, he was more interested in the operas of Richard Wagner than in politics. Generalising from tumultous scenes in the parliament of multi-national Austria, he developed a firm belief in the inferiority of the parliamentary system, and especially social democracy, which formed the basis of his political views. Blaming Germany's military defeat on the revolution, he considered Jews the culprit of Germany's military defeat and subsequent economic problems as well.

He also identified Socialism and especially Bolshevism, which had some Jews among its leaders, as Jewish movements, merging his anti-Semitism with anti-Marxism. Hitler began to claim the Jews were natural enemies of what he called the "Aryan race." He held them responsible for Austria's crisis. 2: "Years of study and suffering in Vienna"). 1, chap.

I watched the man stealthily and cautiously but the longer I gazed at the strange countenance and examined it feature by feature, the more the question shaped itself in my brain: Is this a German?"
(Mein Kampf, vol. My first thought was: Is this a Jew? They certainly did not have this appearance in Linz. Once, when passing through the inner City, I suddenly encountered a phenomenon in a long caftan and wearing black side-locks. I did not in the least suspect that there could be such a thing as a systematic anti-Semitism.

As I thought that they were persecuted on account of their faith my aversion to hearing remarks against them grew almost into a feeling of abhorrence. The reason why I did not then perceive the absurdity of such an illusion was that the only external mark which I recognized as distinguishing them from us was the practice of their strange religion. In the course of centuries the Jews who lived there had become Europeanized in external appearance and were so much like other human beings that I even looked upon them as Germans. "There were very few Jews in Linz.

He later wrote in his book Mein Kampf that his transition from opposing anti-Semitism on religious grounds to supporting it on racial grounds came from having seen an Orthodox Jew:. (See History of Vienna.) Hitler was slowly influenced over time by the writings of the race ideologist and anti-Semite Lanz von Liebenfels and polemics from politicians such as Karl Lueger, founder of the Christian Social Party and mayor of Vienna, and Georg Ritter von Schönerer, leader of the pan-Germanic Away from Rome! movement. Vienna had a large Jewish community, including many Orthodox Jews from Eastern Europe. This was a common stance among Austrians at the time, mixing traditional religious prejudice with recent racist theories.

It was in Vienna that Hitler first became an active anti-Semite. Several biographers have noted that a Jewish resident of the house named Hanisch helped him sell his postcards. He made spending money by painting tourist postcards of Vienna scenery. By 1909, he sought refuge in a homeless shelter, and by the beginning of 1910 had settled permanently into a house for poor working men.

After the second refusal from the Academy of Arts, Hitler gradually ran out of money. He worked as a struggling painter in Vienna, copying scenes from postcards and selling his paintings to merchants and tourists (there is evidence he produced over 2000 paintings and drawings before World War I). Hitler gave his share of the orphans' benefits to his younger sister Paula, but when he was 21 he inherited some money from an aunt. On December 21, 1907, his mother Klara died a painful death from breast cancer at the age of 47.

He was told he should become an architect, since he had some flair for making architectural sketches and drawings. After he was rejected twice by the Academy of Arts in Vienna (1907 – 1908) for "lack of talent" — which he resented deeply — he did not try to find another job or learn a profession. From 1905 onward, Hitler was able to live the life of a Bohemian on a fatherless child's pension and support from his mother. At the age of 16, Hitler left school with no qualifications.

However, after Hitler's father died on January 3, 1903, at the age of 65, Hitler's schoolwork did not improve. This explanation is further supported by Hitler's later description of himself as a misunderstood artist. Hitler later explained this educational slump as a kind of rebellion against his father Alois, who wanted the boy to follow him in a career as a customs official, although Adolf wanted to become a painter. His teachers reported that he had "no desire to work.".

As a young child, Hitler was reportedly a good student at the various elementary schools he attended; however, in sixth grade (1900-1), his first year of high school (Realschule) in Linz, he failed completely and had to repeat the grade. Because of Alois Hitler's profession, his family moved frequently, from Braunau to Passau, Lambach, Leonding, and Linz. Historians such as Werner Maser and Ian Kershaw argue this was impossible, since the Jews had been expelled from Graz in the 15th century and were not allowed to return until well after Maria Schicklgruber's alleged employment. Soviet propaganda insisted Hitler was a Jew, though more modern research tends to diminish the probability that he had Jewish ancestors.

Although these rumours were never confirmed, for Hitler they were reason enough to conceal his origins. Opponents tried to prove that Hitler, the leader of the anti-Semitic Nazi Party, had Jewish or Czech ancestors. During the 1920s, the implications of these rumours along with his known family history were politically explosive, especially for the proponent of a racist ideology. There have been rumours that Hitler was one-quarter Jewish and that his paternal grandmother, Maria Schicklgruber, had become pregnant after working as a servant in a Jewish household in Graz.

Hitler was not sure who his paternal grandfather was, but it was probably either Johann Georg Hiedler or his brother Johann von Nepomuk Hiedler. Adolf was legally born a Hitler, however, and was also closely related to Hiedler through his mother's family. This was also exploited in Allied propaganda during the Second World War when pamphlets bearing the phrase "Heil Schicklgruber" were airdropped over German cities. Later, Adolf Hitler was accused by his political enemies of not rightfully being a Hitler, but a Schicklgruber.

The spelling was probably changed to "Hitler" by a clerk. In 1896, he began using the name of his stepfather, Johann Georg Hiedler, after visiting a priest responsible for birth registries and declaring that Georg was his father (Alois gave the impression that Georg was still alive but he was long dead). His father Alois was born out of wedlock and used his mother's surname, Schicklgruber, until he was 40. He served as an altar boy and sang in the choir but was not a practicing Catholic as an adult, though he continued to frequently claim he was a Christian.

Adolf's Roman Catholic upbringing was typical for the region. In Mein Kampf Hitler describes his father as an "irascible tyrant," although there is little indication that Alois Hitler treated his son more strictly than was usual for that time and place. Alois Hitler also had a son (Alois Junior) and a daughter (Angela) by his second wife. Of these six children, only Adolf and his younger sister Paula reached adulthood.

He was the fourth of six children of Alois Hitler (1837–1903), a customs official, and Klara Pölzl, Alois' niece and third wife. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, at Braunau am Inn, Austria, a small town 90 km (55 miles) west of Linz in the province of Upper Austria, on the bank of the River Inn, which formed the border between Germany and what was then Austria-Hungary. . The Third Reich which he proclaimed would last a thousand years had collapsed in just twelve.

In the final days of the war, Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin, together with his newly wed wife, Eva Braun. The death toll is commonly cited as about 11 million people, including about 6 million Jews. By then, Hitler's racial policies had culminated in a genocide now known as the Holocaust. By 1940 Germany and the Axis Powers occupied much of Europe, but they were defeated by the Allies in 1945.

With a restructured economy and rearmed military, Hitler commenced an expansionist foreign policy, triggering World War II. He used charismatic oratory and propaganda to appeal to economic need, nationalism and anti-Semitism and established a totalitarian regime. Hitler gained power in a Germany facing crises after World War I. He was leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP), better known as the Nazi Party.

(April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death.
. The World at War (1974) is a famous Thames Television series which contains much information about Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany, including an . Paul Troost, famous architect who served before Speer.

Albert Speer, Hitler's personal architect, Minister of armaments. Ernst Röhm, leader of the SA, shot on Hitler's orders in the Night of the Long Knives. Erwin Rommel, military Field Marshal during World War II. Leni Riefenstahl, friend and filmmaker who documented the Nazi party.

Wilhelm Keitel, military Field Marshal during World War II. Alfred Jodl, military officer, knew Hitler since 1923. Heinrich Hoffmann, official photographer from 1920 to 1945. Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS, later the SA, as well as the Gestapo, key figure in the Holocaust and the "Final Solution".

Reinhard Heydrich, considered as a possible successor by Hitler, assassinated by a team of Czech agents on May 27, 1942. Rudolf Hess, one-time Deputy Leader of the Nazi Party, best known for his flight to Scotland to negotiate peace in 1941. Hermann Göring, Commander of the Luftwaffe, founder of the Gestapo. Joseph Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda, 25th Chancellor of Germany.

Hans Frank, Hitler's lawyer and later senior Nazi official in occupied Poland. Martin Bormann, Adolf Hitler's Private Secretary. In 2002 Junge said she felt great guilt for "...liking the greatest criminal ever to have lived.". The 2004 film Der Untergang (Downfall) is partly based on the autobiography of Traudl Junge, a favorite secretary of Hitler's.

In public discourses, Hitler claimed to be a Christian.[5]. A nickname for Hitler used by German soldiers was Gröfaz, a derogatory acronym for Größter Feldherr aller Zeiten ("Greatest War Lord of all Time"), a title initially publicized by Nazi propaganda after the surprisingly quick occupation of France. [citation needed]. (Kershaw 1999, 2000) The names of his various headquarters scattered throughout continental Europe (Wolfsschanze in East Prussia, Wolfsschlucht in Belgium, Werewolf in Ukraine, etc.) seem to reflect this.

One of Hitler's self-given nicknames was Wolf – he began using this nickname in the early 1920s and was addressed by that name only by those in his intimate circle (as "Uncle Wolf" by the Wagners) up until the fall of the Third Reich. [1]. After World War II many survivors who had been born with this name changed it and the popularity of the name decreased dramatically. During the early 20th century, Adolf was a popular name for German Jews.

Several witness accounts relate that immediately after his suicide was confirmed, many officers, aides and secretaries in the Führerbunker lit cigarettes. He reportedly promised a gold watch to any of his close associates who quit (and gave a few away). Hitler was an avid non-smoker and promoted aggressive anti-smoking campaigns throughout Germany. In response to a shortage of servants during the war, Hitler is reported to have said, "I create whole divisions out of nothing! And I can't get a few more serving wenches for the Berghof? Organise it now!".

At dinner he was known to complain about the quality of popular music in Germany, then hum a hit song with his own improvements. When he did wear uniforms, they were tailored and understated compared to those of other prominant Nazis who often wore elaborate uniforms with extensive decorations and medals. He almost never wore a uniform to social engagements, which he attended frequently whenever in Berlin during the 1930s. During post war interrogation in the USSR his valet Heinz Linge indicated Hitler drank champagne now and then with Eva Braun.

Contrary to popular legend, there is some evidence Hitler did not abstain entirely from alcohol. He was susceptible to flatulence (which doctors attributed to his diet) and took various medications to lessen gas pains. Hitler did not like women to wear cosmetics, since they contained animal by-products. For more information on this topic, see Vegetarianism of Adolf Hitler.

Personal photographs of Bormann's children tending the greenhouse survive and by 2005 its foundations were among the only ruins visible in the area which were directly associated with Nazi leaders. Martin Bormann constructed a large greenhouse close to the Berghof (near Berchtesgaden) in order to ensure a steady supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for Hitler throughout the war. He did consume dairy products and eggs. A fear of cancer (which his mother Klara Hitler died from) is the most widely cited reason.

Most of Hitler's biographers have characterized him as a vegetarian who abstained from eating meat beginning in the early 1930s until his death (although his actual dietary habits are sometimes hotly disputed). According to the IMDb "His speech is 'working class language' and his turns of phrase reflect the speaker's educational shortcomings." Swiss actor Bruno Ganz is said to have studied the eleven-minute recording extensively while preparing for his portrayal of Hitler in the 2004 Academy Award nominated German film Der Untergang. It was secretly recorded by Finnish intelligence agents when Hitler unexpectedly flew to Finland to congratulate Marshall Mannerheim on his 75th birthday on 4 June 1942. The archives of the Finnish Yleisradio broadcasting company contain an audio tape segment of a Hitler conversation with Finnish Marshal Mannerheim and other officers which may be the only known recording of Hitler speaking in a conversational tone of voice rather than with the intense delivery he used for official speeches.

He owed the German government 405,000 Reichmarks (equivalent to $8 million at 2004 exchange rates) by the time he took power and the tax debt was forgiven. In 2004, it was discovered that Hitler had spent years evading taxes on royalties from sales of Mein Kampf. (2) From Slavonic Hidlar and Hidlarcek and similar. (1) From German Hüttler and similar, "one who lives in a hut", "shepherd".

Johann von Nepomuk Hiedler, maternal great-grandfather, presumed great uncle and possibly Hitler's true paternal grandfather. Johann Georg Hiedler, presumed grandfather. Maria Schicklgruber, grandmother. Geli Raubal, niece and rumoured mistress.

Angela Hitler Raubal, half-sister. William Patrick Hitler, nephew. Bridget Dowling, sister-in-law. Alois Hitler, Jr., half-brother.

Paula Hitler, sister. Klara Hitler, mother. Alois Hitler, father. Eva Braun, mistress and then wife.

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