Vietnam

Motto: Độc lập - Tự do - Hạnh phúc

(Vietnamese, "Independence, liberty, happiness")

Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca
Capital Hanoi
21°2′ N 105°51′ E
Largest city Ho Chi Minh City
Official language(s) Vietnamese
Government President
Prime Minister
Communist single-party state
Trần Đức Lương
Phan Văn Khải
Independence
Declared
Recognized
From France
September 2, 1945
1954
Area
 • Total
 • Water (%)
 
329,560 km² (65th)
1.3
Population
 • 2005 est.
 • 1999 census

 • Density
 
83,535,576 (13th)
76,323,173

253/km² (31st)
GDP (PPP)
 • Total
 • Per capita
2005 estimate
$231.6 billion (39th)
$2,782 (131st)
HDI (2003) 0.704 (108th) – medium
Currency đồng (₫) (VND)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
(UTC+7)
(UTC+8, does not observe)
Internet TLD .vn
Calling code +84

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, or Vietnam, is a communist country in Southeast Asia. Situated in eastern Indochina, it borders China, Laos, Cambodia, as well as the South China Sea.

Terminology

The name of the country comes from the Vietnamese Việt Nam, which is in turn a reordering of Nam Việt, the name of an ancient kingdom from the ancestral Vietnamese that covered much of today's northern Vietnam. Its cognate name in Chinese, Yuè Nán (越南; Yut6 Naam4 in Cantonese) means "southern extension".

History

Vietnamese legends hold that native people populated and civilized the land more than 4,000 years ago. Chinese historical records tell of an indigenous people that existed about 2,500 years ago. Some historians, both in Asia and in the West, hold that the various peoples of today's Vietnam were brought together by a Qin Dynasty-era general who was fed up with the despotic rule of the Qin Shi Huang (First emperor of China proper) and escaped to the "southern Yue [Viet] mountains" to set up his own kingdom. He and his soldiers conquered the land and established a civilized society modeled after ancient Chinese customs. This Chinese general adopted the native language (which sounded similar to southern Chinese dialects anyway) and married local women, who gave birth to sons that inherited the kingdom. Whether this is indeed historically true or not is still subject to debate.

What is known for sure is that for most of the period from 207 BC to the early 10th century, it was under the rule of successive dynasties of China. Sporadic independence movements were attempted, but were quickly extinguished by the Chinese army. In 939, the Vietnamese defeated Chinese forces at the Bach Dang River and gained independence. They gained complete autonomy a century later. For most of its history, Vietnam has been strongly influenced by its much bigger northern neighbor, China. However, during the rule of the Tran Dynasty, it defeated three Mongol attempts of invasion by the Yuan Dynasty. Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Le Dynasty 1400s, especially with the emperor Le Thanh Tong. Between the 13th and 17th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). They eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and much of the Khmer empire. The independent period ended in the mid-19th century, when the country was colonized by France.

French rule continued until World War II, when Japan briefly occupied Vietnam and used the country as a base to launch attacks against the rest of Indochina and India. When the war ended, France attempted to re-establish control but failed, after they were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. The Geneva Accords subsequently divided the country into North Vietnam and South Vietnam, separated by a demilitarized zone.

During the Cold War, the North was supported by China and the Soviet Union while the South was supported by United States.

The conflict quickly escalated into the Vietnam War. The war continued even after the Paris Peace Accords on January 27, 1973, which formally recognized the sovereignty of both sides.

The Bản Giốc Falls in Cao Bằng, North Vietnam

All American troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. By April 30, 1975, North Vietnam had overtaken South Vietnam and by 1976, Vietnam was officially unified under the North Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

After reunification, political and economic conditions deteriorated to near-famine conditions. Millions of South Vietnamese became boat people over the next two decades. In late 1978, the Cambodian people, with the support of the Vietnamese army, removed the Khmer Rouge from power. Only one month later, however, partially in retaliation, China launched a short-lived incursion into Vietnam: the Sino-Vietnamese War.

In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam implemented economic reforms known as đổi mới (renovation). During much of the 1990s, economic growth was rapid, and Vietnam reintegrated into the international community. It reestablished diplomatic relations with the United States in 1995, one year after the United States' trade embargo on Vietnam was repealed.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Vietnam

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is governed through a highly centralized system dominated by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), which was formerly the Vietnamese Labor Party (1951-1976). The Socialist Republic of Vietnam exists today as a communist state. From 2001 until now, Nong Duc Manh has been General Secretary of CPV. Senior Politburo members (Trần Đức Lương, Phan Văn Khải, Nguyễn Văn An, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, Lê Hồng Anh, Phạm Văn Trà and Trương Quang Được) concurrently hold high positions in the Government and the National Assembly.

There are no legal opposition parties in Vietnam, although a number of opposition groups do exist scattered overseas among exile communities within countries such as France and the United States. These communities have supported demonstrations and civil disobedience against the government. The most prominent are the Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League, and the Government of Free Vietnam. The Government of Free Vietnam has claimed responsibility for a number of guerilla raids into Vietnam, which the Vietnamese government has denounced as terrorism.

Former political parties include the nationalist Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng of Nguyễn Thái Học, the Can Lao party of the Ngô Đình Diệm government and the Viet Nam Duy Tan Hoi of Phan Bội Châu during the colonial period.

Vietnam is a member of the United Nations, La Francophonie, ASEAN, and APEC, and applied for membership to the World Trade Organization in 2001.

Provinces

Main article: Provinces of Vietnam

Vietnam's capital (thủ đô, singular and plural) is Hà Nội (Hà Nội). There are also four municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc Trung ương, singular and plural) existing at provincial level: Cần Thơ, Đà Nẵng, Hải Phòng, and Hồ Chí Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh). Ho Chi Minh City was formerly known as Sài Gòn (Sài Gòn). Now, Saigon is understood as heart of the city (central area of the District 1).

Besides the five cities, the country is divided into fifty-nine provinces (tỉnh, singular and plural): An Giang, Bắc Giang, Bắc Cạn, Bạc Liêu, Bắc Ninh, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu, Bến Tre, Bình Định, Bình Dương, Bình Phước, Bình Thuận, Cà Mau, Cao Bằng, Đắk Lắk, Đắk Nông, Điện Biên, Đồng Nai, Đồng Tháp, Gia Lai, Hà Giang, Hải Dương, Hà Nam, Hà Tây, Hà Tĩnh, Hòa Bình, Hậu Giang, Hưng Yên, Khánh Hòa, Kiên Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Châu, Lâm Đồng, Lạng Sơn, Lào Cai, Long An, Nam Định, Nghệ An, Ninh Bình, Ninh Thuận, Phú Thọ, Phú Yên, Quảng Bình, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Quảng Ninh, Quảng Trị, Sóc Trăng, Sơn La, Tây Ninh, Thái Bình, Thái Nguyên, Thanh Hóa, Thừa Thiên-Huế, Tiền Giang, Trà Vinh, Tuyên Quang, Vĩnh Long, Vĩnh Phúc, Yên Bái.

Geography

Map of Vietnam

Main article: Geography of Vietnam

The country is approximately 331,688 square kilometers (128,066 mi²) in area, which is slightly larger than New Mexico and slightly smaller than Germany. The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20 percent. Mountains account for 40 percent, hills 40 percent, and forests 75 percent. The northern part of the country consists of highlands and the Red River Delta. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 metres (10,312 ft). The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Dai Truong Son (central mountains) with high plateaus, and the Mekong River Delta.

The climate is tropical and monsoonal; humidity averages 84 percent throughout the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 120 to 300 centimetres (47 to 118 inches), and annual temperatures vary between 5°C (41°F) and 37°C (99°F).

Land boundaries: Total: 4,639 km (2,883 mi) Border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km (763 mi), China 1,281 km (796 mi), Laos 2,130 m (1,324 mi)

Economy

Main article: Economy of Vietnam

In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam formally abandoned Marxist economic planning and began introducing market elements as part of a broad economic reform package called "đổi mới" ("Renovation").

In many ways, this followed the Chinese model and achieved similar results. On the one hand, Vietnam achieved around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2002, making it the world's second-fastest growing economy. Simultaneously, investment grew three-fold and domestic savings quintupled.

On the other hand, urban unemployment has been rising steadily in recent years due to high numbers of migration from the countryside to the cities, and rural unemployment, estimated to be up to 35% during nonharvest periods, is already at critical levels. Layoffs in the state sector and foreign-invested enterprises combined with the lasting effects of a previous military demobilization further exacerbated the unemployment situation. The country is attempting to become a member of the WTO. Vietnam, however, is still a relatively poor country with GDP of US$227.2 billion (est., 2004). This translates to US$2700 per capita. Inflation rate is estimated at 14% per year in 2004. This figure has been scaled down by the Government to 9.5% per annum to avoid the ‘double digit’ classification.

The spending power of the public has noticeably increased. The reason lies in the high property prices. In Hanoi, the capital, property prices can be as high as those in Tokyo or New York City. This has amazed many people because GDP per capita of this city is around US$1,000 per annum. The booming prices have given the poor land owners the opportunity to sell their homes for inflated prices. Corruption, bribery and embezzlement committed by many government officials have pushed property prices even higher, as real estate investment is a popular form of money laundering.

Tourism has become an increasingly important industry in Vietnam. Many of the over 3 million annual visitors are Vietnam war veterans.

Demographics

Street scene in Haiphong

Main article: Demographics of Vietnam

According to official figures from the 1999 census, of Vietnam's then population of 76.3m, the largest of 54 government recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam were:

  1. Viet/Kinh: 65.8m (86.2%)
  2. Tày: 1.5m (1.9%)
  3. Thái: 1.3m (1.7%)
  4. Mường: 1.1m (1.5%)
  5. Khmer Krom: 1.1m (1.4%)
  6. Hoa: 0.9m (1.1%)
  7. Nun: 0.9m (1.1%)
  8. Hmong: 0.8m (1.0%)

The majority ethnic Vietnamese, also called Viet or Kinh, make up about 86 percent of the nation's population. They are concentrated largely in the alluvial deltas and in the coastal plains and have little in common with the minority peoples of the highlands, whom they have historically regarded as hostile and barbaric. A homogenous social group, the Viet exert influence on national life through their control of political and economic affairs and their role as purveyors of the dominant culture. By contrast, the ethnic minorities, except for the Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) and the Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese), are found mostly in the highlands that cover two-thirds of the national territory.

Religion

On the way to the Perfume Pagoda outside Hanoi

According to the 1999 Socialist Republic of Vietnam's census numbers, eighty percent of Vietnamese subscribe to no religion. But according to the majority of other sources, Vietnamese people are predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. Mainstream Pure Land schools and Zen-inspired syncretists); with a sizeable Roman Catholic following, Protestant, Cao Đài, and Hoa Hao minorities. The largest Protestant churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church. Membership to Sunni and Bashi Islam are usually accredited to the ethnic Cham minority, but there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents to Islam in the southwest.

Minorities

The Tay people live primarily in the mountains and foothills of northern Vietnam. Their language is a member of the Tai languages, belonging to the Central Tai subgroup and closely related to the Zhuang language of southern China.

Thái is a name used by Vietnamese authorities for a group of people also from the mountainous northern region of Vietnam and whom western linguists say actually speak separate languages: Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, Tai Hang Tong, Tày Tac, and Tai Thanh. All these languages are closely related and belong to the Southwestern Tai subgroup of the Tai languages. This official "Thái" ethnicity should not be confused with the Thai people of Thailand. The Thai people of Thailand speak languages belonging to the Lao-Phutai branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup, while the "Thái" of Vietnam speak languages belonging to the East Central branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup. Although the Thái ethnicity is officially recognized in Vietnam, western linguistics do not recognize it and prefer to classify Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, etc., as separate ethnic groups, in which case the Mường minority moves to second largest minority of Vietnam, Khmer Krom move to third position, and Hoa to fourth position.

The Mường live in the mountains of north central Vietnam and speak a Mon-Khmer language closely related to the Vietnamese language.

The Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) live in the fertile delta of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and are ethnically the same as the Khmer people who make up the majority of the population of Cambodia. There is no consensus on the exact number of Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) living in Vietnam. The Vietnamese government reported 1,055,174 Khmer Krom at the 1999 census.

The Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese) are mainly lowlanders and, more specifically, urban dwellers. They speak predominantly Cantonese (known to the Vietnamese as Quảng Đông), but there are also speakers of Hakka (Khách Gia), Min Nan/Hokkien/Fujian (Mân Nam/Phúc Kiến), Chaozhou (Triều Châu), etc. Up to the 1979 Vietnamese census, the Hoa were the largest minority of Vietnam. However, since the North Vietnamese took over South Vietnam in 1975 many Hoa left Vietnam, especially in the 1980s, so that at the 1999 census the Hoa were only the fifth largest minority (or the fourth largest if the Thái are not considered as an homogenous ethnic group).

Beyond these five largest ethnic minorities, there are 48 other minorities officially recognized by the Vietnamese government, giving a total of 53 minorities altogether. Many of these 53 minority groups only have a few thousand members or so. Vietnam also has a small number of racial Eurasians, people of Asian and Caucasian (mostly white, but also Indian) parentage. Most of them are descendants of Vietnamese people mixed with either early French settlers or white American soldiers and personnel (or both), during the colonial period and Vietnam War. There are also a few of those descended from Indian or Pakistani setttlers also during the colonial era. There are some who are racially mixed with blacks as well, another product during the Vietnam War from American soldiers. Mixed race individuals face the most discrimination in Vietnamese society and government, especially ones who are product of American soldiers (white or black) from the Vietnam War.

Officially, the ethnic minorities are referred to as "national minorities". The French used the name Montagnard (plural Montagnards, meaning "mountain people") to call all the minorities (except the Khmer Krom and the Hoa), no matter what their actual language. The name Montagnard is still sometimes used today. Sometimes, the name Montagnard is used specifically for the Mường ethnic group.

Human Rights NGOs point out the Vietnamese government's poor record with respect to ethnic minorities. In particular, the large Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) minority of southern Vietnam is denied elementary human rights in an effort by the Vietnamese government to Vietnamize the Khmer Krom, or force them to leave their native land and relocate to Cambodia. The Vietnamese government is afraid that the large native Khmer Krom population in the Mekong delta could allow Cambodia to officially claim back the fertile areas of the delta that were annexed by Vietnam more than 200 years ago. On the other hand, some in the Vietnamese government still pursue the centuries old policy of colonizing Khmer land, and it was reported that in the 1980s and 1990s some local Vietnamese officials have pushed the Cambodian-Vietnamese border several kilometers inside Cambodian territory, annexing tens of Cambodian villages, in violation of international treaties, thus further increasing the ethnic Khmer population inside Vietnam.

Further north, there have been reports of tensions with the Tày people due to the government sponsored relocation of ethnic Vietnamese from the lowlands to the highlands inhabited by the Tày and other minorities. Protests and demonstrations by highland minorities have been reported.

Percentage of ethnic Vietnamese

According to the 1999 census, ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) numbered 65,795,718 and thus accounted for 86.2% of the total population of Vietnam.

In terms of land area, the ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country).

The birth rate of the ethnic Vietnamese (and also the Hoa), which historically has been very high, decreased significantly since the 1980s and is now reaching much lower levels, comparable to the birth rates in Thailand or Malaysia. The birth rate of the minorities is still very high, comparable to birth rates in Cambodia or Laos.

As a result, the ethnic minorities are now growing at a faster rate than the ethnic Vietnamese, which means that the percentage of ethnic Vietnamese in the total population is slowly decreasing year after year. According to official figures, at the 1979 census the ethnic Vietnamese accounted for 87.4% of the total population. The figure was down to 86.9% at the 1989 census, and 86.2% at the 1999 census.

Languages

According to official figures, 86.2% of the population speak Vietnamese as a native tongue.

Various other languages are spoken by the several minority groups in Vietnam. The most spoken languages are: Tày (1.5 million), Mường (1.2 million), Khmer (1.05 million), Cantonese (870,000, this figure also includes speakers of other Chinese dialects), Nung (860,000), HMông (790,000), and Tai Dam (700,000).

French, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by some (mostly older) Vietnamese as a second language. Russian- and to a much lesser extent Czech or Polish- is often known among "baby-boomers" whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc. In recent years, English has become a more popular language to learn and is increasingly used in business, among other things.

See also: List of ethnic groups in Vietnam

Culture

Main article: Culture of Vietnam

In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. In the 16th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters called Chữ Nôm. The celebrated epic Đoạn trường tân thanh (or Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du is written in Chữ Nôm. During the French colonial period, Quốc Ngữ, the romanized Vietnamese alphabet representation of spoken Vietnamese, became popular and brought literacy to the masses.

Due to Vietnam's long association with China, Vietnamese culture remains strongly Confucian with its emphasis on familial duty. Education is highly prized. Historically, passing the imperial Mandarin exams was the only means for Vietnamese people to socially advance themselves.

The majority of Vietnamese are adherents to Mahayana Buddhism, influenced by Confucianism and Daoism, and with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship. Others say that the Vietnamese' second religion is superstition and fatalism, brought on by the decades of war.

Vietnam's cuisine and music have three distinct flavors, related to Vietnam's three regions: Bắc or North, Trung or Central, and Nam or South. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest and is traditionally more formal. Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe. Central classical music shows the influences of Champa culture with its melancholic melodies. Southern music exudes a lively laissez faire attitude. Vietnamese cuisine is based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. Its characteristic flavor is sweet (sugar), spicy (serrano peppers), and flavored by a variety of mints.

See also:


This page about vietnam includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about vietnam
News stories about vietnam
External links for vietnam
Videos for vietnam
Wikis about vietnam
Discussion Groups about vietnam
Blogs about vietnam
Images of vietnam

See also:. Some charity organisations supported by U2 include:. Its characteristic flavor is sweet (sugar), spicy (serrano peppers), and flavored by a variety of mints. Bono is perhaps the best-known advocate for finding a cure for AIDS and helping the impoverished in Africa. Vietnamese cuisine is based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. U2 is almost as well known for its humanitarian nature as it is for its music. Southern music exudes a lively laissez faire attitude. For a complete discography, see U2 discography..

Central classical music shows the influences of Champa culture with its melancholic melodies. Since their first encounter in February 1982 in New Orleans to their April 2004 Lisbon shooting for "How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb", their longstanding friendship, mutual inspiration, and shared experience of rock history is part of the history of photography. Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe. He "invented" U2’s public image and is still shaping it. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest and is traditionally more formal. Since 1982, Anton Corbijn has been photographing U2. Vietnam's cuisine and music have three distinct flavors, related to Vietnam's three regions: Bắc or North, Trung or Central, and Nam or South. U2 has enjoyed reciprocal influential relationships with artists including REM and Anton Corbijn, as well as exerting influences on others, including the Austrian painter Kave Atefie who dedicated two successful art series ("Like a promise in the year of election" and "Outside it's America") to the work of the Irish band.

Others say that the Vietnamese' second religion is superstition and fatalism, brought on by the decades of war. There are several cover versions of U2 songs by Pet Shop Boys, Pearl Jam, Aslan, and The Chimes and musicians such as Cassandra Wilson, Mica Paris and Johnny Cash. The majority of Vietnamese are adherents to Mahayana Buddhism, influenced by Confucianism and Daoism, and with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship. Many musicians have been influenced by the work of U2. Historically, passing the imperial Mandarin exams was the only means for Vietnamese people to socially advance themselves. His poem "A Thanksgiving Prayer" was used as video footage during the band's Zoo TV Tour. Education is highly prized. Burroughs, who had a guest appearance in their video of "Last Night on Earth" shortly before he died.

Due to Vietnam's long association with China, Vietnamese culture remains strongly Confucian with its emphasis on familial duty. author William S. During the French colonial period, Quốc Ngữ, the romanized Vietnamese alphabet representation of spoken Vietnamese, became popular and brought literacy to the masses. U2 also worked together with other artists, including the U.S. The celebrated epic Đoạn trường tân thanh (or Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du is written in Chữ Nôm. Two of the tracks, "Miss Sarajevo" (which got world airplay after its live duet between Bono and Pavarotti was included in the album Pavarotti And Friends) and "Your Blue Room" (a fan favorite, including a vocal track by the band's bassist, Adam Clayton), even made it to their best-of album for 1990-2000. In the 16th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters called Chữ Nôm. The work is a compilation of film music for nonexistent movies, and a bit of a step back from the usual style of the band, thus the pseudonym "Passengers".

In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. 1. Main article: Culture of Vietnam. While working under the pseudonym "Passengers," U2 gave producer Brian Eno creative control and cranked out the album Original Soundtracks No. See also: List of ethnic groups in Vietnam. did a rework of the title track of the movie Mission: Impossible in 1996. In recent years, English has become a more popular language to learn and is increasingly used in business, among other things. The pair also wrote the song "She's A Mystery To Me" for Roy Orbison, which was released on his album Mystery Girl, while Adam Clayton and Larry Mullen Jr.

Russian- and to a much lesser extent Czech or Polish- is often known among "baby-boomers" whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc. Together with The Edge, Bono wrote the song "GoldenEye" for the James Bond movie of the same name, which was performed by Tina Turner. French, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by some (mostly older) Vietnamese as a second language. Bono recorded the song "In a Lifetime" with the Irish band Clannad. The most spoken languages are: Tày (1.5 million), Mường (1.2 million), Khmer (1.05 million), Cantonese (870,000, this figure also includes speakers of other Chinese dialects), Nung (860,000), HMông (790,000), and Tai Dam (700,000). U2 has worked with other collaborators; the individual members have also worked in smaller groups together and with outsiders. Various other languages are spoken by the several minority groups in Vietnam. The Edge has also admitted that he writes songs after every show, but only 1 in 10 of these songs on the road will go anywhere, and has expressed longing to get back into a recording studio.

According to official figures, 86.2% of the population speak Vietnamese as a native tongue. Since this article has been written, U2 has extended the Vertigo tour to take up a great deal of 2006. The figure was down to 86.9% at the 1989 census, and 86.2% at the 1999 census. Thus, they consider Pop at least a partial artistic failure, despite over 7 million in sales. According to official figures, at the 1979 census the ethnic Vietnamese accounted for 87.4% of the total population. Bono has said that the biggest mistake the band has ever made was letting their manager book the PopMart tour, as it meant they had to rush to finish the Pop album. As a result, the ethnic minorities are now growing at a faster rate than the ethnic Vietnamese, which means that the percentage of ethnic Vietnamese in the total population is slowly decreasing year after year. Considering recent comments from the members of the band, this now seems more likely than them rushing to get the remains of the How to Dismantle... sessions finished.

The birth rate of the minorities is still very high, comparable to birth rates in Cambodia or Laos. There have also been talks of U2 re-recording their 1997 album, Pop for a tenth anniversary. The birth rate of the ethnic Vietnamese (and also the Hoa), which historically has been very high, decreased significantly since the 1980s and is now reaching much lower levels, comparable to the birth rates in Thailand or Malaysia. The album was released only a year and half after their groundbreaking album Achtung Baby. In terms of land area, the ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country). In 1993, during a break in the massive Zoo TV Tour, U2 recorded what was to be Zooropa. According to the 1999 census, ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) numbered 65,795,718 and thus accounted for 86.2% of the total population of Vietnam. In the January 2006 edition of Q magazine, Bono said that the band were working on a new album for 2006.

Protests and demonstrations by highland minorities have been reported. Most likely a new record will surface in 2007, but 2006 cannot be ruled out entirely. Further north, there have been reports of tensions with the Tày people due to the government sponsored relocation of ethnic Vietnamese from the lowlands to the highlands inhabited by the Tày and other minorities. The Vertigo tour kicked off in San Diego on 28 March and is expected to go well into 2006, so there aren't current plans to go into the studio to record. On the other hand, some in the Vietnamese government still pursue the centuries old policy of colonizing Khmer land, and it was reported that in the 1980s and 1990s some local Vietnamese officials have pushed the Cambodian-Vietnamese border several kilometers inside Cambodian territory, annexing tens of Cambodian villages, in violation of international treaties, thus further increasing the ethnic Khmer population inside Vietnam. According to Bono there are 24 songs that came out of sessions, of which the band took 11 for their subsequent record. The Vietnamese government is afraid that the large native Khmer Krom population in the Mekong delta could allow Cambodia to officially claim back the fertile areas of the delta that were annexed by Vietnam more than 200 years ago. In mid-2005, a source (Anti-Music) reported that U2 have plans for a new album and are keen to record more.

In particular, the large Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) minority of southern Vietnam is denied elementary human rights in an effort by the Vietnamese government to Vietnamize the Khmer Krom, or force them to leave their native land and relocate to Cambodia. On December 18, 2005, Time magazine awarded its prestigious "Person of the Year" honor to Bono as well as philanthropists Bill and Melinda Gates [3]. Human Rights NGOs point out the Vietnamese government's poor record with respect to ethnic minorities. U2 was featured on the album as part of Blige's remake of U2's "One". Sometimes, the name Montagnard is used specifically for the Mường ethnic group. Blige released her ninth studio album "The Breakthrough". The name Montagnard is still sometimes used today. On December 8, U2 was awarded with 5 Grammy nominations, including 'Album of the Year', and 'Song of the Year' for "Sometimes You Can't Make It On Your Own." On December 20, Mary J.

The French used the name Montagnard (plural Montagnards, meaning "mountain people") to call all the minorities (except the Khmer Krom and the Hoa), no matter what their actual language. Shows in Sydney, Australia at the Telstra Stadium sold out in just an hour and over the course of that day, the Melbourne and New Zealand shows also sold out. Officially, the ethnic minorities are referred to as "national minorities". The leg will finish in Hawaii on April 8. Mixed race individuals face the most discrimination in Vietnamese society and government, especially ones who are product of American soldiers (white or black) from the Vietnam War. On November 9, U2 announced that the Vertigo tour will continue into 2006, and the band will appear in Mexico, South America, New Zealand, Australia and Japan. There are some who are racially mixed with blacks as well, another product during the Vietnam War from American soldiers. Action against poverty has been a major feature point of the Vertigo 05 shows, as Bono has used the song "One" as an opportunity to plead with fans in attendance to join the ONE Campaign in the fight against poverty.

There are also a few of those descended from Indian or Pakistani setttlers also during the colonial era. Before presenting the award, the President said: "Over the last 25 years you have shown that it is possible to combine the pleasure of artistic creation with civic and humanitarian intervention to help build a better world.". Most of them are descendants of Vietnamese people mixed with either early French settlers or white American soldiers and personnel (or both), during the colonial period and Vietnam War. if we really believed that an African life was equal to a European life we would not stand by with watering cans while an entire continent was bursting into flames.". Vietnam also has a small number of racial Eurasians, people of Asian and Caucasian (mostly white, but also Indian) parentage. .. Many of these 53 minority groups only have a few thousand members or so. Commenting on the award, which had never previously been awarded to a foreign music group, Bono said, "It is of course for the four of us a great, great honour..

Beyond these five largest ethnic minorities, there are 48 other minorities officially recognized by the Vietnamese government, giving a total of 53 minorities altogether. The Vertigo Tour European leg climaxed at the Estádio José Alvalade XXI in Lisbon on August 15 after the band received the country's most prestigious honour, the Order of Liberty from Portugal's President Jorge Sampaio regarding the band's hugely influential work for action in Africa and across the world concerning extreme poverty. However, since the North Vietnamese took over South Vietnam in 1975 many Hoa left Vietnam, especially in the 1980s, so that at the 1999 census the Hoa were only the fifth largest minority (or the fourth largest if the Thái are not considered as an homogenous ethnic group). They performed alongside Coldplay, Paul McCartney, and Pink Floyd, among others, in the Live 8 concert in London on July 2nd, 2005. Up to the 1979 Vietnamese census, the Hoa were the largest minority of Vietnam. The third single from the album, "City of Blinding Lights", entered the UK singles chart at #2 on June 12. They speak predominantly Cantonese (known to the Vietnamese as Quảng Đông), but there are also speakers of Hakka (Khách Gia), Min Nan/Hokkien/Fujian (Mân Nam/Phúc Kiến), Chaozhou (Triều Châu), etc. In Belgium, France and Austria the tickets were sold within 60 minutes.

The Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese) are mainly lowlanders and, more specifically, urban dwellers. U2 have smashed Irish box office records with ticket sales for their 2005 Croke Park, Dublin concerts, after more than 240,000 tickets were sold in record time. The Vietnamese government reported 1,055,174 Khmer Krom at the 1999 census. The DVD marks their third live film since their 2001 Elevation Tour. There is no consensus on the exact number of Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) living in Vietnam. Their featured stop in Chicago, Illinois was filmed over two nights in May, 2005 for the live DVD U2 - Vertigo 2005 // Live From Chicago. The Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) live in the fertile delta of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and are ethnically the same as the Khmer people who make up the majority of the population of Cambodia. The band then returned to the United States and finished up on December 19 in Portland, Oregon.

The Mường live in the mountains of north central Vietnam and speak a Mon-Khmer language closely related to the Vietnamese language. They played in a number of venues including Paris, Amsterdam, London, Dublin, Rome and Oslo. Although the Thái ethnicity is officially recognized in Vietnam, western linguistics do not recognize it and prefer to classify Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, etc., as separate ethnic groups, in which case the Mường minority moves to second largest minority of Vietnam, Khmer Krom move to third position, and Hoa to fourth position. The second leg was a European stadium tour, which started on June 10 in Brussels and finished on August 14 in Lisbon. The Thai people of Thailand speak languages belonging to the Lao-Phutai branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup, while the "Thái" of Vietnam speak languages belonging to the East Central branch of the Southwestern Tai subgroup. The band performed well-known hits, songs from the current album, and early rarities. This official "Thái" ethnicity should not be confused with the Thai people of Thailand. The first leg started off in March in San Diego, California and finished in May in Boston, Massachusetts.

All these languages are closely related and belong to the Southwestern Tai subgroup of the Tai languages. The first leg of the Vertigo Tour began in the United States, with the band performing 26 sold-out shows. Thái is a name used by Vietnamese authorities for a group of people also from the mountainous northern region of Vietnam and whom western linguists say actually speak separate languages: Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng, Tai Hang Tong, Tày Tac, and Tai Thanh. The song appears to be so popular, many fans are citing it as one of their top 10 all-time favourite U2 tracks, saying it's U2's best songwriting in years, harking back to the days of sonic experimentation witnessed in 1991's "Achtung Baby". Their language is a member of the Tai languages, belonging to the Central Tai subgroup and closely related to the Zhuang language of southern China. Some say it should have been included on 'How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb' [it was left off, along with 'Fast Cars', which surfaced as a bonus track in some countries, to prevent the album from running too long over an hour] whereas others feel the track should be kept for U2's next album. The Tay people live primarily in the mountains and foothills of northern Vietnam. The track, in its current form floating around on the internet, is of less than standard audio quality but has still got the ball rolling on many a debate.

Membership to Sunni and Bashi Islam are usually accredited to the ethnic Cham minority, but there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents to Islam in the southwest. Though it is still unknown where this copy of the album (which at the time of writing is still the only declared CD [let alone copy of 'How To...'] in the public domain to have the track) came from, the track caused mass hysteria throughout the U2 fan community! Numerous websites hosted the track, touting it as a yet unreleased B-side after Bono told the same fan who received the 'Special copy' weeks after meeting the singer to "Watch out for Mercy" as it was one of his favourite songs from the sessions and is the "Best B-side ever recorded." *not verbatim. The largest Protestant churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church. In late 2004, "Mercy", an unreleased track taken from the 'How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb' sessions, surfaced on the internet thanks to a fan who had been given a copy of the album containing the extra track. Mainstream Pure Land schools and Zen-inspired syncretists); with a sizeable Roman Catholic following, Protestant, Cao Đài, and Hoa Hao minorities. They were inducted by their good friend Bruce Springsteen. But according to the majority of other sources, Vietnamese people are predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. On March 14, 2005, U2 was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility.

According to the 1999 Socialist Republic of Vietnam's census numbers, eighty percent of Vietnamese subscribe to no religion. In April 2004, Rolling Stone magazine placed U2 in its 50 "greatest rock & roll artists of all time". By contrast, the ethnic minorities, except for the Khơ-me Crôm (Khmer Krom) and the Hoa (ethnic Han Chinese), are found mostly in the highlands that cover two-thirds of the national territory. The DVD carries a video of an exclusive live performance of "Sometimes You Can't Make It On Your Own" from the band's Dublin studio, and a Trent Reznor remix of "Vertigo.". A homogenous social group, the Viet exert influence on national life through their control of political and economic affairs and their role as purveyors of the dominant culture. The single will be available on two CD formats and a DVD single. They are concentrated largely in the alluvial deltas and in the coastal plains and have little in common with the minority peoples of the highlands, whom they have historically regarded as hostile and barbaric. The performance is a Jacknife Lee remix of "Ave Maria" sung by Bono with Luciano Pavarotti.The B-Side of the single also includes a remix of the hit "Vertigo" and a Jacknife Lee remix of "Fast Cars." Fast Cars is an album track available only on the UK and Japan versions and American deluxe editions of Atomic Bomb.

The majority ethnic Vietnamese, also called Viet or Kinh, make up about 86 percent of the nation's population. In Europe, the next single released from the album - "Sometimes You Can't Make It On Your Own" - once again featured a Bono/Pavarotti performance on the B-side. According to official figures from the 1999 census, of Vietnam's then population of 76.3m, the largest of 54 government recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam were:. Owners of the U2 Edition iPod were able to purchase this collection at a discount. Main article: Demographics of Vietnam. The digital box set features each U2 album in its entirety, as well as every single and B-side ever released, rare live sets, and previously unreleased songs from recording sessions of All That You Can't Leave Behind and How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb. Many of the over 3 million annual visitors are Vietnam war veterans. The partnership also led Apple's iTunes Music Store to feature a collection known as The Complete U2.

Tourism has become an increasingly important industry in Vietnam. The band also licensed a special version of the iPod with a U2 design (black faceplate with red click wheel, echoing the color scheme for the new album) and facsimiles of the bandmembers' signatures etched on the back plate. Corruption, bribery and embezzlement committed by many government officials have pushed property prices even higher, as real estate investment is a popular form of money laundering. This move shocked some fans who remember U2's previous staunch refusal to get involved in any product promotion. The booming prices have given the poor land owners the opportunity to sell their homes for inflated prices. In another first, the band entered an extensive cross-promotion campaign with Apple Computer: the band allowed the single "Vertigo" to be used in a widely aired television commercial for the iPod music player -- though the band did not receive any royalties for the use of the song, due to the commercial the song was well known even before the release of the album. This has amazed many people because GDP per capita of this city is around US$1,000 per annum. They then played a free concert at a park beneath the Brooklyn Bridge, attracting over 30,000 fans who had learned of the show on various U2 fan websites.

In Hanoi, the capital, property prices can be as high as those in Tokyo or New York City. The band also made a video for the second North American single, "All Because Of You", while riding on a flatbed truck through the streets of Manhattan on November 22. The reason lies in the high property prices. They made appearances on TV shows like CD:UK and Friday Night with Jonathan Ross in Britain and Saturday Night Live in America. The spending power of the public has noticeably increased. U2 promoted How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb heavily. This figure has been scaled down by the Government to 9.5% per annum to avoid the ‘double digit’ classification. This was a record for the band, nearly doubling the first-week sales of All That You Can't Leave Behind in the US.

Inflation rate is estimated at 14% per year in 2004. It sold 840,000 units in the United States in its first week. This translates to US$2700 per capita. The album debuted at #1 in 32 countries, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and the band's native Ireland. Vietnam, however, is still a relatively poor country with GDP of US$227.2 billion (est., 2004). The album, titled How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb, was released on November 22 in much of the world and November 23 in the United States. The country is attempting to become a member of the WTO. The song received extensive airplay in the first week after its release and became an international hit.

Layoffs in the state sector and foreign-invested enterprises combined with the lasting effects of a previous military demobilization further exacerbated the unemployment situation. No such pre-release of the album occurred, however, and the first single from the album, titled "Vertigo", was released for airplay on September 24, 2004. On the other hand, urban unemployment has been rising steadily in recent years due to high numbers of migration from the countryside to the cities, and rural unemployment, estimated to be up to 35% during nonharvest periods, is already at critical levels. Shortly thereafter, Bono stated that, should the album appear on P2P networks, it would be released immediately via iTunes and be in stores within a month. Simultaneously, investment grew three-fold and domestic savings quintupled. A rough-cut of the band's follow-up album was stolen in Nice, France, in July 2004 [2]. On the one hand, Vietnam achieved around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2002, making it the world's second-fastest growing economy. I especially like the bassline." The track went to the top of the UK singles charts in February 2004 and also went top 5 in Ireland and top ten in Australia.

In many ways, this followed the Chinese model and achieved similar results. Adam Clayton said of the track: "It's a good beat and you can dance to it. In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam formally abandoned Marxist economic planning and began introducing market elements as part of a broad economic reform package called "đổi mới" ("Renovation"). U2. Main article: Economy of Vietnam. All four members of U2 had to clear the track, which was released under the title of LMC vs. Land boundaries: Total: 4,639 km (2,883 mi) Border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km (763 mi), China 1,281 km (796 mi), Laos 2,130 m (1,324 mi). Dance artists LMC sampled "With or Without You" for their track "Take Me To The Clouds Above" which also features lyrics from "How Will I Know" by Whitney Houston.

Annual rainfall ranges from 120 to 300 centimetres (47 to 118 inches), and annual temperatures vary between 5°C (41°F) and 37°C (99°F). In late 2002, U2 released part two of its greatest hits collection, The Best of 1990-2000. The climate is tropical and monsoonal; humidity averages 84 percent throughout the year. Bono continued his campaigns for debt and HIV/AIDS relief throughout the summer of 2002. The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Dai Truong Son (central mountains) with high plateaus, and the Mekong River Delta. All That You Can't Leave Behind went on to receive four more Grammy Awards. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 metres (10,312 ft). Bono then opened his jacket, which he had worn throughout the Elevation Tour, to reveal the American flag printed as the lining, an image that was widely reproduced in the media.

The northern part of the country consists of highlands and the Red River Delta. The highlight was an emotional performance of "Where the Streets Have No Name" in which the names of the victims of the September 11, 2001 attacks were projected onto a pair of backdrops, scrolling up towards the sky; at the end of the song the backdrops were released, descending to the ground in a gentle revisiting of the Twin Towers' fall. Mountains account for 40 percent, hills 40 percent, and forests 75 percent. After the Elevation Tour ended in late 2001, the culmination of U2's critical resurrection came when the band performed a well-received three-song set in New Orleans, Louisiana during halftime of Super Bowl XXXVI. The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20 percent. Following such an accomplished album, and a hugely successful tour, many fans felt that U2 had been successful in "re-applying for the job of the biggest band in the world," an application Bono had made a year earlier. The country is approximately 331,688 square kilometers (128,066 mi²) in area, which is slightly larger than New Mexico and slightly smaller than Germany. The tour ended up as the top concert draw in North America in 2001.

Main article: Geography of Vietnam. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 nearly led U2 to cancel the last third of the tour but they decided to continue nonetheless; the new album's "Walk On" gained added resonance. Besides the five cities, the country is divided into fifty-nine provinces (tỉnh, singular and plural): An Giang, Bắc Giang, Bắc Cạn, Bạc Liêu, Bắc Ninh, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu, Bến Tre, Bình Định, Bình Dương, Bình Phước, Bình Thuận, Cà Mau, Cao Bằng, Đắk Lắk, Đắk Nông, Điện Biên, Đồng Nai, Đồng Tháp, Gia Lai, Hà Giang, Hải Dương, Hà Nam, Hà Tây, Hà Tĩnh, Hòa Bình, Hậu Giang, Hưng Yên, Khánh Hòa, Kiên Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Châu, Lâm Đồng, Lạng Sơn, Lào Cai, Long An, Nam Định, Nghệ An, Ninh Bình, Ninh Thuận, Phú Thọ, Phú Yên, Quảng Bình, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Quảng Ninh, Quảng Trị, Sóc Trăng, Sơn La, Tây Ninh, Thái Bình, Thái Nguyên, Thanh Hóa, Thừa Thiên-Huế, Tiền Giang, Trà Vinh, Tuyên Quang, Vĩnh Long, Vĩnh Phúc, Yên Bái. The Elevation Tour saw the band performing in a scaled-down setting, returning to arenas after nearly a decade of stadium productions, with a heart-shaped stage and ramp permitting greater proximity to the audience. Now, Saigon is understood as heart of the city (central area of the District 1). U2 followed that release with a major tour in the spring of 2001, the Elevation Tour. Ho Chi Minh City was formerly known as Sài Gòn (Sài Gòn). 1 in 22 countries and spawned a world-wide hit single, "Beautiful Day", which also earned three Grammy Awards.

There are also four municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc Trung ương, singular and plural) existing at provincial level: Cần Thơ, Đà Nẵng, Hải Phòng, and Hồ Chí Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh). It debuted at No. Vietnam's capital (thủ đô, singular and plural) is Hà Nội (Hà Nội). All That You Can't Leave Behind, released in late October of 2000, was received widely as U2's return to grace, and was considered by many to be U2's "third masterpiece", following The Joshua Tree and Achtung Baby. Main article: Provinces of Vietnam. The song eventually appeared on the soundtrack to The Million Dollar Hotel, a movie based on a story written by Bono. Vietnam is a member of the United Nations, La Francophonie, ASEAN, and APEC, and applied for membership to the World Trade Organization in 2001. During these sessions, the band collaborated with author Salman Rushdie, who wrote the lyrics to a song called "The Ground Beneath Her Feet", taken from his book of the same name.

Former political parties include the nationalist Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng of Nguyễn Thái Học, the Can Lao party of the Ngô Đình Diệm government and the Viet Nam Duy Tan Hoi of Phan Bội Châu during the colonial period. After the overwhelming extravagance of the Popmart Tour, critics and music industry insiders felt that U2 was trying to return to the days of The Joshua Tree in order to keep its audience of loyal fans. The Government of Free Vietnam has claimed responsibility for a number of guerilla raids into Vietnam, which the Vietnamese government has denounced as terrorism. U2 went back into the studio in early 1999, yet again with Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois producing. The most prominent are the Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League, and the Government of Free Vietnam. In late 1998, U2 released its first greatest hits compilation, The Best of 1980-1990. These communities have supported demonstrations and civil disobedience against the government. Also that year, U2 performed on an Irish TV fundraiser for victims of the Omagh, Northern Ireland bombing which killed 28 and injured hundreds earlier in the year.

There are no legal opposition parties in Vietnam, although a number of opposition groups do exist scattered overseas among exile communities within countries such as France and the United States. The band played a brief concert in Belfast in May of 1998, three days before the public voted in favour of the Northern Ireland Peace Accord. Senior Politburo members (Trần Đức Lương, Phan Văn Khải, Nguyễn Văn An, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, Lê Hồng Anh, Phạm Văn Trà and Trương Quang Được) concurrently hold high positions in the Government and the National Assembly. The shows were also intended to be shining a mirror back onto the world, taking all the subtle advertising and messages we are exposed to every day and blowing them up so they were visible to the world, best shown in the famous picture of Bono (dressed as The Fly) with the message "WATCH MORE TV" written next to it. From 2001 until now, Nong Duc Manh has been General Secretary of CPV. The Popmart Tour and Zoo TV Tour was intended to send a sarcastic message to all those accusing U2 of commercialism. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam exists today as a communist state. The Popmart Tour was the second-highest grossing tour of 1997 (behind the Rolling Stones' Bridges to Babylon Tour) with revenues of just under $80 million, but it cost more than $100 million to produce.

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is governed through a highly centralized system dominated by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), which was formerly the Vietnamese Labor Party (1951-1976). One of the stops was in Sarajevo, where they were the first major group to perform after the war there. Main article: Politics of Vietnam. It was to be U2's most colorful show to date. It reestablished diplomatic relations with the United States in 1995, one year after the United States' trade embargo on Vietnam was repealed. The show hit the road in April, 1997; the set included a 100-foot tall golden yellow arch, a large 150 foot long video screen, and a 35 foot tall mirrorball lemon. During much of the 1990s, economic growth was rapid, and Vietnam reintegrated into the international community. With the Popmart Tour, U2, once again continued the Zoo TV theme of decadence.

In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam implemented economic reforms known as đổi mới (renovation). It is not surprising that the tracks from Pop picked for U2's second greatest hits album – "Gone", "Discothèque", and "Staring at the Sun" – were all remixed for inclusion on that album. Only one month later, however, partially in retaliation, China launched a short-lived incursion into Vietnam: the Sino-Vietnamese War. The band has admitted they were hurried into completing the album and say that a number of tracks on the album were not finished as well they would have liked. In late 1978, the Cambodian people, with the support of the Vietnamese army, removed the Khmer Rouge from power. One of the main problems the band had when the recording the album was the time constraint placed upon them by their impending tour. Millions of South Vietnamese became boat people over the next two decades. Rolling Stone even went so far as claiming U2 had "defied the odds and made some of the greatest music of their lives." However, audiences and fans felt that the music industry had exceeded the limits of tolerance in promoting Pop, and the album was seen as something of a disappointment by many.

After reunification, political and economic conditions deteriorated to near-famine conditions. The album debuted at #1 in 28 countries, and earned U2 mainly positive reviews. By April 30, 1975, North Vietnam had overtaken South Vietnam and by 1976, Vietnam was officially unified under the North Vietnamese government as The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Pop was released in March of 1997. All American troops were withdrawn by March 29, 1973. This gave the album a techno/disco feel. The war continued even after the Paris Peace Accords on January 27, 1973, which formally recognized the sovereignty of both sides. U2 were once again attempting to change their musical direction, this time the band were experimenting with heavy post production of their music, utilizing tape loops, programming and sampling.

The conflict quickly escalated into the Vietnam War. The recording of this album was fraught with difficulty. During the Cold War, the North was supported by China and the Soviet Union while the South was supported by United States. In early 1996, U2 began work on their next record. The Geneva Accords subsequently divided the country into North Vietnam and South Vietnam, separated by a demilitarized zone. The album, including a collaboration with Luciano Pavarotti, "Miss Sarajevo", was not largely noticed in the industry, and received little attention from the critics and public alike. When the war ended, France attempted to re-establish control but failed, after they were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. 1.

French rule continued until World War II, when Japan briefly occupied Vietnam and used the country as a base to launch attacks against the rest of Indochina and India. After some time off - and a few side projects (the Batman Forever and Mission: Impossible soundtracks) - the band returned under the radar in 1995 with Brian Eno under the moniker "Passengers", and released an experimental album called Original Soundtracks No. The independent period ended in the mid-19th century, when the country was colonized by France. In particular, the tracks Zooropa, Stay (Faraway, So Close!) and, maybe most of all, The Wanderer, a duet with Johnny Cash, proved influential in winning the admiration of new fans. They eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and much of the Khmer empire. The Zooropa album was, like Achtung Baby before it, popular among people who had never been fans of U2 before, further expanding the fanbase and hugely increasing the band's ability to remain popular into the 1990s and beyond. Between the 13th and 17th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). Zooropa was an even greater departure from the style of their earlier recordings, incorporating techno style and other electronic effects.

Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Le Dynasty 1400s, especially with the emperor Le Thanh Tong. The album was intended as an additional EP to Achtung Baby, but soon Zooropa expanded into a full-fledged LP and was released in July of 1993. However, during the rule of the Tran Dynasty, it defeated three Mongol attempts of invasion by the Yuan Dynasty. Following the same theme, U2 went back into the studio to record their next release during a break in the Zoo TV Tour. For most of its history, Vietnam has been strongly influenced by its much bigger northern neighbor, China. European leg link-ups to war-torn Sarajevo caused further controversy. They gained complete autonomy a century later. Some missed the point of the tour and thought that U2 had "lost it," and that Bono had become an egomaniac.

In 939, the Vietnamese defeated Chinese forces at the Bach Dang River and gained independence. The tour was, among other things, U2's attempt at mocking the excesses of rock and roll by appearing to embrace greed and decadence - at times, even away from the stage. Sporadic independence movements were attempted, but were quickly extinguished by the Chinese army. The multimedia event known as the Zoo TV Tour masterfully confused audiences with hundreds of video screens, upside-down flying Trabant cars, mock transmission towers, satellite TV links, subliminal text messages, and over-the-top stage characters such as "The Fly", "Mirror-ball Man" and "Mister MacPhisto". What is known for sure is that for most of the period from 207 BC to the early 10th century, it was under the rule of successive dynasties of China. In early 1992, U2 began its first American tour in more than four years. Whether this is indeed historically true or not is still subject to debate. New fans were perhaps most drawn in by the song "Mysterious Ways".

This Chinese general adopted the native language (which sounded similar to southern Chinese dialects anyway) and married local women, who gave birth to sons that inherited the kingdom. The group's fanbase was therefore expanded significantly by this release. He and his soldiers conquered the land and established a civilized society modeled after ancient Chinese customs. The album was enthusiastically received by fans and critics alike, with Rolling Stone magazine declaring that U2 had "proven that the same penchant for epic musical and verbal gestures that leads many artists to self-parody can, in more inspired hands, fuel the unforgettable fire that defines great rock & roll." What was often said at the time was that Achtung Baby introduced a legion of new U2 fans, people who had heard the group for many years but never really liked them or bought their records before. Some historians, both in Asia and in the West, hold that the various peoples of today's Vietnam were brought together by a Qin Dynasty-era general who was fed up with the despotic rule of the Qin Shi Huang (First emperor of China proper) and escaped to the "southern Yue [Viet] mountains" to set up his own kingdom. In November of 1991, U2 released the heavily experimental and distorted Achtung Baby. Chinese historical records tell of an indigenous people that existed about 2,500 years ago. The original sessions did not go well, but following the inspirational completion of the hit song 'One,' the band eventually emerged from the studio with renewed energy and a new album under its belt.

Vietnamese legends hold that native people populated and civilized the land more than 4,000 years ago. After taking some time off, the band met in East Berlin in autumn of 1990 to begin work on their next studio album, again with Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois producing. Its cognate name in Chinese, Yuè Nán (越南; Yut6 Naam4 in Cantonese) means "southern extension". Perhaps feeling that U2 was somewhat stagnating, Bono announced during a December 30, 1989 concert in Dublin that it was time "to go away and dream it all up again.". The name of the country comes from the Vietnamese Việt Nam, which is in turn a reordering of Nam Việt, the name of an ancient kingdom from the ancestral Vietnamese that covered much of today's northern Vietnam. King), which visited Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, but avoided the US and most of Europe. . U2 went on the Lovetown Tour (with special guest B.B.

Situated in eastern Indochina, it borders China, Laos, Cambodia, as well as the South China Sea. Despite a positive reception from fans, Rattle and Hum received mixed-to-negative reviews from both film and music critics. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, or Vietnam, is a communist country in Southeast Asia. Amongst the songs performed live that made it to the album were Helter Skelter (see above), a cover version of Bob Dylan's famous song All Along The Watchtower. (Vietnamese, "Independence, liberty, happiness"). King, and sang about blues great Billie Holiday. Music of Vietnam. That album became a tribute to American music, which the band recorded part of at the legendary Sun Studios in Memphis (along with The Point Depot, Dublin, Ireland), performed with Bob Dylan and B.B.

Cuisine of Vietnam. The band began to film and record various shows from the tour for the documentary and double album Rattle and Hum in 1988 and released on video in 1989. Hmong: 0.8m (1.0%). The band also covered The Beatles' "Helter Skelter", declaring "This is a song Charles Manson stole from the Beatles; we're stealin' it back.". Nun: 0.9m (1.1%). At Wembley Stadium in London, in 1987, U2 sang a haunting version of The Beatles' "Help!" - dedicating it to those in the audience who were dreading another five years of the recently re-elected Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. Hoa: 0.9m (1.1%). Bono and U2 were still able to seize the moment.

Khmer Krom: 1.1m (1.4%). The Joshua Tree Tour sold out stadiums around the world, the first time the band had consistently played venues of that size . Mường: 1.1m (1.5%). U2 was the fourth rock band to be featured on the cover of Time magazine (following The Beatles, The Band, and The Who), who declared that U2 was "Rock's Hottest Ticket". Thái: 1.3m (1.7%). The singles "With or Without You" and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For" also quickly went to #1 in the U.S., with "Where the Streets Have No Name" being another heavily played track. Tày: 1.5m (1.9%). The album debuted at #1 in the U.K., quickly reached #1 in the U.S., and would go on to win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year.

Viet/Kinh: 65.8m (86.2%). In 1987, U2 released The Joshua Tree. performed to sold-out arenas and stadiums, and helped Amnesty International triple its membership in the process. This 6-show tour across the U.S. U2 went on to a headlining spot on 1986's A Conspiracy of Hope Tour for Amnesty International.

In 1985 Rolling Stone magazine called U2 the "Band of the 80s", saying that "for a growing number of rock-and-roll fans, U2 has become the band that matters most, maybe even the only band that matters.". Somewhat ironically, the Live Aid version of "Bad" has become something of a legend in rock circles, and was an indication of the personal connection that Bono could make with audiences. After the concert, the other band members demanded he leave U2, Bono instead took a few weeks off to think about his role in the band, and was welcomed back with open arms. admitted that the rest of the band had considered leaving the stage as he was performing.

Larry Mullen Jr. The other band members were upset with Bono for spending the time they had planned for playing "Pride (In the Name of Love)", and Bono was convinced he had squandered a chance for promoting the band to a greater audience. U2 were not expected to be one of the main draws for the event, but the band provided the show with one of its most memorable moments, a relentless 13-minute version of "Bad" in which Bono leapt off the stage to dance with a fan. The Live Aid concert at Wembley Stadium for Ethiopian famine relief in July 1985 was seen by more than a billion people worldwide.

Miles Davis is reputed to have asked the album to be played while on his deathbed. The tour itself became the first time U2 extensively played in indoor arenas. During the Unforgettable Fire Tour to support the new album, Bono took to wrapping his microphone cable around his arm in imitation of a junkie looking for a vein. The centrepiece of the album is "Bad", a long, experimental song which, while never released as a single, provided the album's defining moment: a cathartic exploration on the theme of heroin dependency - a problem particularly prevalent in the Dublin of the mid-1980s.

The album's release coincided with a photo exhibit at the Chicago Peace Museum featuring images of the aftermath of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings; Bono would later contribute a poem entitled "Dreams in Box" to the museum's archives. Songs include "Indian Summer Sky", a social commentary on the prison-like atmosphere of city living in a world of natural forces, and "MLK", a second song honoring Martin Luther King, Jr. However, the material, although less overtly so, remained political. The album represented a turning point in the band's career, as Bono's lyrics became more complex, subtle and experimental, the Edge's guitar explored new sonic landscapes, and the rhythm section got looser and funkier.

Top 5 and the US Top 50. "Pride" became the first single from the album, cracking the U.K. The album featured the tribute to civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., "Pride (In the Name of Love)". The experimental The Unforgettable Fire (named after a series of paintings made by survivors of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki) followed in 1984.

The band began their fourth studio album with Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois producing. The band recorded the Under a Blood Red Sky EP on this tour and a live video was also released, both of which received radio and MTV play and helped expand the band's audience. on their subsequent War Tour. For the first time, the band began performing to sold-out concerts in mainland Europe and the U.S.

MTV put the "New Year's Day" video into heavy rotation, which helped introduce U2 to the American audience. charts. charts and nearly cracking the Top 50 on the U.S. The album's first single, "New Year's Day", was U2's first international hit single, reaching the #10 position on the U.K.

His anger and passion were palpable as he shouted: "Fuck the 'revolution'!". This song is Sunday Bloody Sunday." Furthermore, as captured in the concert film U2: Rattle and Hum, during the performance of the song on November 9, 1987, the day after the IRA bombing in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, in which 11 people were killed during a Remembrance Day service, Bono bluntly denounced the violence in Ireland and the Irish expatriates who supported it. When some Irish-Americans tried to misrepresent the song as a rallying call for the Provisional IRA Bono responded with what became one of his most recognizable phrases in concerts, notably the performance on the live EP Under a Blood Red Sky - "this song is not a rebel song. The ability to use such a range of images, taking a song initially about sectarian anger, and turn it into a call for Christians to unite and claim the victory over death and evil that Christ achieved in the resurrection, showed the depth of the band's songwriting ability.

The song starts off by expressing the anger felt in Ireland over Bloody Sunday incident of 1972, but in successive stanzas moves through different imagery that disown that anger and place the song in a religious context, using imagery from Matthew 10:35 ("mother's children; brothers, sisters torn apart"), and a twist on 1 Corinthians 15:32 ("we eat and drink while tomorrow they die") before finishing off with a call for Christians to stop fighting each other and "claim the victory Jesus won, on a Sunday bloody Sunday". The album included the song "Sunday Bloody Sunday" , which dealt with the troubles in Northern Ireland. In 1983, U2 returned with apparently a newfound sense of direction and the release of their third album, War. Whiteley & Maynard, ISBN 1561012238).

(In recent years a book of sermons based on U2 songs has been published: "Get Up Off Your Knees" ed. While the Bible has remained a major source of inspiration for Bono’s lyric writing, October is U2’s only overt Christian rock album… and is generally held to be among their least successful work. After nearly throwing in the towel on U2, they decided it was possible to reconcile the two by continuing to make music without compromising their personal beliefs. The three band members joined a religious group in Dublin called "Shalom", which led all three to question the relationship between the Christian faith and the rock and roll lifestyle.

Bono, the Edge and Larry were committed Christians and made little effort to hide that fact. Fans and music critics quickly made note of the band's spiritual lyrics. The band's second album, October, was released in 1981. These live shows helped establish U2 as one of the most exciting live bands in the UK, as critics noted that Bono was a very "charismatic" and "passionate" showman.

Boy's release was followed by U2's first tour beyond Ireland and the United Kingdom. He can also be seen as a would-be band member in the Alan Parker feature "The Committments"). (The same boy, three years older, would be employed for artwork on U2's War album. Lord of the Flies also inspired the famous album art which featured photographs of a disheveled boy, naked from the waist up, sometimes wearing war paint or an army helmet.

One song, “Shadows and Tall Trees,” gives a nod to William Golding’s novel Lord of the Flies, which was an inspiration for the album. Despite Bono’s unfocused, improvised lyrics, Boy has a definite theme – a vulnerable, painfully honest examination of adolescence touching on fear over sex, identity confusion, death and uncontrollable mood swings. It was met with critical praise and is considered one of the better debuts in rock history. U2 released Boy the following October.

Island Records signed the band in March of 1980. They performed "I Will Follow" and "Twilight" and engaged in an interview. It aired on June 4, 1981. U2 made their first appearance on US television on The Tomorrow Show hosted by Tom Snyder.

In December of that year, U2 travelled to London for its first shows outside of Ireland, but failed to get much attention from foreign audiences and critics. It topped the Irish charts. Now a four-piece with a local fan base in place, U2 released their first single in September of 1979, U2-3. In May, Paul McGuinness became U2's manager.

Dik walked offstage halfway through the set and later joined the Virgin Prunes, a fellow Dublin band. The Hype performed a farewell show for Dik at the Community Centre in Howth. Dik Evans announced his departure in March 1978. However, in an interview with Larry King, Bono is quoted as saying "I don't actually like the name U2," and "I honestly never thought of it as 'you too'." Others feel that U2 derived its name from the Irish Unemployment form.

They believe that the audience is part of their music and the concert and that "you too" (U2) are participating in the music. Some suggest the meaning of the name "U2" is based on their philosophy. The Dublin punk rock guru Steve Averill (better known as Steve Rapid of the The Radiators From Space) suggested that "The Hype stinks, at least as a name." Someone offered "What about U2? It's the name of a spyplane and a submarine, and it's got an endearing inclusivity about it." [1]. Hayden was impressed enough with the band that he gave them studio time to record their first demo.

One of the judges for the show happened to be CBS Records' Jackie Hayden; they won the contest, earning a £500 prize. The band performed with their new name at a talent show in Limerick, Ireland on 17 March 1978. After 18 months of rehearsals, Feedback changed their name to The Hype. There are also other theories on the origins of The Edge's nickname:.

Bono also thought that it was an accurate description of his head, as it had a straight edge. The sign has since been changed to read "Bonavox." The Edge got his name from Bono, who thought he was always on the edge of things, assessing what was going on. Hewson was nicknamed Bono Vox (allegedly meaning 'good voice' in Latin, though a more accurate translation would in fact be vox bona), after a hearing aid company's advertising sign on the corner of Dame Street and South Great Georges Street in Dublin's city centre (a different theory says he was nicknamed after a hearing aid shop by his friend Gavin Friday because he sang so loudly he seemed to be singing for the deaf). Both Martin and McCormick were out of the core group within a few weeks, with McCormick dismissed by Adam Clayton with the excuse that he was too young to play at the bars in which U2 would be booked.

Although known as an Irish band, two members —The Edge and Adam Clayton— are actually British by birth. Soon after, the group settled on the name Feedback. Known for about a day as "The Larry Mullen Band," Larry's group featured Mullen on drums, Adam Clayton on bass guitar, Paul Hewson (Bono) on vocals, Dave Evans (The Edge) on guitar, his brother Dik Evans on guitar, and Mullen's friends Ivan McCormick and Peter Martin on guitar. The response that followed that note resulted in seven boys attending the initial practice in Larry's kitchen.

posted a notice on his secondary school bulletin board (Mount Temple Comprehensive School) seeking musicians for a new band. Fourteen-year-old Larry Mullen, Jr. The band was formed in Dublin on Saturday, September 25, 1976. .

The band is also very politically active in human rights causes, such as the Make Poverty History campaign as well as the campaign spearheaded by Bono, DATA (Debt, AIDS, Trade in Africa). and are widely considered as one of the most successful groups of all time. According to the RIAA, they have sold approximately 50.5 million albums in the U.S., had six #1 albums in the U.S. U2 have been one of the most popular rock/vocal bands in the world since the 1980s.

on drums and vocals. U2 is an Irish rock band featuring Bono (Paul David Hewson) on vocals, guitar and harmonica, The Edge (David Howell Evans) on guitar, keyboards and vocals, Adam Clayton on bass, and Larry Mullen, Jr. Download sample of "Pride (In the Name of Love)" from the album, The Unforgettable Fire.. Download sample of a live performance of Bob Marley's "Redemption Song".

Make Poverty History. Live 8. The ONE Campaign. Jubilee Debt Campaign.

Chernobyl Children's Project. DATA (Debt, AIDS, Trade in Africa). Support for Burma's Aung San Suu Kyi. African Well Fund.

Greenpeace. Amnesty International. 2004 - The Complete U2 (available for download from the iTunes Music Store) which includes all studio albums, singles and officially released live tracks, as well as some previously unreleased content. 2000 - Million Dollar Hotel Soundtrack.

1 (with Brian Eno, band went under the name The Passengers). 1995 - Original Soundtracks No. 1985 - Wide Awake in America (EP). 1979 - U2-Three (EP).

This album was only available to U2.com subscribers). 2005 - U2.Communication (Live album of 8 songs from the current Vertigo Tour, 5 of which are from the 'Live in Chicago' DVD, the other 3 recorded in Milan/July 2005. Available only to members of Propaganda Fan Club). 2000 - Hasta La Vista Baby! (Recorded live during the Popmart Tour at Foro Sol Autodromo, Mexico City, December 3rd 1997.

1988 - Rattle and Hum (half-live/half-studio album) (13M). 1983 - Under a Blood Red Sky(8M). 2004 - How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb (12M). 2000 - All That You Can't Leave Behind (13M).

1997 - Pop (8M). 1993 - Zooropa (8M). 1991 - Achtung Baby (14M). 1987 - The Joshua Tree (18M).

1984 - The Unforgettable Fire (10M). 1983 - War (10M). 1981 - October (5M). 1980 - Boy (total sales 5M).

He lived on the 'edge' of their imaginary world called 'Lypton Village'. Bono once claimed on Irish radio that the name was derived from the shape Edge made when playing guitar. The name is due to the crispness of his playing, the "edges" it has. He is named after a hardware shop in Fairview, Dublin, outside of which he used to catch the bus home.

12-21-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List