Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). (data for eDonkey network). One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. Different shades of blue give an idea how well-spread different parts are. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. Red indicates a part missing in all known sources. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The color coding is similar to the one used with the progress bar.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". Each shared file shows its availability in the form of a bar. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. Yellow denotes a pending (already requested) part. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. Green parts are currently uploading. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. Silver ones are parts still missing.

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. Black are parts this user has already completed. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. It shows the progress of the file this user is downloading. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). This bar appears in the upload queue if supported by the other client. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. • zz - Currently transferring sources excellent.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. • + aa - Number of Asked for another file sources (only shown when Advanced Controls is enabled). After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. • yy - Total number of sources. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. • xx - Number of useful sources. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. The four values xx/yy+aa (zz) displayed after the progress bar is the source count for this file and shows following information.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. Yellow denotes a pending (already requested) part. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. Green parts are currently downloading. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. Silver stands for parts this source is also missing. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. Blue are parts you still need for this download.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. Black indicates parts you already have. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. (shaded style). In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. (flat style). The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. Here the colours have a slightly different meaning:.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. To see the sources just double-click a download (or single click, depends on the settings in Options -> Display ). The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. If you expand the download you see each of its sources with their corresponding bar. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. A dark red or blue progress bar denotes a stopped or paused download. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. (shaded style).


. (flat style). As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. A green bar stands for a completed download. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. (shaded style). In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. (flat style).

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. The green bar on top shows the total download progress of this file. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. Yellow denotes a part being downloaded. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. The darker the blue, the more sources have this part. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. Different shades of blue represent the availability of this part in the sources.

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. Red indicates a part missing in all known sources. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. Black shows the parts of the file you already have. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. (shaded style). Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. (flat style).

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Each download in the Transfers tab has a coloured bar to show current file availability and progress. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. The credit is calculated in the following way:. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. These factors are all expressed in an integer value, and their total gives a "score" which is used to rank the users in the queue. Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. A user's position in other clients' queues depends on various factors, including the time they have been waiting in the queue, the upload priority for the requested file, and the user's credit.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. To view this information, right click on any user and choose View Details. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. The values used can be seen in the client's details dialog. The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The modifiers are calculated from the amount of transferred data between the two clients. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.). The more a user uploads to a client the faster he advances in this client's queue.

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. The credit system provides a major modifier to this waiting time by taking the upload and download between the two clients into consideration. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. The strict queue system in eMule is based on the waiting time a user has spent in the queue. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. uploading to other clients. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. The credit system is used to reward users contributing to the network, i.e.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. Often features first debuted in a mod later find their way into the official version. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. Other mods follow official eMule releases, and make their own releases based on each new release of the official version. Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. It does not have Kademlia protocol implemented, but proponents of this mod credit it for a better GUI and an ability to achieve better download speeds than the official version. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. A popular mod of this type is eMule Plus.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. Some mods started as a fork of a eMule code, and then continued to develop independently of the official version. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. As a popular open source program, eMule has many variants, usually called mods. The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. This limitation doesn't exist in Kad network, therefore this network is more suitable for users that share big collections of files. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas. Some servers also limit the number of files that can be shared by any particular user.

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. Therefore, it is more resistant to a large-scale network loss. Museums in Valencia include:. Kad network is self-organising and tunes itself for best possible performance depending on the number of users and their connection qualities. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. Servers can only handle a certain amount of users and should a large server go down the network is severely handicapped. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The main goal of the Kad network is to be independent of servers and improve scalability.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Both networks have totally different concepts for achieving the same: Searching for files and finding sources to a file. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. With the release of 0.47a, this limit was raised to 256GB, but only for clients supporting it (currently just eMule and aMule). The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. This was an inherent limitation of the ed2k protocol. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. eMule versions before 0.47a cannot share files larger than about 4 GB.

The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. eMule includes a feature that limits download and upload speeds, so that they do not exceed the limits set by the user. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). Also, many known "leecher" clients are often banned from the downloading through various means by eMule's mods (banning is not supported in official version). The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Furthermore, attempting to circumvent the uploading feature can possibly slow a user's download, as he will get worse credits from uploaders. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. Although there are many mods of eMule, it is hard to find one that doesn't enforce the second feature, which is a part of official eMule policy.

. This limitation does not apply if the maximum upload speed is set to 10K per second or more. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. 2) Users are forced to share their bandwidth, thus increasing network's data stream: The official version of eMule forces the users to set their maximum download speed to no more than four times their maximum upload speed. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. The recipient is forced to share in this way until the download is complete. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. 1) Users are forced to share files: Shared files larger than 9500 KB are divided and downloaded in parts, so that a recipient starts to share the parts of the file already downloaded even before the download of the whole file is complete.

Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. eMule and other programs on eDonkey network support the network in two basic ways:. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. This is accomplished by a complex calculation of the possible distance to the target client by asking other clients for the shortest route to it. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. So the goal of any kind of search is to find those clients that have the responsibility for the current search topic. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. The clients hash determines the specific keywords or sources.

However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. Each client in the Kad network works as a server for certain keywords or sources. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. Since every client is identified by a unique hash value, the idea of Kademlia is to associate a certain “responsibility” based on this hash. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. There are no servers to keep track of clients and the files they share so it has to be done by each participating client in the network – in essence, every client is also a small server. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. Be it a search for filenames, for sources of a download or for other users, all work pretty much the same.

The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. In this network it does not matter what you search for. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. Buddies are other Kad clients who have status open and work as a relay for connections, that the firewalled user cannot manage. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). From version v.44a on, the Kad network supports a Buddy for firewalled users. Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits). If you are not freely contacted, you are given a firewalled status.

Museo Del Arroz (rice). If you can be freely contacted, you are assigned an ID (similar to a HighID) and given an open status. Museo Taurino (bullfighting). This process is very similar to the HighID/LowID check on the servers. Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). Once a client is in the network, the client then requests for other clients to determine if it can be contacted freely. Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art). This is called a Boot Strap.

Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). The only thing needed to connect to this network is the IP and port of any eMule client already connected. Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science). (based on Kademlia protocol). Sources are other clients who have at least downloaded one entire part (9.28 MB) of the file matching the hash. The server looks up the file’s hash value in its database and returns the clients it knows for having it.

Once they are in the Download list, eMule first queries the local (connected) server then all other servers in the network for sources to that particular download. Downloads can be added by eMule’s search function or a special eD2k link format offered on many websites. mp3 files). Note that there are fake servers in the network that do not return any results for certain type of searches (e.g.

Each server looks up the keyword in its local database and returns any file names (with the hash value) that matches the keyword. If the search is a global search (searches all the servers within the network), it will take longer but have more results. If it’s a local search (searches only the server you are connected to), searches are quicker but will have fewer results. A search can either be local or global.

Once connected to the network, the client can search for keywords in filenames. The server adds the filenames and hash values you sent to its database. After the ID is assigned, eMule will send a list of all shared files to the server. If communication is blocked, the server assigns your client a low ID.

If yes, the server assigns your client a so-called high ID. When connecting your client to a server, the server checks to see if other clients can freely connect to your client. Each client must be connected to a server to enter the network. The key to this network is the eD2k server.

(eD2k :EDonkey network). For already compressed files this is likely to be the raw file, while uncompressed files are likely to result in zlib compressed data to be transmitted. Then it chooses the smaller set of data to transmit. Before sending data eMule attempts to compress the data with [zlib] set at maximum compression.

If a client already has most of a chunk, however, it may choose to request the rest of that chunk first because only complete chunks can be shared. Clients usually request the chunk that fewest other sources have to aid distribution of the file through the network; otherwise rare chunks may generate a bottleneck. Once a client reaches the top of such a queue, the clients contact each other and transfer begins. Each client maintains a "download queue" of other clients who are requesting files for download.

other clients who are sharing that file), a client contacts each of those sources to request the file. After determining sources for a file (i.e. This user identification is highly secured by a public / private key handshake to prevent misuse. Like the file hash, each user in the network gets a unique and permanent user hash.

A file's hash value is computed by first computing the MD4 checksum of each chunk, and then computing the MD4 checksum of the string of those chunks' checksums concatenated with each other. Files are broken into "chunks" of 9.28 MB each (the last chunk may be smaller if the file size is not exactly divisible by the chunk size). This allows each user to find all sources to a particular file no matter what file name each user has given the file. All files are given a hash value that depends on the file's contents, but not its filename.

It is recommended to change the default ports of eMule to higher numbers (for example 20000 instead of 4662), because recently many ISPs are throttling default P2P ports resulting in slow performance. eMule is now considered a stable product, and new versions are not released as often as they used to be - 2 to 3 months is now a typical time interval between releases. The 0.46b version added the creation and management of "collection" files, which contain a set of links to files intended to be downloaded as a set. Other recent additions include: the ability to run eMule from a user account with limited privileges (thus enhancing security), and intelligent corruption handling (so that a corrupted chunk, 9.28 MB in size, does not need to be re-downloaded entirely).

Some users have complained that it leads to a loss of active sources and subsequently slows download speed. Unavailable IPs are banned for a time period from 15 to 45 minutes. After adding an IP to the "Bad source list", the application treats this IP as a "dead" IP. The application adds an IP address to this list after one unsuccessful connection.

In new versions, a "Bad source list" was added. Also added in recent versions were "Unicode Search" (allowing for searches for files in non-Latin alphabets) and the ability (not supported in Kad Network) to search servers for files with complete sources of unfinished files. This network has an implementation of the Kademlia protocol, which does not rely on central servers as the eDonkey network does. Recent versions (v0.40+) of eMule have added support for the Kad Network.

The official web site is supported by 7 web developers and 4 moderators. Currently the project is staffed by 16 people: 2 developers, 2 project managers (including the founder Breitkreuz), 3 testers, 9 debug testers. Since its inception, eMule has been downloaded by over 85 million people. The eMule project website started up on December 8, 2003.

The "Credit System" was implemented for the first time on September 14, 2002 in version 0.19a. It was first released as a binary on August 4, 2002 at version 0.05a. The source was first released at version 0.02 and it was published on SourceForge on July 6, 2002. Over time 7 more developers joined the effort.

Merkur) who was dissatisfied by the original eDonkey2000 client. The eMule project was started on May 13, 2002 by Hendrik Breitkreuz (a.k.a. . eMule is coded in Visual C++ .NET using the Microsoft Foundation Classes and because it is a popular open-source program, hundreds of eMule mods (modifications of the original eMule) have appeared on the Internet.

Matching file sources is verified through the use of the MD4 algorithm. Recently, many of the sites which provide these links have been taken offline by authorities due to accusations of copyright infringement, as well as a questionable legality of the links they provide. These links ensure that the file being downloaded shares the same hash, and therefore is not a "fake". Another feature of eMule is the ability to accept "ed2k" links from a web browser and begin downloading the file(s) these links refer to.

Furthermore eMule transmits data in (Zlib-)compressed form to save bandwidth. The distinguishing features of eMule are the direct exchange of sources between client nodes, fast recovery of corrupted downloads, and the use of a credit system to reward frequent uploaders. eMule runs on Microsoft Windows; however, its codebase forms the basis for a Linux client, xMule, and a multiplatform client, aMule. eMule is open source software released under the GNU General Public License.

In computing, eMule is a peer to peer file sharing application that works with both eDonkey and Kad Network and has more features than the eDonkey client. Number of concurrent shared files: ~600 million. latest users statistics can be found at : Slyck.com). Number of concurrent users : 3 - 5 million (correct number is unknown since many new servers are faking their number of users.

Your own credits cannot be displayed. This prevents faking the credits. Your own credits are saved by the client who owes you the credit. The unique user hash is used to identify the client.

Credits are stored in the clients.met file. They are exchanged between two specific clients. Credits are not global. Not supporting clients will grant you no credits when you upload to them.

It does not matter if the client supports the credit system or not. All Clients uploading to you are rewarded by the credit system. Otherwise, the credit value is x. If x is greater than 10, the credit value is 10.

If x is less than 1, the credit value is 1. Call it x. Out of those two values, choose the one that is lower. Calculate the following value: Square root of total uploaded data + 2.

Calculate the following value: total uploaded data × 2 / total downloaded data. Otherwise:

    . If the client has uploaded more than 1 MB, but never downloaded anything, the credit value is 10. If the client has ever uploaded less than 1 MB, the credit value is 1.

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