Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.).
. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. Students from mainland Turkey also study at universities on the Turkish side of Cyprus which is a great economic income for the North Cyprus Turkish Republic. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. Eastern European countries, especially Bulgaria and Hungary, are still popular destinations for students. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. Traditionally the left wing party AKEL provided scholarships for its members to study in Eastern Europe.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". A large number of students after sitting for A-levels and/or SATs study abroad, mainly in English speaking countries such as the US or UK, but also in other European destinations such as France and Germany. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. Thus following 1974 the Cypriot system follows the Greek system in the south, in other words providing their students with an apolytirion, and the Turkish system in the north. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. State education was based on nationalisation of existing community supported schools from the colonial period. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. According to the 1960 constitution, education is under the control of the two communities (the communal chambers).

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. Private colleges and state-supported universities have been developed by both the Turkish and Greek communities. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. The majority of Cypriots receive their higher education at Greek, British, Turkish, EU & US universities, while there are also sizeable emigrant communities in the United Kingdom and Australia. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). Unlike in other countries, state schools are generally seen as equivalent or better in quality of education than private sector institutions. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. Cyprus has a well-developed system of primary and secondary education offering both public and private education.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. English is widely understood, and is taught in schools from primary age. After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. Historically however, the Greek language was largely spoken by all Greek Cypriots and by many Turkish Cypriots. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. This delineation is only reflective of the post-1974 division of the island, which involved an expulsion of Greek Cypriots from the north and the analoguous move of Turkish Cypriots from the south. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. Greek is the predominant language in the south, Turkish in the north.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. The major part of Greek Cypriots are Eastern Orthodox Christians, whereas Turkish Cypriots are Muslims. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. Greek and Turkish Cypriots share many customs but maintain their ethnicity based on religion, language, and close ties with their respective motherlands. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. Eventual adoption of the euro currency is required of all new countries joining the European Union, and the Cyprus government currently intends to adopt the currency on 1 January 2008. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. Moreover, the small, vulnerable economy has suffered because the Turkish lira is legal tender.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The influx of about 100,000 Turkish economic migrants in the occupied part of Cyprus, who in their majority are uneducated workers, has brought even more trouble in the economy of the occupied area. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. The economy relies heavily on agriculture. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The economy in the occupied part of Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkey for subsidies for its survival. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. The level of the oil field in terms of production (barrels per day) that the two countries will be able to produce is still a matter of speculation.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. Recently, oil has been discovered in the sea South of Cyprus (between Cyprus and Egypt) and talks are under way with Egypt to reach an agreement as to the exploitation of these resources. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. Economic policy of the Cyprus government has focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the European Union. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. Cyprus has been sought as a basis for several offshore businesses, due to its highly developed infrastructure. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. The Cypriot economy is prosperous and has diversified in recent years.


. Economic affairs in Cyprus are dominated by the division of the country due to the Turkish occupation of the north part of the island. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. See also:. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. In acknowledgement of the Turkish Cypriot community's support for reunification, however, the EU made it clear that trade concessions would be reached to stimulate economic growth in the north, and remains committed to reunification under acceptable terms. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. In May 2004, Cyprus entered the EU, although in practice membership only applies to the southern part of the island.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. The Greek side overwhelmingly rejected the Annan Plan, and the Turkish side voted in favour. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. A United Nations plan sponsored by Secretary-General Kofi Annan was announced on 31 March 2004, based on what progress had been made during the talks in Switzerland and fleshed out by the UN, was put to both sides in separate referenda on 24 April 2004. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. By mid-March, the UN declared that the talks had failed. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. Papadopoulos had a reputation as a hard-liner on reunification and had rejected previous UN attempts to reunify the island.

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. However, weeks before the UN deadline, Klerides was defeated in presidential elections by center candidate Tassos Papadopoulos. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. In December 2002 the EU formally invited Cyprus to join in 2004, insisting that EU membership would apply to the whole island and hoping that it would provide a significant enticement for reunification resulting from the outcome of ongoing talks. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. UN-sponsored talks between the Greek and Turkish leaders, Glafkos Klerides and Rauf Denktash, continued intensively in 2002, but without resolution. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. The continued difficulties in finding a settlement presented a potential obstacle to Cypriot entry to the European Union, for which the government had applied in 1997.

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. The Greek side:. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. The Turkish side:. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. However, agreement was never reached on the finer details, and the two sides often met deadlock over the following points, among others:. Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. The results of early negotiations between the Greek and Turkish sides resulted in a broad agreement in principle to reunification as a bi-cameral, bi-zonal federation with territory allocated to the Greek and Turkish communities within a united island.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. In that sense, the buffer zone turns the south-east corner of the island, the Paralimni area, into a de facto, though not de jure, exclave. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. The United Nations (UN) buffer zone separating the territory controlled by the Turkish Cypriot administration from the rest of Cyprus runs up against Dhekelia and picks up again from its east side, off of Ayios Nikolaos (connected to the rest of Dhekelia by a thin land corridor). The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The northern part is an enclave like the two villages, whereas the southern part is located by the sea and therefore not an enclave —although it has no territorial waters of its own [1]. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.). Additionally there is the Dhekelia Power Station, which is divided by a British road into two parts.

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. The first two are the villages of Ormidhia and Xylotimbou. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Cyprus has four exclaves, all in territory that belongs to the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. They are used as military bases. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Under the independence agreement, the UK retained title to two areas on the southern coast of the island, around Akrotiri and Dhekelia, known collectively as the UK sovereign base areas.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The other power with territory on Cyprus is the United Kingdom. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. The Organization of the Islamic Conference granted it observer member status under the name of "Turkish Cypriot State". Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. This state was recognised only by Turkey. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. The north proclaimed its independence in 1975, and the self-styled Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was established in 1983.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. Its territory, the status of which remains disputed, extends over the northern third of the island. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. The Turkish Cypriot administration of the northern part of the island, together with Turkey, does not accept the Republic's rule over the whole island and refer to it as the "Greek Authority of Southern Cyprus". The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Turkey aside, all foreign governments and the United Nations recognise the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus over the whole island of Cyprus. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas. The Republic of Cyprus is the internationally recognised government of Cyprus, which controls the southern two-thirds of the island.

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. Since 1974, Cyprus has been divided, de facto, into the Greek-Cypriot controlled southern two-thirds of the island and the Turkish-occupied northern one-third. Museums in Valencia include:. Cyprus gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1960, with the UK, Greece and Turkey retaining limited rights to intervene in internal affairs. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. See also:. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. In 1985, the TRNC adopted a constitution and held its first elections.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriots declared an independent state called the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), an action opposed by the United Nations Security Council. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. Subseqently, the Turkish Cypriots established their own seperatist institutions with a popularly elected de facto President and a Prime Minister responsible to the National Assembly exercising joint executive powers. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. Many thousands of others, from both sides, left the island entirely. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. Turkish forces captured the northern part of the island(see Cyprus dispute).

The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. The intervention is called "Cyprus Peace Operation" by the Turkish side. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). Turkey responded by launching a military operation on Cyprus in a move not approved by the other two international guarantor powers, Greece and the United Kingdom which aimed to protect the Turkish minority from Greek militias. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Dissatisfaction in Greece with Makarios's perceived failure to deliver on earlier promises of enosis convinced the Greek colonels to sponsor the 1974 coup in Nicosia. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. Enosis remained an ideological goal, despite being pushed significantly further down the political agenda.

. By 1967, when a military junta had seized power in Greece, the political impetus for enosis had faded, partly as a result of the non-aligned foreign policy of Cypriot President Makarios. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. The responsibilities of the chamber were transferred to the newfounded Ministry of Education. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. Since 1964, following clashes between the two communities, the Turkish Cypriot seats in the House remained vacant, while the Greek Cypriot Communal Chamber was abolished. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. The House of Representatives was elected on the basis of separate voters' rolls.

Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. The executive, for example, was headed by a Greek Cypriot president, Archbishop Makarios III, and a Turkish Cypriot vice president, Dr Fazıl Küçük, elected by their respective communities for 5-year terms and each possessing a right of veto over certain types of legislation and executive decisions. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. The 1960 Cypriot Constitution provided for a presidential system of government with independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches, as well as a complex system of checks and balances, including a weighted power-sharing ratio designed to protect the interests of the Turkish Cypriots. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Cyprus left the Non-Aligned Movement in 2004 to join the EU. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. After independence Cyprus became a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement despite all three guarantor powers (Greece, Turkey and the UK) being NATO members.

However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. Cyprus is divided into six districts. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. See also:. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. All the other major cities are situated on the coast: Paphos to the south-west, Limassol to the south, Larnaca to the south-east, Famagusta to the east and Kyrenia to the north. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The capital city, Nicosia, is located to the north-east of the centre of the island.

The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. The climate is temperate and Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, variably rainy winters. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. There are also scattered but significant plains along the southern coast. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). The central plain (Mesaoria) with the Kyrenia and Pentadactylos mountains to the north and the Troodos mountain range to the south and west. Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits). Historically, Cyprus has been at the crossroads between Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa, with lengthy periods of mainly Greek and intermittent Levantine, Anatolian and British influences.

Museo Del Arroz (rice). Cyprus is geographically close to the Middle East (see also Southwest Asia and Near East) and due to the island's geographic proximity is often included in the region, though politically and culturally it is closely aligned with Europe, in particular Greece and to a lesser extent Turkey. Museo Taurino (bullfighting). The north maintains a lower standing of living due to the economic embargoes placed since its unilateral declaration of independence. Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). Since the invasion, the southern part of Cyprus has greatly grown economically, and the country enjoys a high standard of living. Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art). Cyprus has joined the European Union as a full member since January 2005.

Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). Since then, the Turkish occupying force in Cyprus has been fortified with US weapons. Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science). The United States set an embargo on sale of arms to Turkey which was voted down a few years later after the invasion. The S-300 missiles, in fact, never arrived in Cyprus but stayed on the neighbouring island of Crete. Relations in the eastern Mediterranean were particularly frayed in the mid-1990s, especially after the acquisition by the Cypriot government of Russian missiles in 1997 which were capable of reaching the Turkish coast.

Conversely, it continues to reject calls to recognise the Republic of Cyprus as the sole legitimate government of Cyprus, and this political point has caused strained relations with the European Union. Turkey is to date the only country to recognise the "government" of the occupied part of Cyprus. The UN Security Council, in its Resolution 541 of November 18, 1983, declared the action illegal and called for withdrawal. Turkish Cypriots proclaimed a separate state under Rauf Denktash on November 15, 1983.

After 1974 there were near-continual efforts to negotiate a settlement, which met with varying levels of hostility from either side. He accepted a bizonal bicommunal federation as the form of a future state, but rejected any solution "involving transfer of populations and amounting to partition of Cyprus." The events of the summer of 1974 have dominated Cypriot politics ever since and have been a major point of contention between Greece and Turkey. The tension continued after Makarios returned to the presidency on December 7, 1974. Greece then suspended military participation in the NATO alliance.

The Greek Junta made no armed response to the superior Turkish force but collapsed days after. Greek Cypriot soldiers were taken prisoners, with a number of 1,619 of those still missing and their fate is still unaccounted for. About 160,000 Greek Cypriots were uprooted, with Greek Cypriots forced to flee to the south, while approximately 50,000 Turkish Cypriots moved north. Talks in Geneva involving Greece, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the two Cypriot factions failed in mid-August, and the Turks subsequently moved to gain control of 37% of the island's territory.

Seven days after these events, Turkey invaded Cyprus by sea and air on 20 July, 1974, presenting the invasion as an act of protection for the island's 18% Turkish Cypriot minority. The new regime replaced Makarios with Nikos Giorgiades Sampson as president, and Bishop Gennadios as head of the Cypriot Orthodox Church. However, by 1974 dissatisfaction among right-wing elements in favour of the long-term goal of Enosis - union with Greece - precipitated a coup d'etat against Makarios which was sponsored by the military government of Greece and led by the Cypriot National Guard. During the 1960s, Makarios and Küçük pursued a non-aligned foreign policy, cultivating good relations with the Britain, Greece and Turkey and taking a leading role in developing the Non-Aligned Movement.

The first President was the Greek Cypriot leader Archbishop Makarios III, and his Vice President was the leading Turkish Cypriot politician Dr Fazıl Küçük. The constitution did not promote a healthy relationship between the residents of the island. The constitution produced by the negotiations was a binding document allocating government posts and public offices by ethnic quota. Independence was attained in 1960 after exhaustive negotiations between the United Kingdom, as the colonial power, and Greece and Turkey, the cultural 'motherlands' for the two communities on Cyprus.

In 1955 the struggle erupted into guerrilla activity with the foundation of EOKA, and in the closing years of the 1950s the political and intercommunal atmosphere on the island became increasingly fraught. The Greek community held referenda in support of annexation, while the British sought to quell any movement which could threaten their possession of the island. During the 1940s and 1950s, Cypriots began to demand union with Greece. Many Cypriots, now British subjects, signed up to fight in the British Army, in this and in the Second World War.

Cyprus was formally annexed by the United Kingdom in 1913 in the run-up to the First World War. Famagusta harbour was completed in June 1906; by this time the island was a strategic naval outpost for the British Empire, shoring up influence over the Eastern Mediterranean and Suez Canal, the crucial main route to India. Cyprus was placed under British control on 4 June 1878 as a result of the Cyprus Convention, which granted control of the island to Britain in return for British support of the Ottoman Empire in the Russian-Turkish War. The Republic of Venice took control in 1489 after the death of the last Lusignan Queen, after which the Ottoman Empire conquered the Island in 1570.

Guy of Lusignan purchased the island from Richard in 1192. After the rule of an independent Emperor (Isaac Comnenus), King Richard I of England captured the island in 1191 during the Crusades. The island negotiated a relatively secure independence, but paid tribute to the Ummayads. In 654 a second, devastating Arab invasion took place.

The Arabs pillaged the island in 646. Cyprus became part of the Byzantine Empire after the partitioning of the Roman Empire in 395, and remained so for almost 800 years. Her birth was famously depicted by the artist Botticelli in The Birth of Venus. Throughout ancient history, Cyprus was a flourishing centre for the cultic worship of Aphrodite.

The legendary site of Aphrodite's birth from the foam is at 'Petra tou Romiou' ('Aphrodite's Rock'), a large stack in the sea close to the coastal cliffs near Paphos. According to Hesiod's Theogony, the goddess, who was also known as Kypris or the Cyprian, emerged fully grown from the sea where the severed genitals of the god Uranus were cast by his son, Kronos, causing the sea to foam (Greek: Aphros). Cyprus is the legendary birthplace of the goddess of beauty, love, sex and passion, the beautiful Aphrodite. In this way Cyprus became the first country in the world to be governed by a Christian ruler.

After their arrival at Salamis they proceeded to Paphos where they converted the Roman Governor Sergius Paulus to Christianity. No doubt the most important event that occurred in Roman Cyprus was the visit by Apostles Paul and Barnabas accompanied by St Mark who came to the island at the outset of their first missionary journey in 45 AD. Later, the Greek rulers of Egypt controlled it; finally Rome annexed it in 58-57 BC. Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) finally liberated the island from the Persians.

After their defeat, the Greeks mounted various expeditions in order to liberate Cyprus from the Persian yoke, but all their efforts bore only temporary results. The Persians finally won despite Ionian help. The Persians reacted quickly sending a considerable force against Onesilos. When the Ionian Greeks revolted against Persia (499 BC) the Cypriots except for the city of Amathus, joined in at the instigation of Onesilos, brother of the king of Salamis, whom he dethroned for not wanting to fight for independence.

In their new fate the Greeks of Cyprus had as companions the Greeks of Ionia (west coast of Anatolia) with whom they forged closer ties. In the Persian Empire, Cyprus formed part of the fifth satrapy and in addition to tribute it had to supply the Persians with ships and crews. In the 16th century B.C., Amasis of Egypt conquered Cyprus, which soon fell under the rule of the Persians when Cambyses conquered Egypt. In times Cyprus supplied the rest of the Greeks with timber for their fleets.

Cyprus has remained predominantly Greek in culture, language and population despite various influences resulting from successive conquests. Thus from 1220 B.C. The newcomers brought with them their language, their advanced technology and introduced a new outlook for visual arts. This migration is remembered in many sagas concerning how some of the Greek heroes that participated in the Trojan war came to settle in Cyprus.

begins the massive arrival of the Mycenæan Greeks as permanent settlers to Cyprus, a process which lasted for more than a century. Around 1200 B.C. Cyprus was invaded by Thothmes III of Egypt about 1500 B.C., and was forced to pay tribute. and several Greek and Phœnician settlements that belong to the Iron Age can be found on the island.

The Mycenæan civilization seems to have reached Cyprus at around 1600 B.C. The people quickly learned to work the rich copper mines of the island. There are but scanty traces of the Stone Age, but the Bronze Age is characterized by a well-developed and clearly marked civilization. It is also characteristic that in ancient times the name "Κύπρος (Cyprus)" in Greek was the first or second synthetic of names, such as: Αριστόκυπρος, Φιλόκυπρος, Κυπράνορας, Κυπροθέμης.

Homer in his epics Iliad and Odyssey refers to the island of "Kύπρον (kypron)": “Μούσα μοι έννεπε έργα πολυχρύσου Αφροδίτης Κύπριδος” – “Muse sing to me the works of golden haired Aphrodite Cypridos”. Note that Cyprus was the mythical birthplace of Aphrodite. Another probable suggestion is that it was named after the Greek goddess Aphrodite which was also called "Κυπρίς (kipris)". From there the word passed into European languages as "copper" in the English language, "cuivre" in French, "Kupfer" in German and "cobre" in Portuguese and in Spanish.

Through overseas trade, the island has already given its name to the Classical Latin word for the metal, which appears in the phrase aes Cyprium , "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to cuprum. Dossin, for example, suggests that it has roots to the Sumerian word for copper, "zubar" or even the word "kubar" (bronze), due to the large deposits of copper ore found on the island. Another school suggests that it stems from the eterocyprian word for copper. One suggestion is that it comes from the Greek word "κυπάρισσος (kypa'rissos)" meaning "cypress tree" or even from the Greek name of the plant Lawsonia alba (henna), "κύπρος (kypros)".

The name Cyprus has a somewhat uncertain etymology. . The Republic of Cyprus (Greek: Κύπρος, Kýpros; Turkish: Kıbrıs; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. +90-392 (a Turkish access number) is used in the north.

Number does not include any TRNC inhabitants
7. 230,000 inhabitants in the north
6. Number does not include approx. Of which 5,895 km² is in the south and 3,355 km² in the north
5.

The TRNC is only recognised by Turkey
4. Not recognised by Turkey, which instead recognises the TRNC. The north has a separate president of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC).
3. 2.

Greek History. Transportation in Cyprus. Alexander the Great. Music of Cyprus.

Military of Cyprus. List of Cypriots. Holidays in Cyprus. Communications in Cyprus.

Americanos College (taught in English/Greek) situated in Nicosia. Philips College (taught in English/Greek) situated in Nicosia. The Frederick institute (taught in English) situated in Nicosia and Limassol. Intercollege (taught in English) situated in Nicosia and Larnaca.

Cyprus College (taught in English) situated in Nicosia. Higher Technical Institute (taught in English) situated in Nicosia. Technical University of Cyprus. University of Cyprus.

Michalis Konstantinou football player for Olympiakos CFP and all-time leading goalscorer for Cyprus national football team. Ranked 27th in the world. Runner-up in Australian Open 2006. Marcos Baghdatis (b.1985), tennis player, Baghdatis became the ITF World Junior Tennis Champion in 2003 and joined the ATP professional tour later in that year.

Yiannos Kranidiotis (died 1999 in air-accident), Greek politician, deputy Minister of State. Anna Vissi (b.1957), popular singer. Stelios Haji-Ioannou (also known as Stelios) (b.1967), Businessman, founder of Easyjet. Archbishop Makarios (1913-1977), Archbishop, first President of the Republic of Cyprus.

UN Buffer Zone on Cyprus. Cyprus dispute. 2004 referendum. Annan Plan.

supported a stronger central government. took a dim view of any proposals which did not allow for the repatriation of Turkish settlers from the mainland who had emigrated to Cyprus since 1974; and. took a strong line on the right of return for refugees to properties vacated in the 1974 displacement of Cypriots on both sides;. opposed plans for demilitarisation, citing security concerns.

favoured a weak central government presiding over two sovereign states in voluntary association, a legacy of earlier fears of domination by the majority Greek Cypriots; and. Military of Cyprus. List of political parties in Cyprus. Foreign relations of Cyprus.

Paphos. Nicosia. Limassol. Larnaca.

Kyrenia. Famagusta. List of cities in Cyprus, Greek and Turkish names.

08-31-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.