Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). Methods:. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. Required components:. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. Isaac Asimov, on the other hand, proposes (in his first jokebook, Treasury of Humor) that the essence of humour is anticlimax: an abrupt change in point of view, in which trivial matters are suddenly elevated in importance above those that would normally be far more important. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. Heinlein proposes that humour comes from pain, and that laughter is a mechanism to keep us from crying.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". In Stranger in a Strange Land, Robert A. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. A number of science fiction writers have explored the theory of humour. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. Americans visiting Australia have gained themselves a reputation for gullibility and a lack of a sense of humour by not recognising that tales of kangaroos hopping across the Sydney Harbour Bridge exemplify the propensity for this style of leg-pulling. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. One notable trait of Australians (perhaps inherited from the British) lies in their use of deadpan humour, in which the joker will make an outrageous or ridiculous statement without giving any explicit signs of joking.

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. Users of some psychoactive drugs tend to find humour in many more situations and events than one normally would. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. Although many writers have emphasised the positive or cathartic effects of humour some, notably Billig, have emphasises the potential of humour for cruelty and its involvement with social control and regulation. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). Prominent theoreticians in this field include Raymond Gibbs, Herbert Clark, Michael Billig, Willibald Ruch, Victor Raskin, Eliot Oring, and Salvatore Attardo. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. There also exist linguistic and psycholinguistic studies of humour, irony, parody and pretence.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. Puns classify words not by what lives (their meaning) but by mechanics (their mere sound). After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. A Bergsonian might explain puns in the same spirit. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. He used as an instance a book by an English humorist, in which an elderly woman who desired a reputation as a philanthropist provided "homes within easy hail of her mansion for the conversion of atheists who have been specially manufactured for her, so to speak, and for a number of honest folk who have been made into drunkards so that she may cure them of their failing, etc." This idea seems funny because a genuine impulse of charity as a living, vital impulse has become encrusted by a mechanical conception of how it should manifest itself. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. The French philosopher Henri Bergson wrote an essay on "the meaning of the comic", in which he viewed the essence of humour as the encrustation of the mechanical upon the living.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. Notable studies of humour have come from the pens of Aristotle in The Poetics (Part V), of Sigmund Freud in Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious and of Schopenhauer. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. Typically, the priest will make a remark, the rabbi will continue in the same vein, and then the lawyer will make a third point that forms a sharp break from the established pattern, but nonetheless forms a logical (or at least stereotypical) response. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. For instance, a class of jokes exists beginning with the formulaic line "A priest, a rabbi, and a lawyer are sitting in a bar..." (or close variations on this). The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. For this reason also, many jokes work in threes.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. For example:. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. Perhaps the essence of humour lies in the presentation of something familiar to a person, so they think they know the natural follow-on thought or conclusion, then providing a twist through presentation something different from what the audience expected (see surprise), or else the natural result of interpreting the original situation in a different, less common, way. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. White once said that "Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind." However, attempts to do just that have been made, such as this one:. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. Author E.B.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. Some claim that humour cannot or should not be explained. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. This is why jokes are often funny only when told the first time. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. Once the problem in meaning has been described through a joke, people immediately begin correcting their impressions of the symbols that have been mocked. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. In other words, comedy is a sign of a 'bug' in the symbolic make-up of language, as well as a self-correcting mechanism for such bugs.


. Irony is explicitly this form of comedy, whereas slapstick takes more passive social norms relating to physicality and plays with them. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. Language is an approximation of thoughts through symbolic manipulation, and the gap between the expectations inherent in those symbols and the breaking of those expectations leads to laughter. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. One explanation of humour is based on the fact that a great deal of humour is a consequence of language. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of the term (the German loanword from English) to mean any type of comedy.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. By comparison, the use of irony creates the perception of a passage from the serious to the comic, while in humour the opposite is true. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. For this reason humour is often a subjective experience as it depends on a special mood or perspective from its audience to be effective. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. The term "humour" as formerly applied in comedy referred to the interpenetration of the sublime and the ridiculous. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. Examples of various different styles of humour, or techniques for evoking humour or creating a humourous situation are listed below.

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. . Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. For example, young children (of any background) particularly favour slapstick, while satire tends to appeal to more mature audiences. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. A sense of humour is the ability to experience humour, a quality which all people share, although the extent to which an individual will personally find something humorous depends on a host of absolute and relative variables, including, but not limited to geographical location, culture, maturity, level of education and context. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. The origin of the term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which stated that a mix of fluids known as humours controlled human health and emotion.

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. The term encompasses a form of entertainment or human communication which evokes such feelings, or which makes people laugh or feel happy. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Humour (Commonwealth English) or humor (American English) is the ability or quality of people, objects or situations to evoke feelings of amusement in other people. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. timing. Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. reframing.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. hyperbole. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. metaphor. The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. similar to reality, but not real. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.). appealing to feelings or to emotions.

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. some surprise, contradiction, ambiguity or paradox. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Exemplified by The Larry Sanders Show and Curb Your Enthusiasm. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Character Driven, deriving humour from the way characters act in specific situations, without punchlines. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Unintentional humour, that is, making people laugh without intending to (as with Ed Wood's Plan 9 From Outer Space).

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. Deliberate ambiguity and confusion with reality, often performed by Andy Kaufman. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. Anti-humour

    . Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. Visual humour: Like the above, but encompassing narrative in theater or comics ,or on film or video. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. Funny pictures: Photos or drawings/cartoons that are intentionally or unintentionally humorous.

    The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. Form-versus-content humour. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. Practical joke: luring someone into a humorous position or situation and then laughing at their expense. The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Surreal humour or absurdity. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas. Clash of context humour, such "fish out of water".

    The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. Faking stupidity. Museums in Valencia include:. Inflicting pain, such as kick in the groin. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. Exaggerated or unexpected gestures and movements. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. Slapstick

      .

      World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Deadpan Fake stern manner. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. Nonverbal

        . The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. Ridicule of self through absurdism, as in the surreally dry and bizarre comedy of Steven Wright. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. Self-ridicule, such as Rodney Dangerfield's self-deprecating humour
          .

          The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. Ridicule, such as the Darwin Awards

            . Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). Self-irony. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Satire. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. Sarcasm.

            . Parody. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. Obscenity. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. Droll. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. Non-sequitur.

            Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Wit, as in many one-liner jokes. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Irony, where a statement or situation implies both a superficial and a concealed meaning which are at odds with each other. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Riddle. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. Sick Jokes, arousing humour through grotesque, violent or exceptionally cruel scenarios.

            However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. Stereotyping, such as blonde jokes, lawyer jokes, racial jokes, viola jokes. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. Adages, often in the form of paradox "laws" of nature, such as Murphy's law. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. Joke

              . Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. Comic sounds or inherently funny words with sounds that make them amusing in a language.

              The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Pun. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. Oxymoron. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). Word play

                . Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits). Understatement.

                Museo Del Arroz (rice). Hyperbole. Museo Taurino (bullfighting). Syllepsis (zeugma). Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). Enthymeme. Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art). Triple and paraprosdokian.

                Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). Figure of speech

                  . Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science). Verbal
                    .

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