Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). Proof of this good health, in 2005, for the first time in its history, Citroën is planned to reach a total worldwide production of 1,000,000 cars. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. The introduction of even newer models, such as the long-awaited XM replacement, the C6, indicates Citroën's continued commitment to innovation in the 21st century. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. It has even expanded into new markets, for example in China where the C3 and Xsara are alongside the ZX Fukang and Elysée local models. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. In spite of the problems between Peugeot and Citroën, Citroën has continued its tradition for innovation, exemplified by new vehicles such as the C2 and the Xsara Picasso.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". The ubiquitous 2CV was finally killed off in 1990, production having moved from France to Portugal. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. Citroën's ambitious attitude to engineering and styling was squeezed out in favor of Peugeot conservatism. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. Citroën developed a small car for production in Romania known as the Oltcit, which it also sold as the Citroën Axel. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. The XM, for example, used the same engines and floorpan as the Peugeot 605, and the Xantia of 1993 was identical under the skin to the Peugeot 406.

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. By the late 1980s, PSA used extensive platform sharing. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. The BX of 1982 still used the hydropneumatic suspension system, but was powered by Peugeot-derived engines. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In the 1980s, Citroën models were increasingly Peugeot-based. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. The combined company was known as PSA Peugeot Citroën, PSA sold off Maserati to DeTomaso soon after.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. Huge losses caused by failure of the Maserati tie-up coupled with crippling warranty costs by the unreliable GS and high development cost of CX led to Peugeot taking over Citroën in 1976. After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. This maneuver was unfortunately-timed, with the impending 1973 energy crisis soon to make GT manufacture unprofitable. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. In 1967 Citroën took control of Maserati, the Italian sports car maker and launched the sports car/Grand Tourer SM, which contained a V6 Maserati engine. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. DS/ID).

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. 2CV/Ami) and large, expensive cars (e.g. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. In 1965 Citroën took over the French carmaker Panhard in the hope of using Panhard's expertise in midsize cars to complement its own range of very small, cheap cars (e.g. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. During Citroën's venture with Maserati the Citroën high pressure hydraulic system was used on several Maserati models for power clutch operation (Bora), power pedals adjustment (Bora), pop-up headlights (Bora, Merak) and brakes (Bora, Merak), and the entire Quattroporte II prototype, which was a four-door Citroën SM under the skin. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. This high-pressure hydraulic system would form the basis of many Citroën cars, including the SM, GS, CX, BX, XM, Xantia and C5.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The same high-pressure system was used to activate pistons located in the gearbox cover to shift the gears in the transmission (gearbox in British - in French transmission means driveshaft) and operate the clutch on their "Citromatic", Citroën's version of a semi-automatic transmission. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. The DS featured power steering, power brakes and suspension and, from 1968, directional headlights . In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. 1955 saw the introduction of the DS, which was the first full usage of Citroën's now legendary hydropneumatic suspension system that was first tested on the rear suspension of the last of the Tractions. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. This car become a bestseller and even a 4wd version with 2 engines (Sahara)were sold in limited numbers.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. Citroën unveiled the 2CV at the Paris Salon in 1948. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1934, debt forced the company into foreclosure; it was then taken over by its biggest creditor, the tire company Michelin. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. The expeditions conveyed scientists and journalists and were a publicity success. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. Citroën also sponsored some expeditions in Asia (Croisière Jaune) and Africa (Croisière Noire), intended to demonstrate the potential for motor vehicles to cross inhospitable regions.


. Achieving quick development of the Traction Avant was, of course, expensive and contributed to the financial ruin of the company. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. That encouraged André Citroën to develop the Traction Avant, a car so innovative that to it the competition would have no response. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. The Citroëns sold in large quantities despite the stylistic drawback, but the car's low price was the main selling point and Citroën experienced heavy losses. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Citroën had no way to redesign the body of his cars and the cars began to be perceived as old-fashioned.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. But soon competitors, who still used a wood structure for their bodies, introduced aerodynamic body designs on their cars. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. In the beginning, the cars were successful. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. These cars would set the pattern to be followed thirty years later by the Mini, Volkswagen and nearly every other manufacturer. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. It was this prototype that evolved into the Onze Légère and 7 CV (5 kW) Traction Avant of 1934.

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. By 1930, Budd had created a prototype for Citroën with a unibody and front wheel drive. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. In 1928, Citroën introduced the first all-steel body in Europe. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Budd went on to manufacture steel bodies for many automakers, Dodge being his first big auto client. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. From 1899, Budd had worked to develop pressed-steel bodies for railroad cars, Pullman in particular.

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Budd. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. In 1924, Citroën began a relationship with American engineer Edward G. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. In 1919, however, the business started to produce automobiles, beginning with the conventional Type A. Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. After serving in the French army, he set up a gear-making business, which became identified with the "herringbone" or double helical gear, which is the origin of the Citroën "double chevron" trademark.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. The story of Citroën begins with the founder of the company himself, André Citroën. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. . The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. Later significant models include the H Van (1947-1981, "HY"), 2CV (1948-1990, The "Ugly Duckling"), DS (1955-1975, "Goddess") and CX (1974-1989). (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.). Until the late 1980s the company had a reputation for approaching auto design in a unique way.

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. Originally a mass-market car maker with relatively straightforward designs, Citroën shocked the world in 1934 with the innovative Traction Avant (front wheel drive) (1934-1956). Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Its headquarters are located in Paris, rue Fructidor. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, started in 1919 by André Citroën, today part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. 2005: Citroën C4.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. 2003: Citroën C3. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. 1994: Citroën Xantia. Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. 1988: Citroën AX. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. 1979: Citroën Visa.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. 1990: Citroën XM. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. 1975: Citroën CX. The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. 1971: Citroën GS. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas. Some models, like the Citroën RE2, have been flight tested and still exist.

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. Citroën also investigated in the early seventies the possibility to produce helicopters using the Wankel engines manufactured by its subsidiary Comotor. Museums in Valencia include:. In 2004 and 2005, French driver Sébastien Loeb won the Driver's Championship driving the Citroën Xsara WRC. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. Citroën is a major competitor in the World Rally Championship, winning the constructor title in 2003, 2004 and 2005. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The company's famous "double chevron" logo derives from André Citroën's early business in gear-cutting the company pioneered mass production of double helically-cut gear teeth, which mesh together in a chevron.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. An old-fashioned nickname for Citroën cars is Citron (lemon, in French). The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. André Citroën's originally Dutch language family name was Citroen, meaning "lemon", as one of his grandfathers was a citrus seller ("limoenman") on Amsterdam's street markets. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. C-Airplay Concept car (2005). UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. C-SportLounge Concept car (2005).

The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. C-Airlounge Concept car (2003). Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). C-Airdream Concept car (2002). The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. C-Crosser Concept car (2001). The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. Pluriel Concept car (1999).

. Osée Pininfarina Concept car. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. C6 Lignage Concept car (1999). As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. C3 Lumière Concept car (1998). Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. Tulip (1995).

Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Osmose Concept car. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Xanae Concept car 1994. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Citella (1992). Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. Activa II (1990).

However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. Activa (1988). Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. Zabrus Bertone Concept car (1986). The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. Eole Concept car (1986). Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. Eco 2000 (1984).

The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Xenia (1981). Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. Karin (1980). Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). C44 (1980). Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits). Prototype Y.

Museo Del Arroz (rice). 2CV Pop (1973). Museo Taurino (bullfighting). GS Camargue (1972). Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). Mini-Zup (1972). Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art). Project F.

Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). C-60. Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science). Prototype C or Coccinelle. G Van. Citroën Traction Avant 22CV.

350 to 850 aka Belphegor. U23. P46. P45 (1934-1953).

ZX (1991-1997). Xsara (1997- ). Xantia (1993-2001). XM (1989-2000).

Visa (1978-1988). Type C C4-C6 (1928-1934). Type C C2-C3 (1922-1926). Type B (1921-1928).

Type A (1919-1921). TUB (1939-1941). Traction Avant (1934-1957). SM (1970-1975).

Saxo (1995-2003 ). Méhari (1968-1987). M35 (1970-1971). LNA (1978-1986).

LN (1976-1979). Jumper (1994- ). Jumpy (1995- ). H Van (1947-1981).

GS and GSA (1970-1984). FAF. Evasion (1994-2002). Elysée ZX derivative for the Chinese market.

DS/ID (1955-1975). Dyane (1967-1984). C35 (1974-1992). C25 (1981-1993).

C15 (1984-2005). C8 (2002- ). C7 (2007- ). C6 (2005- ).

C5 (2001- ). C4 (2004- ). C3 (2003- ). C2 (2004- ).

C1 (2005- ). CX (1974-1989). BX (1982-1994). Berlingo (1996- ).

AX (1986-1998). Axel (1984-1988). Ami Super (1973-1976). Ami 8 (1969-1979).

Ami 6 (1961-1971). Acadiane (1978-1987). 10CV. 8CV Rosalie (1932-1935).

2CV (1948-1990).

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