Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). St Andrew's Day is observed on November 30 in both the Eastern and Western churches, and is the national day of Scotland. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. The saltire is also the Flag of Tenerife and the naval jack of Russia. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. The flag of Scotland (and consequently the Union Flag and the arms and Flag of Nova Scotia, and possibly the Confederate flag) feature a saltire in commemoration of the shape of St Andrew's cross. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland, Greece, Russia, and Romania.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". The 1320 Declaration of Arbroath, which declared Scottish independence from England, cites Scotland's conversion to Christianity by St Andrew, "the first to be an Apostle", as evidence of Scotland being held in especially high regard by God. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. While a satisfying piece of folklore, there is no more evidence for this than any other theory. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. They therefore decided that the patron of the Celtic Church would now be Peter's older brother. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. A third theory as to Andrew's connection with Scotland is that, following the Synod of Whitby, the Celtic Church felt that Columba had been "outranked" by Peter.

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. However, there is evidence Andrew was venerated in Scotland before this, and the two kings in question do not appear to have ruled at the same time. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. Another legend says that in the late 8th century, during a joint battle with the English, King Oengus mac Fergus of the Picts and King Eochaid IV of Dalriada, saw a cloud shaped like a saltire, and declared Andrew was watching over them, and if they won by his grace, then he would be their patron saint. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). The connection with Regulus is, therefore, due in all probability to the desire to date the foundation of the church at St Andrews as early as possible. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. 732), and founded a see, not, according to tradition, in Galloway, but on the site of St Andrews.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. There are good reasons for supposing that the relics were originally in the collection of Acca, bishop of Hexham, who took them into Pictish country when he was driven from Hexham (c. After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. 573-600. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. The only historical Regulus (Riagail or Rule) — the name is preserved by the tower of St Rule — was an Irish monk expelled from Ireland with St Columba; his date, however, is c. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. 731-761).

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. They state that the relics of Andrew were brought by one Regulus to the Pictish king Angus (or Ungus) mac Fergus (c. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. The oldest surviving accounts are two: one among the manuscripts collected by Colbert and willed to the King, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, the other in the Harleian Mss in the British Library, London. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. Concerning this there are several legends which state that the relics of Andrew were brought under supernatural guidance from Constantinople to the place where the modern St Andrews stands (Pictish, Muckross; Gaelic, Cill Rìmhinn). The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. About the middle of the 10th century, Andrew became the patron saint of Scotland.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. Relics: St Andrew Basilica - Patras (Greece), St Anrea Dome - Amalfi (Italy), and St Andrew & St Albert church - Warsaw (Poland). The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. Andrew is represented in art as an old man with long white hair and a beard, holding the Gospel in his right hand, and leaning on his characteristic saltire cross. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. Another version of the Andrew legend is found in the Passio Andreae, published by Max Bonnet (Supplementum II Codicis apocryphi, Paris, 1895). The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. The Acts of Andrew was edited and published by Constantin von Tischendorf in the Acta Apostolorum apocrypha (Leipzig, 1821), putting it for the first time into the hands of a critical professional readership.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The Acts, as well as a Gospel of St Andrew, appear among rejected books in the Decretum Gelasianum connected with the name of Pope Gelasius I. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. James, who edited them in 1924. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. 260," was the opinion of C.R. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. They belong to the third century: ca. A.D.


. "These Acts may be the latest of the five leading apostolic romances. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. The apocryphal Acts of Andrew, mentioned by Eusebius, Epiphanius and others, is among a disparate group Acts of Apostles that were traditionally attributed to Leucius Charinus. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. The relics, which consist of the small finger and part of the top of the cranium of St Andrew, are since kept in the Church of St Andrew at Patras in a special tomb, and are reverenced in a special ceremony every November 30. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. In recent years, the relics were kept in the Vatican City, but were sent back to Patras by decision of the Pope Paul VI in 1964.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. Local legends say that the relics were sold to the Romans by the local priests in exchange of the Romans constructing a water reservoir for the city. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. According to tradition his relics were removed from Patras to Constantinople, and thence to St Andrews (see below). In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. St Andrew is the patron of Patras. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. He is said to have suffered crucifixion at Patras (Patrae) in Achaea, on a cross of the form called Crux decussata (X-shaped cross) and commonly known as "St Andrew's cross".

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. Traditionally, he was the first bishop of Byzantium, a position which would later become Patriarch of Constantinople. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. Hence he became a patron saint of Romania and Russia. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Eusebius quotes Origen as saying Andrew preached in Asia Minor and in Scythia, along the Black Sea as far as the Volga. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. In the gospels he is referred to as being present on some important occasions as one of the disciples more closely attached to Jesus (Mark 13:3; John 6:8, 12:22); in Acts there is only a bare mention of him (1:13).

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. He lived at Capernaum (Mark 1:29). La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. He had been a disciple of John the Baptist (John 1:37-40) and was one of the first to follow Jesus. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. Since he was a Jew, Andreas was almost certainly not his given name, but no Hebrew or Aramaic name is recorded for him. Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. According to Christian Doctrine, Andrew was born at Bethsaida on the Lake of Galilee.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. Saint Andrew (Greek: Andreas, "manly"), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.).

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. Museums in Valencia include:. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight.

The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times.

. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates.

Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain.

However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments.

The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits).

Museo Del Arroz (rice). Museo Taurino (bullfighting). Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art).

Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science).

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