Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). Nemo may refer to:. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. Nemo (software) is a software package used by astronomers for stellar dynamics simulations. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. NEMO (museum), a science museum in Amsterdam. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. Nemo (song), a song by Nightwish, from their album Once.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". John Fowles's name in The Aristos for the theoretical fourth part of the human psyche that emphasizes the self's insignificance and meaninglessness. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. A character from the Charles Dickens novel Bleak House. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. Mount Nemo Conservation Area in Burlington, Ontario. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. NEMO (video game system), a never released VHS system video game console.

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. Finding Nemo, an animated film featuring a fish named Nemo. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. Little Nemo, protagonist of the comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland by Winsor McCay. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). Captain Nemo, captain of the submarine Nautilus in Jules Verne's novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea and Mysterious Island. The postwar period was hard for Valencians.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia.


. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type.

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.).

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. Museums in Valencia include:. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight.

The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times.

. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates.

Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain.

However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments.

The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits).

Museo Del Arroz (rice). Museo Taurino (bullfighting). Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art).

Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science).

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