Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Olympic Games. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. The 80,000-seat Stade de France was built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup and is used for football and rugby. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. Paris's main sports clubs are the football club Paris Saint-Germain, the basketball team Paris Basket Racing and the Rugby union club Stade Français. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. Paris is home to some of the most famous and luxurious brand names in the fashion industry like Louis Vuitton, Chanel, Hermès, Dior and Givenchy.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". The most prestigious are probably the Hôtel de Crillon on Place de la Concorde, and the nearby Hôtel Ritz Paris on Place Vendôme. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. Paris also hosts a number of famous hotels. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. Galeries Lafayette, Samaritaine (currently closed) or Printemps, are remarkable not only for the wide range of items they sell but also for their 19th-century or Art Nouveau architecture. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. Its department stores, e.g.

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. Paris is famous for gastronomical establishments like Fauchon (delicatessen), near the Église de la Madeleine, or Berthillon (ice cream) on Île-Saint-Louis. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets.
. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). On the western and eastern perimeters respectively are the two "forests", the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Second Empire, Napoleon III created three vast gardens on the outskirts of Paris: Montsouris, Buttes Chaumont in the northeast, and Parc Monceau, formerly known as the folie de Chartres, in the northwest.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. Two of Paris's most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden on the banks of the Seine next to the Louvre and the centrally-located Luxembourg Garden, which used to belong to a château built for the Marie de' Medici. After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. Other notable cemeteries include Cimetière de Montmartre, Cimetière du Montparnasse, Cimetière de Passy and the Catacombs of Paris. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. Many of Paris's illustrious historical figures have found rest in Père Lachaise Cemetery. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria.
.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. Lastly, art and artifacts from the Middle Ages and Impressionist eras are kept in Musée Cluny and Musée d'Orsay respectively, the former with the prized tapestry cycle The Lady and the Unicorn. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. Starkly apparent with its service-pipe exterior, the Centre Georges Pompidou, also known as Beaubourg, houses the Musée National d'Art Moderne. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. Works by Pablo Picasso and Rodin are found in Musée Picasso and Musée Rodin respectively, while the artistic community of Montparnasse is chronicled at the Musée du Montparnasse. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. The Louvre is one of the largest and most famous museums, housing many works of art, including the Mona Lisa (La Joconde) and the Venus de Milo statue.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia.
. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. Other than the Eiffel Tower, the lone skyscraper Tour Montparnasse and Basilica of the Sacré Cœur on the hill Montmartre are easily visible from many locations around the city, while the window-shaped Grande Arche in La Défense marks the west. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The three most famous landmarks of Paris are almost certainly the Eiffel Tower, originally a "temporary" construction for the 1889 Universal Exposition, the Arc de Triomphe, commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte and the cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a 12th-century ecclesiastical masterpiece. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. Traffic in Paris is notoriously heavy, slow and tiresome.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. Most of these 'Portes' have parking areas and a metro station, where non-residents are advised to leave cars. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. On/off ramps of the Périphérique are called 'Portes', as they correspond to the former city gates in these fortifications. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. The city is also the hub of France's motorway network, and is surrounded by an orbital road, the Périphérique, which roughly follows the path of final, 19th-century fortifications around Paris. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. official site Members of the syndicate include the RATP, which operates the Parisian and some suburban busses, the Métro, and sections of the RER; the SNCF, which operates the rest of the RER and the suburban train lines; and other operators.


. Administratively speaking, the public transportation networks of the Paris region are coordinated by the Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France (STIF), formerly Syndicat des transports parisiens (STP). As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. A third line along the southern inner orbital road is currently under construction. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. There are two tangential tramway lines in the suburbs: Line T1 runs from Saint-Denis to Noisy-le-Sec, line T2 runs from La Défense to Issy. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. This latter is a network of 380 stations (more than the London Underground) connected by 221.6km of rails.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. Six major railway stations, Gare du Nord, Gare Montparnasse, Gare de l'Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare d'Austerlitz, and Gare Saint-Lazare connect this train network to the world famous and highly efficient underground metro system, the Métro. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. Paris is a central hub of the national rail network of very fast (TGV) and normal (Corail) trains, which interconnects with a high-speed regional network, the RER. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. Le Bourget airport nowadays only hosts business jets, air trade shows and the aerospace museum. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. A third and much smaller airport, at the town of Beauvais, 70 km (45 mi) to the north of the city, is used by charter and low-cost airlines.

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. Paris is served by two principal airports: Orly Airport, which is south of Paris, and the Charles de Gaulle International Airport in nearby Roissy-en-France, one of the busiest in Europe. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. "Greater Paris"). The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. The current socialist municipality of Paris is pushing forward the idea of a loose "metropolitan conference" (conférence métropolitaine), while some in the right wing opposition propose the creation of a more integrated Grand Paris (i.e. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. There are currently plans to create a metropolitan structure that would cover the city of Paris and some of its suburbs in order to increase administrative efficiency.

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. The hundreds of suburban communes around the city of Paris also each have their separate administrations, which accounts for the extreme complexity of the Île-de-France administrative grid. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. The city of Paris, the seven départements of petite couronne and grande couronne, and the Île-de-France région all have their own separate administrations. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. It is made up of eight départements: the city of Paris itself (as a département), the three départements of the petite couronne already mentioned, and another concentric circle of four larger départements (Val-d'Oise (95), Yvelines (78), Essonne (91) and Seine-et-Marne (77)) which form the grande couronne. Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. This région encompasses the city of Paris, its suburbs, and most of the commuting belt beyond.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. Paris is also the préfecture, or capital city, of the Île-de-France région which was created in 1976, replacing a District of the Paris Region which had been created in 1961. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. On the other hand, the jurisdiction of the Prefecture of Paris, previously called Prefecture of the Seine (before 1968), is now strictly limited to the city of Paris. The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The Prefecture of Police jurisdiction, which used to be the whole Seine département, is now limited to Paris proper, but for some matters (such as fire protection or rescue operations) it still covers the three départements of the petite couronne. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.). "large ring") of the more distant suburbs of Paris.

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. "small ring"), as opposed to the grande couronne (i.e. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. In 1968, Seine was split into four new départements: the city of Paris proper (which retained the number 75) and three départements (Hauts-de-Seine (92), Seine-Saint-Denis (93) and Val-de-Marne (94)) forming a ring around Paris often called petite couronne (i.e. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Number 75 was once the official number of the Seine département, which encompassed the city of Paris and its nearest suburbs. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. The prefect of Paris is at the same time regional prefect of Île-de-France, in charge of some economic development and urban planning issues for the whole région of Île-de-France, which encompasses Paris and all its suburbs.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The State appointed prefect of Paris, not to be confused with the above mentioned prefect of Police, is the representative of the French State in the Paris département, in charge of the control of legality, as is the case in other French départements. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. The Council of Paris, presided by the Mayor of Paris, is the single council for both authorities, meeting either as municipal council (conseil municipal) or as departmental council (conseil général) depending on the issue to be debated. Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. As well as being a single commune, the city of Paris is also a département (official number: 75), which is a unique status in France solely introduced for the capital city. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. Paris has yet to completely emerge from the centralized administrative system created by Napoleon in 1800: public order is still in the hands of the State appointed prefect of Police (as is the Paris Fire Brigade) and Paris has no municipal police force, although it does have its own traffic wardens.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Council of Paris elects the mayor of Paris, a position created in 1977. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. A selection of members from each arrondissement council form the Council of Paris (Conseil de Paris). The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Citizens of each arrondissement elect a local council (conseil d'arrondissement), which in turn elects the mayor of the arrondissement. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas. Two parks on the edge of the city proper, Bois de Boulogne on the west and Bois de Vincennes on the east, belong to the 16th and 12th arrondissements respectively.

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. It is divided into twenty municipal arrondissements (see: Arrondissements of Paris), numbered in a clockwise spiral outwards from the Ier arrondissement at the center of the city. Museums in Valencia include:. Administratively speaking, the city of Paris is a French commune (municipality). The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.
. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. Among the manufacturing sector, the largest employers were the electronic and electrical industry (17.9% of the total manufacturing workforce in 1999) and the publishing and printing industry (14.0% of the total manufacturing workforce), the remaining 68.1% of the manufacturing workforce being distributed among many other industries.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Reflecting the diversity of the Paris economy, at the 1999 census 16.5% of the 5,089,170 persons employed in the metropolitan area worked in business services, 13.0% in commerce (retail and wholesale trade), 12.3% in manufacturing, 10.0% in public administrations and defense, 8.7% in health services, 8.2% in transportation and communications, 6.6% in education, and the remaining 24.7% in many other economic sectors. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. The economies of Paris and its closest départements have made a clear shift towards high value-added services, in particular business services. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. Although the Île-de-France's manufacturing base is still important and remains one of the manufacturing powerhouses of Europe, it is in a period of decline. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The Paris economy is essentially a service economy.

The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. The tourism industry, for instance, employs only 3.6% of the total workforce of the metropolitan area (as of 1999) and is by no means a major component of the economy. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The economy of the Paris region is extremely diverse and has not yet adopted a specialization inside the global economy (unlike Los Angeles with the entertainment industry, or London and New York with financial services). The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. According to the 1999 census conducted within the INSEE statistical aire urbaine (metropolitan area) commuter belt area around Paris, out of 5,089,170 persons employed within, 31.5% worked inside the city of Paris, 16% in the Hauts-de-Seine (92) département, home of the new La Défense business district to the west of the city proper, while the remaining 52.5% worked in the rest of the suburbs of the Paris agglomeration. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. In 2002, according to Eurostat, the Île-de-France GDP accounted alone for 4.5% of the total GDP of the European Union (of 25 members), although its population is only 2.45% of the total population of the EU25.

. The Île-de-France accounts for about 29% of the total GDP of metropolitan France, although its population is only 18.7% of the total population of metropolitan France (as of 2004). Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. In the same year, were it a country, the Île-de-France would be the 15th largest economy in the world. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. Together their 2003 GDP GDP is calculated by INSEE at €448,933 million [7], or US$506.7 billion (at real exchange rates, not at PPP). Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. Paris and its surrounding Île-de-France région is one of the engines of the global economy.

Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. The most recent immigrants to Paris come essentially from mainland China and from Africa. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. people who were not living in France in 1990). It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. As of 1999, 4.2% of the total population of the metropolitan area of Paris were recent migrants (i.e. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. As a comparison, 19.5% of the total population of the metropolitan area of London was born outside of the (metropolitan) United Kingdom[5], while 27.5% and 31.9% of the total populations of the New York and Los Angeles metropolitan areas respectively were born outside of the United States[6].

However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. The metropolitan area of Paris is one of the most multi-cultural in Europe, with 19.4% of the total population of the metropolitan area being born outside of metropolitan France[4]. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. These peculiar facts are due to the conservativeness of French administrative limits, with no significant administrative enlargement of the city of Paris since 1860, contrary to many other western cities. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. The city of Paris and the Hauts-de-Seine represent together 47.5% of the 5,089,170 jobs in the metropolitan area, while the city proper alone represents only 31.5% of these. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. As a consequence commuters are not exclusively going from the suburbs to work in the city of Paris, but also come from the city of Paris to work in the suburbs.

The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Indeed, most offices in the agglomeration of Paris are located in an area consisting of the Western half of the city of Paris proper and the central portion of the département of the Hauts-de-Seine, in a triangle between the Opéra Garnier, La Défense and the Val de Seine. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. Economically speaking, Paris is not properly the center of the agglomeration. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). Modern suburban development is even accellerating, as with an estimated total of 11.5 million inhabitants for 2004, the Paris metropolitan area is showing a rate of growth double that of the 1990s. Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits). On the other hand, Paris agglomeration considered as a whole have been continuously increasing since the end of the late 16th-century French Wars of Religion, with brief setbacks only during the French Revolution and World War II.

Museo Del Arroz (rice). These tendencies are generally seen as negative for the city, and the current city administration is trying to reverse them; these actions seem to have had some effect, as according to the population estimate of July 2004, Paris population rose for the first time since 1954 reaching a total of 2,144,700 inhabitants. Museo Taurino (bullfighting). This decline in population is due to the relocation of people to the suburbs, under the influence of several factors, namely de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters as well as the transformation of living space into offices, although not to the scale of London or American cities. Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). This is a number lower than its historical 1921 peak of 2.9 million. Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art). At the 1999 census, the population of the city of Paris was 2,125,246.

Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). mile). Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science). per sq. per km² (260,000 inh. Some neighborhoods in the east of this arrondissement are known to have densities of almost 100,000 inh.

mile) in 1999. per sq. per km² (105,339 inh. Today, the most crowded arrondissement in the city of Paris is the 11th arrondissement, with a density reaching 40,672 inh.

mile) in 1999, seven times more dense than in the City of London. per sq. per km² (46,979 inh. mile) in 2001, whereas the four first arrondissements of Paris still have a density of 18,139 inh.

per sq. per km² (6,417 inh. Today, the City of London is almost empty, with a population density of only 2,478 inh. per km² before the Industrial Revolution.

This is most striking in the medieval heart of both metropolises: the City of London and the four first arrondissements of Paris were the medieval heart of each metropolis, with densities reaching 75,000 to 100,000 inh. More precisely, people relocating to the suburbs were for the most part replaced by new people attracted to an urban lifestyle, and buildings were not converted into offices as systematically as has happened elsewhere, such as in London where the inhabitants have left the city center since the Second World War, and the density of Inner London is now much lower than that of Paris. Although the city of Paris has also experienced a decline in population since the 1920s, it has nonetheless seen fewer inhabitants relocating to the suburbs than has occurred in other western cities. In many western cities, people have left the city center in the 20th century to relocate to the distant suburbs, leaving the city center as a business district dead at night.

The density in Paris is comparable to the densities met within Asian cities. The population density in the city of Paris is very high compared to those of most western cities, which are rarely as crowded as Paris (except for Manhattan). mile). per sq.

per km² (22,438 inh. mile), and the density in Inner London at the 2001 UK census was 8,663 inh. per sq. per km² (66,940 inh.

As a matter of comparison, the density in Manhattan at the 2000 US census was 25,846 inh. mile). per sq. per km² (63,321 inh.

Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, the density in the city was actually 24,448 inh. mile). per sq. per km² (52,225 inh.

At the 1999 French census the population density in the city of Paris was 20,164 inh. The expected failure of these projects is interpreted in France as yet another sign of Paris' muséification. Recent 'modernisation' proposals - building skyscrapers to the inside of the city rim, or to loosen strict laws governing the height of any new constructions - have been met with strong opposition on all sides. Paris is subject to some of the most stringent architectural protection laws in the world: ill-renowned urbanistic experiences of the 1960s aside, it is difficult to place large-scale or architecturally innovative buildings within city limits.

It is feared that Paris is being slowly "embalmed" into a form pleasing to tourists and nostalgists. Emblematically, even the National Archives of France are due to relocate to the northern suburbs before 2010. Many of its institutions and arenas of communal activity are either located in the suburbs or finding a new home there, which one day may lessen Paris' importance as a pole of activity for its surrounding suburbs: the financial (La Défense) business district, the main food wholesale market (Rungis), major renowned schools (École Polytechnique, HEC, ESSEC, INSEAD, etc.), world famous research laboratories (in Saclay or Évry), the largest sport stadium (Stade de France), and even some ministries (namely the Ministry of Transportation) are located outside of the city of Paris. A so-called "muséification" (museumification) of the city of Paris is feared by some in France.

The widening social gap between these disadvantaged suburbs on the one hand and the wealthier suburbs (especially the western ones) and the rich city of Paris on the other hand have led to periodic unrest since the mid-1980s, sometimes degenerating into riots such as during the 2005 riots. Many inner suburbs of Paris (especially the eastern ones) have been in a period of de-industrialisation since the 1970s, and the once-thriving cités have gradually become ghettos for immigrants and oases of unemployment. A comprehensive express subway network, the RER, was built to complement the Métro and serve the distant suburbs, while a network of freeways was developed in the suburbs, centered on the Périphérique, the expressway circling around the city of Paris proper. The suburbs around the city of Paris proper began to expand considerably, with the construction of large social estates known as cités and the beginning of the business district La Défense.

In the post-WWII era, Paris experienced its largest development since the end of the Belle Époque in 1914. It was one of few European cities that suffered almost no war damage at all thanks in part to the refusal of the German military commander, General von Choltitz, to carry out Hitler's direct order to destroy all monuments before evacuating the city. In June 1940, five weeks after the start of the German attack on France, a partially-evacuated Paris fell to German occupation forces, who remained there until Free French troops of General Leclerc liberated the city in late August 1944. From Russian exiled artists (such as composer Igor Stravinsky), to Spanish painters (such as Picasso or Dalí), to US writers (such as Hemingway), Paris became a melting pot of artists from all around the world.

In the Inter-war period Paris was famed for its cultural and artistic communities, as well as its nightlife. In 1918-1919, it was the scene of Allied victory parades and peace negotiations. During World War I, Paris was at the forefront of the war effort, having been spared a German invasion by the French and English victory at the First Battle of the Marne in 1914. Cholera in 1832 and 1849 (in 1832, 20 000 deads on a population of 650 000 [3]).

Paris's World's Fair years also consecrated its position in the tourist industry and as an attractive setting for international technology and trade shows. The first line of the Paris Métro opened for the 1900 Universal Exposition and was an attraction in itself for visitors from the world over. Built for the French Revolution centennial 1889 Universal Exposition as a "temporary" display of architectural engineering prowess, the Eiffel Tower remained the world's tallest building until 1930, and today is the city's best-known landmark. Despite grim predictions on the future of the city, Paris recovered rapidly from these events to host the famous Universal Expositions of the late 19th century.

The ensuing Commune of Paris events (1871) brought scenes of civil war and devastation into the very heart of the city. Paris suffered greatly from the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) and the Siege of Paris by Prussian troops, which brought famine and destruction to the city. The city itself underwent a massive renovation under Napoleon III and his préfet Haussmann, who, in levelling entire districts of narrow-winding medieval streets, created the network of wide avenues and neo-classical facades that make much of modern Paris. A majority of migrants found employment in the new industries appearing in the suburbs.

From the 1840s, rail transport and train stations spilled an unprecedented flow of immigration into Paris. The Industrial Revolution, the French Second Empire, and the Belle Époque brought Paris the greatest development in its history. During the French Revolution, Paris was the centre stage of French history, with the Storming of the Bastille in 1789 and the overthrow of the monarchy in 1792. King Louis XIV then moved the royal court permanently to Versailles in 1682.

During the Fronde, Parisians rose in rebellion and the royal family fled the city (1648). King Henry IV re-established the royal court in Paris in 1594 after he captured the city from the Catholic party. Bartholomew's Day massacre (1572). During the French Wars of Religion, Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic party, culminating in the St.

However, the Kings of France abandoned Paris in favour of the Loire Valley. Although Joan of Arc failed to reconquer the city in 1429, a successful reconquest took place in 1437. Paris was occupied during the Hundred Years' War by the Burgundians, allies of the English. During this period the city's modern spatial distribution of activities appeared: the central island housed government and ecclesiastical institutions, the Left Bank became a scholastic centre with the University of Paris and colleges, while the Right Bank developed as the centre of commerce and trade around the central Les Halles marketplace.

From 1190, King Philip Augustus enclosed Paris on both banks with a wall that had the Louvre as its western fortress; and in 1200 chartered the University of Paris which brought the city fame and visitors from across Europe. Nearby marshlands were drained to allow Paris to grow on the Right Bank. The Counts of Paris gained fame by defending France against Viking attack in the ninth century, but the Vikings irreparably damaged the old Roman city on the Left Bank. Paris became the city of French kings when Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, was elected King of France in 987, founding the Capetian dynasty whose rulers would raise Paris to become France's capital.

Odo was elected king after the deposition of the incumbent Charles the Fat. Odo, Count of Paris defended Paris during the siege of 885-886 by the Vikings Siegfried and Rollo. During the Carolingian dynasty, the counts of Paris rose to prominence, eventually wielding greater power than the Kings of France. By the time of the Carolingian dynasty (9th century), it was little more than a feudal county stronghold.

On the death of Clovis, the Frankish kingdom was divided with Paris as the capital of a much smaller kingdom. From AD 512, Paris was the capital of the Frankish king Clovis I, who commissioned the first cathedral and abbey. The city reclaimed its original name of Paris towards the end of the Roman occupation. By 400 AD Lutetia had been reduced to a garrison town entrenched in the hastily fortified central island.

Lutetia expanded and prospered during the ensuing period of peaceful Gallo-Roman cohabitation, but third-century Germanic invasions caused a period of decline. Rome conquered the region in 52 BC and built the city of Lutetia on the Left Bank Sainte Geneviève Hill as this area was protected from river floods. There is dispute about the exact location of the settlement, traditionally assumed to be on the Île de la Cité, but now placed by many historians near Gare d'Austerlitz. They established a settlement by the River Seine to control river commerce.

The region around Paris was settled from about 250 BC, by the Celtic Parisii who were known as boatmen and traders. However, a record high night-time minimum of 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) in Parc Montsouris was set on August 11 and August 12, 2003, the highest minimum temperature at night ever registered in Paris. During the European heat wave of 2003, which caused the death of many elderly people in France, the temperature in central Paris reached "only" 38.1 °C (100.6 °F) (Parc Montsouris) and 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) at Le Bourget Airport in the northern suburbs. The highest temperature was recorded on July 28, 1947 when the temperature in central Paris (Parc Montsouris) reached 40.4 °C (104.7 °F).

The lowest temperature ever recorded in Paris (since meteorological records began in 1873) was on December 10, 1879: –23.9 °C (–11.0 °F) in central Paris and –25.6 °C (–14.1 °F) in the southeastern suburb of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés . (12 miles) north-northwest of the center of Paris as the crow flies, at 195 metres (640 ft) above sea-level. The highest elevation in the urban area of Paris is in the Forest of Montmorency (Val-d'Oise département), 19.5 km. The altitude of Paris varies, with several prominent hills, of which the highest is Montmartre at 130 metres (426½ ft) above sea level.

The metropolitan area (aire urbaine) of Paris (the built-up area plus the commuter belt) reaches beyond the surrounding Île-de-France administative région to cover 14,518 km² (5,605.5 mi²) (INSEE 1999), or about 138 times as large as the commune of Paris. The metropolitan urban area (unité urbaine) of Paris (the contiguous built-up area) covers 2,723 km² (1,051.4 mi²) (INSEE 1999), or about 26 times as large as the commune of Paris. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes were officially incorporated into the city of Paris. The limits of Paris changed marginally after 1860, reaching the 86.9 km² figure indicated above.

The borders of the commune were changed in 1860 when Napoleon III and the prefect Haussmann annexed the suburban communes surrounding Paris, such as Montmartre and Auteuil, more than doubling the city's area to 78 km² (30.1 mi²), and created the twenty arrondissements. The commune of Paris is the 113th largest commune in France (out of 36,782 communes). This oval extends 9.5 km (6 miles) from north to south, and 11 km (7 miles) from east to west. Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, the area of the city is 86.928 km² (33.56 mi², or 21,480 acres), in the form of an almost regular oval, with a circumference of 35.5 km (22 miles).

The city (commune) of Paris proper has an area of 105.398 km² (40.69 mi², or 26,044 acres). This waterway features two inhabitated islands within the city, the Île de la Cité and the Île Saint-Louis, of which the former is the larger and the Capital's heart and origin. The city straddles a north-bending arc of the river Seine. Paris is located at 48°52′00″N, 2°19′59″E (48.866667, 2.333056).

from la Province). Parisians tend to call those living outside the Paris region provinciaux (i.e. Inhabitants of the Île-de-France région are known officially as Franciliens (/fʀɑ̃siljɛ̃/). Locally, inhabitants of the Paris suburbs are known colloquially as banlieusards (/bɑ̃ljøzaʀ/).

The pejorative term Parigot (/paʀigo/) is sometimes used in French slang. The inhabitants of Paris are known as Parisians /pəˈɹiː.ʒn̩z/ in English, and as Parisiens (/paʀizjɛ̃/) in French. (.). Traditionally, Paris was known as Paname (/panam/) in French slang, but this vulgar appellation is gradually losing currency.

Lutetia was later dropped in favor of only Paris, based on the name of the Gallic Parisi tribe, whose name perhaps comes from the Celtic Gallic word parios, meaning "caldron", but this is not certain. The original Latin name of Paris was Lutetia (/lutetja/), or Lutetia Parisiorum, known in French as Lutèce (/lytɛs/). Paris is pronounced [ˈpʰæɹɪs] (RP) or [ˈpʰæɹəs] in English, and [paʀi] in French. .

It is often listed as one of the four major global cities along with New York, London and Tokyo. Today Paris is one of the world's major transport destinations, because of its financial, cultural, political, and tourism activities. The Île-de-France région, of which Paris is the capital, produces over a quarter of France's wealth, with a GDP of nearly €450 billion [2]. The population of Paris metropolitan area (also including satellite cities) was estimated at 11.6 million people in 2005.

According to the INSEE, the body issuing official statistics in France, the population of Paris urban area (the contiguous built-up area) was estimated at 10.1 million people in 2005. The population of Paris city proper was estimated at 2,144,700 inhabitants in 2004[1], but during the last century the city has grown well beyond its administrative boundaries. Paris hosts the headquarters of many international trade and social organisations, including the OECD and UNESCO in addition to the head offices of nearly half of all French companies and offices of many major international firms. More recently, it has grown into a significant centre of international trade with ever-growing modern business districts, including La Défense, which forms a secondary city centre.

As one of the main cultural and political centers in Europe since the early Middle Ages, Paris contains many vestiges from its past including numerous art galleries, museums and theatres. Paris is also internationally renowned for its defining neoclassical architecture and its influence in fashion and the arts. The most recognisable symbol of Paris is the 324 metre (1,063 ft) brown metal Eiffel Tower located on the banks of the Seine. Nicknamed "the City of Light" (la Ville Lumière) since lighting its main boulevards with gas street lamps in 1828, the city of Paris also has a reputation as a "romantic" city and the "heart of Europe".

Straddling the river Seine in the country's north, it is a major global cultural and political centre in addition to being the world's most visited city. Paris is the capital and largest city of France. 2 Excluding Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. ISBN 2869306482..

Connaissance du Vieux Paris, Rivages. Hillairet, Jacques (avril 22, 2005). ISBN 2213598746.. Paris, Fayard.

Favier, Jean (avril 23, 1997). Retrieved December 17, 2005. ^  (fr) France2 web article - "Ouverture du Parc Astérix pour sa 17e saison". ^  (fr) ORTIF - "Chiffres clés du tourisme 2004 en Île-de-France", page 5.

See Economy of Paris for a more detailed discussion. ^  GDP comparisons between metropolitan areas can only be approximate, because of the differences in national metropolitan area definitions. Retrieved December 1, 2005. "Produit intérieur brut (PIB) à prix courants.".

^  (fr) INSEE - Comptes régionaux - données 2003 semi-définitives en base 2 000. census 2000. ^ U.S. census 2001.

^ U.K. ^ France census 1999. Retrieved December 1, 2005. "Produit intérieur brut (PIB) à prix courants.".

^  (fr) INSEE - Comptes régionaux - données 2003 semi-définitives en base 2 000. Retrieved January 23, 2005. Paris. Janvier 2006.

^  (fr) Estimation de population pour certaines grandes villes. Harry's New York Bar. The Rex Club, Le Tryptique, Le Batofar- good places for electro music (techno, electro-rock, D&B). Les Bains-Douches, le Man Ray, l'Elysée Montmartre, le Queen - famous and trendy nightclubs.

The Buddha Bar, Barfly, Hotel Costes, Georges - trendy upscale restaurant / bars to see and be seen. the Paris Olympia, le Zenith, Bercy, Bobino - concert halls. Moulin Rouge, Le Crazy Horse Saloon, Folies Bergères - other famous cabarets. Le Lido - cabaret on the Champs-Élysées famous for its exotic shows and where, as an American GI on leave with some army friends, Elvis Presley gave an impromptu concert.

La Défense - As a city antenna just outside Paris' western limits, La Défense of the largest business districts in the world, and is a major destination for business tourism in Europe. l'Opéra - Shopping area with department stores such as Printemps and Galeries Lafayette. Le Marais - trendy district on the Right Bank with large gay and Jewish populations. Les Halles - shopping precinct around an important metro connection station.

Quartier Latin - Paris's scholastic center from the 12th century, formerly stretching between the Left Bank's place Maubert and the Sorbonne university. Montparnasse - historic area on the Left Bank, famous for the its artists studios, music-halls, and café life. Place de la Bastille - Former eastern stronghold and gate of Paris. The Egyptian obelisk it holds today can be considered Paris's "oldest monument".

Place de la Concorde - at the foot of the Champs-Élysées, built as the "Place Louis XV" site of the infamous guillotine. Champs-Élysées - a 17th-century garden promenade turned Avenue connection between the Concorde and Arc de Triomphe. Montmartre - historic area on the Butte, home to the Basilica of the Sacré Coeur and also famous for the studios and cafés of many great artists.

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