Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). Seagrasses and other beach plants grow on undisturbed areas of the beach and dunes. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. Sea turtles also lay their eggs on ocean beaches. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. The endangered Piping Plover and some tern species rely on beaches for nesting. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. Crabs, insects and shorebirds feed on these beach dwellers.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". Some small animals burrow into the sand and feed on material deposited by the waves. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. A beach is an unstable environment which exposes plants and animals to harsh conditions. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. To experience, listen to this sound file sound recording (1.00MB) made on a South Carolina beach at night. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. Beaches are noted for their sometimes serene stillness and the rhythmic sound made by waves crashing upon the sand.

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. Urban beaches attempt to mimic natural beaches with fountains that imitate surf and mask city noises, and in some cases can be used as a play park. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. Another approach involves so-called urban beaches, a form of public park becoming common in large cities. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In a zero-depth entry pool, the bottom surface slopes gradually from above water down to depth. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. The soothing qualities of a beach and the pleasant environment offered to the beachgoer are replicated in artificial beaches, such as "beach style" pools with zero-depth entry and wave pools that recreate the natural waves pounding upon a beach.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. Some beaches are artificial; they are either permanent or temporary (For examples see Monaco, Paris, Rotterdam, Hong Kong and Singapore). After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. At the other extreme are nude beaches, where no swimware of any kind is compulsory. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. This social standard still prevails in some Muslim countries. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. In the Victorian era, many popular beach resorts were equipped with bathing machines because even the all-covering beachware of the period was considered immodest.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. Towels and mats are typical beach "furniture". War of the Germanies 1519–1522. One of the many attractions of a sand beach, especially for children, is playing with the sand, building sand castles and other constructs. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. The waves present at beaches add to the enjoyment and make the sport of body surfing and related activities possible. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. The relatively soft formation of sand is comfortable to sit or lie on, and entering and exiting the water is far easier across a sand beach than a rocky shore.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. Of course, residents and tourists alike use beaches as a place for leisure and sport. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. Especially popular are seaside resorts and large white sand beaches. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. Beaches have long been a popular attraction for tourism and recreation. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. The Marina Beach at Chennai, India, is the second longest beach in the world.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. Wasaga Beach, Ontario on Georgian Bay claims to have the world's longest freshwater beach. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. There are several beaches which are claimed to be the "World's longest", including Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh (120kms), Fraser Island beach, 90 Mile Beach in Australia and 90 Mile Beach in New Zealand and Long Beach, Washington (which is about 30km). It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. This forms the uneven face on some sand shorelines. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. Cusps and horns form where incoming waves divide, depositing sand as horns and scouring out sand to form cusps.


. On shingle beaches the swash is dissipated because the large particle size allows percolation, so the backwash is not very powerful, and the beach remains steep. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. On sandy beaches, the backwash of the waves removes material forming a gently sloping beach. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. Constructive waves move material up the beach while destructive waves move the material down the beach. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. The shape of a beach depends on whether the waves are constructive or destructive, and whether the material is sand or shingle.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. A coral reef offshore is a significant source of sand particles. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. Beach materials come from erosion of rocks offshore, as well as from headland erosion and slumping producing deposits of scree. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. Alternatively, sand may be moved by saltation (a bouncing movement of large particles). For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. Beaches are deposition landforms, and are the result of wave action by which waves or currents move sand or other loose sediments of which the beach is made as these particles are held in suspension.

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. However, the drift line is likely to move inland under assault by storm waves.
. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. This would be the point at which significant wind movement of sand could occur, since the normal waves do not wet the sand beyond this area. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. The drift line (the high point of material deposited by waves) is one potential demarcation. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. Over any significant period of time, sand is always being exchanged between them.

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. The line between beach and dune is difficult to define in the field. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Where wind is the force distributing the grains inland, the deposit behind the beach becomes a dune. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. At some point the influence of the waves (even storm waves) on the material comprising the beach stops, and if the particles are small enough (that is, are sand), winds shape the feature. Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. The sand deposit may extend well inland from the berm crest, where there may be evidence of one or more older crests (the storm beach) resulting from very large storm waves and beyond the influence of the normal waves.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. At the very bottom of the face, there may be a trough, and further seaward one or more longshore bars: slightly raised, underwater embankments formed where the waves first start to break. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. The berm has a crest (top) and a face — the latter being the slope leading down towards the water from the crest. The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The berm is the deposit of material comprising the active shoreline. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.). That part mostly above water (depending upon tide), and more or less actively influenced by the waves at some point in the tide, is termed the beach berm.

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. There are several conspicuous parts to a beach, all of which relate to the processes that form and shape it. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Both types can be viewed as "beaches.". Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. The former are described in detail below; the larger geological units are discussed elsewhere under bars. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. In the Bascom approach, beaches can be viewed as either.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. Submerged, longshore bars are therefore also part of the beach. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. Some geologists consider a beach to be just this shoreline feature of deposited material, but William Bascom (1980) has argued that a beach is the entire system of sand set in motion by waves to a depth of ten meters (30+ feet) or more off ocean coasts. Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. . The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. A beach or strand is a geological formation consisting of loose rock particles such as sand, shingle, cobble, or even shell along the shoreline of a body of water.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. geological units of considerable size. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. small systems in which the rock material moves onshore, offshore, or alongshore by the forces of waves and currents; or. The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. Museums in Valencia include:. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight.

The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times.

. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates.

Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain.

However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments.

The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits).

Museo Del Arroz (rice). Museo Taurino (bullfighting). Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art).

Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science).

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