Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). They are:. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. Melbourne has a number of sister cities. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. There are a variety of interesting things to see outside Melbourne proper but still within a day trip of Melbourne. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. As one would expect from a city its size, Melbourne has a wide variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, which can be found all over the metropolitan area.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". Some of the best restraunts can be found in St Kilda along Fitzroy Street, South Yarra along Chapel Street, Fitzroy along Brunswick Street, Carlton along Lygon St, South Melbourne along Clarendon St, Richmond along Bridge Rd and Victoria St and Collingwood along Smith Street, as well as in the CBD and Southbank precincts. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. Melbourne's restaurants are numerous, and are generally of reasonable quality and good value. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. Melbourne will host the Commonwealth Games in 2006. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. Melbourne's best-known sporting events are the Australian F1 Grand Prix, numerous international Cricket matches, the Australian Football League Grand Final and the Spring Racing Carnival wheich culminates with the running of the Melbourne Cup horse race at Flemington.

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. Melbourne hosts a disproportionately large number of spectator sports. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. The Crown Casino entertainment complex can also be found in the Southbank precinct. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). Southbank on the southern bank of the Yarra River attracts locals and tourists alike for its mix of dining, shopping and recreational facilities. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. Along St Kilda Road there are many cultural attractions, including the National Gallery of Victoria, the Shrine of Remembrance, King's Domain and the Sidney Myer Music Bowl, the Arts Centre, and Victoria Barracks.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The Fitzroy Gardens in East Melbourne has many attractions including Captain Cook's Cottage. After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. Melbourne attracts large numbers of tourists, particularly young backpackers. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. Avalon Airport located between Melbourne and Geelong is a freight and maintenance facility and handles some low cost flights. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. Essendon Airport, which was once the city's main airport before the construction of Tullamarine, handles general aviation and some cargo flights, and is the base of the Victoria Police air wing and air ambulance.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. Moorabbin Airport is a significant general aviation airport in the city's south east. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. Melbourne International Airport located at Tullamarine is the city's main international and domestic gateway. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. Melbourne has four significant airports. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. Station Pier in Port Phillip Bay handles cruise ships and the Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to Tasmania.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. Melbourne Airport is the nation's second busiest. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The city has rail connections wth several regional cities in the state, as well as interstate rail services to Sydney and Adelaide. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. From the 1920s to the 1940s it was the world's busiest passenger station.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. Flinders Street Station is a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. It has one of the world's most extensive tram networks, almost 300 bus routes and a train system with more than 15 lines. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. Like many major cities in the world, Melbourne has an integrated public transport system, however some of its outlying suburbs still face transport difficulties. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. Melbourne is served with an extensive public transport network.


. Carols by Candlelight, first held in 1938, is a Christmas Eve tradition held annually at the Sidney Myer Music Bowl. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. Through her he has performed cutting odes to Melbourne mores and the middle class suburbs of Moonee Ponds and Highett, among others. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. Melbourne-born satirist Barry Humphries created his main character Dame Edna Everage as a comedic version of a suburban homemaker. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. "Balwyn Calling", "Carlton (Lygon Street Limbo)" and "Toorak Cowboy" are examples.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. Singer Paul Kelly has written several well-known songs about aspects of the city close to the heart of many Melburnians, notably "Leaps And Bounds" and "From St Kilda To King's Cross", while Skyhooks also wrote some more tongue in cheek songs about Melbourne. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. Other contemporary television shows set in Melbourne include Stingers (a police drama), The Secret Life Of Us, and MDA. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. Perhaps better known to a contemporary audience is the daily soap opera Neighbours, set in the fictional eastern suburb of Erinsborough, which presents a 'whitebread' microcosm of suburban Australian life. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. Nice Guy and The Castle.

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. Some of the more famous include Mad Max, Chopper, Romper Stomper, featuring a young Russell Crowe as a terrifying Melburnian skinhead; Jackie Chan's Mr. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. In recent years, many more films have been made in Melbourne. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Similar filming was undertaken when a 2000 television movie remake was produced. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. The purported quote was invented by journalist Neil Jillett.

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Filmed on location in and around Melbourne (a great novelty for Melbourne at the time), it is perhaps best remembered for a comment Ava Gardner possibly never actually made - describing Melbourne as 'the perfect place to make a film about the end of the world', commenting on the dreary conservatism of Melbourne in the late 1950s. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. The film depicted the denizens of Melbourne quietly slipping off into eternity as the last victims of a global nuclear holocaust. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. In 1959, it was made into a film directed by Stanley Kramer, and starring Gregory Peck, Ava Gardner and Anthony Perkins. Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. Perhaps the best-known novel internationally is Nevil Shute's novel On the Beach.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. Frank Hardy's Power Without Glory tells the story of Melbourne businessman John West (based on the real-life John Wren) and is set in a thinly-disguised Collingwood, a Melbourne working-class suburb. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. Fergus Hume's international best-seller Mystery of a Hansom Cab, which outsold the Sherlock Holmes stories at the time, was set in Melbourne of the Gold Rush era. The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. Melbourne has been the setting for many novels, television dramas, and films. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.). The Melbourne Shuffle, a style of dance, had its birth here, and has been evolving ever since.

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. There are dance parties happening almost every night of the year, frequently attracting some of the world's best DJs to the city. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. The dance music scene in Melbourne is large and lively. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Live shows constantly occur in the city with open-mic contests and performances by up-and-coming artists held throughout the week at different locations. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Melbourne is home to a gritty style of home grown Hip Hop and is home to artists such as Lyrical Commission, Muphin, Reason and Pegz.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. Obese Records, a leading Australian Hip Hop recording label, was founded in 1995 in Melbourne and is located in Prahran, just off the famous Chapel Street. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. Melbourne is home to a large Australian hip hop scene, generally known as "Melburn" or "The Burn" throughout the unique sub-culture. Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. Melbourne's lively rock and pop music scene has fostered many internationally renowned artists and musicians, with links to AC/DC, Nick Cave, Crowded House, John Farnham, Graeme Bell, Kylie Minogue, and Jet. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. Several professional theatre companies operate in Melbourne, of which the Melbourne Theatre Company has the most institutional support of any in Australia, and there is a wide range of smaller companies.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. Many of its most significant works hang in the National Gallery of Victoria, which has one of Australia's top collections of visual art, particularly early Australian western-tradition art. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. It was largely the work of Melbourne-based artists, and was arguably the first distinctly Australian art movement (in the Western canon, at least). The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century centered in Melbourne. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas. Melbourne was strongly associated with the establishment of Australia's visual arts.

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. The Melbourne Symphony Orchestra is highly regarded both at home and internationally. Museums in Valencia include:. Melbourne is the home of the Australian Ballet and the second home of Opera Australia. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. Annuals arts celebrations include the Melbourne Arts Festival, the Melbourne Fringe Festival, the Melbourne International Comedy Festival, the Melbourne International Film Festival, and Moomba. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. Melbourne has a large and vibrant arts and cultural life.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Melbourne also boasts a number of community radio stations, of which the best known are 3RRR and 3PBS. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. 3AW is consistently the city's highest-rating commercial radio station. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. Melbourne has a wide range of radio stations and is the base for the Australia-wide Austereo network. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. There are three commercial television channels: the Seven, Nine and Ten networks — and three public channels: ABC, SBS, and a community television channel, Channel 31 Melbourne.

The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. Melbourne has two major daily newspapers, The Age and The Herald Sun, as well as the free afternoon tabloid mX. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). In 2007, Melbourne will be the host of the FINA World Aquatics Championships. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. The 2006 Commonwealth Games will be held in Melbourne, the first time the city has hosted the event. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. Melbourne co-hosted the 2003 Rugby Union World Cup, including many pool matches as well as a quarter final – all of which were played at the Telstra Dome; broke new ground as the first city outside the United States to host the World Police and Fire Games in 1995, and the President's Cup golf tournament in 1999; and was the first city in the Southern Hemisphere to host the World Cup Polo Championship in 2001.

. Since the 1956 Olympic Games were held in Melbourne, the city has hosted numerous sporting events which rotate host cities. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. The Wallabies, Australia's national rugby union team, usually also play at least one Test annually at Melbourne's Telstra Dome. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. Annually, Melbourne hosts the Australian Open tennis tournament, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments; the Melbourne Cup horse race; the 'Boxing Day' cricket test match held each year from 26-30 December at the Melbourne Cricket Ground; and the Australian Grand Prix Formula One championship. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. The city has hosted several major international sporting events.

Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. The city also has two National Basketball League franchises, the Melbourne Tigers and the South Dragons (to enter the league in 2006). Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Olympic Park is also the home of Melbourne Victory, a team in the newly formed Australian football (soccer) competition, the A-League. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Melbourne Storm, a National Rugby League team, are based at Olympic Park. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the traditional venue for the Boxing Day cricket Test match.

However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. The MCG was the site of many events at the 1956 Summer Olympics, including the Opening and Closing Ceremonies. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. The AFL Grand Final, one of the biggest sporting events in Australia, is played on the last weekend in September at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), a massive arena that has held up to 120,000 spectators. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. The city is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the Australian Football League (AFL), whose five Melbourne games per week attract an average 35,000 people per game. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. Melbourne is where Australian rules football originated, and it still the most popular sport in Victoria.

The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. A majority of the oldest schools in Melbourne belong to the Associated Public Schools of Victoria and Associated Grammar Schools of Victoria associations. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. From years 7 to 12 students attend high schools. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). Primary school consists of seven grades; a preparatory year and grades 1 to 6. Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits). Melbourne has numerous government, independent and other secondary schools.

Museo Del Arroz (rice). Several other universities are also located in Melbourne, including Deakin University, La Trobe University, RMIT University, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria University of Technology and the St Patrick's campus of the Australian Catholic University. Museo Taurino (bullfighting). Both are also highly ranked among the best universities in the world by The Times Higher Education Supplement. Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). They are both members of the Group of Eight, a lobby group including the most prestigious universities in Australia. Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art). Melbourne's two most notable tertiary institutions are the University of Melbourne and Monash University.

Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art).
. Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science). Melbourne Population by Year:. In recent years, Melton, Wyndham and Casey, part of the Melbourne statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all local government areas in Australia. Attraction of a large proportion of overseas immigrants and interstate migration from Sydney due to more affordable housing are two recent key factors.

Although Brisbane and Perth are growing faster in percentage terms, and Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the Melbourne statistical division has grown by approximately 50,000 people a year since 2003, more than any other Australian city. The newest wave of immigrants comes from North Africa, particularly Sudan. Melbourne also boasts the largest Jewish community in Oceania (See Judaism in Australia). Refugees from Cambodia and Vietnam made Melbourne their home in the 1970s and 1980s and were joined by people from India, the Philippines and Malaysia.

Melbourne has one of the world's largest population of people with Greek ancestry outside Greece -- in fact it is 3rd only to Athens and Thessaloniki as a metropolis for Greek-speakers [4]. Large numbers from Italy and Greece arrived in the 1950s and 1960s, to become the largest groups after those from Britain and Ireland. The need for a population increase and a labour force saw many British, Yugoslav, Dutch, German, Arab and Maltese migrants arrive in 1945 after the devastation of the homelands in World War II. As a consequence property prices took decades to recover.

Much of Melbourne's population loss during the 1890s was the result of the unemployed moving west seeking gold, or, employment in the burgeoning industries stimulated by gold. During the 1890s a world economic depression hit Melbourne's overleveraged economy with particular savagery. In the following decades of the 1870s and 1880s, Melbourne was Australia's most populous city and led to a spectacular property boom, and exuberance still in evidence in the much loved late Victorian architecture. From 20,000 inhabitants in 1851, an additional 15,000 arrived almost overnight with the discovery of gold in August 1852 [3].

Melbourne's population exploded during the 1850s' gold rush. As the capital city, Melbourne has over time become a large urban centre and the home to around 80% of the state's population. Almost a quarter of Victoria's population was born overseas and come from 233 countries, speak over 180 languages and dialects and follow 116 religious faiths. Today Melbourne is one of the world's most diverse and multicultural cities.

In 2006, Melbourne will play host to the summit of G20 finance ministers. At a cost of $434 million the project involves reconstructing the old Olympic and Ponsford stands. At the centrepiece of the Commonwealth Games projects is the redevelopment project for the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the stadium set for the opening and closing ceremonies of the Games. The project is set for completion in early 2006, before the start of the Games.

Such projects include the $AUD700 million Southern Cross Station redevelopment, including a $350 million world-class transport interchange facility with $350 million also set aside for office accommodation, residential towers and hotel and also a retail plaza. Most current major infrastructure projects are generally centred on the upcoming 2006 Commonwealth Games, which are to be held in the city. Melbourne is home to Australia's largest seaport and much of Australia's automotive industry (including the engine manufacturing facility of Holden and the Ford and Toyota manufacturing facilities), in addition to many other manufacturing industries. The peak body representing workers in Australia, the Australian Council of Trade Unions, is also headquartered in Melbourne.

Many of Australia's largest companies have their headquarters there, and many multinational corporations (approximately one-third of the 100 largest multinationals operating in Australia as of 2002), have their main Australian office there. Melbourne is a large commercial and industrial centre.
. For this reason the Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works, which had become a powerful semi-autonomous authority, was abolished in 1992.

Because three quarters of Victoria's population lives in Melbourne, state governments have traditionally been reluctant to allow the development of city-wide governmental bodies, which would tend to create a rival to the state government. These include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, and planning of major infrastructure projects. Most city-wide government activities are controlled by the state government. Melbourne's overwhelming dominance of the state of Victoria's population and economy means the Victorian state government is also effectively the city government of greater Melbourne.

The councils are collectively represented by the Local Government Association of Victoria. Councils levy rates from their residents to pay for these services. These include planning, rubbish collection, beaches, parks and gardens, child-care and preschool facilities, local festivals and cultural activities, services to the elderly, supervision of public health, sanitation and similar matters. These municipalities all have elected councils and are responsible for a range of functions delegated to them by the Victorian state government.

The rest of the metropolitan area is divided into 30 municipalities, all of which are styled as cities except for five on the city's outer fringes which are styled as shires (see a list of these at Local Government Areas of Victoria). The current Lord Mayor is John So. However the head of the Melbourne City Council, the Lord Mayor of Melbourne, is frequently treated as a representative of greater Melbourne (the entire metropolitan area), particularly when interstate or overseas. The Melbourne City Council governs only the City of Melbourne, which takes in the CBD and a few adjoining inner suburbs.

There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of Melbourne, such as in the cities of Stonnington and Booroondara, south east of the CBD. There is an abundance of parks and gardens close to the CBD with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped vistas, pedestrian pathways, and majestic tree lined avenues that help make Melbourne one of the world's most livable cities. Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city. The central business district (the original city) is laid out in the famous mile-by-half-a-mile Hoddle Grid, its southern edge fronting on to the Yarra.

Geologically it is built on the confluence of Quaternary lava flows to the west, Silurian mudstones to the east and Holocene sand accumulation to the southeast along Port Phillip, its suburbs sprawling to the east, following the Yarra River out to the Yarra and Dandenong Ranges, south-east to the mouth of the bay, and following the Maribyrnong River and its tributaries west and north to flat farming country. Melbourne is located in the south-eastern corner of mainland Australia, and is the southernmost mainland capital city. This has continued under the government of current Premier Steve Bracks (Labor). In the 1990s, the Victorian state government of Premier Jeff Kennett (Liberal) sought to reverse this trend with the aggressive development of new public buildings, such as the Melbourne Museum, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre (nicknamed "Jeff's Shed"), Crown Casino, capital works (most notably the City Link tollway), the selling off state assets (the State Electricity Commission and redundant state schools), the pruning back of state services and the publicising of Melbourne's merits both to outsiders and Melburnians.

After a boom in the 1980s Melbourne experienced a largely property market and manufacturing driven slump from 1989 to 1992, with a loss of employment and a drain of population to New South Wales and Queensland. Melbourne also developed as a centre of the arts. Even after the national capital moved to Canberra, Melbourne remained Australia's business and finance capital until the 1970s, when it began to lose this primacy to Sydney. Melbourne continued to expand steadily throughout the first half of the 20th century, particularly with the post-World War II influx of immigrants and the prestige of hosting the Olympic Games in 1956.

The seat of government and the national capital remained in Melbourne until 1927 when it moved to the new capital city of Canberra. The first Federal parliament was opened on 9 May of that year in the Royal Exhibition Building. Melbourne became Australia's national capital at Federation on 1 January 1901. Victorian architecture abounds in Melbourne and today the city is home to the largest number of surviving Victorian era buildings of any city in the world other than London.

During the 1880s, Melbourne was the second largest city in the British Empire, and came to be known as "Marvellous Melbourne". Later it became Australia's leading manufacturing centre. With the discovery of gold in Victoria in the 1850s, leading to the Victorian gold rush, Melbourne quickly grew as a port and service centre. It was the capital first of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales and then of the separate colony of Victoria.

Ultimately, settlement continued regardless [2]. A transaction was negotiated for 600,000 acres of land from eight of their representatives; this was later anulled by the New South Wales government (then governing all of eastern mainland Australia), who compensated the settlers in exchange. The area was already inhabited by the Kulin people, then indigenous to the area. The European settlement at Melbourne was founded in 1835 by settlers coming from Tasmania (then known as Van Diemen's Land), where they had difficulty finding available land.

Melbourne in Derbyshire derives its name from the Old English for Mill Stream (Mylla Burne). The city was named after the British Prime Minister William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose home was near the village of Melbourne in Derbyshire. . A resident of Melbourne is referred to as a Melburnian.

It has one of the highest numbers of international students studying in its universities, after London, New York City, and Paris. Melbourne has undergone a major urban 'revival', such that it is sometimes classed as being in a second tier of "world cities"; the GaWC study group in the UK ranks Melbourne, on the basis of relative availability of specialised "advanced services," as a "minor world city" comparable to cities such as Montreal, Osaka, and Prague. The US's Utne Reader puts it thus: "Add a long tradition of civic pride, communities of new immigrants from around the world, and the best food in Australia, and you have a recipe for what many claim is the hippest city in the Southern Hemisphere" (Nov/Dec 2001). In 2005, however, it was ranked 2nd, behind Vancouver, Canada.

Melbourne has twice ranked first in a survey by The Economist of The World's Most Livable Cities on the basis of its cultural attributes, climate, cost of living, and social conditions such as crime rates and health care, once in 2002 [1], and again in 2004 – a year in which the Economist truly took a shine to Australian cities, with the five largest cities in Australia given rankings of 6 or better. It is also considered to be the fashion, shopping, dining and cultural capital of Australia. Melbourne is considered by most Australians to be the sporting capital of Australia, as it is home to The Melbourne Cup, Australian F1 Grand Prix, Australian Open Tennis, AFL Grand Final and MotoGP Motorcycle Grand Prix, and will host the Commonwealth Games in 2006. Melbourne was the capital city of Australia from 1901 until 1927.

The city's name is pronounced as either /ˈmel.bən/ or /ˈmæl.bən/. Melbourne is the state capital and largest city in the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-largest city in Australia (after Sydney), with a population of approximately 3.8 million (2006 estimate) in the Melbourne metropolitan area and 69,670 in the City of Melbourne (which covers only the central city area). ^  Coban, Suzie: “The immigration rush”, Special Broadcasting Service, (Unknown date). Retrieved December 14, 2005.

Melbourne and Vancouver are the world’s best cities to live in . ^  Economist Intelligence Unit (2002). Galle, Sri Lanka – 2005 (after the 2004 tsunami disaster Melbourne adopted Galle in order to fund the reconstruction of its cricket ground). Milan, Italy – 2004.

Saint Petersburg, Russia – 1989. Boston, United States – 1985. Thessaloniki, Greece – 1984. Tianjin, China (PRC) – 1980.

Osaka, Japan – 1978.

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