Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). For a fuller treatment of classification, see the vertebrate article. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. Fish are classified into the following major groups:. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish also contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. For more details, see Fish (food).

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". Other water-dwelling animals such as mollusks, crustaceans, and shellfish are often called "fish" when used as food. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. Fishes are an important source of food in many cultures. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. The usage of the two words is similar to that of the words "people" and "peoples". A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. To see both in action, consider the statement "There are twelve fish in this aquarium, representing five fishes" (meaning that the aquarium contains twelve individuals, some of the same species and some of different species, for a total of five species).

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. morhua comprises several million individuals). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. When speaking of two or more individual fish organisms, then the word "fish" is used, as in "There are several million fish of the species Gadus morhua" (meaning that G. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). "Fishes" is the proper English plural form of "fish" that biologists use when speaking about two or more fish species, as in "There are over 25,000 fishes in the world" (meaning that there are over 25,000 fish species in the world). The postwar period was hard for Valencians. The authors recommended immediate drastic cutbacks in fish catches and reservation of ocean habitats worldwide.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. [1] Particularly imperiled were sharks, Atlantic cod, Bluefin tuna, and Pacific sardines. After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. On May 15, 2003, the journal Nature reported that all large oceanic fish species worldwide had been so systematically over caught that fewer than 10% of 1950 levels remained. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. Overfishing is a threat to many species of fish. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. The annual yield from all fisheries worldwide is about 100 million tonnes.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. Fish can be found in almost all large bodies Catching fish for the purpose of increasing boredom and getting drunk is known as fishing. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. . Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. Endothermy, though metabolically costly, is thought to provide advantages such as increased contractile force of muscles, higher rates of central nervous system processing, and higher rates of digestion. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. See also gigantothermy.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The degree of endothermy varies from the billfish, which warm only their eyes and brain, to bluefin tuna and porbeagle sharks who maintain body temperatures elevated in excess of 20 °C above ambient water temperatures. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. All sharks in the family Lamnidae – shortfin mako, long fin mako, white, porbeagle, and salmon shark – are known to have the capacity for endothermy, and evidence suggests the trait exists in family Alopiidae (thresher sharks). In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. Endothermic teleosts (bony fishes) are all in the suborder Scombroidei and include the billfishes, tunas, and one species of "primitive" mackerel (Gasterochisma melampus). The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. Certain species of fish maintain elevated body temperatures to varying degrees.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. Other sea dwelling creatures, like dolphins, are actually mammals. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. Many types of aquatic animals named "fish", such as jellyfish and cuttlefish, are not true fish. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. Fish come in different sizes, from the 16m (51 ft) whale shark to a 7 mm (just over 1/4 of an inch) long stout infantfish. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. Taxonomically, fish are a paraphyletic group whose exact relationships are much debated; a common division is into the jawless fish (class Agnatha, 75 species including lampreys and hagfish), the cartilaginous fish (class Chondrichthyes, 800 species including sharks and rays), with the remainder classed as bony fish (class Osteichthyes).


. There are over 27,000 species of fish, making them the most diverse group of vertebrates. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. A fish is a poikilothermic (cold-blooded) water-dwelling vertebrate with gills. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. Dipnoi (lungfish). In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Actinistia (coelacanths).

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish)

    . This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish). In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. Osteichthyes (bony fish)
      . For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. Acanthodii.

      The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish). Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. Placodermi. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates)

        . Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. Osteostraci.

        Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Pituriaspida. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Galeaspida. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. Cephalaspidomorphi (early jawless fish)

          . Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. Anaspida.

          According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. Thelodonti. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. Pteraspidomorphi (early jawless fish). The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. Petromyzontidae (lampreys). (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.). Hyperoartia

            .

            Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. Conodonta. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products.

            Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

            The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

            The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. Museums in Valencia include:. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city.

            World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight.

            The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times.

            . Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates.

            Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain.

            However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments.

            The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits).

            Museo Del Arroz (rice). Museo Taurino (bullfighting). Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art).

            Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science).

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