Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). Hazy conditions, atmospheric dust, and high humidity contribute to this atmospheric attenuation. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. During sunrise and sunset, sunlight is attenuated by a particularly long passage through Earth's atmosphere, and the direct Sun is sometimes faint enough to be viewed directly without discomfort or safely with binoculars. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. Viewing the partially eclipsed Sun with the naked eye can cause permanent localized damage to the retina, resulting in small, permanent blind spots for the viewer.[20] This is an especially insidious hazard for inexperienced observers and for children, because there is no immediate perception of pain and it is tempting to stare at the spectacle of the eclipsing Sun, compounding any damage. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. Each retinal cell that is exposed to the partially-eclipsed solar image thus receives about ten times as much light as it would looking at the normal, non-eclipsed Sun.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". In the dim overall light, the pupil tends to dilate from about 2 mm to perhaps 6 mm diameter, increasing the eye's collecting area by a factor of nearly 10. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. During partial eclipses, most sunlight is blocked by the Moon passing directly in front of the Sun, but the uncovered parts of the photosphere have the same surface brightness as during a normal day. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. The pupil is controlled by the total amount of light in the visual field, not by the brightest object in the field. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. During partial eclipses of the Sun, another hazardous condition exists because of the way the eye responds to bright light.

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. Even brief glances at the midday Sun through unfiltered binoculars can cause permanent blindness.[19]. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. Viewing the Sun through unfiltered 7x50 mm binoculars can deliver as much as 2.5 watts of sunlight into each eye, over 300 times more power than naked eye viewing. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). Using a proper filter is very important as some improvised filters reduce visible light while passing either infrared or ultraviolet rays that can still damage the eye. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. Suitable filters are available at welding supply shops and camera stores.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. Viewing the Sun through light-concentrating optics such as binoculars is hazardous without an attenuating (ND) filter to dim the sunlight. After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. Brief viewing of the full direct Sun with the naked eye is unpleasant but generally safe.[18]. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. Direct viewing of the Sun with the naked eye delivers about 4 milliwatts of sunlight to the retina that is in the solar image, heating it up and potentially (though not normally) damaging it. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. Looking directly at the Sun when it is high in the sky causes temporary bleaching of the photosensitive pigments in the retina, which makes phosphene visual artifacts and may cause temporary partial blindness.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. Sunlight is very bright, and looking directly at the Sun is painful to the eyes. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. The energy stored in petroleum is thought to have been converted from sunlight by photosynthesis in the distant past. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. Photosynthesis by plants captures the energy of sunlight and converts it to chemical form (oxygen and reduced carbon compounds), while direct heating or electrical conversion by solar cells are used by solar power equipment to generate electricity or do other useful work. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. This energy can be harnessed through several natural and synthetic processes.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. Sunlight on the surface of Earth is attenuated by the Earth's atmosphere, so that less power arrives at the surface — closer to 1000 watts per directly exposed square meter in clear conditions when the Sun is near the zenith. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. near Earth. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. from the Sun, i.e. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. It is about 1370 watts per square meter of area, one A.U.

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The solar constant is the amount of power that the Sun deposits per unit area that is directly exposed to sunlight. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. Sunlight — that is, light radiated from the surface of the Sun — is thought to be the main source of energy near the surface of Earth. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. Thus, the Sun was considered by Greek astronomers to be one of the seven planets (Greek planetes "wanderer"), after which the seven days of the week are named in some languages. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. With respect to the fixed stars, the Sun appears from Earth to revolve once a year along the ecliptic through the zodiac.


. It was only after Einstein's theory of mass-energy convertibility in the early 20th century that it was finally understood that the sun runs on nuclear fusion and is billions of years old, with several other billion to go. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. In the early years of the modern scientific era, it was proposed that the Sun extracted its energy from friction of its gas masses, which would yield a Sun no older than a few million years, with a few more million years to go. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. For teaching this heresy he was imprisoned by the authorities and sentenced to death (though later released through the intervention of Pericles). In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. One of the first people in the Western world to offer a scientific explanation for the sun was the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras, who reasoned that it was a giant flaming ball of metal even larger than the Peleponessus, and not the chariot of Helios.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In many prehistoric and ancient cultures, the Sun was thought to be a deity or other supernatural phenomenon. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. Mankind's most fundamental understanding of the Sun is as the luminous disk in the heavens whose presence above the horizon creates day, and whose absence causes night. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This stellar evolution scenario is typical of low to medium mass stars. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. The Sun will then evolve into a white dwarf, slowly cooling over eons.

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. Following the red giant phase, giant thermal pulsations will cause the Sun to throw off its outer layers forming a planetary nebula. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. While it is likely that the expansion of the outer layers of the Sun will reach the current position of Earth's orbit, recent research suggests that mass lost from the Sun earlier in its red giant phase will cause the Earth's orbit to move further out, preventing it from being engulfed. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Helium fusion will begin when the core temperature reaches about 3×108 K. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. Instead, in 4-5 billion years it will enter its red giant phase, its outer layers expanding as the hydrogen fuel in the core is consumed and the core contracts and heats up.

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Our Sun does not have enough mass to explode as a supernova, and its mass is below the Chandrasekhar limit. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. This is suggested by a high abundance of heavy elements such as iron, gold and uranium in the solar system: the most plausible ways that these elements could be produced are by endothermic nuclear reactions during a supernova or by transmutation via neutron absorption inside a massive first generation star. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. The Sun is thought to be a second-generation star, whose formation may have been triggered by shockwaves from a nearby supernova. Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. It returned to Earth in 2004 and is undergoing analysis, but it was damaged by crash-landing when its parachute failed to deploy on reentry to Earth's atmosphere.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. A solar wind sample return mission, Genesis, was designed to allow astronomers to directly measure the composition of solar material. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. Elemental abundances in the photosphere are well known from spectroscopic studies, but the composition of the interior of the Sun is much less well known. The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. It has proved so useful that a follow-on mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory, is planned for launch in 2008. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.). Originally a two-year mission, SOHO is now over ten years old (as of late 2005).

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. To obtain an uninterrupted view of the Sun, the European Space Agency and NASA cooperatively launched the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) on December 2, 1995. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. The North/South swing in apparent angle is the main source of seasons on Earth. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. The most obvious variation in the Sun's apparent position through the year is a North/South swing over 47 degrees of angle, due to the 23.5 degree tilt of the Earth, but there is an East/West component as well. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. The shape described by the Sun's position, considered at the same time each day for a complete year, is called the analemma, and resembles a figure 8, aligned along the North/South direction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. Observed from Earth, the path of the Sun across the sky varies throughout the year. Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. the interplanetary medium) in a magnetic field, induces electric currents which in turn generates magnetic fields, and in this respect it behaves like an MHD dynamo. Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory predicts that the motion of a conducting fluid (e.g. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. But satellite observations show that it is about 100 times greater at around 10-9 tesla.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. If space were a vacuum, then the Sun's 10-4 tesla magnetic dipole field would reduce with the cube of the distance to about 10-11 tesla. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. The plasma in the interplanetary medium is also responsible for the strength of the Sun's magnetic field at the orbit of the Earth being over 100 times greater than originally anticipated. The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. The influence of the Sun's rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium creates the largest structure in the Solar System, the Heliospheric current sheet. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas. The magnetic field of the sun reverses once for each 11-year sunspot cycle.

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. The solar activity cycle includes old magnetic fields being stripped off the Sun's surface starting from one pole and ending at the other. Museums in Valencia include:. (See magnetic reconnection). The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. The differential rotation of the Sun's latitudes causes its magnetic field lines to become twisted together over time, causing magnetic field loops to erupt from the Sun's surface and trigger the formation of the Sun's dramatic sunspots and solar prominences. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. This makes it possible for the Sun to rotate faster at its equator (about 25 days) than it does at higher latitudes (28 days near its poles).

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. All matter in the Sun is in the form of gas and plasma due to its high temperatures. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. Others suggest that cosmic rays might strongly influence the Earth's climate, and that their flux was much higher in the early history of the solar system [17]. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. Some scientists have suggested that the young Earth's atmosphere contained much larger quantities of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and/or ammonia than are present today [16]. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. In fact, the young Earth was actually warmer than it is today.

The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. However, the geologic record shows that the Earth has remained at a fairly constant temperature throughout its history. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). Such a weak star would not have been able to sustain liquid water on the Earth's surface, and thus life should not have been able to develop. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Theoretical models of the sun's development suggest that 3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago, during the Archean period, the Sun was only about 75 percent as bright as it is today. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. One possible candidate to explain coronal heating is continuous flaring at small scales [15], but this is still an open topic of investigation.

. Current research focus has therefore shifted towards flare heating mechanisms. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. In addition, Alfven waves do not easily dissipate in the corona [14]. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. All waves except Alfven waves have been found to dissipate or refract before reaching the corona ([12], [13]). Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. Currently, it is unclear whether waves are an efficient heating mechanism.

Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. [8], [9], [10], [11]. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. The other proposed mechanism is flare heating, in which magnetic energy is continuously built up by photospheric motion and released through magnetic reconnection in the form of solar flares and waves. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. These waves travel upward and dissipate in the corona, depositing their energy in the ambient gas in the form of heat. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. Two main mechanisms have been proposed to explain coronal heating: Wave heating, in which sound, gravitational and magnetohydrodynamic waves are produced by turbulence in the convection zone.

However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. It is thought that the energy necessary to heat the corona is provided by turbulent motion in the convection zone below the photosphere. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. The high temperature of the corona shows that it is heated by something other than the photosphere. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. Above it lies the solar corona with a temperature of one million kelvins. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The optical surface of the Sun (the photosphere) is known to have a temperature of about 6,000 K.

The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Thus, measurement and theory have been reconciled. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. It has recently been found that neutrinos have rest mass, and can therefore transform into harder-to-detect varieties of neutrinos while en route from the Sun to Earth in a process known as neutrino oscillation [7]. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). Several neutrino observatories were constructed, including the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and Kamiokande to try to measure the solar neutrino flux. Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits). For some time it was thought that the number of neutrinos produced by the nuclear reactions in the Sun was only a third of the number predicted by theory, a result that was termed the solar neutrino problem.

Museo Del Arroz (rice). The temperature of the corona is several megakelvins. Museo Taurino (bullfighting). The low corona, which is very near the surface of the Sun, has a particle density of 1011/m3 (Earth's atmosphere near sea level has a particle density of about 2x1025/m3). Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). The corona merges smoothly with the solar wind that fills the solar system and heliosphere. Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art). The corona is the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun, which is much larger in volume than the Sun itself.

Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). It is called the chromosphere from the Greek root chroma, meaning color, because the chromosphere is visible as a colored flash at the beginning and end of total eclipses of the Sun. Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science). Above the visible surface of the Sun is a thin layer, about 2,000km thick, that is dominated by a spectrum of emission and absorption lines. This part of the Sun is cool enough to support simple molecules such as carbon monoxide and water which can be detected by their absorption spectra. It is about 4,000 K.

The coolest layer of the Sun is the temperature minimum region about 500km above the photosphere. They can be viewed with telescopes operating across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio through visible light to gamma rays. The parts of the Sun above the photosphere are referred to collectively as the solar atmosphere. The photosphere has a particle density of about 1023/m3 (this is about 1% of the particle density of Earth's atmosphere at sea level).

Sunlight has approximately a black-body spectrum that indicates its temperature is about 6,000 K, interspersed with atomic absorption lines from the tenuous layers above the photosphere. Conversely, the visible light we see is produced as electrons react with hydrogen atoms to produce H- ions. The change in opacity has to do with the decreasing amount of H- ions, which absorb visible light easily. Above the photosphere, sunlight is free to propagate into space and its energy escapes the Sun entirely.

The visible surface of the Sun, the photosphere, is the layer below which the Sun becomes opaque to visible light. The turbulent convection of this outer part of the solar interior gives rise to a 'small-scale' dynamo that produces magnetic north and south poles all over the surface of the Sun. The thermal columns in the convection zone form an imprint on the surface of the Sun, in the form of the solar granulation and supergranulation. Convective overshoot is thought to occur at the base of the convection zone, carrying turbulent downflows into the outer layers of the radiative zone.

Once the material cools off at the surface, it plunges back downward to the base of the convection zone, to receive more heat from the top of the radiative zone. As a result, thermal convection occurs as thermal columns carry hot material to the surface (photosphere) of the Sun. From about 0.7 solar radii to 1.0 solar radii, the material in the Sun is not dense enough or hot enough to transfer the heat energy of the interior outward via radiation. Because of this, it can take a photon nearly 1,000,000 years to reach the photosphere.

Heat is transferred by ions of hydrogen and helium emitting photons, which travel a brief distance before being re-absorbed by other ions. In this zone, there is no thermal convection: while the material grows cooler with altitude, this temperature gradient is slower than the adiabatic lapse rate and hence cannot drive convection. From about 0.2 to about 0.7 solar radii, the material is hot and dense enough that thermal radiation is sufficient to transfer the intense heat of the core outward. Neutrinos are also released in the fusion reactions in the core, but unlike photons they very rarely interact with matter, and so almost all are able to escape the Sun immediately.

Upon reaching the surface after a final trip through the convective outer layer, the photons escape as visible light. 65) to as little as 17,000 years [6]. Lewis, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Universe, Harmony Books, New York, 1983, p. Estimates of the "photon travel time" range from as much as 50 million years (Richard S.

The high-energy photons (gamma and X rays) released in fusion reactions take a long time to reach the Sun's surface, slowed down by the indirect path taken, as well as constant absorption and re-emission at lower energies in the solar mantle (see below). All of the energy of the interior fusion must travel through the successive layers to the solar photosphere, before it escapes to space. The core extends from the center of the Sun to about 0.2 solar radii, and is the only part of the Sun where an appreciable amount of heat is produced by fusion: the rest of the star is heated by energy that is transferred outward. About 8.9×1037 protons (hydrogen nuclei) are converted to helium nuclei every second, releasing energy at the matter-energy conversion rate of 4.26 million tonnes per second or 383 yottawatts (9.15×1016 tons of TNT per second).

At the center of the Sun, where its density reaches up to 150,000 kg/m3 (150 times the density of water on Earth), thermonuclear reactions (nuclear fusion) convert hydrogen into helium, producing the energy that keeps the Sun in a state of equilibrium. Computer modeling of the Sun is also used as a theoretical tool to investigate its deep layers. However, just as the study of the waves generated by earthquakes (seismology) can be used to study the interior structure of the Earth, helioseismology, the study of sound waves that travel through the Sun's interior, has also contributed greatly to our understanding of the Sun's structure. The solar interior is not directly observable and the Sun itself is opaque to electromagnetic radiation.

Most of the mass is within about 0.7 radii. This is simply the layer above which the gases are too cool or too thin to radiate a significant amount of light. The Sun's radius is measured from centre to the edges of the photosphere. Nevertheless, the Sun has a well-defined interior structure, described below.

The Sun does not have a definite boundary as rocky planets do, as the density of its gases drops off following an approximately exponential relationship with distance from the centre of the Sun. The mass of the Sun is so comparatively great that the center of mass of the solar system is generally within the bounds of the Sun itself. Tidal effects from the planets do not significantly affect the shape of the Sun, although the Sun itself orbits the center of mass of the solar system, which is offset from the Sun's center mostly because of the large mass of Jupiter. This is because the centrifugal effect of the Sun's slow rotation is 18 million times weaker than its surface gravity (at the equator).

The Sun is a near-perfect sphere, with an oblateness estimated at about 9 millionths, which means the polar diameter differs from the equatorial by about 10 km. The astronomical symbol for the Sun is a circle with a point at its centre: . Compared to the average movement of other stars in the area, the Sun is moving with a speed of 20 km/s toward the star Vega. The orbital speed is 217 km/s, equivalent to one light year every 1400 years, and one AU every 8 days.

The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way galaxy at a distance of about 25,000 to 28,000 light-years from the galactic centre, completing one revolution in about 226 million years. Its current age is thought to be about 4.5 billion years, a figure which is determined using computer models of stellar evolution, and nucleocosmochronology [5]. The Sun has a predicted main sequence lifetime of about 10 billion years. The Sun has a spectral class of G2V, with the G2 meaning that its color is yellow and its spectrum contains spectral lines of ionized and neutral metals as well as very weak hydrogen lines [3], and the V signifying that it, like most stars, is a "main sequence" star [4].

The Sun is classified as a main sequence star, which means it is in a state of "hydrostatic balance", neither contracting nor expanding, and is generating its energy through nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. . See below for details. Looking directly at the Sun can damage the retina and one's eyesight.

Although it is the nearest star to Earth and has been intensively studied by scientists, many questions about the Sun remain unanswered, such as why its outer atmosphere has a temperature of over 106 K when its visible surface (the photosphere) has a temperature of just 6,000 K. In about 5 billion years time the Sun will evolve into a red giant and then a white dwarf.[2]. It is thought that the Sun is about 5 billion years old, and is about halfway through its main sequence evolution, during which nuclear fusion reactions in its core fuse hydrogen into helium. About 74% of its mass is hydrogen, with 25% helium and the rest made up of trace quantities of heavier elements.

The Sun is a ball of plasma with a mass of about 2×1030 kg, which is somewhat higher than that of an average star. It is sometimes referred to by its Latin name, Sol. Its heat and light support almost all life on Earth. Earth orbits the Sun, as do many other bodies, including other planets, asteroids, meteoroids, comets and dust.

The Sun is the star at the center of our Solar system.

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