Valencia

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain.

Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla.

Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters.

Architecture

The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Museums

Museums in Valencia include:

  • Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science)
  • Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art)
  • Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art)
  • Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles)
  • Museo Taurino (bullfighting)
  • Museo Del Arroz (rice)
  • Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits)
  • Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology)

Squares and gardens

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas.

The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens.

Education

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Economy

Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.)

The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:

  • Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights.
  • Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal.

Demography

Culture

It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004.

The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight.


History

Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. Many ordinary places in the city are designed with attention to detail, and a sense of aesthetics.

The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492.

A narrow street of the Old Medieval City.

War of the Germanies 1519–1522.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs.

After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007.

The name

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. (See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.)

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(See International Phonetic Alphabet for the symbols used to represent pronunciation.). Immigrants by country (2004). One possible pronunciation in Valencian (South-west Catalan) is /va'lensja/. [2]. The latter name is pronounced /bə'łεnsjə/ in Central Catalan. But there has been a sharp increase of immigrants mostly from South America, Eastern Europe, and a very meagre number from Asia. (And during the Moorish occupation it was known as Balansiya.) By regular sound changes this has become Valencia /ba'lenθja/ in Spanish and València in Valencian. An estimated 95.3% of the population is of Italian origin.

The original Latin name of the city was Valentia /wa'lentia/, meaning "Strength", "Vigour". Southern and northern Italians alike have flocked to the city during the late 1900's. Valencia was selected in 2003 to be the first city in continental Europe ever to host the historic America's Cup regatta, to take place in 2007. The population is quite homogenous Italian. Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982. Famous Genoese include Cristoforo Colombo (Christopher Columbus), Admiral Andrea Doria, composers Niccolò Paganini and Michele Novaro, painter Domenico Piola, Italian patriots Giuseppe Mazzini and Gerolamo Nino Bixio, writer and translator Fernanda Pivano, poet Edoardo Sanguineti, architect Renzo Piano, Physics 2002 Nobel Prize winner Riccardo Giacconi, Literature 1975 Nobel Prize winner Eugenio Montale, artist Vanessa Beecroft, comedians Gilberto Govi and Paolo Villaggio, folk singers Fabrizio de André and Ivano Fossati. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km park which bisects the city. In 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi set out from Genoa with over a thousand volunteers to begin the campaign.

One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. With the growth of the Risorgimento movement, the Genoese turned their struggles from Giuseppe Mazzini's vision of a local republic into a struggle for a unified Italy under a liberalized Savoy monarchy. In 1957 the city suffered a several flood by the Turia River, with 2 meters in some steets. The city soon gained a reputation as a hotbed of anti-Savoy republican agitation, although the union with Savoy was economically very beneficial. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian was discouraged (nowadays it is compulsory for every child studying in Valencia, even if their parents don't want it). Although the Genoese revolted against France in 1814 and liberated the city on their own, delegates at the Congress of Vienna sanctioned its incorporation into Piedmont (Kingdom of Sardinia), thus ending the three century old struggle by the House of Savoy to acquire the city. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. In 1797, under pressure from Napoleon, Genoa became a French protectorate called the Ligurian Republic, which was annexed by France in 1805.

The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. However, with the shift in world economy and trade routes to the New World and away from the Mediterranean, Genoa's political and economic power went into steady decline. After the fall of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. In 1768, Genoa was forced to cede Corsica to France. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), the city lost its privileges or furs. Genoa suffered from French bombardment in 1684, and was occupied by Austria in 1746 during the War of the Austrian Succession. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. The famed architect Galeazzo Alessi (1512-1572) designed many of the city’s splendid palazzo.

Expulsion of Moriscos in 1609. At the time of Genoa’s peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens, Caravaggio, and Van Dyke. War of the Germanies 1519–1522. Under the ensuing economic recovery, many Genoese family amassed tremendous fortunes. Valencian bankers loaned funds to Queen Isabella for Columbus' trip in 1492. The Spanish connection was reinforced by Andrea Doria, who established a new constitution in 1528, making Genoa a satellite of the Spanish Empire. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer. Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa, donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the Americas for Spain to the Bank of San Giorgio in Genoa for the relief of taxation on foods.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. Genoa lost Sardinia to Aragon, Corsica to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern colonies to the Ottoman Empire and the Arabs. The writer Joanot Martorell, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausias March are famous Valencians of that era. After a period of French domination from 1394-1409, Genoa came under rule by the Visconti of Milan. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean. The wars with Venice continued, and the War of Chioggia (1378-1381), ended with a victory for Venice. The king James I of Aragon reconquered the city in 1238 and incorporated it to the new formed Kingdom of Valencia, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa adopted the Venetian model of government, and was presided over by a doge (see Doges of Genoa).

In 1094, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) conquered Valencia (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid), but the city returned to the Almoravids in 1102. The Black Death was imported into Europe in 1349 from the Genoese trading post at Kaffa (Feodosiya) in the Crimea, on the Black Sea. The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, Moors and the Aragonese. However, this prosperity did not last. It was originally named Valentia, but centuries of changing pronunciations have since altered the name to its modern form. Genoa's political zenith came with its victory over Pisa in 1284, and its persistent rival, Venice, in 1298. The city was founded by the Romans in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian town, by the river Turia. Internal feuds between the powerful families, the Grimaldi, Doria, Spinola, and others caused much disruption, but in general the republic was run much as a business affair.


. The collapse of the Crusader States was offset by Genoa’s alliance with the Byzantine Empire, which opened opportunities of expansion into the Black Sea and Crimea. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not take off until after midnight. Genoese Crusaders brought home a green glass goblet from the Levant, which Genoese long regarded as the Holy Grail. Today, bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the Carmen and university areas. Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, colonies were established in the Mideast, in the Aegean in Sicily and Northern Africa. In the 1980s and 1990s clubbers would follow the “ruta de bacalao” from Madrid to Valencia. The Republic of Genoa extended over modern Liguria and Piedmont, Sardinia, Corsica and had practically complete control of the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Valencia is famous for its vibrant nightlife. Genoa was one of the so-called "Maritime Republics" (Repubbliche Marinare), along with Venice, Pisa, and Amalfi) and trade, shipbuilding and banking helped support one of the largest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean. This results in a situation where in longer streets both languages can often be seen on street signs. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoa was president of the city; however, actual power was wielded by a number of "consuls" annually elected by popular assembly. In relation to street naming policy, new street signs when erected are always given the Valencian name for street (Carrer) however the older street names bearing the Spanish names are only replaced when necessary. Before 1100, Genoa emerged as an independent city-state. For instance, all signs and announcements in the Metro are in Valencian, with Spanish translations underneath in smaller type. The town was sacked and burned in 934 by arab pirates but this didn't stop for long the city's progress.

The local government makes sure it emphasizes the use of the local language. For the following several centuries, Genoa was little more than a small, obscure fishing center, slowly building its merchant fleet which was to became the leading commercial carrier of the Mediterranean Sea. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Spanish, as opposed to areas surrounding the metropolitan area in the province of Valencia. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Genoa was occupied by the Ostrogoths , then by the Lombards. The two official languages spoken in the city are Spanish and Valencian. Although remaining faithful to Rome while other Ligurian and Celtic peoples of northern Italy stood by Carthaginians in the Second Punic War, its importance as a Roman port city was eclipsed by the rise of Vada Sabatia, near modern Savona. Valencia has a successful football club, Valencia C.F., who won the Spanish league in 2004. Destroyed by the Carthaginians in 209 BC, the town was rebuilt by Rome, under which the city enjoyed municipal rights and exported skins, wood, and honey.

Valencia has a metro system [1], run by FGV. A city cemetery, dating from the 6th and 5th centuries B.C., testifies to the occupation of the site by the Greeks, but the fine harbor probably was in use much earlier, perhaps by the Etruscans. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. Genoa's history goes back to ancient times. It is famous for the Las Fallas festival in March, for paella valenciana and the new City of Arts and Sciences. . Criticisms of the Valencian model of economic growth:. Alternatively, the name has been claimed to derive from Latin Janua ("gate"), the two-headed god Janus, or an ancient word that means "foreigners", as the early settlers were considered foreign by the neighbouring population.

According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events. "angle", from its geographical position, thus akin to the name of Geneva. The first America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. Its name is probably Ligurian, meaning "knee" (from Proto-Indo-European *genu 'knee'), i.e. The city of Valencia and the surrounding area are expected to attract millions of visitors from around the world given that the city of Valencia has been chosen to host the 32nd America's Cup. Genua was a city of the ancient Ligurians. (See Travel and Tourism in Valencia.). 871,733.

Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy. 601,338, the metropolitan area has a population of ca. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. The city has a population of ca. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes, German Genua, Spanish Génova,Galician Xénova) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. The main exports are food and drink (the Valencian region is famous for its oranges), furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. It is the oldest working lighthouse in the world, one of the five tallest ones, and the tallest brick one.

Valencia’s port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean coast and handles 20% of Spain’s exports. The port of Genoa is home to an ancient Lighthouse: "La Lanterna" ("the lantern"). Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and construction. In 1922 the Genoa Conference was the first economic conference that included a representitative from the newly-communist Soviet Socialist Republics. Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanic gardens. For 2004, the European Union designated Genoa as European Capital of Culture, along with the French City of Lille. The Palau De La Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. The 27th G8 summit took place in Genoa in July 2001, resulting in riots and the shooting of a protestor and a violent crackdown by the police.

The Turia river was diverted in the 1950s, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. UC Sampdoria, football club founded in 1946. Around the corner is the Plaza de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. Genoa Cricket & Football Club founded in 1893. The Plaza de la Virgen contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. The University of Genoa, with 40,000 students (one of the larger universities in Italy,) was founded in 1481. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascleta can be heard every afternoon during the Fallas. The Museo d'Arte Orientale is one of the largest collections of Oriental art in Europe.

The largest square is the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, which contains the town hall (ayuntamiento), a cinema which shows classic movies (Filmoteca), and many restaurants and bars. Lawrence Cathedral (Cattedrale di San Lorenzo), The Old Harbor (Porto Antico), transformed into a mall by architect Renzo Piano, Via Garibaldi with its superb palaces and the monumental cemetery on Staglieno's hill. Museums in Valencia include:. Other landmarks of the city are the Palazzo Ducale (Doge's Palace), St. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia. The Aquarium of Genoa is the largest in Europe. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. It ranks second in the Mediterranean after neighbouring Marseille, France.

World-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains a science museum, IMAX cinema, and oceanographic park. The port of Genoa is the first in Italy. The main railway station (Estación Del Norte) is built in art deco style. Romanians - 746. The modernist Central Market (Mercado Central) is one of the largest in Europe. Chinese - 910. UNESCO has declared the gothic silk exchange (La Lonja de la Seda) as a world heritage sight. Peruvians - 1,795.

The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. Moroccans - 2,189. Beside the Cathedral is the gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). Albanians - 2,781. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of gothic style but contains elements of baroque and Romanesque architecture. Ecuadorians - 10,169. The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times.

. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and mild winters. As of 2005, the mayor of Valencia is Rita Barberá Nolla. Population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,623,724 as of 2005 estimates.

Population of the urban area was 1,012,000 as of 2000 estimates. Population of the city of Valencia proper was 796,549 as of 2005 estimates. It is the capital of the Land of Valencia and of province of Valencia. Valencia (Castilian Spanish: Valencia /va'lenθia/; Valencian Catalan: València /va'łεnsia/) is a medium-sized port city (the third largest city in Spain) and industrial area on the Costa del Azahar in Spain.

However, the Supreme Court has deemed the action of the local government as legal. Valencian citizens in the Cabanyal, Malvarosa, and Canyamelar districts claim that the America's Cup is being used as a pretext to fuel property speculation and to demolish historical buildings saved in the past by demonstrations and court rulings. The European Union's Committee of Petitions reported on the issue in 2004, finding that the Valencian government was breaching basic European rights. Critics argue that this legislation (which was theoretically designed to protect rural land) is being misused for large urban and industrial developments.

The Valencia government's implementation of the LRAU [law regulating urban activity] has been controversial since it involves the expropriation of the homes of both Spanish nationals and foreign residents without compensation. Focusing on tourism and construction has led to a great deal of building on rural land. Almudín (various exhibits, mainly art and archaeology). Museo Valenciano de la ilustración y la Modernidad (MUVIM, various exhibits).

Museo Del Arroz (rice). Museo Taurino (bullfighting). Museo Fallero & Museo Del Artista Fallero (Les Falles). Museo De Bellas Artes (fine art).

Instituto Valenciano De Arte Moderno (IVAM, modern art). Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (arts and science).

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