Tile

Mission, or barrel, roof tiles

A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, clay, stone, porcelain or even glass. Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of baked clay. Less precisely, the modern term can refer to any sort of construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game).

Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiles are most often made from ceramic, with a hard glaze finish, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, slate, and reformed ceramic slurry, which is cast in a mould and fired.


Roof tiles

Fancy Japanese roof tiles The largest (6000 m²)
wooden shingle roof
in Europe: Zakopane, Poland

Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as clay, slate, or wood (wooden tiles are called shingles). Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used. Some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze.

Because of their long history, a large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved. These include:

  • Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows. This profile is suitable for stone and wooden tiles, and most recently, solar cells.
  • Roman tiles - flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end at a convex curve at the other, to allow interlocking.
  • Pantiles - with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to interlock. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field.
  • Mission or barrel tiles are semi-cylindrical tiles made by forming clay around a log and laid in alternating columns of convex and concave tiles.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. The tiles are usually hung in parallel rows, with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the nails that hold the row below.

There are also roof tiles for special positions, particularly where the planes of the several pitches meet. They include ridge, hip and valley tiles.

Floor tiles

6"x6" porcelain floor tiles

These are commonly made of ceramic, clay, porcelain or stone. Clay tiles may be painted and glazed. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and oftentimes a latex additive for extra strength. The spaces between the tiles are nowadays filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used.

See Laying tile

Wall tiles

Tilework on the wall of the Bond Street tube station

While ancient Roman building bricks were broader and thinner than modern ones and are therefore usually called tiles, the term wall tile is normally applied to finishing tiles. These are usually ceramic, but other materials such as mirrored glass or polished metal can be used. Wall tiles are usually glazed, and are often patterned by painting or embossing. Pictorial tiles, consisting of many tiles that the installer assembles like a jigsaw puzzle to form a single large picture, are available.

Modern wall tiles are fixed to a wall using a synthetic bonding agent tile adhesive for dry areas, or a cement-based mortar for areas prone to moisture, such as bath or shower walls. The spaces between the tiles are filled with a fine cement called unsanded grout. The excess grout is scraped off with a hard rubber block called a float immediately after applying; further, the grout is wiped again with a moist sponge before it completely hardens. The sponging provides added moisture to strengthen the grout as it cures. Finally, a cloth is rubbed over the wall tile to remove any haze which may remain from residual grout.

Decorative tilework

Ancient mosaic in the British Museum. Typical tilework on buildings in Santarém, Portugal.

Decorative tilework typically takes the form of mosaic upon the walls, floor, or ceiling of a building. Although decorative tilework was known and extensively practiced in the ancient world (as evidenced in the magnificent mosaics of Pompeii and Herculaneum), it perhaps reached its greatest expression during the Islamic period.

Some places, notably Portugal, have a tradition of tilework on buildings that continues today.

In the United States, decorative tiles were in vogue, especially in southern California, in the 1920s and 1930s. Prominent among art tile makers during this period was Ernest A. Batchelder.

Islamic tilework

Tilework of Hazrat Masoumeh shrine, Qom. First constructed in the late 8th century.

Perhaps because of the tenets of Moslem law (sharia) which disavow religious icons and images in favor of more abstract and universal representations of the divine, many consider decorative tilework to have reached a pinnacle of expression and detail during the Islamic period. Palaces, public buildings, and mosques were heavily decorated with dense, often massive mosaics and friezes of astonishing complexity. As both the influence and the extent of Islam spread during the Middle Ages this artistic tradition was carried along, finding expression from the gardens and courtyards of Málaga in Moorish Spain to the mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.

The mathematics of tiling

Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps. These shapes are said to tessellate (from the Latin tessera, 'tile'). For detailed information on tilings see the tessellation page.

History of tiles

Tiles were developed as a product of earthenware pottery, either as an alternative use for fragments of broken pottery (called potsherds) or as an independent invention. Tiles have been used in construction for at least 4000 years, by the Romans, Greeks, Babylonians, Phoenicians and many other cultures.


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Tiles have been used in construction for at least 4000 years, by the Romans, Greeks, Babylonians, Phoenicians and many other cultures. has produced many other stuffed animals, some of which are variations of Beanie Babies:. Tiles were developed as a product of earthenware pottery, either as an alternative use for fragments of broken pottery (called potsherds) or as an independent invention. Ty Inc. For detailed information on tilings see the tessellation page. Like the Internet stocks of the period, this was a recent example of an economic bubble. These shapes are said to tessellate (from the Latin tessera, 'tile'). Estimates of the number of each Beanie Baby that would survive years into the future were much lower than the reality, however, and much like the Cabbage Patch Kid phenomenon, so many people had similar plans that very few people profited from the craze.

Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps. Ty fed the frenzy by systematically "retiring" various designs of Beanie Babies and ceasing their production. As both the influence and the extent of Islam spread during the Middle Ages this artistic tradition was carried along, finding expression from the gardens and courtyards of Málaga in Moorish Spain to the mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. In a buying frenzy reminiscent of the Cabbage Patch Kid mania of the early 1980s, several speculators purchased these collectibles en masse in hopes of making a fortune years later from being able to sell rare specimens. Palaces, public buildings, and mosques were heavily decorated with dense, often massive mosaics and friezes of astonishing complexity. Starting in late 1996, a faddish craze of collecting Beanie Babies began. Perhaps because of the tenets of Moslem law (sharia) which disavow religious icons and images in favor of more abstract and universal representations of the divine, many consider decorative tilework to have reached a pinnacle of expression and detail during the Islamic period. The bear model was frequently used for commemorative purposes, and special bears such as a Fourth of July model and even a Diana, Princess of Wales commemorative were created.

Batchelder. One popular "series" within the Beanie Baby menagerie was the use of teddy bear-shaped Beanies, the basic pattern of which was repeatedly re-used, but with different colors and names. Prominent among art tile makers during this period was Ernest A. As the years went on hundreds of different Beanie Babies were created, often resorting to more obscure animals such as aardvarks or chameleons in the process. In the United States, decorative tiles were in vogue, especially in southern California, in the 1920s and 1930s. Beanie Babies are a kitsch cubicle decoration, especially for women. Some places, notably Portugal, have a tradition of tilework on buildings that continues today. Intended as upscale children's toys, they became a popular adult gift item.

Although decorative tilework was known and extensively practiced in the ancient world (as evidenced in the magnificent mosaics of Pompeii and Herculaneum), it perhaps reached its greatest expression during the Islamic period. The condition of the hang tag is one of the main factors in determining a Beanie Baby's value, and hard plastic covers molded in a heart shape are available for its protection. Decorative tilework typically takes the form of mosaic upon the walls, floor, or ceiling of a building. This information was all contained on a red, heart-shaped hang tag usually affixed to the animal's ear. Finally, a cloth is rubbed over the wall tile to remove any haze which may remain from residual grout. For example, the poem of Bongo the monkey went:. The sponging provides added moisture to strengthen the grout as it cures. Each Baby came with his or her own name, a birthday date, and a simple poem describing their personality.

The excess grout is scraped off with a hard rubber block called a float immediately after applying; further, the grout is wiped again with a moist sponge before it completely hardens. The official Beanie Babies were mostly in the shape of animals, such as dogs, cats, pigs, hippos, and others and were all brightly colored and stylized. The spaces between the tiles are filled with a fine cement called unsanded grout. Ty claimed rightful ownership of the name and of all of the designs of their various "beanies." There have been imitations by other companies that jumped onto the idea of creating beanbag-like stuffed animals, however, including one imitator who even produced a tie-dyed bear (reminiscent of Ty's "Garcia"), as well as parodies such as the "Meanie Babies". Modern wall tiles are fixed to a wall using a synthetic bonding agent tile adhesive for dry areas, or a cement-based mortar for areas prone to moisture, such as bath or shower walls. The original Beanie Babies were made by Ty Warner through his company Ty Inc. Pictorial tiles, consisting of many tiles that the installer assembles like a jigsaw puzzle to form a single large picture, are available. A Beanie Baby is thus a form of bean bag.

Wall tiles are usually glazed, and are often patterned by painting or embossing. A Beanie Baby is a stuffed animal filled with plastic pellets, or "beans," rather than stuffing (see PVC). These are usually ceramic, but other materials such as mirrored glass or polished metal can be used. They are smaller versions of holiday-themed Beanie Babies, similar to the Teenie Beanies but of better quality. While ancient Roman building bricks were broader and thinner than modern ones and are therefore usually called tiles, the term wall tile is normally applied to finishing tiles. Jingle Beanies / Basket Beanies / Halloweenie Beanies: a seasonal product, sold during Christmas, Easter, and Halloween. See Laying tile
. Teenie Beanies: smaller versions of Beanie Babies that were used as free giveaways in McDonald's Happy Meals on three different occasions.

The spaces between the tiles are nowadays filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used. Punkies: extremely fuzzy animals. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and oftentimes a latex additive for extra strength. Pluffies: stuffing-filled animals, with a terrycloth-like fur. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Pinkys: pink stuffed animals. Clay tiles may be painted and glazed. (These are not a type of Beanie Baby, although due to the word "Classic," some people may incorrectly believe that the name refers to the "original 9" Beanie Babies).

These are commonly made of ceramic, clay, porcelain or stone. Classic: stuffing-filled animals. They include ridge, hip and valley tiles. Beanie Buddies: larger versions of Beanie Babies, filled with stuffing. There are also roof tiles for special positions, particularly where the planes of the several pitches meet. Baby Ty: various baby animals and humans in cute-little baby clothes. The tiles are usually hung in parallel rows, with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the nails that hold the row below.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. These include:. Because of their long history, a large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved. Some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze.

Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used. Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as clay, slate, or wood (wooden tiles are called shingles). .
.

Tiles are most often made from ceramic, with a hard glaze finish, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, slate, and reformed ceramic slurry, which is cast in a mould and fired. Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Less precisely, the modern term can refer to any sort of construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game). The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of baked clay.

Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, clay, stone, porcelain or even glass. Mission or barrel tiles are semi-cylindrical tiles made by forming clay around a log and laid in alternating columns of convex and concave tiles. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field.

Pantiles - with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to interlock. Roman tiles - flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end at a convex curve at the other, to allow interlocking. This profile is suitable for stone and wooden tiles, and most recently, solar cells. Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows.

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