Tile

Mission, or barrel, roof tiles

A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, clay, stone, porcelain or even glass. Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of baked clay. Less precisely, the modern term can refer to any sort of construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game).

Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiles are most often made from ceramic, with a hard glaze finish, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, slate, and reformed ceramic slurry, which is cast in a mould and fired.


Roof tiles

Fancy Japanese roof tiles The largest (6000 m²)
wooden shingle roof
in Europe: Zakopane, Poland

Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as clay, slate, or wood (wooden tiles are called shingles). Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used. Some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze.

Because of their long history, a large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved. These include:

  • Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows. This profile is suitable for stone and wooden tiles, and most recently, solar cells.
  • Roman tiles - flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end at a convex curve at the other, to allow interlocking.
  • Pantiles - with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to interlock. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field.
  • Mission or barrel tiles are semi-cylindrical tiles made by forming clay around a log and laid in alternating columns of convex and concave tiles.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. The tiles are usually hung in parallel rows, with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the nails that hold the row below.

There are also roof tiles for special positions, particularly where the planes of the several pitches meet. They include ridge, hip and valley tiles.

Floor tiles

6"x6" porcelain floor tiles

These are commonly made of ceramic, clay, porcelain or stone. Clay tiles may be painted and glazed. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and oftentimes a latex additive for extra strength. The spaces between the tiles are nowadays filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used.

See Laying tile

Wall tiles

Tilework on the wall of the Bond Street tube station

While ancient Roman building bricks were broader and thinner than modern ones and are therefore usually called tiles, the term wall tile is normally applied to finishing tiles. These are usually ceramic, but other materials such as mirrored glass or polished metal can be used. Wall tiles are usually glazed, and are often patterned by painting or embossing. Pictorial tiles, consisting of many tiles that the installer assembles like a jigsaw puzzle to form a single large picture, are available.

Modern wall tiles are fixed to a wall using a synthetic bonding agent tile adhesive for dry areas, or a cement-based mortar for areas prone to moisture, such as bath or shower walls. The spaces between the tiles are filled with a fine cement called unsanded grout. The excess grout is scraped off with a hard rubber block called a float immediately after applying; further, the grout is wiped again with a moist sponge before it completely hardens. The sponging provides added moisture to strengthen the grout as it cures. Finally, a cloth is rubbed over the wall tile to remove any haze which may remain from residual grout.

Decorative tilework

Ancient mosaic in the British Museum. Typical tilework on buildings in Santarém, Portugal.

Decorative tilework typically takes the form of mosaic upon the walls, floor, or ceiling of a building. Although decorative tilework was known and extensively practiced in the ancient world (as evidenced in the magnificent mosaics of Pompeii and Herculaneum), it perhaps reached its greatest expression during the Islamic period.

Some places, notably Portugal, have a tradition of tilework on buildings that continues today.

In the United States, decorative tiles were in vogue, especially in southern California, in the 1920s and 1930s. Prominent among art tile makers during this period was Ernest A. Batchelder.

Islamic tilework

Tilework of Hazrat Masoumeh shrine, Qom. First constructed in the late 8th century.

Perhaps because of the tenets of Moslem law (sharia) which disavow religious icons and images in favor of more abstract and universal representations of the divine, many consider decorative tilework to have reached a pinnacle of expression and detail during the Islamic period. Palaces, public buildings, and mosques were heavily decorated with dense, often massive mosaics and friezes of astonishing complexity. As both the influence and the extent of Islam spread during the Middle Ages this artistic tradition was carried along, finding expression from the gardens and courtyards of Málaga in Moorish Spain to the mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.

The mathematics of tiling

Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps. These shapes are said to tessellate (from the Latin tessera, 'tile'). For detailed information on tilings see the tessellation page.

History of tiles

Tiles were developed as a product of earthenware pottery, either as an alternative use for fragments of broken pottery (called potsherds) or as an independent invention. Tiles have been used in construction for at least 4000 years, by the Romans, Greeks, Babylonians, Phoenicians and many other cultures.


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Tiles have been used in construction for at least 4000 years, by the Romans, Greeks, Babylonians, Phoenicians and many other cultures. Conduire un véhicule lourd, Société de l'Assurance Automobile du Québec, 7e édition, 2002 ISBN 2-551-19567-5. Tiles were developed as a product of earthenware pottery, either as an alternative use for fragments of broken pottery (called potsherds) or as an independent invention. Registrations of heavy trucks in South America (2002; % breakdown by manufacturer):. For detailed information on tilings see the tessellation page. Heavy truck leading manufacturers (alphabetically]. These shapes are said to tessellate (from the Latin tessera, 'tile'). In the Eastern Europe, Škoda, Tatra and GAZ are common, since they were some of the "brands" of the Soviet controlled areas.

Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps. Iveco, MAN AG, Mercedes-Benz Trucks, PACCAR (DAF Trucks, Leyland Trucks), Scania AB, and Volvo Trucks (not to be confused with Volvo Automotive, which is now part of Ford Motor Company), are the leading truck manufacturers in Western Europe. As both the influence and the extent of Islam spread during the Middle Ages this artistic tradition was carried along, finding expression from the gardens and courtyards of Málaga in Moorish Spain to the mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. But, Kenworth and Peterbilt, which had started out as heavy-duty trucks for hauling logs, forest products, and steel for shipyards on the West Coast, readily saw the need for these lighter long-distance trucks. Palaces, public buildings, and mosques were heavily decorated with dense, often massive mosaics and friezes of astonishing complexity. Drivers more concerned with safety than with fuel-economy preferred the heavier Peterbilts and Kenworths. Perhaps because of the tenets of Moslem law (sharia) which disavow religious icons and images in favor of more abstract and universal representations of the divine, many consider decorative tilework to have reached a pinnacle of expression and detail during the Islamic period. The entity, which became White-Freightliner, then just Freightliner, catered directly to western fleets that wanted a lighter-aluminium cab and frame, and traveled longer-straighter distances without stopping.

Batchelder. White, built a new factory in California in the early 1960s, with long-haul trucking company Consolidated Freightways. Prominent among art tile makers during this period was Ernest A. While on the West Coast, the drivers preferred Peterbilt, Kenworth, and Freightliner. In the United States, decorative tiles were in vogue, especially in southern California, in the 1920s and 1930s. On the East Coast, where routes where traditionally shorter, and because the trucks were made there, many drivers preferred Mack Trucks. Some places, notably Portugal, have a tradition of tilework on buildings that continues today. There are also regional preferences with truck drivers within the United States.

Although decorative tilework was known and extensively practiced in the ancient world (as evidenced in the magnificent mosaics of Pompeii and Herculaneum), it perhaps reached its greatest expression during the Islamic period. Larger fleet operators and public agencies tend to prefer the lower cost Freightliners, Navistar, and Ford products. Decorative tilework typically takes the form of mosaic upon the walls, floor, or ceiling of a building. Smaller fleet operators, specialized carriers, and owner operators tend to prefer Mack or Peterbilt and Kenworth products. Finally, a cloth is rubbed over the wall tile to remove any haze which may remain from residual grout. [1]. The sponging provides added moisture to strengthen the grout as it cures. Mercedes-Benz commercial vehicle’s, with its Freightliner, Mercedes-Benz, Setra, Sterling (the old Ford Trucks), Western Star, Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus (43%; Japan), and Hyundai Trucks (50%; South Korea), sold between 200,000 and a quarter of a million units worldwide that past few years.

The excess grout is scraped off with a hard rubber block called a float immediately after applying; further, the grout is wiped again with a moist sponge before it completely hardens. The worldwide market share leader is DaimlerChrysler, with its Mercedes-Benz' commercial vehicle group with around a 22% global market share. The spaces between the tiles are filled with a fine cement called unsanded grout. (major manufacturers ranked by 2003 sales). Modern wall tiles are fixed to a wall using a synthetic bonding agent tile adhesive for dry areas, or a cement-based mortar for areas prone to moisture, such as bath or shower walls. This works against efforts to streamline and automate the assembly line. Pictorial tiles, consisting of many tiles that the installer assembles like a jigsaw puzzle to form a single large picture, are available. Part of the reason for this is that 75% of all trucks are custom specified.

Wall tiles are usually glazed, and are often patterned by painting or embossing. Quality among all heavy truck manufacturers in general is improving, however industry insiders will testify that the industry has a long way to go before they achieve the quality levels reached by automobile manufacturers. These are usually ceramic, but other materials such as mirrored glass or polished metal can be used. This may be due in part to lawsuits from drivers claiming that driving a manual transmission is damaging to their knees. While ancient Roman building bricks were broader and thinner than modern ones and are therefore usually called tiles, the term wall tile is normally applied to finishing tiles. The trend in Europe is that more new trucks are being bought with automatic transmissions. See Laying tile
. Automatic transmissions for heavy trucks are becoming more and more common, due to advances both in transmission and engine power.

The spaces between the tiles are nowadays filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used. Common North American setups include 10, 13 and 18 speeds. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and oftentimes a latex additive for extra strength. Bigger trucks often use manual transmissions, which must be built stronger to withstand the torque their engines make. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Small trucks use the same type of transmissions as cars. Clay tiles may be painted and glazed. The only exceptions to this are Volvo Trucks and Mack Trucks, which are available with Volvo and Mack diesel engines, respectively, and Freightliner, which is a subsidiary of DaimlerChrysler and are available with Mercedes-Benz and Detroit Diesel engines.

These are commonly made of ceramic, clay, porcelain or stone. In the United States, highway trucks almost always use an engine built by a third party, such as CAT, Cummins, or Detroit Diesel. They include ridge, hip and valley tiles. Huge off-highway trucks use locomotive-type engines such as a V12 Detroit Diesel two stroke engine. There are also roof tiles for special positions, particularly where the planes of the several pitches meet. Most heavier trucks use four stroke turbo intercooler diesel engines, although there are alternatives. The tiles are usually hung in parallel rows, with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the nails that hold the row below. Small trucks such as SUVs or pickups, and even light medium-duty trucks in North America will use gasoline engines.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. Trucks can use all sorts of engines. These include:. There are a few possible cab configurations:. Because of their long history, a large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved. Modern cabs feature air conditioning, a good sound system, and ergonomic seats (often air suspended). Some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze. They can range from a simple 2 to 4 foot (0.6 to 1.2 m) bunk to a 12 foot (3.7 m) apartment-on-wheels.

Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used. A sleeper is a compartment attached to the cab where the driver can rest while not driving. Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as clay, slate, or wood (wooden tiles are called shingles). The cab is an enclosed space where the driver is seated. . The chassis is the main structure of the truck, and the other parts attach to it.
. It is usually made of steel, but can be made (whole or in part) of aluminium for a lighter weight.

Tiles are most often made from ceramic, with a hard glaze finish, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, slate, and reformed ceramic slurry, which is cast in a mould and fired. A truck chassis consists of two parallel U-shaped beams held together by crossmembers. Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Almost all trucks share a common contruction: they are made of a chassis, a cab, axles, suspension and wheels, an engine and a drivetrain. Less precisely, the modern term can refer to any sort of construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game). Trucks that never use public roads, such as the biggest ever truck, the Liebherr T 282B off-road mining truck, are not constrained by weight limits. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of baked clay. Highway-legal trucks are sometimes outfitted with off-road features such as a front driving axle and special tires for applications such as logging and construction.

Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. In Australia many trailers are connected to make road trains. A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, clay, stone, porcelain or even glass. They are mostly used for long-haul purposes, often in semi-trailer configuration. Mission or barrel tiles are semi-cylindrical tiles made by forming clay around a log and laid in alternating columns of convex and concave tiles. Heavy trucks are the largest trucks allowed on the road. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field. Local delivery and public service (dump trucks, garbage trucks) are normally around this size.

Pantiles - with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to interlock. For the UK the cut-off is 7.5 tonnes. Roman tiles - flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end at a convex curve at the other, to allow interlocking. In the US, they are defined as weighing between 6,300 kg (13,000 lb) and 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). This profile is suitable for stone and wooden tiles, and most recently, solar cells. Medium (or medium-duty) trucks are bigger than light but smaller than heavy trucks. Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows. They are comprised of:.

Light trucks are car-sized (in the US, no more than 6,300 kg (13,000 lb)) and are used by individuals and commercial entities alike. Always check up before you go. Notice that these hours are different in other jurisdictions. Violations of these laws are subject to large fines.

Many other rules apply. Rules are in place for tractor-trailer rigs, regulating how many hours a driver may be on the clock, and how much rest time/sleep time is necessary (11hrs on/10hrs off; 60hrs/7days; or 70hrs/8days). This is one reason that UPS vehicles are called 'package cars', because that exempted them from certain tax-rates. Partly this is because they are bigger, heavier, and cause more wear and tear on roadways.

Trucks have often had to pay higher tax rates, and have been subject to extensive regulation. In the United States, it took much longer for diesel engines be accepted: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s, while in Europe they had been completely replaced 20 years earlier. Although it had been invented in 1890, the Diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1920s. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.

The first modern semi-trailers also appeared. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced full rubber, electric starters, power brakes, 6 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910 and 25000 in 1914. Trucks of the era mostly used two-cylinder engines could have a carrying capacity 1500 to 2000 kg.

Others, such as Peugeot, Benz and Renault also built theirs. The first internal combustion engine truck was built in 1898 by Gottlieb Daimler. Steam-powered trucks were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, and the beginning of World War II in the United Kingdom. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a De Dion steam tractor.

The roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to very short hauls, usually from a factory to the nearest railway station. However, steam trucks were not common until the mid-1800s. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered "fardier" Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. .

for chilled freight, removal vans, etc). A pantech is a truck and/or van with a freight hull made of (or converted to) hard panels (i.e. A Pantech truck or van is a word derivation of "pantechnicon" commonly currently used in Australia. Vehicles transporting furniture to and from the building, known as pantechnicon vans, soon came to be known simply as pantechnicons.

The shop soon closed down and the building was turned into a furniture warehouse, but the name was kept. It was originally coined in 1830 as the name of a craft shop or bazaar, in Motcomb Street in Belgravia, London; the name is Greek for "pertaining to all the arts or crafts". Pantechnicon is a disused British word for a furniture removal van. In Australia and New Zealand a small truck with an open back is called a ute (short for "utility vehicle").

Other languages have loanwords based on these terms, such as the Malay lori. This type of truck is a motor vehicle designed to carry goods, with a cab and a tray or compartment for carrying goods. The term is most commonly used in American English and Australian English to refer to what earlier was called a motor truck, and in British English is often called a lorry, a Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV), or a wagon (sometimes spelled waggon). They come in all sizes, from the automobile-sized pickup truck to towering off-road mining trucks or heavy highway semi-trailers.

Unlike automobiles, which usually have a unibody construction, most trucks (with the exception of the car-like minivan) are built around a strong frame called a chassis. A truck is a motor vehicle for transporting goods. Mack Trucks. Scania.

DaimlerChrysler. Nissan Diesel. Iveco (Italy, but local divisions in Asia). Isuzu.

Hino (Japan)(joint ventures with Scania and Renault). Tata Motors (India, previously called Telco). Mitsubishi (Japan). Dong Feng (China).

Nissan Diesel. Scania. Fuso. Navistar.

MAN Nutzfahrzeuge. Hino. PACCAR. Iveco.

Volvo Global Trucks. DaimlerChrysler Commecial Vehicles. "Hood" : Any conventional that is NOT an "aardvark". "Aardvark" : The aerodynamically designed conventional.

"Tiltin' Hilton" :Cab-over with a sleeper berth. Slang terms

    . cab beside engine designs also exist, but are rather rare. Most owner-operators prefer the square-hooded conventionals, it has something to do with "Take pride in your ride".

    By constrast, Aerodynamic cabs are very streamlined, with a sloped hood and other features to lower drag. They also offer poorer visibility than their aerodynamic or COE counterparts. With their very square shapes, these trucks offer a lot of wind resistance and can consume more fuel. A large car or long nose is a conventional truck with a long—6 to 8 foot (1.8 to 2.4 m) or more—hood.

    Conventionals are further divided into large car and aerodynamic designs. The driver is seated behind the engine, as in most passenger cars or pickup trucks. conventional cabs are the most common in North America. To access the engine, the whole cab tilts forward, earning this design the name of tilt-cab.

    They were common in the United States, but lost prominence when permitted length was extended in the early 1980s. This design is almost ubiquitous in Europe, where overall truck lengths are strictly regulated. cab over engine (COE)or flat nose, where the driver is seated on top of the front axle and the engine. Luton van body - where the load area extends over the cab.

    SUVs. Minivans. Full-Size vans. Pickup trucks.

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