De Telegraaf

De Telegraaf is the largest Dutch daily morning newspaper, with a daily circulation of approximately 800,000. De Telegraaf ("The Telegraph") is based in Amsterdam.

A subsidiary, Basismedia BV, publishes a daily free newspaper, Sp!ts (which in Dutch means both "rush hour" and "sharp point").

Editorial Content

This national newspaper contains many "sensational" and sports-related articles, and one or more pages whose content is supplied by the gossip-magazine Privé ("Private"). The financial news coverage, however, is more serious in tone. Politically, the paper leans towards the populist right. In the recent past, editorial commentary often supported the views of the late Pim Fortuyn.

History

De Telegraaf was founded by Henry Tindal, who simultaneously started another paper De Courant ("The Gazette"). The first issue appeared on 1 January 1893. Following Tindal's death on 31 January 1902 the printer Hak Holdert, with backing from financiers, took over De Telegraaf and De Courant on 12 September 1902. This proved to be a good investment, particularly with regard to De Courant, enabling Holdert between 1903 and 1923 to take over one newspaper after another, suspending publication as he went. He added the name Amsterdamsche Courant ("Amsterdam Gazette") as a subtitle to De Telegraaf, and Het Nieuws van den Dag ("The News of the Day") to De Courant. In 1926, he began construction of a new printing facility at the Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal in Amsterdam, designed by J.F. Staal and G.J. Langhout. Construction was completed and the building occupied in 1930. At one point, in June 1966, the building was besieged by angry construction workers and Provo followers, after falsely reporting that a victim of labour dispute had not been killed by the police, but by a co-worker. In 1974, De Telegraaf moved to its current location in the Basisweg.

During World War I, when the Netherlands was officially neutral, Holdert's French sympathies and his pro-English standpoint caused De Telegraaf to be the focus of some controversy. During World War II, the Telegraaf companies published pro-German papers, which led to a twenty year ban on publication after the war. The prohibition was, however, lifted in 1949 and De Telegraaf flourished anew to become the biggest newspaper in the Netherlands.

De Courant/Nieuws van de Dag ceased publication in 1998.

Since 21 March 2004, De Telegraaf has also appeared on Sundays.

Finances

De Telegraaf's holding company, N.V. Holdingmaatschappij De Telegraaf, is minority-owned (about 30%) by the Van Puijenbroek family from Goirle. It not only controls the newspapers De Telegraaf and Sp!ts, but is also a stakeholder in Channel SBS6, the regional newspaper publisher Wegener, and the Dutch press agency ANP (28.4% since 2001).

Hollandse Dagbladcombinatie, or HDC-Media, which publishes the Noordhollands Dagblad, Haarlems Dagblad, Leidsch Dagblad, IJmuider Courant, and De Gooi- en Eemlander is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Holdingmaatschappij De Telegraaf.

Mediagroep Limburg, publisher of the Limburgs Dagblad and Dagblad De Limburger, also belongs to De Telegraaf.


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Mediagroep Limburg, publisher of the Limburgs Dagblad and Dagblad De Limburger, also belongs to De Telegraaf. This allows them to be trained to behave in a way that is not specifically the most natural to their breed; nevertheless, the accumulated experience of thousands of years shows that some combinations of nature and nurture are quite daunting, for instance, training whippets to guard flocks of sheep. Hollandse Dagbladcombinatie, or HDC-Media, which publishes the Noordhollands Dagblad, Haarlems Dagblad, Leidsch Dagblad, IJmuider Courant, and De Gooi- en Eemlander is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Holdingmaatschappij De Telegraaf. Of course, dogs in general possess a significant ability to modify their behavior according to experience, including adapting to the behavior of their "pack leaders"—again, humans. It not only controls the newspapers De Telegraaf and Sp!ts, but is also a stakeholder in Channel SBS6, the regional newspaper publisher Wegener, and the Dutch press agency ANP (28.4% since 2001). The example of canine neoteny goes even further, in that the various breeds are differently neotenized according to the type of behavior that was selected. Holdingmaatschappij De Telegraaf, is minority-owned (about 30%) by the Van Puijenbroek family from Goirle. Compared to wolves, many adult dog breeds retain such juvenile characteristics as soft fuzzy fur, round torsos, large heads and eyes, ears that hang down rather than stand erect, etc.; characteristics which are shared by most juvenile mammals, and therefore generally elicit some degree of protective and nurturing behavior cross-species from most adult mammals, including humans, who term such characteristics "cute" or "appealing".

De Telegraaf's holding company, N.V. This paedomorphic selection naturally results in a retention of juvenile physical characteristics as well. Since 21 March 2004, De Telegraaf has also appeared on Sundays. This is true of many domesticated animals, including human beings themselves, who have many characteristics similar to young bonobo. De Courant/Nieuws van de Dag ceased publication in 1998. As with many species, the young wolves are more social and less dominant than adults; therefore, the selection for these characteristics, whether deliberate or inadvertent, is more likely to result in a simple retention of juvenile characteristics into adulthood than to generate a complex of independent new changes in behavior. The prohibition was, however, lifted in 1949 and De Telegraaf flourished anew to become the biggest newspaper in the Netherlands. This rapid evolution of dogs from wolves is an example of neoteny or paedomorphism.

During World War II, the Telegraaf companies published pro-German papers, which led to a twenty year ban on publication after the war. Deliberately crossing two or more breeds is also a manner of establishing new breeds. During World War I, when the Netherlands was officially neutral, Holdert's French sympathies and his pro-English standpoint caused De Telegraaf to be the focus of some controversy. However, without genetic testing of the parents, the crosses can sometimes end up inheriting genetic defects that occur in both parental breeds. In 1974, De Telegraaf moved to its current location in the Basisweg. Such deliberate crosses may display hybrid vigor and other desirable traits, but can also lack one or more of the desired traits of their parents, such as temperament or a particular color or coat. At one point, in June 1966, the building was besieged by angry construction workers and Provo followers, after falsely reporting that a victim of labour dispute had not been killed by the police, but by a co-worker. Sometimes mixed-breed dogs are deliberately bred, for example, the Cockapoo, a mixture of Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle.

Construction was completed and the building occupied in 1930. Mixed breeds, or dogs with no purebred ancestry, are not inherently "better" or "worse" than purebred dogs as companions, pets, working dogs, or competitors in dog sports. Langhout. Mixed-breed dogs or Mongrels are dogs that do not belong to specific breeds, being mixtures of two or more in variant percentages. Staal and G.J. In February 2004, the Canine Studies Institute in Aurora, Ohio, arranged recognized breeds of dogs into ten categories. In 1926, he began construction of a new printing facility at the Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal in Amsterdam, designed by J.F. The behavior and appearance of a dog of a particular breed can be predicted fairly accurately, while mixed-breed dogs show a broader range of innovative appearance and behavior.

He added the name Amsterdamsche Courant ("Amsterdam Gazette") as a subtitle to De Telegraaf, and Het Nieuws van den Dag ("The News of the Day") to De Courant. These problems are not limited to purebred dogs and can affect mixed-breed populations. This proved to be a good investment, particularly with regard to De Courant, enabling Holdert between 1903 and 1923 to take over one newspaper after another, suspending publication as he went. Even prize-winning purebred dogs sometimes possess crippling genetic defects due to inbreeding. Following Tindal's death on 31 January 1902 the printer Hak Holdert, with backing from financiers, took over De Telegraaf and De Courant on 12 September 1902. These considerations come into play among breeders who enter their dogs in dog shows. The first issue appeared on 1 January 1893. Other organizations define a breed more loosely, such that an individual may be considered of one breed as long as 75% of its parentage is of that breed.

De Telegraaf was founded by Henry Tindal, who simultaneously started another paper De Courant ("The Gazette"). Dogs that are bred in this manner often end up with severe health or behavioural problems. In the recent past, editorial commentary often supported the views of the late Pim Fortuyn. Some groups use a definition that ultimately requires extreme inbreeding to qualify due to the low gene pool. Politically, the paper leans towards the populist right. The definition of a dog breed is a matter of some controversy. The financial news coverage, however, is more serious in tone. Despite these differences, dogs are able to distinguish dogs from other kinds of animal.

This national newspaper contains many "sensational" and sports-related articles, and one or more pages whose content is supplied by the gossip-magazine Privé ("Private"). Because of this, some breeds are highly specialized, and there is extraordinary morphological diversity across different breeds. . Many of these are the product of a deliberate process of artificial selection. A subsidiary, Basismedia BV, publishes a daily free newspaper, Sp!ts (which in Dutch means both "rush hour" and "sharp point"). A few basic breed types have evolved gradually during the domesticated dog's relationship with man over the last 10,000 or more years, but most modern breeds are of relatively recent derivation. De Telegraaf ("The Telegraph") is based in Amsterdam. Many dogs, especially outside the United States and Western Europe, belong to no recognized breed.

De Telegraaf is the largest Dutch daily morning newspaper, with a daily circulation of approximately 800,000. As all dog breeds have been derived from mixed-breed dog populations, the term "purebred" has meaning only with respect to a certain number of generations. There are numerous dog breeds, over 800 being recognized by various kennel clubs worldwide. In a number of countries around the world, apart from being kept as pets, certain breeds of dogs are slaughtered as a source of meat and specifically raised on farms for that purpose. The relationship is theorized to have developed in this way.

With their sharp senses, they would also be valuable as an alarm against marauding predators. Canines would have been beneficial by chasing away other vermin or scavengers. Canines who attacked people or their children were likely killed or driven away, while those more friendly animals survived. Wild canines who scavenged around human habitations received more food than their more skittish or fearful counterparts.

It is also now generally believed that initial domestication was through mutual desire. Domestication of a wild dog may occur within one or two human generations with deliberate selective breeding. Current research indicates that domestication, or the attributes of a domesticated animal, can occur much more quickly than previously believed. While some dog breeds possess one of these characteristics, they rarely possess both.

Wolves typically have a "brush tail" and erect ears. The phenotypic characteristic that distinguish a wolf from a dog are tenuous. The general reproductive isolation which is required to define dogs and wolves as separate species is purely a result of lack of opportunity, stemming from a general mutual unfamiliarity, suspicion, mistrust, and fear. Additionally, unintentional crossbreeding occurs simply because dogs and wolves live in the same environment.

This interbreeding still occurs with dogs living in the Arctic region, where the attributes of the wolf that enable survival in a hostile environment are valued by humans. The Eastern Timber Wolf is a direct ancestor to most, if not all, of the North American northern sled dog types. The Chinese wolf is probably ancestor to the Pekingese and toy spaniels, although it is also probable that descendants of the Chinese and European wolves encountered each other over the millennia, contributing to many of the oriental toy breeds. The European wolf, in turn, may have contributed many of its attributes to the Spitz dog types, most terriers, and many of today's sheepdogs.

The Tibetan Mastiff is an example of an ancient breed. The Indian wolf is also thought to have bred with descendants of the European wolf to create the Mastiffs and eventually leading to the development of such diverse breeds as the Pug, the Saint Bernard, and the Bloodhound. Many of today's wild dogs, such as the dingo, the dhole and pariah dogs, are descended from this wolf. The Indian Wolf is thought to have contributed to the development of more breeds of dogs than other subspecies.

For example, the Japanese wolf and the Eastern Timber Wolf posses different distinctive colouration, hunting and social structures. Although all wolves belong to the species Canis lupus, there are (or were) many subspecies that had developed a distinctive appearance, social structure, and other traits. The detailed history remains unexplored and until further evidence is available, the following section on wolf ancestors must be considered purely speculative. Their results indicate multiple independent origins of dogs and/or of frequent interbreeding between early proto-dogs and wolves throughout a vast geographic range.

Verginelli examined ancient DNA evidence from five prehistoric Italian canids carbon-dated to between 15,000 and 3,000 years old, 341 wolves from several populations worldwide, and 547 purebred dogs. On balance, and in agreement with the archaeological evidence, 15,000 years ago is the most likely time for the wolf-dog divergence. (2005), however, suggest both sets of dates must be reevaluated in light of recent findings showing that poorly calibrated molecular clocks have systematically overestimated the age of geologically recent events. Verginelli et al.

(2002) indicated a "common origin from a single gene pool for all dog populations" between 40,000 and 15,000 years ago in East Asia. Vilà, Savolainen, and colleagues (1997) concluded that dogs split off from wolves between 75,000 and 135,000 years ago, while a subsequent analysis by Savolainen et al. Genetic analyses have so far yielded divergent results. Dog burials at the Mesolithic cemetery of Svaerdborg in Denmark suggest that in ancient Europe dogs were valued companions.

Rock art and skeletal remains indicate that by 14,000 years ago, dogs were present from North Africa across Eurasia to North America. Remains of smaller dogs from Mesolithic (Natufian) cave deposits in the Middle East, dated to around 12,000 years ago, have been interpreted as descendants of a lighter Southwest Asian wolf, Canis lupus arabs. Their likely ancestor is the large northern Holarctic wolf, Canis lupus lupus. The earliest dog fossils, two crania from Russia and a mandible from Germany, date from 13,000 to 17,000 years ago.

Domesticated dogs may have interbred with local populations of wild wolves on several occasions (so-called introgression). Fossil bone morphologies and genetic analysis of current and ancient dog and wolf populations have not yet been able to conclusively determine whether all dogs descend from a single domestication event, or whether dogs were domesticated independently in more than one location. Converging archaeological and genetic evidence indicate a time of domestication in the late Upper Paleolithic close to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, between 17,000 and 14,000 years ago. Wolf remains have been found in association with hominid remains dating from 400,000 years ago.

The relationship between man and canine has deep roots. As reflected in the nomenclature, dogs are a subspecies of wolf and are thus still able to interbreed. Molecular systematics indicate that the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) descends from one or more populations of wild wolves (Canis lupus). In the UK, it is illegal to kill dogs, even if they are on your private land; you are required to contact your local Police Force, DogsTrust, or the local branch of the RSPCA, who will arrange its collection.

Feral dogs often form predatory packs that attack livestock and occasionally also prove dangerous to humans. Abandoned domestic dogs who become feral are particularly dangerous; they lack the survival skills of wild canines, as well as the genetic and learned fear of the humans' world. Bodies are sometimes tied to fences as warning to other dogs, especially in rural United States and Canada. Wild dogs are shot by farmers in an effort to protect livestock.

The same creatures that wolves, coyotes, and foxes attack as prey, especially sheep and poultry, are similarly attractive prey to dogs. In most jurisdictions, dogs are destroyed for killing other creatures, so dogs should be prevented from any encounter with livestock or wildlife that might lead to a predatory response. With formidable skills and weapons as hunters as well as large and unfussy appetites, dogs often menace livestock and wildlife. Canine aggression upon humans is ordinarily not tolerated, but any human aggression against an animal having formidable means of self-defense is foolhardy in the extreme.

There are hundreds of shades of provocation that may or may not lead to an attack upon a human. Provocation can range from something as seemingly innocuous as a toddler pulling a dog's tail, in which case the dog might nip to discourage the behavior, to something completely inobvious to humans, such as an odor or a movement that sets a dog off, to blatant human aggression or violence towards a dog, causing it to defend itself. However, their sharp teeth and claws can inflict injury in an attack; a large dog can knock a human down. After thousands of years of domestication and selective breeding for dogs whose aggression towards humans goes no further than a ferocious bark that strongly indicates dislike of a human behavior, most dogs are unlikely to attack people.

Animals are often given attributes such as "loyal", "cute", and "guardian", but these all have the potential to lure people into a false sense of security. Humans have a tendency to anthropomorphize animals, particularly pets such as dogs, which are generally portrayed as being "man's best friend". More research is needed to determine the intelligence level of dogs, and the motivations behind their responses to their masters. Despite understandably positive interpretations by dog owners, it is questionable whether these animals are truly capable of feeling emotions on a human level.

Nevertheless, it is often unwise to anthropomorphize the responses of dogs. Some research demonstrates that dogs are able to convey a depth of emotion not seen to the same extent in any other animal; this is purportedly due to their closely-knit development with modern man, and the survival-benefits of such communication as dogs became more dependent on humans for sustenance. Many dogs are reported to have separation anxiety if their owner is away for an extended period of time. Empirically, dogs are quite dependent on human companionship and may suffer poor health in its absence.

Many dog owners consider having unconditional acceptance from a friend who is always happy to see them to be quite utilitarian, particularly if the dog also leads them to regular exercise. Consequently, dogs are popular as pets and companions, independent of any utilitarian considerations. Relationships between humans and dogs are often characterized by strong emotional bonds. Excitement is evident as they see the hunters load weapons, take to the field, and begin the hunt.

Hunters with dogs report the satisfaction that the dogs seem to exhibit. Many hound breeds are excellent at treeing raccoons during hunting season. When trained, beagles are particularly adept at chasing through thick briars and brush after rabbits. They typically have large, gentle muzzles to mitigate any potential damage to the game.

They can follow hand, verbal, and whistle commands at great distance as the hunter directs them to the downed bird. At command, they dive into the icy water, swim out and retrieve the birds one by one. They can spend long hours in a duck blind and, after the hunter has fired at multiple ducks or geese, they can visually spot and remember the location of downed birds. As water dogs, the retrievers are unsurpassed.

Once the hunter approaches, at his command they will flush the birds to fly and for the hunter to shoot at. They have a native ability to discover and "hold" upland game birds; to freeze them momentarily on the ground with their silent, elongated pointing stance. Setters in particular have a long history as upland gun dogs. This often strengthens the bond between human and dog, since they must trust one another in a variety of environments and must learn how the other works and thinks.

Many people compete with their dogs in a variety of dog sports, including agility, flyball, and many others. Dogs are also used for searching for or rescuing people and animals, such as in avalanches, at disaster sites, and for missing people or pets. Most modern working dogs are put in positions which capitalize on their sensory or strength and endurance advantages over normal humans. Dogs have served as guides for the blind, as commandos, and have flown into outer space.

There are service dogs, guard dogs, hunting dogs, and herding dogs. Many breeds of dogs, but not least German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, and Border Collie are commonly used as working dogs. An assertive dog may consider itself the alpha animal, considering its human master to be subordinate. The dog is always aware of its rank relative to other individuals in the group.

Dogs thrive in human society because their relationships with humans mimic their natural social patterns. Dog society can be thought of as dog packs characterized by a companionate hierarchy, in which each individual has a rank, and in which there is intense loyalty within the group. Dogs thrive in small social groups or packs which, from their viewpoint, can include humans. The relationship between dogs and humans is rooted in history and dogs coexist with humans in a variety of ways.

Most dog owners have a large collection of stories about their dogs recognizing individuals by their footsteps outside the door, and so on. This ability to read and deliver nonverbal cues makes dogs expert at reading human beings, as well, often even more so than other humans are, who rely on language. Physiologically, this correlates with such features as a large number of nerves innervating the facial muscles of dogs, allowing subtle control of a wide variety of facial expressions; in contrast to cats, for instance, who have many fewer nerves governing their facial muscles, resulting in a smaller repertoire or "vocabulary" of expressions. The requirements of coordinating complex social behavior requires that canines have the ability to sense and deliver a wide variety of cues via body language, more so than for even humans, who can use language for the same purpose.

All dogs have a tremendous capacity to learn complex social behavior and to interpret varied body language and sounds, and, like many predators, can react to and learn from novel situations. Gastric torsion and bloat is a dangerous problem in some large-chested breeds. Dogs are also susceptible to the same ailments that humans are, including diabetes, epilepsy, cancer, and arthritis. Some breeds of dogs are also prone to certain genetic ailments, such as hip dysplasia, luxating patellas, cleft palate, blindness, or deafness.

Internal parasites include hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms, and heartworms. Common external parasites are various species of fleas, ticks, and mites. Diseases commonly associated with dogs include rabies (hydrophobia), canine parvovirus, and canine distemper, and pulmonic stenosis, although there are many others. Dogs are susceptible to various diseases, ailments, and poisons, some of which affect humans in the same way, others of which are unique to dogs.

It is said that the animals, not just dogs, could sense the tsunami and could therefore flee for life. For example, during the tsunami in Southern Asia recently, many animals were seen days before fleeing to the hills. The evolutionary ability of sensing weather can be traced back to when wolves used it to move the pack into proper shelter before a dangerous storm. This is due to their keen ability to detect fluctuations in barometric pressure and can explain a dog's anxiety before and during a storm.

Dogs also have the ability to sense inclement weather (mainly thunderstorms) many miles away. It has been observed that a lost dog can often find its way home, sometimes traveling over long distances. An intensive search for a scent, for instance searching a ship for contraband, can actually be very fatiguing for a dog, and the dog must be motivated to continue this hard work for a long period of time. In any event, it is established by those who train tracking dogs that it is impossible to teach the dog how to track any better than it does naturally; the object instead is to motivate it properly, and teach it to maintain focus on a single track and ignore any others that might otherwise seem of greater interest to an untrained dog.

The characteristics and behavior of these two types of scent trail would seem, after some thought, to be quite different, the air scent being intermittent but perhaps less obscured by competing scents, whereas the ground scent would be relatively permanent with respect to careful and repetitive search by the dog, but would seem to be much more contaminated with other scents. What information a dog actually detects when he is scenting is not perfectly understood; although once a matter of debate, it now seems to be well established that dogs can distinguish two different types of scents when trailing, an air scent from some person or thing that has recently passed by, as well as a ground scent that remains detectable for a much longer period. Some breeds have been selectively bred for excellence in detecting scents, even compared to their canine brethren. Dogs have nearly 220 million smell-sensitive cells over an area about the size of a pocket handkerchief (compared to 5 million over an area the size of a postage stamp for humans).

They can identify a sound's location much faster than a human can, and they can hear sounds up to four times the distance that humans can. Dogs detect sounds as low as the 16 to 20 Hz frequency range (compared to 20 to 70 Hz for humans) and as high as 70,000 to 100,000 Hz (compared to 20,000 Hz for humans)2, and in addition have a degree of ear mobility that helps them to rapidly pinpoint the exact location of a sound. Some breeds, particularly the best sighthounds, have a field of vision up to 270° (compared to 100° to 120° for humans), although broad-headed breeds with their eyes set forward have a much narrower field of vision, as low as 180°.1, 2. Because the lenses of dogs' eyes are flatter than humans', they cannot see as much detail; on the other hand, their eyes are more sensitive to light and motion than humans' eyes.

It has also been suggested that dogs see in varieties of purple/violet and yellow shades. Dogs were thought to be dichromats and thus, by human standards, color blind.1, 2 New research is now being explored that suggests that dogs may actually see some colour, but not to the extent that humans do. Dogs are predators and scavengers, possessing sharp teeth and strong jaws for attacking, holding, and tearing their food. Within the range of extremes, dogs generally share attributes with their wild ancestors, the wolves.

Modern dog breeds show more variation in size, appearance, and behavior than any other domestic animal. Many veterinarians recommend that owners neuter/spay their pets around the age of 5 months. A female dog can become pregnant on her first heat cycle (which can take place as early as six months), and should be kept away from intact male dogs, including littermates, over the age of 4 months. Contrary to myth, it is not required for a female dog to either experience a heat cycle or have puppies before spaying, and likewise, a male dog does not need the experience of mating before neutering; these myths are responsible for numerous unnecessary health problems and unwanted puppies.

The hormonal changes involved are sure to change the animal's personality somewhat, and some object to this angle as the sterilization in itself could be carried out without the excision of organs. Spaying and neutering can also help prevent hormone-driven diseases such as breast cancer and prostate cancer, as well as undesired hormone-driven behaviors. It is also common for adult stray dogs who are placed in animal shelters to be euthanized due to lack of space and resources. Unwanted puppies are abandoned, eaten, or sometimes disposed of in an inhumane fashion.

Dog experts advise that dogs not intended for further breeding should be spayed or neutered so that they do not have undesired puppies. Spaying or neutering refers to the removal of the male testicles or the female ovaries and uterus, in order to remove the capability to procreate, and to kill the libido. For example, the Bulldog often requires artificial insemination and almost always requires cesarean section for giving birth. Some breeds have been developed to emphasize certain physical traits beyond the point at which they can safely bear litters on their own.

Since a mother can only provide nutrients and care to a limited number of offspring, humans must assist in the care and feeding when the litter exceeds approximately eight puppies. An average litter consists of about six puppies, though this number may vary widely based on the breed of dog. Dogs bear their litters roughly 9 weeks after fertilization. This rule is altered in domesticated animals since larger litters are often favoured for economic reasons.

A general rule of thumb is that a mammal will produce half as many offspring as the number of teats on the mother. The different rates of maturation are responsible for the menarche, not the chronological age. Like most mammals, the age that a bitch first comes into season is mostly a function of her current body weight as a proportion of her body weight when fully mature. Most bitches come into season for the first time between 6 and 12 months, although some larger breeds delay until as late as 2 years.

Conversely, undomesticated canine species experience estrus once a year, typically in late winter. This is also called in season or in heat. The amount of time between cycles varies greatly among different dogs, but a particular dog's cycle tends to be consistent through her life. The ability of female domestic dog to come into estrus at any time of the year and usually twice a year is also valued.

In domestic dogs, one of the behaviours that is noted is the abolition of the pair bond seen in wild canines. As with most domesticated species, one of the first and strongest effects seen from selective breeding is selection for cooperation with the breeding process as directed by humans. Dog owners may accidentally allow their pets to breed without regard to bloodlines. Dog breeders also have accurate information on the complexities of the reproductive process for the breed of dog that they are accustomed to handling.

Dog breeders have access to records which allow them to accurately guess which characteristics will "breed true" in a particular dog. Breeders who do this are usually experienced in this process. Sometimes dogs are bred to create puppies to sell, or sometimes to carry on an award-winning purebred line. Among professional breeders, dogs are only allowed to mate for a specific purpose.

Dogs also may find some poisons attractive, including antifreeze and snail bait. Alcoholic beverages pose much the same temptation and hazard to dogs as to humans. Some human medications, such as acetaminophen/paracetamol (Tylenol), are highly toxic to dogs. Some foods commonly enjoyed by humans are dangerous to dogs, including chocolate (Theobromine poisoning), onions, grapes and raisins, Macadamia nuts, and hops.

For a discussion on one use of treats in training, see clicker training. Such dogs might consider anything dropped by humans, including small but indigestible objects (such as marbles, coins, rings, etc.), to be treats as well, which could be dangerous to the dogs when ingested. Many dogs consider anything given to them directly by hand to be a treat, even the food they are accustomed to at meal time. Eating grass might make the dog vomit, so one explanation is that dogs eat grass to remove unwanted content from their stomachs.

Explanations abound, but rationales such as that it neutralizes acid are just guesses. Dogs sometimes eat grass, a harmless activity. This research is also true of other mammals. It has also been noted that extremely stressful conditions, such as the Iditarod race and scientific studies of similar conditions, suggest that high-protein diets including meat help prevent damage to muscle tissue.

In the wild these diets are typically pursued in the absence of available meat. Some sources suggest that a dog fed on a stict vegetarian diet may develop dilated cardiomyopathy since it lacks L-carnitine.[3]. Domestic dogs can survive healthily on a reasonable and carefully designed vegetarian diet, particularly if eggs and milk products are included. Wild canines not only eat available plants to obtain key amino acids, but may also obtain nutrients from vegetable matter from the stomach contents of their herbivorous prey.

Dogs are able to healthily digest a variety of foods including vegetables and grains, and in fact can consume a large proportion of these in their diet. Unlike an obligate carnivore, such as a cat, a dog is not dependent on meat protein in order to fulfill its dietary requirements. The classification in the Order Carnivora does not necessarily mean that a dog's diet must be restricted to meat. Presently, there is academic discussion as to whether domestic dogs are omnivores or carnivores.

For a detailed discussion on what dog intelligence is, see dog intelligence. Anecdotal evidence suggests that dogs have a reasonably high intelligence. Among dog lovers, dogs are generally valued for their intelligence. They have small, tight feet, and walk on their toes.

Its skeleton provides the ability to run and leap. Like most other predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, and teeth for catching, holding, and tearing. Although selective breeding has changed the appearance of many breeds, all dogs retain the basic ingredients from their distant ancestors. Many additional terms are used for dogs that are not purebred; see Terms for mixed-breed dogs.

The word is sometimes used to refer collectively to any mammal belonging to the family Canidae (as in "the dog family"), such as wolves, foxes and coyotes. Dog, in common usage, refers to the domestic pet dog, Canis lupus familiaris (originally classified as Canis familiaris by Linnaeus in 1758, but reclassified as a subspecies of the wolf, Canis lupus, by the Smithsonian Institution and the American Society of Mammalogists in 1993). . In other cultures, some dogs are used as food.

Dogs have lived with and worked with humans in so many roles that their loyalty has earned them the sobriquet "man's best friend." Conversely, some cultures consider dogs to be unclean. In many countries, the most common and perhaps most important role of dogs is as companions. For dogs that do not have traditional jobs, a wide range of dog sports provide the opportunity to exhibit their natural skills. Dogs fill a variety of roles in human society and are often trained as working dogs.

Dogs, like humans, are highly social animals and pack hunters; this similarity in their overall behavioral pattern accounts for their trainability, playfulness, and ability to fit into human households and social situations. For example, heights at the withers range from just a few inches (such as the Chihuahua) to roughly three feet (such as the Irish Wolfhound), and colors range from white to black, with reds, grays (usually called blue), and browns occurring in a tremendous variation of patterns. In this time, the dog has developed into hundreds of breeds with a great degree of variation. Dogs were first domesticated from wolves at least 15000 years ago[1] but perhaps as long as 150,000 years ago based on recent genetic fossil evidence and DNA evidence[2].

The dog is a canine mammal of the Order Carnivora. It too has the body plan of an adult canine predator. The least paedomorphic behavior pattern may be that of the basenji, bred in Africa to hunt alongside humans almost on a peer basis; this breed is often described as highly independent, neither needing nor appreciating a great deal of human attention or nurturing, often described as "catlike" in its behavior. Terriers similarly have adult aggressive behavior, famously coupled with a lack of juvenile submission, and display correspondingly adult physical features such as erect ears, although many breeds have also been selected for size and sometimes dwarfed legs to enable them to pursue prey in their burrows.

This contrasts with sighthounds, who pursue and attack perceived prey on sight, and who maintain the mature canine body type with erect ears, lean bodies, and adult coats. Scenthounds maintain an intermediate body type and behavior pattern that causes them to actually pursue prey by tracking their scent, but tend to refrain from actual individual attacks in favor of vocally summoning the pack leaders (in this case, humans) to do the job. Their physical characteristics are closer to that of the mature wild canine than the sheepdog breeds, but they typically do not have erect ears, etc. Similarly, they seize dead or wounded prey and bring it back to the "pack", even though they did not attack it themselves, that is, "retrieving" behavior.

They identify potential prey and freeze into immobility, for instance, but refrain from then stalking the prey as an adult predator would do next; this results in the "pointing" behavior for which such dogs are bred. Gun dog breeds used in hunting—that is, pointers, setters, spaniels, and retrievers—have an intermediate degree of paedomorphism; they are at the point where they share in the pack's hunting behavior, but are still in a junior role, not participating in the actual attack. (Compare to the physical appearance of the border collie, a sheep herding dog, whose physical configuration is closer to that of an adult wild canine and who therefore has a greater capacity to frighten sheep into a desired pattern of movement, along with the more adult aggressive temperament to do so). In addition, they retain very juvenile physical characteristics such as round bodies and heads, soft coats, ears that hang down, and so on, which do not elicit fear responses from the sheep in the way that an appearance similar to that of an adult wolf would.

Livestock guardian dogs retain the most juvenile characteristics: they stay close to home with their foster "litter" (which might include a flock of sheep), rather than going out hunting, they have almost no predatory behavior (which would be disastrous in the vicinity of such a natural prey stimulus as sheep), they respond to perceived threats with a lot of vocalization and attempts to alert and engage the dominant individuals in their "pack" (i.e. humans) whenever possible, engaging in actual combat only as a last resort. Canine in common usage is a synonym for dog or an adjective meaning dog; for example, in the common expression "canine companion". Pooch, Poochie, Pup, Puppy, Doggy, Doggie are all informal and affectionate terms for a dog often used by children. Puppy is a juvenile dog.

Pack is used to denote a group of dogs. Bitch is a female dog. Dog is also a term used by breeders to specifically denote a male domestic dog.

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