De Telegraaf is the largest Dutch daily morning newspaper, with a daily circulation of approximately 800,000. De Telegraaf ("The Telegraph") is based in Amsterdam.
A subsidiary, Basismedia BV, publishes a daily free newspaper, Sp!ts (which in Dutch means both "rush hour" and "sharp point").
This national newspaper contains many "sensational" and sports-related articles, and one or more pages whose content is supplied by the gossip-magazine Privé ("Private"). The financial news coverage, however, is more serious in tone. Politically, the paper leans towards the populist right. In the recent past, editorial commentary often supported the views of the late Pim Fortuyn.
De Telegraaf was founded by Henry Tindal, who simultaneously started another paper De Courant ("The Gazette"). The first issue appeared on 1 January 1893. Following Tindal's death on 31 January 1902 the printer Hak Holdert, with backing from financiers, took over De Telegraaf and De Courant on 12 September 1902. This proved to be a good investment, particularly with regard to De Courant, enabling Holdert between 1903 and 1923 to take over one newspaper after another, suspending publication as he went. He added the name Amsterdamsche Courant ("Amsterdam Gazette") as a subtitle to De Telegraaf, and Het Nieuws van den Dag ("The News of the Day") to De Courant. In 1926, he began construction of a new printing facility at the Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal in Amsterdam, designed by J.F. Staal and G.J. Langhout. Construction was completed and the building occupied in 1930. At one point, in June 1966, the building was besieged by angry construction workers and Provo followers, after falsely reporting that a victim of labour dispute had not been killed by the police, but by a co-worker. In 1974, De Telegraaf moved to its current location in the Basisweg.
During World War I, when the Netherlands was officially neutral, Holdert's French sympathies and his pro-English standpoint caused De Telegraaf to be the focus of some controversy. During World War II, the Telegraaf companies published pro-German papers, which led to a twenty year ban on publication after the war. The prohibition was, however, lifted in 1949 and De Telegraaf flourished anew to become the biggest newspaper in the Netherlands.
De Courant/Nieuws van de Dag ceased publication in 1998.
Since 21 March 2004, De Telegraaf has also appeared on Sundays.
De Telegraaf's holding company, N.V. Holdingmaatschappij De Telegraaf, is minority-owned (about 30%) by the Van Puijenbroek family from Goirle. It not only controls the newspapers De Telegraaf and Sp!ts, but is also a stakeholder in Channel SBS6, the regional newspaper publisher Wegener, and the Dutch press agency ANP (28.4% since 2001).
Hollandse Dagbladcombinatie, or HDC-Media, which publishes the Noordhollands Dagblad, Haarlems Dagblad, Leidsch Dagblad, IJmuider Courant, and De Gooi- en Eemlander is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Holdingmaatschappij De Telegraaf.
Mediagroep Limburg, publisher of the Limburgs Dagblad and Dagblad De Limburger, also belongs to De Telegraaf.
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Mediagroep Limburg, publisher of the Limburgs Dagblad and Dagblad De Limburger, also belongs to De Telegraaf. Other sports such as volleyball and basketball are mostly popular in schools and colleges. Hollandse Dagbladcombinatie, or HDC-Media, which publishes the Noordhollands Dagblad, Haarlems Dagblad, Leidsch Dagblad, IJmuider Courant, and De Gooi- en Eemlander is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Holdingmaatschappij De Telegraaf. In recent times Formula 1 racing has also caught the public's attention. It not only controls the newspapers De Telegraaf and Sp!ts, but is also a stakeholder in Channel SBS6, the regional newspaper publisher Wegener, and the Dutch press agency ANP (28.4% since 2001). The event sees many of the city's glitterati attending, arrayed in the latest fashions. Holdingmaatschappij De Telegraaf, is minority-owned (about 30%) by the Van Puijenbroek family from Goirle. Every February, Mumbai holds the Derby races in the Mahalaxmi Racecourse.
De Telegraaf's holding company, N.V. Mumbai also has a rugby club, the only one in the country. Since 21 March 2004, De Telegraaf has also appeared on Sundays. Other sports are mostly played in the numerous clubs and gymkhanas, and include tennis, squash, billiards, badminton, table tennis and golf. De Courant/Nieuws van de Dag ceased publication in 1998. India's national sport, field hockey, has gone into a sharp decline in the recent years, losing out in terms of popularity to cricket, though many Mumbai players play in the national team. The prohibition was, however, lifted in 1949 and De Telegraaf flourished anew to become the biggest newspaper in the Netherlands. The Football World Cup is one of the most widely watched television events in Mumbai.
During World War II, the Telegraaf companies published pro-German papers, which led to a twenty year ban on publication after the war. Soccer is the second most popular sport with the city clubs playing during the monsoons, when other outdoor sports cannot be played. During World War I, when the Netherlands was officially neutral, Holdert's French sympathies and his pro-English standpoint caused De Telegraaf to be the focus of some controversy. The local Mumbai cricket team is among the strongest competitors in the Ranji Trophy, the nation's top domestic cricketing circuit. In 1974, De Telegraaf moved to its current location in the Basisweg. The city has two international cricket stadiums, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium. At one point, in June 1966, the building was besieged by angry construction workers and Provo followers, after falsely reporting that a victim of labour dispute had not been killed by the police, but by a co-worker. International cricket is widely watched, and the city almost comes to a virtual standstill on days when the Indian cricket team plays important matches.
Construction was completed and the building occupied in 1930. Mumbai has produced several famous international cricketers), and is home to the Mumbai Cricket Association, the Cricket Club of India and the newly re-constituted Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI). Langhout. Gully cricket, a modified form of cricket, is played in the narrow by-lanes of the city, especially on Sundays. Staal and G.J. Cricket is the most popular sport in the city, and is usually played in the maidans (grounds) around the city. In 1926, he began construction of a new printing facility at the Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal in Amsterdam, designed by J.F. The Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, one of India's premier engineering schools, and the SNDT Women's University are the other universities in Mumbai.
He added the name Amsterdamsche Courant ("Amsterdam Gazette") as a subtitle to De Telegraaf, and Het Nieuws van den Dag ("The News of the Day") to De Courant. All professional colleges in Mumbai are affiliated to the University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of graduation rate. This proved to be a good investment, particularly with regard to De Courant, enabling Holdert between 1903 and 1923 to take over one newspaper after another, suspending publication as he went. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study (usually the same as chosen at the Junior College level), or a professional degree course, such as Law, Engineering, Medicine or Management. Following Tindal's death on 31 January 1902 the printer Hak Holdert, with backing from financiers, took over De Telegraaf and De Courant on 12 September 1902. Under the 10+2+3 plan, students complete ten years of schooling, and then enrol for two years in Junior College, where they choose from one of three streams: Arts, Commerce or Science. The first issue appeared on 1 January 1893. The government run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools.
De Telegraaf was founded by Henry Tindal, who simultaneously started another paper De Courant ("The Gazette"). Demand is especially high for ICSE and CBSE affiliated schools, and those run by convents or the Jesuits. In the recent past, editorial commentary often supported the views of the late Pim Fortuyn. All private schools are affiliated either to the Maharashtra State SSC board, or the all-India Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) and Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards. Politically, the paper leans towards the populist right. A majority of residents prefer private schools because of better infrastructure and the use of English as a medium of instruction. The financial news coverage, however, is more serious in tone. Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the BMC) or private schools (run by trusts and individuals).
This national newspaper contains many "sensational" and sports-related articles, and one or more pages whose content is supplied by the gossip-magazine Privé ("Private"). There are nine radio stations in Mumbai, with six broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band. . The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. A subsidiary, Basismedia BV, publishes a daily free newspaper, Sp!ts (which in Dutch means both "rush hour" and "sharp point"). Mumbai households receive over a hundred television channels via cable, and a majority of them are produced to cater to the city's polyglot populace. De Telegraaf ("The Telegraph") is based in Amsterdam. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs.
De Telegraaf is the largest Dutch daily morning newspaper, with a daily circulation of approximately 800,000. The national television broadcaster Doordarshan provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households. In addition to these papers, newspapers are also printed in Hindi, Gujarati, Malayalam, Bengali, Urdu, Telugu and Tamil. Popular Marathi newspapers include Loksatta, Maharashtra Times and Saamana. Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications and television and radio stations - English newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include Times of India, Mid-day, Economic Times and Indian Express.
Mumbai has six sister cities (the maximum permitted by the Indian government) – Berlin, London, Los Angeles, Saint Petersburg, Stuttgart and Yokohama. The city also contains most of India's tallest buildings. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is the oldest public library in the city. There are also two art galleries: The Jehangir Art Gallery and The National Gallery of Modern Art, and a museum, The Prince of Wales Museum in downtown Mumbai.
Besides cinemas, the city also hosts various plays and cultural performances. Mumbai also boasts of large number of cinemas, including Asia's largest IMAX dome theatre, which feature mainstream Bollywood and Hollywood films. Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema, with the oldest film shot here in 1896. In 2004, Mumbai received three heritage conservation awards from the UNESCO.
The cosmopolitan residents have unique tastes in cuisine, music, film and literature, both Indian and international. The metropolis has its own local roadside fast food flavour, comprising vada pavs (split wheat bread with fried dumplings as filling), paani puri (deep fried crêpe with tamarind and lentil sauce), pav bhaji (split wheat bread with fried vegetables) and bhelpuri (puffed rice mixture), while South Indian and Chinese food are also very popular. Mumbai residents celebrate Indian and Western festivals with great fanfare. Mumbai is India's most liberal minded and cosmopolitan city, embracing many concepts that would be taboo in other parts of India.
Thus, many live a fast-paced life, with very little time for social activities. Many residents prefer to stay close to major railway stations for easy access to their workplaces, as a significant amount of time is spent on daily commuting. A resident of Mumbai is called a Mumbaikar, or Bombayite. According to the Business Week, around 45-48% of the population lives in shantytowns and slums.
With available space at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. Like other large cities in the world, Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries - widespread poverty and poor public health, employment, civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. Most languages spoken in India have some degree of representation in the demographic fabric of Mumbai; the most widely spoken of these are Gujarati, Tamil, Malayalam, Urdu and Konkani. English is also extensively spoken, and is the principal language of the city's white collar workforce.
Marathi is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. Mumbai has a large polyglot population, but the most common language spoken on the city streets is a colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya Hindi – a blend of Hindi, Marathi, Indian English and some invented colloquial words. The city's main jail is the Arthur Road Jail. Mumbai recorded 27,577 incidents of crime in 2004, which is down 11% from 30,991 in 2001.
For a city of its size, Mumbai has a moderate crime rate. The remainder are Parsis, Jains, Sikhs, Jews and atheists . The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindus (68% of the population), Muslims (17% of the population), and Christians and Buddhist (4% each). The overall literacy rate of the city is 77%, which is higher than the national average (82% of adult males and 71.6% of adult females are literate).
There are 811 females to every 1,000 males – which is lower than the national average, because many working males come from rural areas, where they leave behind their families. The population of Mumbai is about 18 million, with a density of 4,205 persons per square kilometre. Broadband internet penetration is increasing in the city, with MTNL and Tata being the leading service providers. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city.
Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Hutch, Airtel, BPL group, Reliance Infocomm and Tata Indicom. The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services. Most of the city's electricity is hydroelectric and nuclear based. Electricity is provided by the BEST in the city, and by Reliance Energy and MSEB (Maharashtra State Electricity Board) in the suburbs.
Sewage treatment is carried out in Worli and Bandra. Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast and Deonar in the east. The BMC is also responsible for the road maintenance and garbage collection in the city. The water is filtered at Bhandup, which is also Asia's largest water filtration plant.
The BMC supplies potable water to the city, most of which come from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes, as well as a few lakes further north. It is also an important base for the Indian Navy. With its unique topography, Mumbai has one of the best natural harbours in the world, handling 50% of the country's passenger traffic, and much of India's cargo. The nearby Juhu aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts a flying club and a heliport.
Mumbai's Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly, Sahar International Airport) is the busiest airport in India, and caters to cargo and international flights while Santacruz Airport caters to domestic flights. These three-wheeled vehicles can accommodate up to three passengers. Auto rickshaws, allowed to operate only in the suburban areas, are the main form of hired transport there. Black and yellow-metered taxis, accommodating up to four passengers, cover most of the metropolis.
The BEST also operates ferries across creeks in northern Mumbai. The BEST fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, air-conditioned and vestibule buses. Buses are used for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for long distance commutes. Public buses run by the BEST (an autonomous body under the BMC) cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai and Thane district.
Mumbai is well connected by trains to all parts of India. The Harbour Line is a sub-division of the Central Railway, covering a distance of 54 km along the south-eastern section of the city, near the docks, and extending into Navi Mumbai. Both lines extend into the exurbia, each covering a total one-way length of around 125 km. The Western Railway runs along the western region of the city, while the Central Railway covers most of the central and northeast parts of the metropolis.
The backbone of the city's transport, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, is composed of three seperate networks running the length of the city, in a north-south direction. The city is the headquarters of two rail divisions – the Central Railway (CR) (headquartered at Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly known as Victoria Terminus)), and the Western Railway (WR) (headquartered at Churchgate). Most of Mumbai's inhabitants rely on public transport to travel to and from their workplace due to the lack of car parking spaces, traffic bottlenecks, and generally poor road conditions. The city elects six members to the Lok Sabha and thirty-four members to the Maharashtra State Assembly.
Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police.
The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an IPS officer. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Federal Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city. The metropolitan area forms two districts of Maharashtra, with each district under the jurisdiction of a District Collector.
Almost all the state political parties field candidates in the elections for Councillors. An Assistant Municipal Commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes. The BMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis. The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the twenty four municipal wards , five nominated Councillors, and a titular Mayor.
The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner, who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government. The epicentre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood, is also located in Mumbai, along with its largest studios and movie production houses. Most of India's major television and satellite networks are headquartered in Mumbai, as well as its major publishing houses. The entertainment industry is the other major employer in Mumbai.
The port and shipping industry too employs many residents, directly or indirectly. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled labour population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. Mumbai’s status as the state capital means that state and federal government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Up until the 1980s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since then diversified to include engineering, diamond polishing, healthcare and information technology.
Many foreign banks and financial institutions also have branches in this area. A number of Indian financial institutions have headquarters in downtown Mumbai, including the Bombay Stock Exchange, the Reserve Bank of India, the National Stock Exchange of India, the Mint, and numerous conglomerates (the Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance etc). Mumbai contributes 10% of all factory employment, 40% of all income tax collections, 60% of all customs duty collections, 20% of all central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and Rupees 40 billion (US$ 9 billion) in corporate taxes. The record high is 43 °C (108 °F) and record low is 7.4 °C (45 °F) on 1962-01-22.
Annual temperatures range from a high of 38 °C (100 °F) to a low of 11 °C (52 °F). Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill during January and February. The dry season, between November and February, is characterised by moderate levels of humidity and warm to cool weather. The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37.16 in) on 2005-07-26.
The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (135.89 in) in 1954. The monsoon rains lash the city during the monsoon season (June to September), and supply most of the city's annual rainfall of 2,200 mm (85 in). The humid season, between March and October, is characterised by high humidity and temperatures of over 30 °C (86 °F). The climate of the city, being in the tropical zone, and near the Arabian Sea, may be broadly classified into two main seasons — the humid season and the dry season.
The city region is also commonly referred to as the Island City. It consists of two distinct regions — the city and the suburbs, which also form two separate districts of Maharashtra. Mumbai is classified as a metropolis of India, under the jurisdiction of the BrihanMumbai Municipal Corporation. The area is classified as a Zone III region, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter scale may be expected.
Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing to the presence of three fault lines in the vicinity. The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acid and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea.
The eastern seaboard of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity. The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays. Mumbai also has three small rivers within the city limits originating in the National Park. The first two are located within the Borivali National Park, and supply part of the city's drinking water.
Three lakes are located within the metropolitan limits — the Tulsi Lake, Vihar Lake and Powai Lake. Mumbai spans a total area of 468 km² (169 mi²). The northern part of Mumbai is hilly, and the highest point of the city is at 450 metres (1,450 feet). Much of Mumbai is at sea level, and the average elevation ranges from 10 to 15 metres.
Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, which lies at the mouth of Ulhas River off the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. In 1995, the city was renamed Mumbai, by the right wing Shiv Sena party government of Maharashtra, in keeping with their policy of renaming colonial institutions after historic local appellations. A few months later, on March 12, simultaneous bombings at several city landmarks by the Mumbai underworld killed around three hundred people. The city's secular fabric was torn in 1992, after large scale sectarian violence caused extensive loss of life and property.
The late 1970s witnessed a construction boom and a significant influx of migrants, which saw Mumbai overtake Calcutta as India’s most populous city. It became the capital of the new linguistic state of Maharashtra in 1960. After independence, the city expanded to its present limits by incorporating parts of Salsette Island. It later became a major base for the Indian independence movement, with the Quit India Movement called by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942 being its most rubric event.
The population of the city swelled to one million by 1906, making it the second largest in India after Calcutta. Over the next thirty years, the city grew into a major urban centre, spurred by an improvement in infrastructure and the construction of many of the city's institutions. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea. During the American Civil War (1861-1865), the city became the world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy and subsequently enhancing the city's stature.
This project, known as the Hornby Vellard, was completed by 1845, and resulted in the total area swelling to 438 km².In 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the town of Thane. From 1817 onwards, the city was reshaped with large civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the islands in the archipelago into a single amalgamated mass. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675; In 1687, the British East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The company found the deep harbour on the east coast of the islands to be ideal for setting up their first port in the sub-continent.
These islands, were in turn leased to the British East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £10 per annum. They were ceded to Charles II of England in 1661, as dowry for Catherine de Braganza. In 1534, the Portuguese appropriated the islands from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. Some of the oldest edifices of the archipelago – the Elephanta Caves and the Walkeshwar temple complex date from this era.
The Hindu rulers of the Silhara Dynasty later governed the islands until 1343, when the kingdom of Gujarat annexed them. In the 3rd century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Aşoka. Documented evidence of human habitation dates back to 250 BC, when it was known as Heptanesia (Ptolemy) (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands). Artifacts found near Kandivali, in northern Mumbai indicate that these islands had been inhabited since the Stone Age.
Present day Mumbai was originally an archipelago of seven islands. The name was officially changed to Mumbai in 1995, but “Bombay” is still used by the popular media and by many of the city's inhabitants and famous institutions. After the British gained possession, it was anglicised to Bombay. In the 16th century, the Portuguese named the area Bom Bahia (Good Bay), later corrupted to Bomaím or Bombaim, by which it is still known in Portuguese.
The appellation Mumbai is an eponym, etymologically derived from Mumba — the name of the Hindu goddess Mumbadevi, and Aai — mother in Marathi. . Mumbai is also one of the rare cities to accommodate a national park, the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, within its city limits. The city is home to India's film and television industry, known as Bollywood.
Mumbai has attracted migrants from all over India because of the immense business opportunities, and the relatively high standard of living, making the city a potpourri of various communities and cultures. Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment capital of India, and houses important financial institutions, such as the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) and the corporate headquarters of many Indian companies. The port handles over half of India's passenger traffic and a significant amount of cargo. The city has a deep natural harbour, which is the largest port in western India.
Along with its neighbouring suburbs, it forms the world's 4th most populous metropolitan area, with a population exceeding 20 million. Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, off the west coast of Maharashtra. Mumbai (Hindi / Marathi: मुंबई) (pronounced /'mumbɐɪ/ in Marathi, and /mʊm'baɪ/ in English), formerly known as Bombay is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, and the most populous city of India, with a estimated population of about 18 million (2005). 1188 kHz.
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