Ruisrock is a rock festival in Turku. It is arranged annually on the island of Ruissalo. Ruisrock, founded in 1970, is along with the Netherlands's Pinkpop, the oldest rock festival in the world still being arranged.

Each summer the top Finnish rock artists, along with famous international stars, meet at Ruisrock to give the ten thousands of visitors the musical party many have been waiting for all winter.

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Each summer the top Finnish rock artists, along with famous international stars, meet at Ruisrock to give the ten thousands of visitors the musical party many have been waiting for all winter. Other non-nationals come from Poland, India, America and Latvia, as well as "the old E.U." countries such as France, Germany and the United Kingdom. Ruisrock, founded in 1970, is along with the Netherlands's Pinkpop, the oldest rock festival in the world still being arranged. This is due to the exchange programmes on offer for Chinese students in universities in China. It is arranged annually on the island of Ruissalo. The largest group of foreign students comes from China, Shanghai in particular. Ruisrock is a rock festival in Turku. There is also a very large community of students from abroad, especially countries where Cork has twinned cities.

Other 3rd level institutions include Griffith College Cork (incorporating Skerry's College) which has been offering courses since 1884 and various other colleges. The Cork College of Commerce is the largest post–Leaving Certificate College in Ireland and is also the biggest provider of Vocational Preparation and Training courses in the country. It also incorporates the Cork School of Music and Crawford College of Art & Design as constituent colleges. Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) offers a variety of third level courses in Mathematics, Computing and IT, Business, and Engineering (Mechanical, Electronic, Electrical, and Chemical) and is one of the few places in Ireland were nautical studies are available.

The university was named "Irish University of the Year" in 2003–2004 and 2005-2006 by the Sunday Times. University College Cork (UCC), one of Ireland's seven universities, offers a wide variety of courses in Arts, Engineering, Law, Medicine and Science. Cork is an important educational center in Ireland. The Midleton branch is scheduled to be reopened in 2008.

New stations will be provided at Carrigtohill on the Midleton branch and at Kilbarry, Monard and Blarney on the Dublin line as part of the plan, along with the already operational Mallow station. In November 2005, the Irish government announced the reopening of the railway line between Glounthaune (on the Cobh line) and Midleton as part of the country's 10 year development plan. It is recommended for travel to Fota Island wildlife park, arboretum, golf club and Cobh Heritage Centre. The east of the city is also a scenic route connecting several islands in Cork harbour with the city centre.

This railway line provides essential transport for the thousands of commuters to the city every day from the eastern suburbs. The Cork City Suburban Railway also departs from Kent Station with services to the east of the city including Little Island, Fota and Cobh.
. Direct InterCity services are also available to Kerry, with direct services to Killarney and Tralee (2 daily), although most services to Kerry involve a change at Mallow.

Irish Rail plans to upgrade this line to an hourly service in 2006. The main line from Cork to Dublin, which is Ireland's busiest rail line, has eight direct departures daily and a number of connecting services. From here, services to all over Ireland can be reached. Cork's Kent Station is the main train station in the city.

. project which reconstructed the street with a pedestrian focus. Local road improvements include the Patrick St. 2004 saw the opening of the N22 Ballincollig dual carriageway bypass, which links to the Western end of the Cork Southern Ring road.

The 21st Century saw the opening of the N8 Glanmire to Watergrashill dual carriageway bypass and the N8(M8) Rathcormac to Fermoy motorway bypass is currently under construction. Other projects at this time include the N20 Blackrock bypass and the N20 Cork to Mallow road projects. Also in the 1990s work progressed on the Cork to Middleton dual carriageway and the N8 Glanmire bypass dual carriageway. Work continued through the 1990s on extending the South Ring Road with the opening of the Jack Lynch Tunnel under the River Lee being the most significant addition.

Shortly after, the first sections of the South Ring Road which is of dual carriageway standard were opened. The Cork South Link road (a dual carriageway), built in the early 1980s, linking the Kinsale road roundabout with downtown was the first of many major improvements. The Cork area has seen improvements in roads infrastructure in recent years, especially with regards to National roads. A connecting bus service is available to the city centre from the ferryport.

Direct sea links are available to Roscoff (France) with Brittany Ferries and Swansea and Pembroke (Wales) with SwanseaCork Ferries. Cork Ferryport is situated at Ringaskiddy, 16 km SE via the N28. This service is most benifical when trying to avoid traffic on the Great Island (Cobh). The River Lee Ferry, serving Rushbrooke to Passage West, links the R624 to R610.

This service departs from St Patrick's Quay rather than Parnell Place Bus Terminal. AirCoach also run a daily service to Dublin and Dublin Airport departing every 2 hours. There is also a daily Eurolines bus service that connects Cork to Victoria Bus Station in London via South Wales and Bristol on an overnight sailing from Rosslare. Hourly services run to Killarney, Waterford and Limerick/Galway and there are frequent services to Dublin.

Long distance buses depart from the bus terminal in Parnell Place to destinations throughout Ireland.
. This is especially popular with students and commuters from not just the far suburbs but also the surrounding towns in County Cork. There is also a Park and Ride facility in the south suburbs, that allow easy access into the city centre.

These suburban services include the Cork International Airport shuttle bus (Route Numbers 226 and 249). Buses to the outer suburbs, such as Ballincollig, Glanmire and Carrigaline are provided from the city's bus terminal at Parnell Place in the city centre.
. There are also several city bus routes including Route Numbers 1 and 19 that provide orbital services across the Northern and Southern districts of the city respectively.

Routes connect the city centre to the principal suburbs, colleges, shopping centres and places of interest. Cork City's public transportation is provided by the national bus operator Bus Éireann.
. The airport plays a vital role in the development of Cork City, County and other surrounding areas and increased services to mainland Europe continue to develop daily.

The airport is currently building a second terminal that will be able to handle up to five million more passengers anually. The airport continues to grow and a total of 2.730 million passengers used the airport in 2005, which makes it the second busiest airport in Ireland. More than 10 scheduled airlines fly to over 50 destinations with over 50 flights a day. It is situated on the south side of Cork City in an area known as Ballygarvan.

Cork Airport is one of Ireland's main airports and gateway to the South of Ireland. Since then, Cork has developed links with several other cities in the areas of culture, education, tourism, science and economics:. Cork City Corporation began its first twin/sister city program with Coventry in 1969. Also, Cork's suburbs have a number of modern industrial estates, with reasonably good road links and relatively modern telecommunications to attract both local and foreign investment from Europe, the United States, and Japan.

The City of Cork is home to one university and a few colleges, providing a skilled and trained workforce. Cork International Airport also allows easy access to continental Europe and with good rail links for domestic trade. Cork's deep harbour allows ships of any size to enter, bringing trade and easy import/export of products. Much of Cork's economic success is due to a few main reasons, such as transport and a well educated workforce.

centres of the city. But technology has replaced the old manufacturing businesses of the 1970s and 1980s, with people now working in the many I.T. Henry Ford's grandfather was from Cork, which was a main reason for opening up the manufacturing facility in Cork. And for many years, Cork was the home to Ford Motor Company, which manufactured cars in the docklands area before the plant was closed.

It is also home to the Murphy's Irish Stout brewery and the Beamish and Crawford brewery which have been in the city for generations. Cork is also the European headquarters of Apple Computer where their desktop computers are manufactured and their European call centre is hosted. The most famous product of the Cork pharmaceutical industry is Viagra. and Swiss company Novartis being big employers in the region.

Its main area of industry is pharmaceuticals, with Pfizer Inc. Cork City is at the heart of industry in the south of Ireland.
. and Grand Parade.

Other shopping areas in the city centre include Oliver Plunkett St. metre after Dublin's Grafton Street. and is the most expensive street in the country per sq. Patrick St.

Cork's main shopping street is St. Others are available in the city centre, with plans and excavation work on-going for the development of two more large malls, expanding the capacity of the city centre, to rival that of the suburbs. Shopping centres are all over the suburbs in places such as Blackpool, Douglas, Wilton and Mahon Point [2] to name just a few. For the lower budget, other high street stores are also available.

Most of the major department stores stock the latest fashions from the catwalks of Paris and Milan including Chanel and Armani. The retail trade in Cork City is developing quickly with a mix of both modern, state of the art shopping centres and family owned local shops providing unique and often hand-made crafts. Other local newspapers are also printed in the city, but are less well known. Today, the shouts of the vendors selling the Echo can still be heard all over the city.

It also prints the famous Evening Echo, which for decades has been connected to the Echo Boys, who were poor and often homeless children from the 1930s and 1940s that had the job of selling the newspaper. Cork is also home to one of Ireland's main national newspapers, the Irish Examiner (formerly the Cork Examiner) with its headquarters situated in Academy Street in the city centre. Cork is home to the RTÉ Vanbrugh String Quaret. Matthew Street in the city centre and South Coast TV also broadcasts from Cork, providing a regional television station for the South of Ireland.

Cork is also home to two television stations; RTÉ Cork broadcasts from its television centre in Fr. There are also local stations such as Corks 96FM [1], 103FM County Sound, CUH FM, Cork Campus Radio and Red FM. The city's FM radio band is impressively crowded: as well as RTÉ Radio 1, 2FM, Lyric FM, Radio na Gaeltachta (all run by RTÉ), and Today FM. For more information, please visit the Cork 2005 European Capital of Culture website.

One of the key projects was the Cork Caucus. Cork was the European Capital of Culture for 2005. The new Lewis Glucksman Gallery opened in the Autumn of 2004 at UCC, was nominated for the prestigious Stirling Prize in the United Kingdom, and building is about to commence on a new €60 million School of Music building. Recent additions to the arts infrastructure include splendid modern additions to Cork Opera House and the Crawford Art Gallery.

The local synagogue on South Terrace, near Shalom Park and the other traditional Jewish areas of the City like Monray Terrace attract large gatherings on a weekly basis. It has everything from traditional Moroccan restaurants, Turkish sweet shops, Polish Bars, Chinese food stores and stalls selling kosher food for the local Jewish community. This can be seen in the type of markets, restaurants and shops that are in Cork. Cork has a diverse community, with many people coming from all over the world.

Highlights include:Corcadorca Theatre Company, where Cillian Murphy (from Batman Begins) got his start; Cork Film Festival, a major supporter of the art of the short film; The Institute for Choreography and Dance, a national contemporary dance resource; the Triskel Arts Centre; Cork Jazz Festival. The Cork School of Music and the Crawford College of Art & Design provide a constant throughput of new blood, as do the active theatre components of many courses at University College Cork (UCC). Music, theatre, dance, and film all play a prominent role in city life. Cork's cultural life is surprisingly vibrant, considering its population of 186,239.

The cross-continent European walking route E8 trail starts at Cork, ending 4700 km away in Istanbul, Turkey. The origins of the market can be traced back to 1610, but the present building dates from 1786. The English Market, accessible from Grand Parade, Patrick Street, Oliver Plunkett Street and Princes Street, is a covered market for fish, fruit, meat, spices and luxury foods. Fitzgerald's Park, to the west of the city, is worth a visit — as are the grounds of University College Cork, through which the River Lee flows.

The cost of this new building was provided by the British Government in the 1930s as a gesture of reconciliation. The City Hall, another splendid building of limestone, replaced the previous one destroyed by British forces on December 11th 1920 during the War of Independence in an event known as the "Burning of Cork" . The bells of Shandon may be rung by members of the public. The clock tower on the church is known by locals as The Four-faced Liar, as from the base of the building, each clock face appears to show a different time.

Cork's most famous building, also accessible to the public, is the church tower of Shandon dominating the North side of the city, with the North and East sides faced in red sandstone, and the West and South sides in the predominant stone of the region, white limestone. Across the river is Ireland's longest building, the Mental Hospital built in Victorian times. Many of its buildings are in the Georgian style, although the modern County Hall tower is the tallest building in the Republic of Ireland. The old financial centre, is the South Mall with several banks whose interior derive from the 19th century, and are very deserving of a visit, particularly Allied Irish Banks which was once an exchange.

Grand Parade, another part of the route, is a tree-lined avenue, home to many offices and financial institutions. As the main shopping street, it boasts striking buildings along its broad avenue (much of which is given to pedestrian use). The main street, Patrick Street, was remodelled in the years up to 2004. Cork city in general boasts some good quality architecture, capable of rivalling that of Dublin or Belfast.

The modern Cork Opera House is one of the few such venues in Ireland. There are two cathedrals in the city:. Placenames today still tell of the routes, such as Tramway Terrace in Douglas. This was only a temporary measure though and the final tram in Cork ran on September 30, 1931.

The trams started running again in April, 1931. However, after a few weeks of closure, it was realised that the Irish Omnibus Company did not have enough capacity to cope with demand. The final day of operation of the trams was supposed to be March 31, 1931. Increased usage of cars and buses in the 1920s led to a reduction in the numbers using the trams.

This was designed to be the same gauge as the Muskerry Railway, although the two never shared traffic. The gauge of the tramway was two feet, eleven and a half inches. The routes were: Blackpool-Douglas, Summerhill-Sunday's Well and Tivoli-Blackrock. In December 1898, an electric tram system began operating in the city.

However, the company ceased trading in 1875 after Cork Corporation refused permission to extend the line. These ideas were put into practice in 1872 by the Cork Tramway Company. His plan was to link the city's railway termini with horse-drawn trams. A proposal to develop a horse-drawn tram was made by an American, George Francis Train, in the 1860s.

Historically, there have been two tram networks in operation in Cork. There are no tram services operating in Cork although the Cork Area Strategic Development Plan suggests it as one among a number of solutions for dealing with traffic congestion in Cork. The only rail projects currently under consideration are an enhanced suburban service along the current lines, and a connection towards Youghal (probably only as far as Midleton). All that remains of the once-extensive public transport system is the line to Dublin (also serving Mallow, County Kerry and Limerick) and that to Cóbh.

West Cork trains terminated at Albert Quay, across the river from Kent Station (though an on-street rail 'system' connected the two for rolling stock and cargo movement). Other rail routes terminating or traversing Cork city were the Cork, Blackrock and Passage railway, lines to Macroom and Blarney, as well as the famous Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway connecting Bantry, Skibbereen, Clonakilty and many other West Cork towns. This also connected to the East Cork seaside town of Youghal, until the 1980s. The town of Cóbh, on Great Island, east of the city, is also connected — though the route originally had its own terminus perpendicular to the current station.

Originally terminating on the city's outskirts at Blackpool, the Glanmire tunnel now connects it to the city centre terminus (nowadays actually a through station) of Kent Station. The main route, still much the same today, is that from Dublin. It has boasted a total of perhaps 8 stations at various times. Cork city was one of the most rail oriented cities in Ireland.

During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea. The centre of Cork was gutted by fires started by the Black and Tans in the War of Independence, part of the British government policy of reprisals at the time; it was also the site of some fierce fighting between Irish guerrilla leaders and British forces. This resulted in the area known as "Scott's Plains" being renamed "Peterborough" as a tribute. In 1825, over 1800 Irish residents departed from Cork to emigrate to Peterborough, Ontario, Canada assisted by Peter Robinson (who organized the scheme on behalf of the British Government).

The title of Mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, and the title was changed to Lord Mayor in 1900. The city was at one time fully walled, and several sections and gates remain. Over the centuries, much of the city was rebuilt, time and again, after numerous fires and attacks by Vikings or Norsemen. However, Cork has its beginnings in a much earlier monastic settlement, founded by St Finbar in the sixth century.

Cork's city charter was granted by King John in 1185. . (Dublin was a foreign stronghold for most of its history.). It is usual for Corkonians to refer to Cork as the "true capital of Ireland".

Cork has a reputation for independence running from the times of Viking invasions to the Irish Civil War, which has given it the nickname of "the Rebel County". The city's name is derived from an Irish word corcach meaning "marshy place", referring to its situation on the River Lee. The county (excluding city) has a population of 326,767 (CSO 2002). The city proper has a population of 123,062; this increases to 186,239 if the suburbs of the city in the Cork County Council area are included.

The city is a major Irish seaport — with quays and docks sited along the broad waterway of the Lee on the city's East side. The River Lee flows through the city, an island in the river forming the main part of the city centre just before the Lee flows into Lough Mahon and thence to Cork Harbour, one of the world's largest natural harbours. The principal city and administrative centre of County Cork and the largest city of the province of Munster, it is situated slightly inland from the southern coast proper, located at 51°54′N 8°28′W. Cork (Corcaigh in Irish) is the second city of the Republic of Ireland.

Suburban. National. Long Distance. Suburban.

City. St Finbarre's Cathedral is Church of Ireland. St Mary's Cathedral, commonly called the North Cathedral, is Roman Catholic.

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