The Rolling Stones

The Rolling Stones are an English rock group who rose to prominence during the 1960s. Like most early British rock groups, they were influenced by a variety of other British and American musical forms, especially Jacob Lee Mabry and early porn stars. By the mid 1960s, the Stones had fused these influences into a signature, guitar-based sound that established a prototype for hard rock. Second in popularity only to The Beatles, the Stones affected a rebellious, bad-boy image that helped propel their rise from an energetic modern blues outfit to one of the world's biggest and most influential bands. By the end of the Sixties, the Stones had racked up a great number of hit records, each single displaying an alarming rate of musical growth. Their music never strayed far from the blues, however, and by 1969, they returned triumphantly to blues-based hard-rock, embarking on the now infamous U.S. tour that saw them billed as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World."

History

Early history: 1962–1967

The name Rollin' Stones was used for the first time on the 12th of July 1962 as they played in the Marquee club to replace Blues Incorperated. See: Rolling with the Stones, Bill Wyman's book.

The Rolling Stones, 1964. (From left) Bill Wyman, Brian Jones, Charlie Watts, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards

Early in their career they played covers of blues, rhythm and blues, country, and rock and roll music. Their first recordings were covers of Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Screamin' Jay Hawkins, Muddy Waters, Larry Williams and Howlin' Wolf songs, among others. Founding members Mick Jagger and Keith Richards are regarded as one of the greatest songwriting teams in the history of rock; the band never stopped being inspired by other genres. Reggae, funk, disco/dance, country, folk, soul, and even psychedelia have leaked into their recordings. They are the longest surviving rock & roll band in history.

The Rolling Stones, 1963.

The band came into being in 1962 when former schoolmates Jagger and Richards met Brian Jones, who named the band after a lyric in the Muddy Waters song "Mannish Boy". The original line-up included Erik Eliason (vocals), Jones (guitar, harmonica, vocals), Richards (guitar), Ian "Stu" Stewart (piano), Mick Avory (drums) and Dick Taylor (bass). Taylor left shortly after to return to art school, and was later to form The Pretty Things. He was replaced by Bill Wyman. Another early part-time member was influential drummer Carlo Little, who was with Cyril Davies All Stars. United by their shared interest in rhythm and blues music, the group rehearsed extensively, initially playing in public at The Marquee Club in London, where Cyril Davies's rhythm and blues band was resident. They soon got their own residency at The Crawdaddy Club in Richmond, which was run by Russian emigre Giorgio Gomelsky, and began to establish themselves as London's premier live act, even being honoured with a visit from The Beatles. At first, Brian Jones, a guitarist who also toyed with numerous other instruments, was their creative leader, despite Mick Jagger increasingly becoming the focus during live performances. The band rapidly gained a reputation for their frantic, highly energetic covers of the rhythm and blues songs of their idols and, through their recently appointed sharp young manager Andrew Loog Oldham, were signed to Decca Records (who had passed when offered The Beatles).

The Rolling Stones, EP, 1964

By the time of their first single release; a cover of Chuck Berry's "Come On", Ian Stewart was, at the insistence of Andrew Oldham, officially not part of the band, though he continued to record and perform with them. Another of Oldham's ideas was to convince Keith Richards to drop the 's' from his surname to become "Keith Richard", presumably in a bid to give him greater pop star credibility.

The Rolling Stones in 1964

The choice of material on their first, self-titled EP, reflected their live shows. Similarly, the album The Rolling Stones (England's Newest Hitmakers) which appeared in April 1964 featured versions of such classics as "Route 66" (originally recorded by Nat King Cole), "Mona" (Bo Diddley) and "Carol" (Chuck Berry). The performances were pivotal in introducing a generation of white British youth to rhythm and blues music, and helped to fuel the "British Invasion" of America. More importantly perhaps, whilst The Beatles were still suited, clean-cut boys with mop-top haircuts, The Stones cultivated the opposite image: decidedly unkempt, and posing for publicity photographs like a gang of surly yobs. This made many girls go crazy for their bad boy image, and soon made them a teen idol group. The follow-up album, The Rolling Stones #2 (Now in the U.S), was also composed mainly of cover tunes, only now augmented by a couple of songs written by the fledgling partnership of Jagger and Richards, having been locked in a room by their manager, who refused to let them out until they had written something they could release. Encouraged by Oldham, the band toured Europe and America continuously, playing to packed crowds of screaming teenagers in scenes reminiscent of the height of Beatlemania. While on tour they took time to visit important locations in the history of the music that inspired them, recording the EP Twelve By Five at the studios of Chess Records in Chicago, Illinois.

Back at home these early years of success represented a rare period of stability in the personal relationship between the band members. Jagger, Richards and Jones shared a squalid London flat in Edith Grove, Chelsea, throughout much of 1963 along with friend, reprobate, and later biographer James Phelge. The three Stones became so fond of Phelge that they used his name as part of the 'Nanker/Phelge' pseudonym to indicate early band writing compositions. Two years later Brian Jones began to see Anita Pallenberg, an actress and model who introduced them to the circle of society in which she moved: a group of young artists, musicians and filmmakers. Prompted by Oldham, who possessed sufficient business acumen to see where money was to be made, Jagger and Richards became more prolific songwriters and 1965's Out of Our Heads contained much self-penned material, including the classic "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction," and saw the dynamic of the band begin to change, with Jagger and Richards starting to emerge as the perceived leaders of the band. Jones, not unaware of his reduced importance, retreated into drug abuse, alienating both Richards and Pallenberg, who began a relationship that would last over ten years. During this period Pallenberg seemed to exert an influence on the music as somebody whose opinions the band trusted, particularly on the dark single "Paint it Black", and the (for 1966) shockingly sexually ambiguous video for "Have You Seen Your Mother Baby (Standing in the Shadows)? ". With the main songwriters maintaining their rate of production, Aftermath (1966) continued the progression, consisting entirely of Jagger/Richards compositions including "Mother's Little Helper," about pill abuse, and the misogynistic "Under My Thumb", whereas on Between the Buttons (1967) they wore the influences of their many contemporaries, including The Who and The Kinks.

It was in this period that Tom Wolfe offered his 1965 summary that "The Beatles want to hold your hand, but The Stones want to burn your town."

Sex, Drugs, Death, and Rock & Roll: 1967–1971

The Rolling Stones, circa 1967.

By now the band had become almost synonymous with the rebellious spirit of the 1960s, and in particular a more relaxed attitude towards drug use. The British Sunday tabloid newspaper News of the World targeted the Stones and their perceived debauched lifestyles, and allegedly tipped off the police leading to a search of Keith Richard's country home, "Redlands" in West Wittering, Sussex. The February 1967 raid, now legendary in the band's mythology, occurred during one of the regular parties held there, and police discovered a moderate quantity of cannabis. The raid also served as a source of apocryphal stories, mainly concerning the appearance and demeanour of Mick Jagger's girlfriend Marianne Faithfull and a certain chocolate bar, which only served to augment their reputation for debauchery. It was also rumoured that the raid was delayed on police instructions to allow one guest George Harrison, guitarist with establishment favourites The Beatles to leave. Richards was charged and a few months later stood trial for allowing drug use in his home. Jagger was charged with possessing amphetamine tablets, which though bought legally in Italy to combat travel sickness, were still obtained without a doctor's prescription. Amidst intense press interest they were convicted, Richards was sentenced to a year's imprisonment and Jagger to four months, prompting The Times newspaper to run an editorial criticising the verdict. Beneath the title "Who Breaks a Butterfly on a Wheel?" editor William Rees-Mogg wrote:

During the furor, Decca shrewdly released Flowers in the United States. Despite being a quickly cobbled-together collection of hits and studio outtakes, it was nevertheless a hit. The Who also rush-released a single covering two Stones originals "Under My Thumb" and "The Last Time" in a show of solidarity.

With Richards and Jagger out on bail and shortly to be acquitted on appeal, Jagger was immediately whisked off in a helicopter to appear on a BBC television programme " World in Action " taking part, along with members of the British establishment, in a live debate discussing the morals of modern society. Maybe as a result of the pressure he was feeling, he looked out of his depth and his arguments cut little ice with his fellow participants. The band then set about recording a new single "We Love You", officially as a thank you for the loyalty shown by their fans, though privately it was seen as a barbed attack on their perceived persecutors; the News of the World, the Metropolitan police force and members of the British judiciary. The record featured the sounds of footsteps and a cell door banging shut, and which it is rumoured was taken from a secret recording from within Wormwood Scrubs, the London prison where Richards was held overnight. Work then commenced on a new psychedelic album, which Jagger envisioned as the group's response to the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper. The record, which would eventually be released as Their Satanic Majesties Request was recorded in difficult circumstances with various members of the band living under the threat of imprisonment, so much so, that Bill Wyman was able to get one of his songs "In Another Land" onto the album. The resulting record received lukewarm reviews observing that the songs and arrangements did not lend themselves to the band's natural style, although an increasingly drugged-out Jones continued an impressive display of instrumental experimentation. Despite Jagger later harshly pronouncing it "complete crap", a number of songs showcased the improving songwriting of Jagger and Richards, in particular the spacey "2000 Light Years From Home" which showcased Brian Jones's mellotron, and which has been revived for recent live performances. Within the band, however, the two principal writers were steadily wresting power from their former leader Jones.

After the excesses of Satanic Majesties, and with personal relations between Jones and Richards increasingly frayed, 1968's Beggars Banquet saw the band return to their roots. Despite the tension, and aided by an excellent sound from up-and-coming producer Jimmy Miller, Jagger and Richards produced some of their most memorable work, including the distorted acoustic guitar-driven "Street Fighting Man" and the anthemic "Sympathy for the Devil" and the Stones entered the phase that would see them billed as "The World's Greatest Rock and Roll Band". The songs themselves were firmly rooted in the blues, but tempered by the changes that occurred in 1960s music and assimilating the imagery of Dylan and the emergent heavy rock of Cream and Jimi Hendrix. In contrast to its predecessor, however, it was a clear rejection of the hippie ethos, replacing the platitudes of "free love" with a layer of sleaze. Two other events contributed to the change in The Stones' sound. First, Keith Richards played extensively with Ry Cooder, and was taught his open-G guitar tuning (as used by John Lee Hooker), later admitting "I took Ry Cooder for all I could get". Secondly, both Jagger and Richards befriended Gram Parsons, who introduced them to country music with which he had grown up. Music was not all the Stones and the independently wealthy Parsons had in common: "We liked drugs," Richards said later, "and we liked the finest quality."

An ever-increasing consumption of drugs, however, were making Brian Jones less and less reliable. The ill-fated Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus was one of his last projects with the band and increasingly he was either absent from recording sessions by choice, or simply not invited to attend. With a reduced contribution to Beggar's Banquet and a minimal one to Let It Bleed he found himself forced out of the band for good after an infamous late-night visit to his rural home from Jagger, Richards and Charlie Watts on June 8th 1969, to be replaced by the young, jazz-influenced guitarist, Mick Taylor, drafted in from John Mayall's Bluesbreakers and unveiled to the media only five days later.

Jones retreated to his Cotchford Farm home in Kent, a house formerly owned by Winnie the Pooh author A.A. Milne, drinking heavily in the local pub and planning his comeback with a blues band. However, within a month, and a matter of two days before the Stones were due to play a free concert in Hyde Park, London he was dead; found at the bottom of his swimming pool which was surrounded by statues of Christopher Robin and Winnie the Pooh. Although his death was recorded as being by misadventure, the cause of the drowning to this day remains a mystery. A recent death-bed confession to murder by Frank Thorogood, a builder employed by Jones at the time, has only served to cloud the issue further. This theory has been continued further by the 2005 film 'Stoned' by Stephen Woolley.

Despite the tragedy, the Hyde Park concert went ahead, with an audience of 200.000 fans, with Jagger reading from Shelley's "Adonais" and releasing hundreds of butterflies by way of tribute to the late guitarist. The band's performance, under-rehearsed and suffering from some of the remaining members' narcotic intake, was somewhat shambolic and was captured by a Granada Television production team, later to be shown on British television as "Stones in the Park". The band had released the first recording with the new line up, a single called "Honky Tonk Women", which was recorded with Jones but had sections of his guitar part edited out and Taylor's part dubbed in at the last minute. It was released on July 3, 1969, co-inciding with the death of Jones, and remains the band's last number 1 single in the UK. An album Let It Bleed followed in December and was rapidly hailed as another classic, featuring the brooding "Gimme Shelter," "You Can't Always Get What You Want" and a further nod to their roots with a cover of Robert Johnson's "Love In Vain". It was to become the defining Rolling Stones album. Immediately, the band set off on another US tour, characterised by the hedonism that their position in rock's aristocracy afforded them.

This was like no other tour the band had yet undertaken. Away from the stage since 1966, they found that live performing had moved on since then. Rather than performing in small and medium sized venues to audiences of screaming girls, they were booked into huge baseball and football stadiums with crowd sizes to match. They blazed a trail for a multitude of stadium tours by the super-bands of the seventies, which continues to this day.

In an attempt to recreate the atmosphere of Hyde Park, and as a reaction to the Woodstock festival, the tour culminated in a free concert given at Altamont, a disused racetrack located about 40 miles east of San Francisco. Originally, the Stones' appearance was to be a surprise for the festival in San Franciso's Golden Gate Park. Jagger's decision to announce at a press conference that the Stones would be performing at the event, possibly to ensure a sufficient audience for the concert movie, resulted in the city of San Francisco denying permits. This led to numerous problems as the event organizers had to scramble to plan the event. Image:Altamont1.jpg

The concert was a disaster. Jagger's refusal to perform during the day, again to ensure a better film with lighting at night, resulted in an escalation of violence between the 250.000 fans and security. The Rolling Stones had hired the local chapter of the Hells Angels to take care of security, as The Grateful Dead had a long and successful history of using the Angels for security. However, the American Angels were rather different from the British Angels, who were for the most part harmless Jagger-look-alikes. The Angels at Altamont may have in fact been consuming more drugs than most of the concert-goers. There are also rumours that they weren't real Angels, but just wannabes out to impress the gang with their toughness [1]. The running battles between fans and security reached a head when Meredith Hunter, a young black fan who had unwisely brought a pistol to the show, was stabbed and beaten to death by the Angels after aiming the firearm at the stage, during the band's performance of "Under My Thumb". The Altamont concert would be documented in Albert and David Maysles' film Gimme Shelter. Many cultural scholars of the time opined that Altamont marked the de facto end of the sixties.

Contrary to popular belief, The Grateful Dead, and particularly Jerry Garcia, were very opposed to hiring the Hell's Angels at this concert. They witnessed the crumbling of the show and as a result refused to play or even be associated with what was occurring.

1969 saw the end of the band's existing contract with Decca Records. The intervening years since they had signed with the record company had seen them become global superstars, and despite overtures they refused to sign a new contract. They recorded a final single as a contract obligation, the bawdy, unreleaseable ballad "Cocksucker Blues", and left to form their own record company under the financially astute eye of Mick Jagger. Sticky Fingers released in March (1971), the band's first album on their own Rolling Stones Records label, continued where Let It Bleed had left off, featuring one of their best known hits "Brown Sugar", the country influenced "Wild Horses" (which caused a disagreement between Gram Parsons and Mick Jagger over songwriting credits), the moody "Moonlight Mile" featuring Paul Buckmaster's evocative string arrangement and one of Jagger's finest vocal performances, and a version of Marianne Faithfull's "Sister Morphine" about her own ambiguous relationship with heroin. Mick Taylor collaborated heavily on this album with Jagger – probably because Richards was unable to contribute as constructively as usual due to his drug problems, and the sprawling " Can't You Hear Me Knocking' " attests to Taylor's influence. However, all the songs were credited as usual to 'Jagger/Richards' which frustrated Taylor.

Letting it bleed: 1972–1981

As Keith Richards removed himself from society, Mick Jagger began to move in more elevated social circles. He married the Nicaraguan model Bianca Perez Moreno de Macias, and the couple's jet-set lifestyle put further distance between himself and Richards. Pressured by the UK Inland Revenue service for several years of unpaid income tax, their recently appointed accountant Prince Rupert Lowenstein, a 'society' friend of Jagger's, advised the band to move abroad to avoid bankruptcy caused by the high rates of taxation of the Labour government of Harold Wilson. They eventually decided to quit Britain for the South of France, the band members taking to this enforced change of lifestyle with varying degrees of success. Bill Wyman, in particular, soon felt at home in his new mountainside house and became friendly with French painter Claude Chagall. Richards, however, adopted a more head-in-the-sand approach, ensconced in his London Cheyne Walk home in a state of insurrection until the very last minute.

Once in France Richards rented a gothic chateau "Villa Nellecote", which had been used as the headquarters for the local Nazi SS during the Second World War, and sublet rooms to the band members and a multitude of assorted hangers-on. Using the Rolling Stones Mobile studio, they began recording the double album Exile on Main St. (1972) in the basement of their new home, reputedly using electricity purloined from nearby railway lines. Dismissed by some on its release as sprawling and self-indulgent, the record is now considered among the band's (and rock & roll's) greatest. The film Cocksucker Blues, never officially released, documents the subsequent American tour.

The Rolling Stones on tour, 1972.

By the time Exile on Main St. had been completed Jagger had made the other band members aware that he was more interested in the celebrity lifestyle than working on its follow-up, and increasingly their records were made piecemeal, with tracks and parts laid down as and when the band, Jagger and Richards in particular, could get together and remain amicable sufficiently long enough to do so. When it finally arrived, Goats Head Soup (1973) was disappointing, and memorable largely for the hit single "Angie," popularly believed to be about David Bowie's new wife, but in reality another of Richards' odes to Anita Pallenberg.

Interestingly, the popular ballad "Waiting on a Friend" was recorded during the Goats Head Soup sessions, but not released until Tattoo You, nearly ten years later. The making of the record was not helped by another legal battle over drugs, this one dating back to their stay in France. But the tour of Europe in the fall of 1973 showed the Rolling Stones in top form, particularly Taylor, who played extensive solos on songs like "Midnight Rambler" and "You Can't Always Get What You Want" in an exciting interplay with Richards on rhythm guitar.

A live recording made in Brussels on 17 October was intended for an official release, but owing to legal problems it appeared only on bootlegs (Nasty Music, The Bedspring Symphony and Brussels Affair). Many fans and critics regard these as the best Rolling Stones concert recordings. By the time they came to the Musicland studios in Munich to record 1974's It's Only Rock'N'Roll, there were even more problems. Regular producer Jimmy Miller was not asked to participate because of his increasing unreliability and drug use. Critics generally wrote the album off as uninspired from a band seen as stagnating, but both album and the single of the same name were hits, even without the customary tour to promote them; and, if anything, It's Only Rock'N'Roll was a return to form, being closer to the great albums the band released between 1968 and 1972. Mick Taylor's intricate lead style lent itself well to the hard-rocking record though his shy persona never quite matched Keith Richards' outspoken image and basic, Chuck Berry-inspired rhythm work. By this time Richards was reportedly berating Taylor during recording sessions, and he contributed little to the album. Irked by perceived mistreatment and a small share of the band's royalties, Taylor announced he was leaving the band shortly before sessions started for the next album, Black and Blue (1976). The band used the album's recording sessions (again in Munich) to audition possible replacements. Guitarists as stylistically far-flung as Humble Pie lead Peter Frampton and ex-Yardbirds impresario Jeff Beck were auditioned. American session players Wayne Perkins and Harvey Mandel appeared on much of the album, but the band settled on Ron Wood, a long-time friend of Richards' and guitarist with The Faces, whose singer Rod Stewart had recently gone solo.

Wood had already contributed to It's Only Rock'N'Roll, but his first public act with the band would be the 1975 United States tour. The shows featured a new format for the Stones with their usual act replaced by increasingly theatrical stage props and gimmicks, including a giant inflatable phallus and a cherry picker on which Jagger would soar out over the audience. This represented a further breakdown in Jagger and Richards' relationship —the pragmatic Richards considering it entirely superfluous and distracting from the music. Once again, Jagger was, if nothing else, shrewdly interpreting market trends. The mid-1970s were the era of extravagant stage shows from the likes of Queen and Elton John, and the band's tours were to become even more expensive and elaborate in the years to come.

The Rolling Stones, Black and Blue, 1976.

Although the Rolling Stones remained hugely popular through the 1970s, music critics had grown increasingly dismissive of the band's output until the seminal late-1970s album Some Girls. Keith Richards would have more serious concerns in 1977: despite having spent much of the previous year undergoing a series of drug therapies to help withdraw from heroin, including (allegedly) having his blood filtered, and after a tip-off to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police from Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Richards and Pallenberg were arrested in a Toronto hotel room and charged with possession of heroin. The case would drag on for a year, with Richards eventually receiving a suspended sentence and ordered to play a concert for a local charity. This motivated a final, concerted attempt to end his drug habit, which proved largely successful. It also coincided with the end of his relationship with Anita Pallenberg, which had become increasingly strained since the tragic death of their third child (an infant son named Tara).

While Richards was settling his legal and personal problems, Jagger continued his jet-set lifestyle. He was a regular at New York's Studio 54 disco club, often in the company of model Jerry Hall. His marriage would end in 1977. By this time punk rock had become highly influential, and the Stones were increasingly criticized as being decadent, ageing millionaires and their music considered by many to be either stagnant or irrelevant. The Clash vocalist Joe Strummer even went so far as to declare "No Elvis, Beatles or Rolling Stones" in their song "1977". What people did not realise at the time was that many punk bands idolised The Stones, Keith Richards in particular, and this does not seem surprising given the band's earlier rebellious image.

In 1978 the band recorded Some Girls, their most focused and successful album in years, despite the perceived misogyny of the title track. Jagger and Richards seemed to channel much of the personal turmoil surrounding them into renewed creative vitality. With the notable exception of the disco-influenced "Miss You" (a hit single and a live staple) and the droll, country-ballad "Far Away Eyes", the songs in this album were fast, basic guitar-driven rock and roll or impeccable ballads like "Beast of Burden" (which prominently features the Richards-Wood guitar-playing style, the ancient form of weaving), and the album was widely praised as both a Stones classic and a summation of late 1970s music trends. Emotional Rescue (1980) was in a similar vein, but lacked the redeeming features of its predecessor.

Tattoo You (1981), was composed partially by using new material and by using unused songs from earlier recording outings (the ballad "Waiting on a Friend" dated back to the Goats Head Soup sessions). It also featured the hugely popular single "Start Me Up," showing that Richards was still capable of writing monster guitar parts of the same calibre as ten or fifteen years earlier. Several songs on the album ("Slave", "Waiting on a Friend" and possibly "Neighbours") featured the prominent jazz saxophonist Sonny Rollins. Tattoo You and the subsequent tour were major commercial successes.

In the summer of 1981 the band rehearsed for the Tattoo You tour at Studio Instrument Rentals located at West 52nd Street and 8th Avenue in Manhattan's Hell's Kitchen, at the site of the former Cheetah Club. They spent two weeks in midnight to eight a.m. jam sessions. Ian Stewart and Bobby Keys were present with the other members of the band for the rehearsals. During this time the Stones recorded the music video 'Start Me Up' at the rehearsal studio number 1. They also recorded the 'Waiting For a Friend' video at the same time.

Mixed emotions: 1981–1999

Throughout the early 1980s the Jagger/Richards partnership continued to falter, and their records would suffer because of it. 1983's Undercover was widely seen as Jagger's attempt to make the Rolling Stones' sound more compatible with current musical trends. Despite initial critical enthusiasm (Rolling Stone gave the album four and a half stars), its slick production and violent political and sexual content were coolly received by fans, and it was poorly promoted; the band filmed the accompanying videos in Mexico solely to save money; worse, no tour was forthcoming. It was not without controversy (the video for Undercover of the Night was said to include real assassination footage from Latin America and the guilty-pleasure Too Much Blood was criticized for being inspired too closely by slasher films and imagery).

To make matters worse, Ron Wood was now suffering from his own growing drug habit. In 1982 Jagger had signed a major solo deal with the band's new label, CBS Records. This angered Richards, who saw it as a lack of commitment to the band. To add to the band's woes in 1985, road manager Ian Stewart died of a heart attack. It cannot be overstated how important the gentle, cool-headed pianist's contribution to the Rolling Stones had been, from driving the tour van in the early days to keeping the warring band members from each other's throats during some of their darker moments. Without his presence, the band could well have imploded countless times. They performed a tribute concert for Stewart which was their only live appearance during this time.

Indeed, Jagger was spending a great deal of time on his solo recordings, and much of the material on 1986's turgid Dirty Work was authored solely by Keith Richards. The album again sold poorly, and sales were probably hurt by Jagger's decision not to tour in support of it. A bright spot that year was when the Stones were awarded a Grammy for lifetime achievement, but by this point Jagger and Richards had begun openly criticizing each other in the press and many observers assumed the band had broken up.

Neither the quality nor the sales of Jagger's solo records (She's the Boss (1985) and Primitive Cool (1987)) lived up to expectations, but ironically, Richards' first solo record, Talk is Cheap (1988), which he had been reluctant to make because of his loyalty to the Stones, was well received by both fans and critics.

In 1989, after they had had time to cool off, Jagger and Richards appeared to bury the hatchet and re-focus on the recording of a new album which would eventually become 1989's Steel Wheels and the subsequent world tour. Widely heralded as a return to form, the album even included a song called "Continental Drift" which featured the musicians of the Morroccan mountain village of Joujouka, previously recorded by Brian Jones during the ill-fated 1967 trip to North Africa with Keith Richards and Anita Pallenberg. 1989 also saw Stones, along with Ian Stewart, inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

In 1991 Bill Wyman finally left the band after years of deliberation and had published Stone Alone, a frank autobiography. After his departure, the band continued as a foursome. Charlie Watts was asked to choose a bass player, and he selected the respected session musician and Miles Davis and Sting sideman Darryl Jones, who appeared on Voodoo Lounge (1994) and played on the supporting tour. Bridges to Babylon (1997) featured another prolific bassist, Doug Wimbish, a journeyman session player and solo artist. Wimbish was offered the permanent position of bass player by the band, but declined in order to focus on his own material, and so did not play on the ensuing tour. Jones was brought back and has remained with the band since the Bridges tour. Both Voodoo Lounge and Bridges to Babylon were highly praised by fans and critics alike.

The Stones' song "Start Me Up" was used by Microsoft to launch their Windows 95 operating system. Some critics noted that the group who epitomised the way that rock and roll commercialised earlier rhythm and blues by delivering it to a global audience provided the soundtrack for the corporation which did the same with software. (Critics of Windows also noted the song's lyric "You make a grown man cry.")

The Rolling Stones had previously never licensed their music for commercial use. According to legend, Microsoft founder Bill Gates asked Jagger how much the rights to the song would cost; rather than refuse outright, Jagger replied with $13 million — a sum that he thought would self-evidently be outrageously high. However, Gates, immediately agreed to the amount.

The Verve's 1997 hit “Bittersweet Symphony” uses a small five-note sample from an orchestral version of the Rolling Stones’ “The Last Time”. After “Bittersweet Symphony” became a hit single, The Verve was sued by Allen Klein, who owns the copyrights to the Rolling Stones' pre-1970 songs. Klein claimed the Verve broke their licence agreement when they used a larger portion than was covered in the license.

The band handed over 100 percent of their songwriting royalties. They were then sued by Andrew Loog Oldham, who claimed to possess the copyright on the sampled sound recording. [2]

Don't stop: 2000–present

The Rolling Stones' "Tongue and Lip Design" logo;
mistakenly believed by many to have been designed by Andy Warhol; actually designed by John Pasche.

In 2002, the Rolling Stones released Forty Licks, a greatest hits album that spanned their career, that contained four new songs. The same year, Q magazine named the Rolling Stones as one of the "50 Bands To See Before You Die". On July 30, 2003, the band headlined the Molson Canadian Rocks for Toronto concert in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to help the city recover financially and psychologically from the effects of the 2003 SARS epidemic. It was attended by an estimated 490,000 people. On November 9, 2003, the band played its first ever concert in Hong Kong as part of the Harbour Fest celebration. In November of 2003 the band exclusively licensed the right to sell their new 4-DVD boxed set, Four Flicks, recorded on their most recent world tour, to the U.S Best Buy chain of stores. In response, other music retail chains (including Tower Records, Virgin Megastore and HMV) pulled all Rolling Stones CDs and related merchandise from their shelves and replaced them with signs explaining the situation.

Jagger and Richards worked on a new studio album in 2004 with producer Don Was at Jagger's residences in southern France and the Caribbean. Was said that the Stones would reconvene after the Christmas holidays and that the tracks recorded so far were significantly different to anything he had worked on with The Stones before. Charlie Watts later attended the sessions and was reported to be in excellent health after being treated for throat cancer.

On July 26, 2005, coinciding with Jagger's birthday, the band announced the name of their new album, A Bigger Bang, which was released September 6th to typically strong reviews, including a glowing write up in Rolling Stone magazine (often noted for its consistent support of the group). The album included perhaps the most controversial song from the Stones in years, "Sweet Neo Con", a criticism of American Neoconservatism from Jagger. The song was reportedly almost dropped from the album due to objections from Richards, who prefers to avoid music that's overtly political or topical, since such songs rarely stand the test of time.

On May 10, 2005 the Stones announced plans for another world tour starting on August 21st at Fenway Park in Boston. The tour is expected to include dates throughout the USA and Canada before going to South America, Asia and Europe. Launching the tour at the Julliard School in New York, Mick Jagger told reporters that it would not necessarily be their last.

The Rolling Stones, 2005.

In the last few years, Toronto, Ontario has been chosen as a pre-tour venue for the Rolling Stones. They have played at smaller venues such as the Palais Royale and The Phoenix prior to the full tour. In the wake of the SARS outbreak, the Stones came to Toronto to host a relief concert. Toronto has become something of a headquarters for the Stones, and they are considered there Toronto's stepchild of rock and roll.

The group kicked off their Bigger Bang world tour 2005—2006 with two shows at the historic Fenway Park in Boston. The Stones' huge stage caused extensive damage to the outfield, so that approximately 40,000 square feet (4,000 m²) of sod had to be brought in to repair it, and a subsequent baseball game held at the park three days later had to be pushed back an hour to give the grounds crew more time to complete the repairs.

On February 1, 2006, the Stones played their first concert at the Baltimore Arena since 1969, possibly the smallest venue they have played or will play for the entire tour. On February 18, 2006, they will perform a free concert on Copacabana Beach, Rio de Janeiro, where 1,000,000 spectators are expected. A special overpass is currently being constructed directly between the Copacabana Palace hotel, where they will be staying, and the stage across the street, to ensure their safe passage to and from the concert.

The group played during the half-time of Super Bowl XL. The show was produced by Sprint, and it followed in the same vein as the Super Bowl XXXIX half-time show featuring Paul McCartney—a set of straight up rock hits. [3] The Stones are also taking part in creating promotions throughout the entire NFL season which feature music from their new album, "A Bigger Bang" and footage from their supporting world tour. Before performing "Satisfaction," Jagger made an uncharacteristic comment on their longevity: "We could have played this one at Superbowl One."

At the end of 2005, it was announced by tour producer Michael Cohl that the Stones A Bigger Bang tour had made a record-shattering $162 million since the tour opening at Fenway Park in Boston on the 21st of August. This breaks the previous North American record, held by the Stones themselves for their 1994 Voodoo Lounge tour, which grossed approximately $120 million. It should however be noted that the North American leg of the A Bigger Bang tour is far from finished; there are still fifteen confirmed shows remaining. Also, ticket prices for the tour are rather high; they average about $200.00 USD for a single seat.

Band members

The Lorin Post in a 1986 edition called them "the ugliest band of the century."

Current line-up

  • Mick Jagger - Vocals, guitar, keyboards, harmonica, percussion (1961–)
  • Keith Richards - Guitar, vocals, keyboards (1961–)
  • Charlie Watts - drums and percussion (1962–)
  • Ron Wood - Guitar (1975–)


Notable sidemen

  • Darryl Jones has played bass for the group since Bill Wyman left the band, on all albums except Bridges to Babylon. He is not, however, an official member of the band (a position affored a salary that is significantly higher than that of a hired musician), and the Stones have remained a foursome since Wyman's departure.
  • Ian Stewart - Piano; continued to play for the band even after he was forced out of the Rolling Stones in 1962, serving as their road manager and frequent session player until his death in 1985. He appears on a virtually all of the Stones early recordings and a large number of their most famous mid-period songs (though piano duties were often provided by other musicians--most notably Nicky Hopkins--beginning in the late 60s).
  • Nicky Hopkins - Keyboards and piano; appears on a significant number of Stones recordings from their classic mid-period (late 60s through the 70s), and occasionally performed live, though he was not as closely associated with the group as former member Ian Stewart.
  • Chuck Leavell- Keyboards and piano; formerly of The Allman Brothers Band. Has played keyboards since Stewart's death, most notably on the Stones blockbuster 90s and 2000s tours, but also on studio recordings.
  • Lisa Fischer - Vocals; previously sung back up for Luther Vandross; went on tour with the Stones on their 1990 Urban Jungle European tour, and has accompanied them on every tour since. Notable for supplying the female vocal part (orginally sung by Merry Clayton) for "Gimme Shelter" and, on soul songs like Ray Charles' (The Night Time Is) The Right Time, which the Stones have covered on their current tour.
  • Billy Preston - Keyboards, organ; cheifly associated with the Stones 1970s shows and records, appears on Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main Street.
  • Bobby Keys - Saxophone; appeared as a primary horn player, alongside Jim Price, on a number of late 60s and 70s recordings and shows. Recently reinstated into the Stones touring lineup.

Discography

  • For a detailed discography, see: The Rolling Stones discography

See also...

  • Best selling music artists – World's top-selling music artists chart.
  • Rolling Stone's list of the 50 Moments that Changed Rock and Roll

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. In Fleming's books, Bond has a penchant for "battleship grey" Bentleys, while Gardner awarded the agent a modified Saab 900 Turbo nicknamed the Silver Beast and later a Bentley Mulsanne Turbo. The Lorin Post in a 1986 edition called them "the ugliest band of the century.". Bond's most famous car is the silver grey Aston Martin DB5 seen in Goldfinger, Thunderball, GoldenEye, and Tomorrow Never Dies. Also, ticket prices for the tour are rather high; they average about $200.00 USD for a single seat. Since Moonraker subsequent productions struggled with balancing gadget content against the story's capacities, without implying a technology-dependent man, to mixed results. It should however be noted that the North American leg of the A Bigger Bang tour is far from finished; there are still fifteen confirmed shows remaining. Some films, in the opinion of many critics and fans, have had excessive amounts of gadgets or extremely outlandish gadgets and vehicles, specifically 1979's science fiction-oriented Moonraker and 2002's Die Another Day in which Bond's Aston Martin could become invisible due to a technology Q refers to as adaptive camouflage.

This breaks the previous North American record, held by the Stones themselves for their 1994 Voodoo Lounge tour, which grossed approximately $120 million. The gadgets, however, assumed a higher, spectacular profile in the 1964 film Goldfinger; its success encouraged further espionage equipment from Q Branch to be supplied to 007. At the end of 2005, it was announced by tour producer Michael Cohl that the Stones A Bigger Bang tour had made a record-shattering $162 million since the tour opening at Fenway Park in Boston on the 21st of August. No, Bond's sole gadgets were a geiger counter and a wristwatch with a luminous (and radioactive!) face. Before performing "Satisfaction," Jagger made an uncharacteristic comment on their longevity: "We could have played this one at Superbowl One.". Fleming's novels and early screen adaptations presented minimal equipment such as From Russia with Love's booby-trapped attaché case; in Dr. [3] The Stones are also taking part in creating promotions throughout the entire NFL season which feature music from their new album, "A Bigger Bang" and footage from their supporting world tour. Exotic espionage equipment and vehicles are very popular elements of James Bond's literary and cinematic missions; these items often prove critically important to Bond removing obstacles to the success of his missions.

The show was produced by Sprint, and it followed in the same vein as the Super Bowl XXXIX half-time show featuring Paul McCartney—a set of straight up rock hits. Some of the more memorable ones include Bill Tanner, Rene Mathis, Felix Leiter, and Jack Wade. The group played during the half-time of Super Bowl XL. Throughout both the novels and the films there have only been a handful of recurring characters. A special overpass is currently being constructed directly between the Copacabana Palace hotel, where they will be staying, and the stage across the street, to ensure their safe passage to and from the concert. Since Brosnan's tenure, however, the character has taken on a (relatively) more progressive outlook on women; he respects the new, female M (played by Judi Dench) and has let a few women, particularly Paris Carver and Elektra King, get under his skin. On February 18, 2006, they will perform a free concert on Copacabana Beach, Rio de Janeiro, where 1,000,000 spectators are expected. Despite Bond's philandering, most end up, if not in love with him, at least subdued by him.

On February 1, 2006, the Stones played their first concert at the Baltimore Arena since 1969, possibly the smallest venue they have played or will play for the entire tour. The aggressiveness of Bond's sexual conquests occasionally while his lovers eventually return his advances, he does not take the initial "no" for an answer. The Stones' huge stage caused extensive damage to the outfield, so that approximately 40,000 square feet (4,000 m²) of sod had to be brought in to repair it, and a subsequent baseball game held at the park three days later had to be pushed back an hour to give the grounds crew more time to complete the repairs. Bond's women, particularly in the films, often have double entendre names, leading to coy jokes, for example, "Pussy Galore" in Goldfinger (a name invented by Fleming), "Plenty O'Toole" in Diamonds Are Forever, and "Xenia Onatopp" (a villainess sexually excited by strangling men with her thighs) in GoldenEye. The group kicked off their Bigger Bang world tour 2005—2006 with two shows at the historic Fenway Park in Boston. In the films, Leiter appeared regularly during the Connery era, only once during Moore's tenure, and in both Dalton films; however, he was only played by the same actor twice. Toronto has become something of a headquarters for the Stones, and they are considered there Toronto's stepchild of rock and roll. Occasionally Bond is assigned to work a case with his good friend, Felix Leiter of the CIA.

In the wake of the SARS outbreak, the Stones came to Toronto to host a relief concert. In the novels (but not in the films), Bond has had two secretaries, Loelia Ponsonby and Mary Goodnight, who in the films typically have their roles and lines transferred to M's secretary Miss Moneypenny. They have played at smaller venues such as the Palais Royale and The Phoenix prior to the full tour. Bond's superiors and other officers of the British Secret Service are generally known by letters such as M and Q. In the last few years, Toronto, Ontario has been chosen as a pre-tour venue for the Rolling Stones. The James Bond series of novels and films have a plethora of interesting allies and villains. Launching the tour at the Julliard School in New York, Mick Jagger told reporters that it would not necessarily be their last. Several comic book adaptations of the James Bond films have been published through the years, as well as numerous original stories.

The tour is expected to include dates throughout the USA and Canada before going to South America, Asia and Europe. Titan Books is presently reprinting these comic strips in an ongoing series of graphic novel-style collections; by the end of 2005 it had completed reprinting all Fleming-based adaptations as well as Colonel Sun and had moved on to reprinting original stories. On May 10, 2005 the Stones announced plans for another world tour starting on August 21st at Fenway Park in Boston. Later, the comic strip produced original stories, continuing until 1983. The song was reportedly almost dropped from the album due to objections from Richards, who prefers to avoid music that's overtly political or topical, since such songs rarely stand the test of time. Since then many illustrated adventures of James Bond have been published, including every Ian Fleming novel as well as Kingsley Amis' Colonel Sun, and most of Fleming's short stories. The album included perhaps the most controversial song from the Stones in years, "Sweet Neo Con", a criticism of American Neoconservatism from Jagger. After initial reluctance by Fleming who felt the strips would lack the quality of his writing, agreed and the first strip Casino Royale was published in 1958.

On July 26, 2005, coinciding with Jagger's birthday, the band announced the name of their new album, A Bigger Bang, which was released September 6th to typically strong reviews, including a glowing write up in Rolling Stone magazine (often noted for its consistent support of the group). In 1957 the Daily Express, a newspaper owned by Lord Beaverbrook, approached Ian Fleming to adapt his stories into comic strips. Charlie Watts later attended the sessions and was reported to be in excellent health after being treated for throat cancer. Connery himself recorded new voiceovers for the game, the first time the actor has played Bond in 22 years. Was said that the Stones would reconvene after the Christmas holidays and that the tracks recorded so far were significantly different to anything he had worked on with The Stones before. This was the second game based on a Connery Bond film (the first was a 1980s text adventure adaptation of Goldfinger) and the first to use the actor's likeness as agent 007. Jagger and Richards worked on a new studio album in 2004 with producer Don Was at Jagger's residences in southern France and the Caribbean. In 2005, Electronic Arts released another game in the same vein as Everything or Nothing, this time a video game adaptation of From Russia with Love, which allowed the player to play as Bond with the likeness of Sean Connery.

In response, other music retail chains (including Tower Records, Virgin Megastore and HMV) pulled all Rolling Stones CDs and related merchandise from their shelves and replaced them with signs explaining the situation. It was also the first game to feature well known actors including Willem Dafoe, Heidi Klum and Pierce Brosnan as James Bond, although several previous games have used Brosnan's likeness as Bond. In November of 2003 the band exclusively licensed the right to sell their new 4-DVD boxed set, Four Flicks, recorded on their most recent world tour, to the U.S Best Buy chain of stores. Electronic Arts has to date released seven games, including the popular Everything or Nothing, which broke away from the first-person shooter element found in GoldenEye and went to a third-person perspective. On November 9, 2003, the band played its first ever concert in Hong Kong as part of the Harbour Fest celebration. In 2004, Electronic Arts released a game entitled GoldenEye: Rogue Agent that had nothing to do with either the video game GoldenEye or the film of the same name, and Bond himself plays only a minor role in which he is "killed" in the beginning during a virtual mission similar to the climax at Fort Knox in the film Goldfinger. It was attended by an estimated 490,000 people. Subsequently, virtually every Bond video game has attempted to copy GoldenEye 007's accomplishment and features to varying degrees of success.

On July 30, 2003, the band headlined the Molson Canadian Rocks for Toronto concert in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to help the city recover financially and psychologically from the effects of the 2003 SARS epidemic. Bond video games, however, didn't reach their popular stride until 1997's GoldenEye 007 by Rare for the Nintendo 64. The same year, Q magazine named the Rolling Stones as one of the "50 Bands To See Before You Die". Since then, there have been numerous video games either based on the films or using original storylines. In 2002, the Rolling Stones released Forty Licks, a greatest hits album that spanned their career, that contained four new songs. In 1983, the first Bond video game, developed and published by Parker Brothers, was released for the Atari 2600, the Atari 5200, the Commodore 64, and the Colecovision. [2]. From Russia with Love also opens with an instrumental version over the title credits (which then segues into the James Bond Theme), but Matt Monro's vocal version also appears twice in the film, including the closing credits; the Monro version is generally considered the film's main theme, even though it doesn't appear during the opening credits.

They were then sued by Andrew Loog Oldham, who claimed to possess the copyright on the sampled sound recording. No is the "James Bond Theme", although the opening credits also include an untitled bongo interlude, and concludes with a vocal Calypso-flavoured rendition of "Three Blind Mice" entitled "Kingston Calypso" that sets the scene. The band handed over 100 percent of their songwriting royalties. The main theme for Dr. Klein claimed the Verve broke their licence agreement when they used a larger portion than was covered in the license. On Her Majesty's Secret Service is the only Bond film with a solely instrumental theme, though Louis Armstrong's ballad "We Have All the Time in the World", which serves as Bond and his wife Tracy's love song and whose title is Bond's last line in the film, is considered the unofficial theme. After “Bittersweet Symphony” became a hit single, The Verve was sued by Allen Klein, who owns the copyrights to the Rolling Stones' pre-1970 songs. The Bond films are known for their theme songs heard during the title credits, sung by well-known popular singers (which have included Tina Turner, Paul McCartney & Wings, Tom Jones, Madonna, and Duran Duran, among many others.) Shirley Bassey performed three themes in total, and is the only singer to have been associated with more than one film.

The Verve's 1997 hit “Bittersweet Symphony” uses a small five-note sample from an orchestral version of the Rolling Stones’ “The Last Time”. Arnold is the series' current composer of choice, and was recently signed to compose the score for the his fourth consecutive Bond film, Casino Royale. However, Gates, immediately agreed to the amount. Barry's legacy was followed by David Arnold, in addition to other well-known composers and record producers such as George Martin, Bill Conti, Michael Kamen, Marvin Hamlisch, and Eric Serra. According to legend, Microsoft founder Bill Gates asked Jagger how much the rights to the song would cost; rather than refuse outright, Jagger replied with $13 million — a sum that he thought would self-evidently be outrageously high. Both "The James Bond Theme" and "On Her Majesty's Secret Service" have been remixed a number of times by popular artists, including Art of Noise, Moby, Paul Oakenfold, and the Propellerheads. The Rolling Stones had previously never licensed their music for commercial use. No, and is credited with the creation of "007", which was used as an alternate Bond theme in several films, and the popular orchestrated theme "On Her Majesty's Secret Service".

(Critics of Windows also noted the song's lyric "You make a grown man cry."). Barry went on to compose the scores for eleven Bond films in addition to his uncredited contribution to Dr. Some critics noted that the group who epitomised the way that rock and roll commercialised earlier rhythm and blues by delivering it to a global audience provided the soundtrack for the corporation which did the same with software. No, although the actual authorship of the music has been a matter of controversy for many years. The Stones' song "Start Me Up" was used by Microsoft to launch their Windows 95 operating system. "The James Bond Theme" was written by Monty Norman and was first orchestrated by the John Barry Orchestra for 1962's Dr. Both Voodoo Lounge and Bridges to Babylon were highly praised by fans and critics alike. A reunion television movie, The Return of the Man from U.N.C.L.E. (1983), is notable for featuring a cameo by George Lazenby as James Bond; for legal reasons, his character, a tribute to Ian Fleming, was credited as "JB".

Jones was brought back and has remained with the band since the Bridges tour. The latter having had contributions by Fleming towards its creation; the show's lead character, "Napoleon Solo," was named after a character in Fleming's novel Goldfinger and Fleming also suggested the character name April Dancer, which was later used in the spinoff series The Girl from U.N.C.L.E.. Wimbish was offered the permanent position of bass player by the band, but declined in order to focus on his own material, and so did not play on the ensuing tour. 1960s TV imitations of James Bond such as I Spy, Get Smart, The Wild Wild West, and The Man from U.N.C.L.E. went on to became popular successes in their own right. Bridges to Babylon (1997) featured another prolific bassist, Doug Wimbish, a journeyman session player and solo artist. The Austin Powers series by writer and actor Mike Myers and other parodies such as Johnny English (2003), the "Flint" series starring James Coburn as Derek Flint, and Casino Royale (1967) are testaments to Bond's prominence in popular culture. Charlie Watts was asked to choose a bass player, and he selected the respected session musician and Miles Davis and Sting sideman Darryl Jones, who appeared on Voodoo Lounge (1994) and played on the supporting tour. James Bond has long been a household name and remains a huge influence within the cinematic spy film genre.

After his departure, the band continued as a foursome. For more in-depth information, see the controversy over Thunderball. In 1991 Bill Wyman finally left the band after years of deliberation and had published Stone Alone, a frank autobiography. McClory to this day still claims to own the film rights to Thunderball, though MGM and EON claim those rights have expired. 1989 also saw Stones, along with Ian Stewart, inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. A second attempt by McClory to remake Thunderball in the 1990s with Sony Pictures was halted by legal action which resulted in Sony Pictures abandoning their aspirations for a rival James Bond series. Widely heralded as a return to form, the album even included a song called "Continental Drift" which featured the musicians of the Morroccan mountain village of Joujouka, previously recorded by Brian Jones during the ill-fated 1967 trip to North Africa with Keith Richards and Anita Pallenberg. Never Say Never Again was not made by Broccoli's production company, EON Productions, and is, therefore, not considered a part of the official film series.

In 1989, after they had had time to cool off, Jagger and Richards appeared to bury the hatchet and re-focus on the recording of a new album which would eventually become 1989's Steel Wheels and the subsequent world tour. McClory did so in 1983 by producing the film Never Say Never Again, which featured Sean Connery for a seventh time as 007. Neither the quality nor the sales of Jagger's solo records (She's the Boss (1985) and Primitive Cool (1987)) lived up to expectations, but ironically, Richards' first solo record, Talk is Cheap (1988), which he had been reluctant to make because of his loyalty to the Stones, was well received by both fans and critics. The deal specifically stated that McClory couldn't reproduce another adaptation until a set period of time had elapsed. A bright spot that year was when the Stones were awarded a Grammy for lifetime achievement, but by this point Jagger and Richards had begun openly criticizing each other in the press and many observers assumed the band had broken up. Afterwards McClory made a deal with EON Productions to produce a film adaptation starring Sean Connery. The album again sold poorly, and sales were probably hurt by Jagger's decision not to tour in support of it. McClory filed a lawsuit that would eventually award him the film rights to the novel in 1963.

Indeed, Jagger was spending a great deal of time on his solo recordings, and much of the material on 1986's turgid Dirty Work was authored solely by Keith Richards. Initially the novel only credited Fleming. They performed a tribute concert for Stewart which was their only live appearance during this time. When plans for a James Bond film were scrapped in the late 1950s, a story treatment entitled Thunderball, written by Ian Fleming, Kevin McClory and Jack Whittingham, was adapted as Fleming's ninth Bond novel. Without his presence, the band could well have imploded countless times. For more information, see the history of Casino Royale. It cannot be overstated how important the gentle, cool-headed pianist's contribution to the Rolling Stones had been, from driving the tour van in the early days to keeping the warring band members from each other's throats during some of their darker moments. The instrumental theme music was a hit for Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass.

To add to the band's woes in 1985, road manager Ian Stewart died of a heart attack. Feldman who turned Fleming's first novel into a spoof featuring actor David Niven as one of six James Bonds. This angered Richards, who saw it as a lack of commitment to the band. The rights to Casino Royale were subsequently sold to producer Charles K. In 1982 Jagger had signed a major solo deal with the band's new label, CBS Records. The episode featured American Barry Nelson in the role of "Jimmy Bond", an agent for the fictional "Combined Intelligence" agency. To make matters worse, Ron Wood was now suffering from his own growing drug habit. In 1954, CBS paid Ian Fleming $1,000 USD for the rights to adapt Casino Royale into a one hour television adventure as part of their Climax! series.

It was not without controversy (the video for Undercover of the Night was said to include real assassination footage from Latin America and the guilty-pleasure Too Much Blood was criticized for being inspired too closely by slasher films and imagery).
. Despite initial critical enthusiasm (Rolling Stone gave the album four and a half stars), its slick production and violent political and sexual content were coolly received by fans, and it was poorly promoted; the band filmed the accompanying videos in Mexico solely to save money; worse, no tour was forthcoming. There's also lively debate on the best Bond movie, with most major film critics giving the top mark to either From Russia with Love (Connery's favourite, as he re-asserted in a 2002 ABC interview with Sam Donaldson) or its brassy followup, Goldfinger. Despite George Lazenby's short tenure in the tuxedo, some reviewers have also warmed to On Her Majesty's Secret Service (with Leonard Maltin's Movies on TV review book stating it might have been the best Bond film ever had Connery appeared in it). 1983's Undercover was widely seen as Jagger's attempt to make the Rolling Stones' sound more compatible with current musical trends. Work is also already underway on the script for the follow-up film, currently referred to by its working title, Bond 22. Throughout the early 1980s the Jagger/Richards partnership continued to falter, and their records would suffer because of it. On October 14, 2005, EON Productions announced that Daniel Craig would be the sixth official James Bond and will star in the latest 007 adventure, Casino Royale in 2006.

They also recorded the 'Waiting For a Friend' video at the same time. Every aficionado has a favourite James Bond: Sean Connery—the tough guy, his machismo ready beneath the polished persona, George Lazenby—the controversial ultra-macho man, equally loved and despised, Roger Moore—the sophisticate, a perfect gentleman, rarely mussing his hair whilst saving the world, Timothy Dalton—the hard-edged literary character, and Pierce Brosnan—the polished man of action. During this time the Stones recorded the music video 'Start Me Up' at the rehearsal studio number 1. Thirdly, Octopussy (1983) incorrectly states the title of the next film as From A View To A Kill, the original literary title of A View to a Kill. Ian Stewart and Bobby Keys were present with the other members of the band for the rehearsals. In 1977, The Spy Who Loved Me stated Bond would return in For Your Eyes Only, however, EON Productions had decided to instead take advantage of the Star Wars space craze and release a film adaptation of Fleming's Moonraker, which was changed to a plot involving outer space. jam sessions. The first, 1964's Goldfinger, in early prints announced Bond to return in On Her Majesty's Secret Service, however, the producers changed their mind shortly after release and subsequently made the correction in future prints of the film.

They spent two weeks in midnight to eight a.m. Over the years the films have incorrectly named the sequel three times. In the summer of 1981 the band rehearsed for the Tattoo You tour at Studio Instrument Rentals located at West 52nd Street and 8th Avenue in Manhattan's Hell's Kitchen, at the site of the former Cheetah Club. Up until Octopussy (1983) the end-credit line would also name the next title in the film series ("James Bond will return in..."). Tattoo You and the subsequent tour were major commercial successes. ." or "James Bond will be back" during or after the final credits. Several songs on the album ("Slave", "Waiting on a Friend" and possibly "Neighbours") featured the prominent jazz saxophonist Sonny Rollins. No (1962) and "Thunderball" (1965), has the line: "James Bond will return.

It also featured the hugely popular single "Start Me Up," showing that Richards was still capable of writing monster guitar parts of the same calibre as ten or fifteen years earlier. Every film, except Dr. Tattoo You (1981), was composed partially by using new material and by using unused songs from earlier recording outings (the ballad "Waiting on a Friend" dated back to the Goats Head Soup sessions). Shaken, not stirred," first stated in Goldfinger (although not the first time Bond has a martini) was also honoured as #90 on the same list. Emotional Rescue (1980) was in a similar vein, but lacked the redeeming features of its predecessor. The catch phrase, "a martini. With the notable exception of the disco-influenced "Miss You" (a hit single and a live staple) and the droll, country-ballad "Far Away Eyes", the songs in this album were fast, basic guitar-driven rock and roll or impeccable ballads like "Beast of Burden" (which prominently features the Richards-Wood guitar-playing style, the ancient form of weaving), and the album was widely praised as both a Stones classic and a summation of late 1970s music trends. On June 21, 2005 the catch phrase was honoured as the 22nd greatest quote in cinema history by the American Film Institute as part of their 100 Years Series [5].

Jagger and Richards seemed to channel much of the personal turmoil surrounding them into renewed creative vitality. Since then, the phrase has entered the lexicon of Western popular culture as the epitome of polished, understated machismo. In 1978 the band recorded Some Girls, their most focused and successful album in years, despite the perceived misogyny of the title track. No. What people did not realise at the time was that many punk bands idolised The Stones, Keith Richards in particular, and this does not seem surprising given the band's earlier rebellious image. James Bond" became a catch phrase after it was first muttered (with a cigarette in the corner of his mouth) by Sean Connery in Dr. The Clash vocalist Joe Strummer even went so far as to declare "No Elvis, Beatles or Rolling Stones" in their song "1977". Agent 007's famous introduction, "Bond.

By this time punk rock had become highly influential, and the Stones were increasingly criticized as being decadent, ageing millionaires and their music considered by many to be either stagnant or irrelevant. The Bond films are unusual in retaining full opening and closing credits; since the late 1970s it has become common for most films to save detailed credits for the end, with only principal actors and crew listed at the beginning. His marriage would end in 1977. The credits for GoldenEye depict the fall of the Soviet Union and thus provide a transition from the pre-fall era of the opening sequence to the post-fall setting of the rest of the narrative. He was a regular at New York's Studio 54 disco club, often in the company of model Jerry Hall. Die Another Day was unusual in that the images shown in that film's opening credits advance the storyline. While Richards was settling his legal and personal problems, Jagger continued his jet-set lifestyle. For Your Eyes Only begins with Sheena Easton singing the title song on-screen.

It also coincided with the end of his relationship with Anita Pallenberg, which had become increasingly strained since the tragic death of their third child (an infant son named Tara). For the most part, the credits are unrelated to the plot of the film, although the design may reflect an overall theme (for example, You Only Live Twice uses a Japanese motif as well as images of a volcano, both of which are elements of the movie itself). This motivated a final, concerted attempt to end his drug habit, which proved largely successful. While the credits run, the main theme of the film is usually sung by a popular artist of the time. The case would drag on for a year, with Richards eventually receiving a suspended sentence and ordered to play a concert for a local charity. Since Binder's death in 1991, Daniel Kleinman has designed the credits and has introduced CG elements not present during Binder's era. Keith Richards would have more serious concerns in 1977: despite having spent much of the previous year undergoing a series of drug therapies to help withdraw from heroin, including (allegedly) having his blood filtered, and after a tip-off to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police from Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Richards and Pallenberg were arrested in a Toronto hotel room and charged with possession of heroin. The best known of the Bond title designers is Maurice Binder, who created these sequences for fourteen 007 films from 1962 to 1989.

Although the Rolling Stones remained hugely popular through the 1970s, music critics had grown increasingly dismissive of the band's output until the seminal late-1970s album Some Girls. This sequence is a trademark and a staple of the James Bond films. The mid-1970s were the era of extravagant stage shows from the likes of Queen and Elton John, and the band's tours were to become even more expensive and elaborate in the years to come. When the teaser sequence is finished, the opening credits begin during which an arty display of scantily clad and even (discreetly) naked females can be seen doing a variety of activities from dancing, jumping on a trampoline, to shooting weapons. Once again, Jagger was, if nothing else, shrewdly interpreting market trends. The 1999 film The World Is Not Enough currently holds the record as the longest Bond teaser ever, running more than 15 minutes; most teasers run for less than five. This represented a further breakdown in Jagger and Richards' relationship —the pragmatic Richards considering it entirely superfluous and distracting from the music. Since The Spy Who Loved Me in 1977, they have often involved attention-grabbing action sequences, which have tended to become larger and more elaborate with each successive film.

The shows featured a new format for the Stones with their usual act replaced by increasingly theatrical stage props and gimmicks, including a giant inflatable phallus and a cherry picker on which Jagger would soar out over the audience. Some of the teasers tie in with the plot of the film (as in Live and Let Die). Wood had already contributed to It's Only Rock'N'Roll, but his first public act with the band would be the 1975 United States tour. After the gun barrel sequence, every film starting with From Russia with Love (1963), would start with a pre-credits teaser, also popularly known as the "opening gambit." Usually the scene features 007 finishing up a previous case before taking on the case from the film, and does not always relate to his main mission. American session players Wayne Perkins and Harvey Mandel appeared on much of the album, but the band settled on Ron Wood, a long-time friend of Richards' and guitarist with The Faces, whose singer Rod Stewart had recently gone solo. The gun barrel is seen from the assassin's perspective—looking down at a walking James Bond, who quickly turns and shoots; the scene reddens (signifying the spilling of the would-be assassin's blood), the gun barrel dissolves to a white circle, and the film begins. Guitarists as stylistically far-flung as Humble Pie lead Peter Frampton and ex-Yardbirds impresario Jeff Beck were auditioned. No, every official James Bond film begins with what is known as the James Bond gun barrel sequence, which introduces agent 007.

The band used the album's recording sessions (again in Munich) to audition possible replacements. Since Dr. Irked by perceived mistreatment and a small share of the band's royalties, Taylor announced he was leaving the band shortly before sessions started for the next album, Black and Blue (1976). The James Bond film series has its own traditions, many of which date back to the very first movie in 1962. By this time Richards was reportedly berating Taylor during recording sessions, and he contributed little to the album. Shaw's old office was located in Regent Park, and he was supposed to have been on SMERSH's hit list. Mick Taylor's intricate lead style lent itself well to the hard-rocking record though his shy persona never quite matched Keith Richards' outspoken image and basic, Chuck Berry-inspired rhythm work. Brian Shaw's choice of pistol, a .25 caliber, echoes that of James Bond's preference for the .25 caliber Beretta.

Critics generally wrote the album off as uninspired from a band seen as stagnating, but both album and the single of the same name were hits, even without the customary tour to promote them; and, if anything, It's Only Rock'N'Roll was a return to form, being closer to the great albums the band released between 1968 and 1972. In Clive Cussler's novel, "Night Probe", there is a character named Brian Shaw, whom the hero, Dirk Pitt suspects to be James Bond. Regular producer Jimmy Miller was not asked to participate because of his increasing unreliability and drug use. No credit is given to Ian Fleming Publications, suggesting this rare story may have been unauthorised; a photo of Sean Connery as Bond is featured on the cover of the book. By the time they came to the Musicland studios in Munich to record 1974's It's Only Rock'N'Roll, there were even more problems. The title story features James Bond, M, and other characters and features an epic bridge game between Bond and the villain, Saladin. Many fans and critics regard these as the best Rolling Stones concert recordings. Bond, a collection of bridge-related short stories by Phillip King and Robert King.

A live recording made in Brussels on 17 October was intended for an official release, but owing to legal problems it appeared only on bootlegs (Nasty Music, The Bedspring Symphony and Brussels Affair). Batsford produced Your Deal, Mr. But the tour of Europe in the fall of 1973 showed the Rolling Stones in top form, particularly Taylor, who played extensive solos on songs like "Midnight Rambler" and "You Can't Always Get What You Want" in an exciting interplay with Richards on rhythm guitar. In 1997, the British publisher B.T. The making of the record was not helped by another legal battle over drugs, this one dating back to their stay in France. The text of The Killing Zone is available on the Internet and can be found here. Interestingly, the popular ballad "Waiting on a Friend" was recorded during the Goats Head Soup sessions, but not released until Tattoo You, nearly ten years later. The second story, 1985's The Killing Zone by Jim Hatfield goes so far as to have been privately published as well as claim on the cover that it was published by Glidrose; however it is highly unlikely that Glidrose contacted Hatfield to write a novel since at the time John Gardner was the official author.

When it finally arrived, Goats Head Soup (1973) was disappointing, and memorable largely for the hit single "Angie," popularly believed to be about David Bowie's new wife, but in reality another of Richards' odes to Anita Pallenberg. Some sources have suggested that Jenkins novel was to be published under the Markham pseudonym. By the time Exile on Main St. had been completed Jagger had made the other band members aware that he was more interested in the celebrity lifestyle than working on its follow-up, and increasingly their records were made piecemeal, with tracks and parts laid down as and when the band, Jagger and Richards in particular, could get together and remain amicable sufficiently long enough to do so. The novel was never published. The film Cocksucker Blues, never officially released, documents the subsequent American tour. According to the book The Bond Files by Andy Lane and Paul Simpson, soon after Ian Fleming died, Glidrose Productions commissioned Jenkins to write a James Bond novel. Dismissed by some on its release as sprawling and self-indulgent, the record is now considered among the band's (and rock & roll's) greatest. The first in 1966, was Per Fine Ounce by Geoffrey Jenkins, a friend of Ian Fleming who claimed to have developed with Fleming a diamond-smuggling storyline similar to Diamonds Are Forever as early as the 1950s.

Using the Rolling Stones Mobile studio, they began recording the double album Exile on Main St. (1972) in the basement of their new home, reputedly using electricity purloined from nearby railway lines. In addition to numerous fan fiction pieces written since the character was created, there have been two stories written by well-known authors claiming to have been contracted by Glidrose. Once in France Richards rented a gothic chateau "Villa Nellecote", which had been used as the headquarters for the local Nazi SS during the Second World War, and sublet rooms to the band members and a multitude of assorted hangers-on. 07 by Andrei Guliashki, in which a communist hero finally and forcefully defeats 007. Richards, however, adopted a more head-in-the-sand approach, ensconced in his London Cheyne Walk home in a state of insurrection until the very last minute. In 1968, they hit back with a spy novel of their own called Avakoum Zahov vs. Bill Wyman, in particular, soon felt at home in his new mountainside house and became friendly with French painter Claude Chagall. Russians were often the villains in Fleming's Cold War-era novels in at least some form.

They eventually decided to quit Britain for the South of France, the band members taking to this enforced change of lifestyle with varying degrees of success. The series was mildly successful and spawned six novelisations published in 1992 by John Peel writing as John Vincent, a 12 issue comic book series by Marvel Comics published in 1992, as well as a video game developed by Eurocom for the NES and the SNES in 1991. Pressured by the UK Inland Revenue service for several years of unpaid income tax, their recently appointed accountant Prince Rupert Lowenstein, a 'society' friend of Jagger's, advised the band to move abroad to avoid bankruptcy caused by the high rates of taxation of the Labour government of Harold Wilson. In 1991 an animated television series, James Bond Jr, ran for 65 episodes. He married the Nicaraguan model Bianca Perez Moreno de Macias, and the couple's jet-set lifestyle put further distance between himself and Richards. This book is for young-adult readers, and chronicles the adventures of 007's nephew (despite the inaccurate title). As Keith Richards removed himself from society, Mick Jagger began to move in more elevated social circles. In 1967, Glidrose authorised publication of 003½: The Adventures of James Bond Junior written by Arthur Calder-Marshall under the pseudonym R D Mascott.

However, all the songs were credited as usual to 'Jagger/Richards' which frustrated Taylor. A second volume has been tentatively scheduled for publication in October 2006.[4]. Mick Taylor collaborated heavily on this album with Jagger – probably because Richards was unable to contribute as constructively as usual due to his drug problems, and the sprawling " Can't You Hear Me Knocking' " attests to Taylor's influence. Ian Fleming Publications, who had previously refused to comment as to whether the book was authorised, officially confirmed the book was and always had been a project by them on the day of the book's publication. Sticky Fingers released in March (1971), the band's first album on their own Rolling Stones Records label, continued where Let It Bleed had left off, featuring one of their best known hits "Brown Sugar", the country influenced "Wild Horses" (which caused a disagreement between Gram Parsons and Mick Jagger over songwriting credits), the moody "Moonlight Mile" featuring Paul Buckmaster's evocative string arrangement and one of Jagger's finest vocal performances, and a version of Marianne Faithfull's "Sister Morphine" about her own ambiguous relationship with heroin. John Murray admitted on August 28, 2005 that the books were a spoof after an investigation by The Sunday Times of London. They recorded a final single as a contract obligation, the bawdy, unreleaseable ballad "Cocksucker Blues", and left to form their own record company under the financially astute eye of Mick Jagger. The novels had originally been touted as the secret journal of a "real" Miss Moneypenny and that James Bond was a possible pseudonym for a genuine intelligence officer, an idea shared by John Pearson's earlier biography, James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007.

The intervening years since they had signed with the record company had seen them become global superstars, and despite overtures they refused to sign a new contract. No). 1969 saw the end of the band's existing contract with Decca Records. Weinberg is the first woman to write officially licensed Bond-related literature (although Johanna Harwood had previously co-written the screenplay for Dr. They witnessed the crumbling of the show and as a result refused to play or even be associated with what was occurring. The first installment of the trilogy, subtitled Guardian Angel, was released on October 10, 2005. Contrary to popular belief, The Grateful Dead, and particularly Jerry Garcia, were very opposed to hiring the Hell's Angels at this concert. A new trilogy of novels "edited" by Samantha Weinberg under the pseudonym Kate Westbrook entitled The Moneypenny Diaries was released by John Murray publishers that centres on the character of Miss Moneypenny, M's personal secretary.

Many cultural scholars of the time opined that Altamont marked the de facto end of the sixties. It is currently unknown whether these will be adaptations of Higson's books. The Altamont concert would be documented in Albert and David Maysles' film Gimme Shelter. The Young Bond series is expected to add graphic novels in 2006. The running battles between fans and security reached a head when Meredith Hunter, a young black fan who had unwisely brought a pistol to the show, was stabbed and beaten to death by the Angels after aiming the firearm at the stage, during the band's performance of "Under My Thumb". The series is currently planned out for five novels according to Charlie Higson. There are also rumours that they weren't real Angels, but just wannabes out to impress the gang with their toughness [1]. A second novel was released in the UK in January 2006.

The Angels at Altamont may have in fact been consuming more drugs than most of the concert-goers. Regardless, the first novel became a bestseller in the United Kingdom and was released to good reviews. However, the American Angels were rather different from the British Angels, who were for the most part harmless Jagger-look-alikes. Since the concept was announced the series has taken heavy criticism for being aimed at the "Harry Potter audience" and has been seen by some as a desperate attempt to find a new audience for Bond. The Rolling Stones had hired the local chapter of the Hells Angels to take care of security, as The Grateful Dead had a long and successful history of using the Angels for security. Written by Charlie Higson (The Fast Show) the series is intended to align faithfully with the adult Bond's back-story established by Fleming and Fleming only. Jagger's refusal to perform during the day, again to ensure a better film with lighting at night, resulted in an escalation of violence between the 250.000 fans and security. Instead of continuing from where Raymond Benson ended in 2002, the new series featured James Bond as a thirteen-year-old boy attending Eton College.

The concert was a disaster. In April 2004, Ian Fleming Publications (Glidrose) announced a new series of James Bond books. Image:Altamont1.jpg. Although it has been suggested a "big name" author might take on the task, the publishers have yet to approach anyone about this project [3]. This led to numerous problems as the event organizers had to scramble to plan the event. This would feature the adult version of the character as opposed to the "Young Bond" character of the recent Charlie Higson books (see below). Jagger's decision to announce at a press conference that the Stones would be performing at the event, possibly to ensure a sufficient audience for the concert movie, resulted in the city of San Francisco denying permits. On August 28, 2005, Ian Fleming Publications confirmed it is planning to publish a one-off adult Bond novel in 2008 to mark what would have been Ian Fleming's 100th birthday.

Originally, the Stones' appearance was to be a surprise for the festival in San Franciso's Golden Gate Park. The year 2003 marked the first year since 1980 that a new James Bond novel had not been published. In an attempt to recreate the atmosphere of Hyde Park, and as a reaction to the Woodstock festival, the tour culminated in a free concert given at Altamont, a disused racetrack located about 40 miles east of San Francisco. Low sales figures for the books, and plans by Ian Fleming Publications to focus on reissuing Fleming's original novels for the 50th anniversary of the character, were among reasons speculated by fans as to why Benson departed. They blazed a trail for a multitude of stadium tours by the super-bands of the seventies, which continues to this day. Benson abruptly resigned as Bond novelist at the end of 2002, despite having previously announced plans to write a short story collection. Rather than performing in small and medium sized venues to audiences of screaming girls, they were booked into huge baseball and football stadiums with crowd sizes to match. Benson also wrote a fourth short story entitled "The Heart of Erzulie" that was rejected for publication.

Away from the stage since 1966, they found that live performing had moved on since then. Benson's three short stories remain uncollected, unlike previous short stories from Ian Fleming. This was like no other tour the band had yet undertaken. Benson wrote six James Bond novels, three novelisations, and three short stories. Immediately, the band set off on another US tour, characterised by the hedonism that their position in rock's aristocracy afforded them. Benson also contributed to the creation of several modules in the popular James Bond 007 role-playing game in the 1980s. It was to become the defining Rolling Stones album. The book was initially released in 1984 and later updated in 1988.

An album Let It Bleed followed in December and was rapidly hailed as another classic, featuring the brooding "Gimme Shelter," "You Can't Always Get What You Want" and a further nod to their roots with a cover of Robert Johnson's "Love In Vain". Benson had previously written The James Bond Bedside Companion, a book dedicated to Ian Fleming, the official novels, and the films. It was released on July 3, 1969, co-inciding with the death of Jones, and remains the band's last number 1 single in the UK. As a James Bond novelist, Benson was initially controversial for being American, and for ignoring much of the continuity established by Gardner. The band had released the first recording with the new line up, a single called "Honky Tonk Women", which was recorded with Jones but had sections of his guitar part edited out and Taylor's part dubbed in at the last minute. In 1996, Gardner retired from writing James Bond books due to ill health, and American Raymond Benson quickly replaced him. The band's performance, under-rehearsed and suffering from some of the remaining members' narcotic intake, was somewhat shambolic and was captured by a Granada Television production team, later to be shown on British television as "Stones in the Park". Generally Gardner's series is considered a success although their canonical status is disputed.

Despite the tragedy, the Hyde Park concert went ahead, with an audience of 200.000 fans, with Jagger reading from Shelley's "Adonais" and releasing hundreds of butterflies by way of tribute to the late guitarist. The biggest change in Gardner's series was updating 007's world to the 1980s; however, it would keep the characters the same age as they were in Fleming's novels. This theory has been continued further by the 2005 film 'Stoned' by Stephen Woolley. In the 1980s, the series was finally revived with new novels by John Gardner; between 1981 and 1996, he wrote fourteen James Bond novels and two screenplay novelisations, surpassing Fleming's original output. A recent death-bed confession to murder by Frank Thorogood, a builder employed by Jones at the time, has only served to cloud the issue further. Both novelisations were written by screenwriter Christopher Wood and were the first official novelisations, although technically, Fleming's Thunderball was a novelisation having been based on scripts by himself, Kevin McClory, and Jack Whittingham (although it predated the movie), and the For Your Eyes Only collection was also, for the most part, based upon unproduced scripts. Although his death was recorded as being by misadventure, the cause of the drowning to this day remains a mystery. This would happen again with 1979's Moonraker.

However, within a month, and a matter of two days before the Stones were due to play a free concert in Hyde Park, London he was dead; found at the bottom of his swimming pool which was surrounded by statues of Christopher Robin and Winnie the Pooh. In 1977, the film The Spy Who Loved Me was released and was subsequently novelised and published by Glidrose due to the radical difference between the script and Fleming's novel of the same name. Milne, drinking heavily in the local pub and planning his comeback with a blues band. Prior to writing this, Pearson had written an early biography of Ian Fleming, The Life of Ian Fleming. Jones retreated to his Cotchford Farm home in Kent, a house formerly owned by Winnie the Pooh author A.A. Glidrose reportedly considered a new series of novels written by Pearson, but this did not come to pass. With a reduced contribution to Beggar's Banquet and a minimal one to Let It Bleed he found himself forced out of the band for good after an infamous late-night visit to his rural home from Jagger, Richards and Charlie Watts on June 8th 1969, to be replaced by the young, jazz-influenced guitarist, Mick Taylor, drafted in from John Mayall's Bluesbreakers and unveiled to the media only five days later. Since the book has many discrepancies with Fleming's Bond (for example his birth year), the canonical status of James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007 is debated among fans—some consider it apocryphal, though at least one publisher, Pan Books, issued it as an official novel along with the rest of Fleming's series for its first paperback edition.

The ill-fated Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus was one of his last projects with the band and increasingly he was either absent from recording sessions by choice, or simply not invited to attend. The book was well-received by aficionados—readers and viewers, alike. An ever-increasing consumption of drugs, however, were making Brian Jones less and less reliable. Pearson wrote James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007 in the first person as if meeting the secret agent himself. Music was not all the Stones and the independently wealthy Parsons had in common: "We liked drugs," Richards said later, "and we liked the finest quality.". In 1973, Fleming biographer John Pearson was commissioned by Glidrose to biograph the fictional character James Bond. Secondly, both Jagger and Richards befriended Gram Parsons, who introduced them to country music with which he had grown up. See The controversy over The Man with the Golden Gun.).

First, Keith Richards played extensively with Ry Cooder, and was taught his open-G guitar tuning (as used by John Lee Hooker), later admitting "I took Ry Cooder for all I could get". Amis had also been claimed for many years as the ghost writer of The Man with the Golden Gun, although this has been debunked by numerous sources. Two other events contributed to the change in The Stones' sound. William ("Bill") Tanner", a recurring character in the Bond novels. In contrast to its predecessor, however, it was a clear rejection of the hippie ethos, replacing the platitudes of "free love" with a layer of sleaze. Amis had previously written two books on the world of James Bond, the 1964 essay The James Bond Dossier and the tongue-in-cheek 1965 release The Book of Bond, or Every Man His Own 007 (written under the pseudonym "Lt.-Col. The songs themselves were firmly rooted in the blues, but tempered by the changes that occurred in 1960s music and assimilating the imagery of Dylan and the emergent heavy rock of Cream and Jimi Hendrix. Ultimately, only one Markham novel saw print, 1968's Colonel Sun by Kingsley Amis.

Despite the tension, and aided by an excellent sound from up-and-coming producer Jimmy Miller, Jagger and Richards produced some of their most memorable work, including the distorted acoustic guitar-driven "Street Fighting Man" and the anthemic "Sympathy for the Devil" and the Stones entered the phase that would see them billed as "The World's Greatest Rock and Roll Band". Following Fleming's death in 1964, Glidrose Productions, publishers of the James Bond novels, planned a new book series, credited to the pseudonym "Robert Markham" and written by a rotating series of authors. After the excesses of Satanic Majesties, and with personal relations between Jones and Richards increasingly frayed, 1968's Beggars Banquet saw the band return to their roots. The second anthology, Octopussy and The Living Daylights (in many editions titled only Octopussy), originally only contained two short stories, "Octopussy" and "The Living Daylights"; a third story, "The Property of a Lady" was added in the 1967 paperback edition, and a fourth, "007 in New York", was added in 2002. Within the band, however, the two principal writers were steadily wresting power from their former leader Jones. When the project fell through, Fleming turned them into short stories: (i) "From a View to a Kill", (ii) "For Your Eyes Only", (iii) "Risico", plus two additional stories, "The Hildebrand Rarity" and "Quantum of Solace", which were previously published. Despite Jagger later harshly pronouncing it "complete crap", a number of songs showcased the improving songwriting of Jagger and Richards, in particular the spacey "2000 Light Years From Home" which showcased Brian Jones's mellotron, and which has been revived for recent live performances. His first anthology of short stories, For Your Eyes Only, mostly consisted of converted screenplays for a CBS television series based on the character.

The resulting record received lukewarm reviews observing that the songs and arrangements did not lend themselves to the band's natural style, although an increasingly drugged-out Jones continued an impressive display of instrumental experimentation. To this day, it is still debated whether Fleming himself actually finished 1965's The Man with the Golden Gun, as he died very soon after completing the book. The record, which would eventually be released as Their Satanic Majesties Request was recorded in difficult circumstances with various members of the band living under the threat of imprisonment, so much so, that Bill Wyman was able to get one of his songs "In Another Land" onto the album. Between 1953 and 1966, twelve James Bond novels and two short story collections by Fleming were published, with one novel and one short story collection issued posthumously. Pepper. Every year thereafter until his death in 1964, Fleming would retreat for the first two months of the year to his Jamaican estate, Goldeneye, to write a James Bond novel. Work then commenced on a new psychedelic album, which Jagger envisioned as the group's response to the Beatles' Sgt. Upon accepting the job, Fleming asked that he be allowed two months vacation per year.

The record featured the sounds of footsteps and a cell door banging shut, and which it is rumoured was taken from a secret recording from within Wormwood Scrubs, the London prison where Richards was held overnight. At the time, Fleming was the Foreign Manager for Kemsley Newspapers, an organisation owned by the London Sunday Times. The band then set about recording a new single "We Love You", officially as a thank you for the loyalty shown by their fans, though privately it was seen as a barbed attack on their perceived persecutors; the News of the World, the Metropolitan police force and members of the British judiciary. In February 1952, Ian Fleming began work on his first James Bond novel. Maybe as a result of the pressure he was feeling, he looked out of his depth and his arguments cut little ice with his fellow participants. Followers of Farmer's speculations have greatly elaborated on Bond's family. With Richards and Jagger out on bail and shortly to be acquitted on appeal, Jagger was immediately whisked off in a helicopter to appear on a BBC television programme " World in Action " taking part, along with members of the British establishment, in a live debate discussing the morals of modern society. In his fictional biographies, author Philip Jose Farmer suggests that Bond belongs in the Wold Newton family tree along with Tarzan, Doc Savage, and many other fictional heroes.

The Who also rush-released a single covering two Stones originals "Under My Thumb" and "The Last Time" in a show of solidarity. While it is never stated explicitly, dialogue strongly hints that Reston is Bond's son and the grand-nephew of Sherlock Holmes. Despite being a quickly cobbled-together collection of hits and studio outtakes, it was nevertheless a hit. Clive Reston, a supporting character in the series, resembles Bond in many respects and is an MI6 agent himself. During the furor, Decca shrewdly released Flowers in the United States. A second (non-canonical) son is suggested in the Marvel Comics series Master of Kung Fu. Beneath the title "Who Breaks a Butterfly on a Wheel?" editor William Rees-Mogg wrote:. His first name, Campion, is believed to be a reference to fictional detective Albert Campion.

Amidst intense press interest they were convicted, Richards was sentenced to a year's imprisonment and Jagger to four months, prompting The Times newspaper to run an editorial criticising the verdict. The second miniseries would continue the Holmes link, as MI6 would be taken over by Mycroft Holmes as the new "M." Although Moore makes no overt connection between Bond and Campion, the saturation of literary reference in the comics has led fans to propose that Campion is meant to be an ancestor of the modern secret agent. Jagger was charged with possessing amphetamine tablets, which though bought legally in Italy to combat travel sickness, were still obtained without a doctor's prescription. Later in "League," it is revealed that this "M" is none other than Professor James Moriarty, the archnemisis of Sherlock Holmes. Richards was charged and a few months later stood trial for allowing drug use in his home. His superior, the overall director of the top-secret team, is code-named M, an obvious reference to the Bond mythos. It was also rumoured that the raid was delayed on police instructions to allow one guest George Harrison, guitarist with establishment favourites The Beatles to leave. In it, the portly, sinister, and secretive MI6 agent placed in charge of the League is named Campion Bond.

The raid also served as a source of apocryphal stories, mainly concerning the appearance and demeanour of Mick Jagger's girlfriend Marianne Faithfull and a certain chocolate bar, which only served to augment their reputation for debauchery. An interesting, if wholly noncanonical, conjecture about the Bond lineage can be found in Alan Moore's comic book series, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, set in Victorian England. The February 1967 raid, now legendary in the band's mythology, occurred during one of the regular parties held there, and police discovered a moderate quantity of cannabis. Exactly when he learned this is not known; however he is aware of his son, James Suzuki, by the time of Raymond Benson's short story "Blast From the Past.". The British Sunday tabloid newspaper News of the World targeted the Stones and their perceived debauched lifestyles, and allegedly tipped off the police leading to a search of Keith Richard's country home, "Redlands" in West Wittering, Sussex. Bond had one child, by Kissy Suzuki in You Only Live Twice, although he did not know of the boy's existence until sometime later. By now the band had become almost synonymous with the rebellious spirit of the 1960s, and in particular a more relaxed attitude towards drug use. In the novels, Bond gets revenge in the following novel, You Only Live Twice, when he by chance comes across Blofeld in Japan, whilst the cinematic Bond takes on Blofeld in Diamonds Are Forever with mixed results.

It was in this period that Tom Wolfe offered his 1965 summary that "The Beatles want to hold your hand, but The Stones want to burn your town.". In both the literary and cinematic versions of On Her Majesty's Secret Service, James Bond marries, but his bride, Teresa di Vicenzo (Tracy), is killed on their wedding day by his archenemy, Ernst Stavro Blofeld; the event resonates in both versions of the character for many years thereafter. With the main songwriters maintaining their rate of production, Aftermath (1966) continued the progression, consisting entirely of Jagger/Richards compositions including "Mother's Little Helper," about pill abuse, and the misogynistic "Under My Thumb", whereas on Between the Buttons (1967) they wore the influences of their many contemporaries, including The Who and The Kinks. In the novels (notably From Russia, With Love), Bond's physical description has generally been consistent: a three-inch, vertical scar on his left cheek (absent from the cinematic version); blue-grey eyes; a "cruel" mouth; short, dark hair, a comma of which falls on his forehead (greying at the temples in Gardner's novels); and (after Casino Royale) the faint scar of the Russian cyrillic letter "Ш" (SH) on the back of one of his hands (carved by a SMERSH agent). During this period Pallenberg seemed to exert an influence on the music as somebody whose opinions the band trusted, particularly on the dark single "Paint it Black", and the (for 1966) shockingly sexually ambiguous video for "Have You Seen Your Mother Baby (Standing in the Shadows)? ". In the novels, Gardner replaced the PPK (eventually) with an ASP 9mm. Jones, not unaware of his reduced importance, retreated into drug abuse, alienating both Richards and Pallenberg, who began a relationship that would last over ten years. In the film Tomorrow Never Dies, Bond updates his gun to the latest model of the Walther P99.

Prompted by Oldham, who possessed sufficient business acumen to see where money was to be made, Jagger and Richards became more prolific songwriters and 1965's Out of Our Heads contained much self-penned material, including the classic "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction," and saw the dynamic of the band begin to change, with Jagger and Richards starting to emerge as the perceived leaders of the band. No in both the literary and cinematic versions, Bond has used a Walther PPK in almost every adventure. Two years later Brian Jones began to see Anita Pallenberg, an actress and model who introduced them to the circle of society in which she moved: a group of young artists, musicians and filmmakers. Since Dr. The three Stones became so fond of Phelge that they used his name as part of the 'Nanker/Phelge' pseudonym to indicate early band writing compositions. No, when reluctantly re-equipped with a 7.65 mm Walther PPK pistol replacing his Beretta automatic pistol, agent 007 protests, telling M that he has used the weapon for 10 years, suggesting he has been a secret agent for at least that long. Jagger, Richards and Jones shared a squalid London flat in Edith Grove, Chelsea, throughout much of 1963 along with friend, reprobate, and later biographer James Phelge. In Dr.

Back at home these early years of success represented a rare period of stability in the personal relationship between the band members. The cinematic James Bond (introduced in 1962) already had a history with the Secret Service. While on tour they took time to visit important locations in the history of the music that inspired them, recording the EP Twelve By Five at the studios of Chess Records in Chicago, Illinois. He later feels so strongly about his decision that he actually hopes M fires him for it; there are Fleming works in which Bond does not kill anyone. Encouraged by Oldham, the band toured Europe and America continuously, playing to packed crowds of screaming teenagers in scenes reminiscent of the height of Beatlemania. Instead Bond intentionally wounds the assassin and still manages to accomplish the mission. The follow-up album, The Rolling Stones #2 (Now in the U.S), was also composed mainly of cover tunes, only now augmented by a couple of songs written by the fledgling partnership of Jagger and Richards, having been locked in a room by their manager, who refused to let them out until they had written something they could release. Such is the case in "The Living Daylights" where Bond makes a last second decision to disobey his orders and not kill an assassin.

This made many girls go crazy for their bad boy image, and soon made them a teen idol group. The literary James Bond was reserved in his licenced killing, sometimes disobeying his orders to kill if the mission could be accomplished by other means. More importantly perhaps, whilst The Beatles were still suited, clean-cut boys with mop-top haircuts, The Stones cultivated the opposite image: decidedly unkempt, and posing for publicity photographs like a gang of surly yobs. No, shooting Professor Dent in the back; killing the unarmed Elektra King in The World Is Not Enough). The performances were pivotal in introducing a generation of white British youth to rhythm and blues music, and helped to fuel the "British Invasion" of America. Nonetheless, James Bond does kill when needed, and on film commits acts that might be considered murder in other circumstances (in Dr. Similarly, the album The Rolling Stones (England's Newest Hitmakers) which appeared in April 1964 featured versions of such classics as "Route 66" (originally recorded by Nat King Cole), "Mona" (Bo Diddley) and "Carol" (Chuck Berry). The novel Goldfinger begins with Bond being haunted by memories of a small-time, Mexican gunman he had killed with his bare hands days earlier and on film, specifically in The World Is Not Enough, he admits that cold-blooded killing is a filthy business.

The choice of material on their first, self-titled EP, reflected their live shows. Pearson's biography (disputed canonically) suggests Bond first killed as a teenager. Another of Oldham's ideas was to convince Keith Richards to drop the 's' from his surname to become "Keith Richard", presumably in a bid to give him greater pop star credibility. Bond dislikes taking life—resorting to flippant jokes and off-hand remarks as after-the-fact relief, often misinterpreted as cold-bloodedness. By the time of their first single release; a cover of Chuck Berry's "Come On", Ian Stewart was, at the insistence of Andrew Oldham, officially not part of the band, though he continued to record and perform with them. Throughout Fleming's novel, further continuation novels, and even the films, Bond's attitude toward his job is similar. The band rapidly gained a reputation for their frantic, highly energetic covers of the rhythm and blues songs of their idols and, through their recently appointed sharp young manager Andrew Loog Oldham, were signed to Decca Records (who had passed when offered The Beatles). According to Bond, obtaining a 00 number is not hard so long as you're prepared to kill.

At first, Brian Jones, a guitarist who also toyed with numerous other instruments, was their creative leader, despite Mick Jagger increasingly becoming the focus during live performances. Bond travels to Stockholm where he kills the man in his sleep with a knife. They soon got their own residency at The Crawdaddy Club in Richmond, which was run by Russian emigre Giorgio Gomelsky, and began to establish themselves as London's premier live act, even being honoured with a visit from The Beatles. The second was the assassination of a Norwegian who became a double agent and betrayed 2 British agents. United by their shared interest in rhythm and blues music, the group rehearsed extensively, initially playing in public at The Marquee Club in London, where Cyril Davies's rhythm and blues band was resident. The first is the assassination of a Japanese cipher expert on the thirty-sixth floor of the RCA Building at Rockefeller Center in New York City. Another early part-time member was influential drummer Carlo Little, who was with Cyril Davies All Stars. Bond earns his stripes in the 00 Section by completing two tasks, which Fleming outlines in Casino Royale.

He was replaced by Bill Wyman. It can be assumed that by this time Bond has moved on to another organisation. Taylor left shortly after to return to art school, and was later to form The Pretty Things. This action really doesn't make any sense since Bond is supposedly in the Royal Navy. The original line-up included Erik Eliason (vocals), Jones (guitar, harmonica, vocals), Richards (guitar), Ian "Stu" Stewart (piano), Mick Avory (drums) and Dick Taylor (bass). One supporting reason is that Fleming describes Bond in the Ardennes firing a bazooka in 1944. The band came into being in 1962 when former schoolmates Jagger and Richards met Brian Jones, who named the band after a lyric in the Muddy Waters song "Mannish Boy". It is believed that it is during this time that Bond perhaps joined another organisation such as the SOE, the 00 Section of the British Secret Service, or perhaps as a commando in Fleming's own 30 Assault Unit (30 AU).

They are the longest surviving rock & roll band in history. According to Fleming, after joining the RNVR, Bond is mentioned as to traveling to America, Hong Kong, and Jamaica. Reggae, funk, disco/dance, country, folk, soul, and even psychedelia have leaked into their recordings. It is never stated when James Bond became a 00 agent. Founding members Mick Jagger and Keith Richards are regarded as one of the greatest songwriting teams in the history of rock; the band never stopped being inspired by other genres. Since Benson's Bond was rebooted, Bond became a Commander again. Their first recordings were covers of Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Screamin' Jay Hawkins, Muddy Waters, Larry Williams and Howlin' Wolf songs, among others. Bond maintains this rank through further continuation novels and in the films, however, Gardner promoted Bond to Captain in Win, Lose or Die.

Early in their career they played covers of blues, rhythm and blues, country, and rock and roll music. In 1941, Bond lied about his age in order to enter the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve during World War II, from which he emerged with the rank of Commander before joining the British Secret Service. See: Rolling with the Stones, Bill Wyman's book. Bond can speak a variety of different languages, most notably Russian and Japanese, although many times the languages Bond claims to know are contradicted between the film series, Fleming's novel series, and even later films and continuation novels. The name Rollin' Stones was used for the first time on the 12th of July 1962 as they played in the Marquee club to replace Blues Incorperated. He also attends (presumably at some point) Oxford to study Danish in Tomorrow Never Dies, although in the film he's not there to study at all. . The film version of James Bond tacks on the additions of Bond being a graduate with a degree in Oriental languages from Cambridge University, as stated in You Only Live Twice.

tour that saw them billed as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World.". With the exception of Fettes, Bond's attendance at these schools parallels Fleming's own life, as he attended these same schools. Their music never strayed far from the blues, however, and by 1969, they returned triumphantly to blues-based hard-rock, embarking on the now infamous U.S. In "Octopussy", Fleming writes that Bond briefly attended the University of Geneva. By the end of the Sixties, the Stones had racked up a great number of hit records, each single displaying an alarming rate of musical growth. After Eton, Bond attended and continued his education at Fettes College in Edinburgh, Scotland, his father's old school. Second in popularity only to The Beatles, the Stones affected a rebellious, bad-boy image that helped propel their rise from an energetic modern blues outfit to one of the world's biggest and most influential bands. In Fleming's short story "From a View to a Kill," Bond admits to losing his virginity on his first visit to Paris at the age of 16.

By the mid 1960s, the Stones had fused these influences into a signature, guitar-based sound that established a prototype for hard rock. Bond briefly attended Eton College starting at the age of "12 or thereabouts", but was expelled after two halves when some "alleged" troubles with one of his maids came to light. Like most early British rock groups, they were influenced by a variety of other British and American musical forms, especially Jacob Lee Mabry and early porn stars. Regardless, Bond is unquestionably British. The Rolling Stones are an English rock group who rose to prominence during the 1960s. According to Pearson, Bond was born near Essen, Germany; however, Charlie Higson, in his novel SilverFin claims Bond was born in Switzerland. Rolling Stone's list of the 50 Moments that Changed Rock and Roll. It is also debated where James Bond was born.

Best selling music artists – World's top-selling music artists chart. Ian Fleming Publications recognised this issue for their Young Bond series of novels featuring Bond as a teenager in the 1930s and along with its author, Charlie Higson, defined Bond being born in the year 1920. For a detailed discography, see: The Rolling Stones discography. Since all of the years claimed for when Bond was born would have made him too young to purchase this Bentley, a more likely scenario is that he inherited it. Recently reinstated into the Stones touring lineup. 1933 is the year mentioned in Casino Royale for when Bond 'bought' his first Bentley. Bobby Keys - Saxophone; appeared as a primary horn player, alongside Jim Price, on a number of late 60s and 70s recordings and shows. For instance, if one computes Bond's age for when he was admitted into the Ministry of Defence to when his parents died (1939 - 17 = 1922 + 11 = 1933) Bond would have been 11 in 1933 from January 1 through November 10 if he was born in 1921.

Billy Preston - Keyboards, organ; cheifly associated with the Stones 1970s shows and records, appears on Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main Street. He contends that a lot of details in Bond's timeline make better sense with the original 1939 date. Notable for supplying the female vocal part (orginally sung by Merry Clayton) for "Gimme Shelter" and, on soul songs like Ray Charles' (The Night Time Is) The Right Time, which the Stones have covered on their current tour. Griswold notes that Bond's joining of the Ministry of Defence was originally written in Fleming's manuscript as 1939 (the same year Fleming joined). Lisa Fischer - Vocals; previously sung back up for Luther Vandross; went on tour with the Stones on their 1990 Urban Jungle European tour, and has accompanied them on every tour since. A more complex date of birth, according to John Griswold and his authorised book Ian Fleming's James Bond: Annotations and Chronologies, is November 11, 1921 (November 11, being Pearson's date). Has played keyboards since Stewart's death, most notably on the Stones blockbuster 90s and 2000s tours, but also on studio recordings. Prior to this, Tiger Tanaka, the head of the Japanese Secret Service, states Bond was born in the year of the rat, which supports 1924.

Chuck Leavell- Keyboards and piano; formerly of The Allman Brothers Band. If Bond was 17 in 1941, then he was born in 1924. Nicky Hopkins - Keyboards and piano; appears on a significant number of Stones recordings from their classic mid-period (late 60s through the 70s), and occasionally performed live, though he was not as closely associated with the group as former member Ian Stewart. M writes that Bond left school when he was 17 years old and joined the Ministry of Defence in 1941. He appears on a virtually all of the Stones early recordings and a large number of their most famous mid-period songs (though piano duties were often provided by other musicians--most notably Nicky Hopkins--beginning in the late 60s). In the novel, M writes an obituary for James Bond after believing him to be dead. Ian Stewart - Piano; continued to play for the band even after he was forced out of the Rolling Stones in 1962, serving as their road manager and frequent session player until his death in 1985. According to John Pearson's James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007, Bond was born on November 11, 1920; no Fleming novel supports this date, in fact, the novel You Only Live Twice makes a couple references to Bond's birth year being 1924.

He is not, however, an official member of the band (a position affored a salary that is significantly higher than that of a hired musician), and the Stones have remained a foursome since Wyman's departure. Most researchers or biographers have concluded that Bond was born in either 1920, 1921 or 1924. Darryl Jones has played bass for the group since Bill Wyman left the band, on all albums except Bridges to Babylon. Due to Fleming's changes of dates and times in which events occurred, Bond's specific birth year is unknown. Ron Wood - Guitar (1975–). This approximate age carries on in continuation novels written by Kingsley Amis, John Gardner, and Raymond Benson. Charlie Watts - drums and percussion (1962–). In the same novel Bond notes that he has only 8 years to go, thus in Moonraker, Bond is 37 years old.

Keith Richards - Guitar, vocals, keyboards (1961–). Many Ian Fleming biographers agree that Fleming never really intended to write as many James Bond adventures as he did and to keep writing the novels he had to "tinker with Bond's early life" and change dates to ensure Bond was the appropriate age for the service, particularly due to a statement in Moonraker that 007 faced mandatory retirement from the 00 Section at age 45. Mick Jagger - Vocals, guitar, keyboards, harmonica, percussion (1961–). He is roughly in his late thirties. With the exception of the Young Bond series of novels by Charlie Higson launched in 2005, Bond for the most part is an ageless character in both films and literature. Bond's family motto, which was adopted by James Bond during "Operation Corona" in the novel On Her Majesty's Secret Service is Orbis non sufficit (Latin for "The world is not enough.").

He subsequently went to live with his Aunt, Miss Charmian Bond, in Kent. James Bond is the son of a Scottish father, Andrew Bond, and a Swiss mother, Monique Delacroix, both of whom died in a mountain climbing accident in the Aiguilles Rouges, when Bond was 11 years old. The combination saw the success of Bond return to its standard stride it hadn't reached since 1979's Moonraker. Pierce Brosnan filled Bond's shoes with an elegant mix of Sean Connery cool and Roger Moore wit.

The 1990s saw a revival and renewal of the series beginning with GoldenEye in 1995. Regardless, a new Bond film was scheduled for release in 1991; however, legal wrangling over ownership of the character led to a protracted delay that would keep Bond off movie screens for the next six years during which time, Dalton had moved on. and "15" in the UK. Licence to Kill's relative failure is usually blamed on a poor promotional campaign in the United States, Dalton's darker portrayal of Bond, and its status as the first Bond film to be rated PG-13 in the U.S.

While Dalton's final outing, Licence to Kill (1989), was financially successful, it did not prove as popular as previous Bond films. The hard-edge of Timothy Dalton in the Bond films of the late 80s met a mixed response from moviegoers; some welcomed the earthier style reminiscent of Fleming's character, while others missed the light-hearted approach which characterised the Roger Moore era. By the 1980s, some critics had grown tired of the films, commenting that the perennial sexism and glamorous locales had become outdated, and that Bond's smooth, unruffled exterior didn't mesh with competing movies like Die Hard. After the release of On Her Majesty's Secret Service, George Lazenby quit the role of Bond for this very reason even though he was offered a seven-film contract.

Since Bond's peak of popularity in 1965, with the release of Thunderball, critics have often predicted that Bond's successful run would come to an end, usually believing that Bond was out of touch with the times. In the UK, Bond holds three of the top five top spots of the most-watched television movies. They continue to earn substantial profits after their theatrical run via videotape, DVD, and television broadcasts. Every Bond film has been a box office success to a lesser or greater degree.

Their production company, EON Productions, set up a semi-regular schedule of releases; initially annually, then usually once every two years, although there have been a couple times where the gap was larger, usually due to external events. No starring Sean Connery. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman started the official cinematic run of Bond in 1962, with Dr. Albert R.

agent named "Jimmy Bond." In 1956, Bob Holness provided the voice of Bond in a South African radio adaptation of Fleming's third novel, Moonraker. The first actor to play Bond was American Barry Nelson, in the 1954 CBS television production of Casino Royale in which the character became a U.S. In many cases, the villain then dies at Bond's hands, although early Bond films often ended with the villain either escaping or being killed by someone else. Inevitably, a villain tries to kill Bond with a deathtrap during which the villain reveals vital information; Bond later escapes and uses the information to thwart the evil plot.

The cinematic Bond adventures were initially influenced by earlier spy thrillers such as North by Northwest, Saboteur, and Journey Into Fear, but later entries became formulaic dramas where Bond saves the world from apocalyptic madmen. The films expanded on Fleming's books, adding gadgets from Q Branch, death-defying stunts, and often abandoning the original plotlines for more outlandish and cinema-friendly adventures. Instead, they established the formula of unique villains, outlandish plots, and voluptuous women who tend to fall in love with Bond at first sight — the feeling often being mutual. The original books by Fleming are usually dark – lacking fantasy or gadgets.

The James Bond novels and films have ranged from realistic spy drama to science fiction. A new film, Casino Royale, is currently in production with an expected release in 2006. The James Bond franchise is currently the second all-time highest grossing film franchise in history, after Star Wars[2], and one of the longest running film series in history, spanning 20 official films, 2 unofficial films, 1 TV episode based on Casino Royale, and a cartoon television series spinoff. Fleming claimed that while there he was cleaned out by a "chief German agent" at a table playing Chemin de Fer, however, Admiral Godfrey tells a different story, that Fleming only played Portuguese businessmen and that afterwards Ian had fantasised about them being German agents and the excitement of cleaning them out.

While there they went to the Estoril Casino in Estoril, which, due to the neutral status of Portugal had a number of spies of warring regimes present. Most notably, and the basis for Casino Royale, was a trip to Lisbon that Fleming and the Director of Naval Intelligence, Admiral Godfrey, took during World War II en route to the United States. Fleming has, however, admitted to being inspired by true or partially-true events that took place during his career at the Naval Intelligence Division of the Admiralty. In Casino Royale the character Vesper Lynd says of Bond, "He reminds me rather of Hoagy Carmichael, but there is something cold and ruthless." Other characteristics of Bond's look are said to be based on Fleming, such as his height, his hairstyle and his eye colour.

Although the character of Bond is not known to be based on anyone but Fleming himself, the look of James Bond, famed for being "suave and sophisticated," is based on a young Hoagy Carmichael. how they should look and how they should dress), and have similar education and military careers both rising to the rank of Commander. drinking and smoking), share the same view on women (e.g. scrambled eggs), have the same habits (e.g.

Both, for the most part, went to the same schools, like the same foods (e.g. Most researchers agree that James Bond is a highly romanticised version of Fleming himself; the author was known for his jetsetting lifestyle and reputation as a womaniser. Although some names share similarities with Bond, none have ever been confirmed by Fleming, Ian Fleming Publications or any of Ian Fleming's biographers such as Fleming's assistant and friend, John Pearson. Usually these people have a background of some kind in espionage or other covert operations.

Since the fictional James Bond's creation, hundreds of reports by various news outlets have suggested names for Ian Fleming's inspiration of Bond. Plomer liked it enough that he gave the manuscript to Jonathan Cape, who did not like it as much, but published it anyway due to the fact that Ian was the younger brother of Peter Fleming, an established travel writer who also put in a good word for Ian. After completing the manuscript for what would later be titled Casino Royale, Fleming allowed his friend William Plomer, a poet and later Fleming's editor, to read it. Of the name, Fleming once said "I wanted the simplest, dullest, plainest-sounding name I could find, James Bond was much better than something more interesting like 'Peregrine Maltravers.' Exotic things would happen to and around him but he would be a neutral figure - an anonymous blunt instrument wielded by a Government Department." [1].

Fleming, a keen birdwatcher, owned a copy of Bond's field guide at Goldeneye. The hero of Fleming's tale, James Bond, was named after an American ornithologist of the same name who was an expert on Caribbean birds and had written a definitive book on the subject: Birds of the West Indies. James Bond was created in February 1952 by Ian Fleming while on vacation at his Jamaican estate called Goldeneye. Afterwards, it was virtually eliminated.

Bond's "genius" became a running joke during Roger Moore's era. In Goldfinger, he is able to calculate in his head how many trucks it would take to transport all the gold in Fort Knox, and how long the gold would be radioactive after the villain's bomb explodes. James Bond does have a quirk of being a "know-it-all," moreso on film. In real life, martini bars often dub a martini made "shaken, not stirred" as a "Martini James Bond." It is notable to say that the literary Bond incarnation has a strong preference for bourbon and drinks that on more occasions.

No. Throughout the novels, 007 orders his martinis with a slice of lemon peel, although this only occurs on film in Dr. This drink specifically was dubbed "The Vesper" martini, after his lover in the book, Vesper Lynd. James Bond is famous for ordering his vodka martinis "shaken, not stirred." The literary Bond prefers vodka, but also drinks gin martinis, and in his first adventure, Casino Royale, he orders a martini that includes both types of liquor.

The last time Bond smoked a cigarette on film was in 1989. During the films starring Connery, Lazenby and Dalton Bond was a smoker, while during Moore's and Brosnan's tenure he doesn't smoke cigarettes, although he does occasionally smoke cigars. On film, Bond has been off and on. Regardless, the literary incarnation continues to smoke through many continuation novels.

He is also forced to cut back after being sent to a health farm per his superior's order. On average, however, Bond smokes 60 a day, although in certain novels Bond does attempt to cut back so that he can accomplish certain feats such as swimming underwater. Bond is the consummate womaniser, drinker, and heavy cigarette smoker, at one point reaching 70 cigarettes a day. The 'double-O' prefix indicates his discretionary licence to kill in the performance of his duties.

As an agent of the Secret Service, Bond holds code number "007". Under the cover name "Universal Exports" and later "Transworld Consortium", Bond's fictional British Secret Service starting in 1995 takes on the actual name of the UK's Secret Intelligence Service, commonly known as MI6. Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR is an agent of the international arm of the British Secret Service headquartered in London in a tall, grey building overlooking Regent's Park. .

In addition to novels and films, Bond is a prominent character in many computer and video games, comic strips and comic books, and has been the subject of many parodies. Currently, Columbia Pictures and MGM (United Artists' parent) co-distribute the series. Broccoli's family company, Danjaq, LLC, has co-owned the James Bond film series with United Artists Corporation since the mid-1970s, when Saltzman sold UA his share of Danjaq. The 21st official film, Casino Royale, with Daniel Craig as Bond, is in production and is scheduled for a November 17, 2006 release.

In chronological order, they are:. To date, five actors have portrayed Bond in the official series, and a sixth is soon to make his appearance. Wilson, carried on the production duties together beginning in 1995. His daughter, Barbara Broccoli, and his stepson, Michael G.

Broccoli and Harry Saltzman produced most of the official films up until 1975 when Broccoli became the sole producer. Twenty films have been produced by EON featuring this character as well as two independently produced films and one American television adaptation of Fleming's first novel under legal licence; however, it is generally considered that only the EON films are "official." Albert R. Although initially made famous through the novels, James Bond is now probably best known from the EON Productions film series. Fleming wrote numerous novels and short stories based upon the character and, after his death in 1964, further literary adventures were written by Kingsley Amis (pseudonym "Robert Markham"), John Pearson, John Gardner, Raymond Benson, and Charlie Higson; in addition, Christopher Wood wrote two screenplay novelisations and other authors have also written various unofficial permutations of the character.

James Bond, also known as 007 (pronounced "double-oh seven"), is a fictional British spy created by writer Ian Fleming in 1953. Bond franchise Box Office numbers [7], Casino Royale Box Office numbers (1967), Box Office numbers + Inflation. URL accessed on February 23, 2005.. The Charlie Higson CBn Interview.

Charlie Higson interview with CommanderBond.net. ISBN 0719065410.. The James Bond Phenomenon: A Critical Reader, Manchester University Press. Lindner, Christoph (2003).

ISBN 0810932962.. James Bond: The Legacy, Boxtree/Macmillan. Cork, John (2002). ISBN 1860643876..

Tauris. Licence To Thrill: A Cultural History Of The James Bond Films, I.B. Chapman, James (1999). ISBN 1401102840..

The James Bond Bedside Companion, Dodd, Mead. Benson, Raymond (1984). URL accessed on July 13, 2005.. 100 Movie Quotes.

AFI's 100 Years.. James Bond" 22nd greatest line in cinema history. ^  "Bond. URL accessed on June 15, 2005..

Most Lucrative Movie Franchises. ^  James Bond the second highest grossing film franchise of all time. ISBN 0719568153.. James Bond: The Man and His World, John Murray.

^ Chancellor, Henry (2005). As a tribute to this, when casting his third Indiana Jones film, The Last Crusade, Lucas chose Connery for the role of Indiana's father, with his reasoning being "Who else could play Indiana Jones' father, but the guy who inspired all of this in the first place, James Bond himself!" (Sean Connery). George Lucas has said on multiple occasions that Connery's portrayal of the character was one of the primary inspirations for his Indiana Jones character. Sean Connery starred in the Motion Picture version of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, which has a 'supposed' link to the roots of James Bond's ancestry.

Five Ian Fleming titles have thus far never been used as film titles: The Property of a Lady, Quantum of Solace, Risico, The Hildebrand Rarity, and 007 in New York. In fact Llewelyn had been killed in a car crash shortly after the release of the previous film. In Die Another Day, Cleese becomes the new Q, the old Q having presumably retired. In The World is Not Enough, John Cleese is introduced as Q's assistant, whom Bond teasingly refers to as "R." Despite Cleese receiving a credit as R, there is no hint in the dialogue that this is an official title.

Desmond Llewelyn holds a record, appearing in 17 of the James Bond films as "Q," aka Major Boothroyd, and head of Q-branch. Baker shows up in later James Bond films, portraying Jack Wade, one of James Bond's allies in both Goldeneye and Tomorrow Never Dies. Joe Don Baker played Brad Whitaker, the villain in The Living Daylights. With the release of Casino Royale, Craig will become the first actor with blond hair to have portrayed Bond; although Roger Moore did sport sandy colored hair in his first few Bond films, he is not considered a blond.

Legal wranglings over ownership of the Bond franchise, however, led to the series being put on hiatus until 1994. Although never officially confirmed, numerous sources have suggested the title was to be The Property of a Lady, after the short story from the collection Octopussy and The Living Daylights. Dalton was originally contracted for three films, with the third film planned for release in 1991. Moore was reportedly Fleming's initial first choice for the Bond role, although other sources have suggested that Fleming favored James Mason or Cary Grant.

While initially skeptical about Connery being chosen to play Bond (at one point dismissing him as an "overgrown stuntman"), Fleming liked his portrayal so much that he eventually added background to the character in the novels so that his father was Scottish. "Then we'll use ice packs before the love scenes like we did with Sean," he replied. [6]. "But I've got breasts like a woman," I continued. I objected, "But I'm bald." "So was Sean — we'll get around it." he replied.

Gambon spoke of the situation in an interview: When he told me he was considering me for the part of 007 himself, I was amazed. Michael Gambon, who co-starred with current Bond actor Daniel Craig in Layer Cake and Sylvia, was asked by Cubby Broccoli to audition for the role in 1970 to replace Lazenby. To date, the only American to play the role is Barry Nelson, albeit unofficially in the Americanised version of the character in the 1954 TV adaptation of Casino Royale. Several other American actors, including Patrick McGoohan, and Robert Wagner, have been offered the role only to turn it down.

James Brolin was hired in 1983 to replace Moore, and was preparing to shoot Octopussy when the producers convinced Moore to return. Burt Reynolds was also asked by Cubby Broccoli in the early '70s to replace Connery after Diamonds Are Forever, but turned him down. John Gavin was hired in 1970 to replace Lazenby, but Connery was lured back at the eleventh hour and it was he who appeared in Diamonds Are Forever instead of Gavin. Adam West was offered the chance to appear in On Her Majesty's Secret Service when Connery chose not to return to the role, but turned down the offer.

However, American actors have been hired on two occasions, and approached about playing Bond on several others. Many people assume the Bond producers would never hire an American to portray the character in the official film series. Daniel Craig (announced October 2005 but yet to appear on screen). Pierce Brosnan.

Timothy Dalton. Roger Moore. George Lazenby. Sean Connery.

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