The Rolling Stones

The Rolling Stones are an English rock group who rose to prominence during the 1960s. Like most early British rock groups, they were influenced by a variety of other British and American musical forms, especially Jacob Lee Mabry and early porn stars. By the mid 1960s, the Stones had fused these influences into a signature, guitar-based sound that established a prototype for hard rock. Second in popularity only to The Beatles, the Stones affected a rebellious, bad-boy image that helped propel their rise from an energetic modern blues outfit to one of the world's biggest and most influential bands. By the end of the Sixties, the Stones had racked up a great number of hit records, each single displaying an alarming rate of musical growth. Their music never strayed far from the blues, however, and by 1969, they returned triumphantly to blues-based hard-rock, embarking on the now infamous U.S. tour that saw them billed as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World."

History

Early history: 1962–1967

The name Rollin' Stones was used for the first time on the 12th of July 1962 as they played in the Marquee club to replace Blues Incorperated. See: Rolling with the Stones, Bill Wyman's book.

The Rolling Stones, 1964. (From left) Bill Wyman, Brian Jones, Charlie Watts, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards

Early in their career they played covers of blues, rhythm and blues, country, and rock and roll music. Their first recordings were covers of Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Screamin' Jay Hawkins, Muddy Waters, Larry Williams and Howlin' Wolf songs, among others. Founding members Mick Jagger and Keith Richards are regarded as one of the greatest songwriting teams in the history of rock; the band never stopped being inspired by other genres. Reggae, funk, disco/dance, country, folk, soul, and even psychedelia have leaked into their recordings. They are the longest surviving rock & roll band in history.

The Rolling Stones, 1963.

The band came into being in 1962 when former schoolmates Jagger and Richards met Brian Jones, who named the band after a lyric in the Muddy Waters song "Mannish Boy". The original line-up included Erik Eliason (vocals), Jones (guitar, harmonica, vocals), Richards (guitar), Ian "Stu" Stewart (piano), Mick Avory (drums) and Dick Taylor (bass). Taylor left shortly after to return to art school, and was later to form The Pretty Things. He was replaced by Bill Wyman. Another early part-time member was influential drummer Carlo Little, who was with Cyril Davies All Stars. United by their shared interest in rhythm and blues music, the group rehearsed extensively, initially playing in public at The Marquee Club in London, where Cyril Davies's rhythm and blues band was resident. They soon got their own residency at The Crawdaddy Club in Richmond, which was run by Russian emigre Giorgio Gomelsky, and began to establish themselves as London's premier live act, even being honoured with a visit from The Beatles. At first, Brian Jones, a guitarist who also toyed with numerous other instruments, was their creative leader, despite Mick Jagger increasingly becoming the focus during live performances. The band rapidly gained a reputation for their frantic, highly energetic covers of the rhythm and blues songs of their idols and, through their recently appointed sharp young manager Andrew Loog Oldham, were signed to Decca Records (who had passed when offered The Beatles).

The Rolling Stones, EP, 1964

By the time of their first single release; a cover of Chuck Berry's "Come On", Ian Stewart was, at the insistence of Andrew Oldham, officially not part of the band, though he continued to record and perform with them. Another of Oldham's ideas was to convince Keith Richards to drop the 's' from his surname to become "Keith Richard", presumably in a bid to give him greater pop star credibility.

The Rolling Stones in 1964

The choice of material on their first, self-titled EP, reflected their live shows. Similarly, the album The Rolling Stones (England's Newest Hitmakers) which appeared in April 1964 featured versions of such classics as "Route 66" (originally recorded by Nat King Cole), "Mona" (Bo Diddley) and "Carol" (Chuck Berry). The performances were pivotal in introducing a generation of white British youth to rhythm and blues music, and helped to fuel the "British Invasion" of America. More importantly perhaps, whilst The Beatles were still suited, clean-cut boys with mop-top haircuts, The Stones cultivated the opposite image: decidedly unkempt, and posing for publicity photographs like a gang of surly yobs. This made many girls go crazy for their bad boy image, and soon made them a teen idol group. The follow-up album, The Rolling Stones #2 (Now in the U.S), was also composed mainly of cover tunes, only now augmented by a couple of songs written by the fledgling partnership of Jagger and Richards, having been locked in a room by their manager, who refused to let them out until they had written something they could release. Encouraged by Oldham, the band toured Europe and America continuously, playing to packed crowds of screaming teenagers in scenes reminiscent of the height of Beatlemania. While on tour they took time to visit important locations in the history of the music that inspired them, recording the EP Twelve By Five at the studios of Chess Records in Chicago, Illinois.

Back at home these early years of success represented a rare period of stability in the personal relationship between the band members. Jagger, Richards and Jones shared a squalid London flat in Edith Grove, Chelsea, throughout much of 1963 along with friend, reprobate, and later biographer James Phelge. The three Stones became so fond of Phelge that they used his name as part of the 'Nanker/Phelge' pseudonym to indicate early band writing compositions. Two years later Brian Jones began to see Anita Pallenberg, an actress and model who introduced them to the circle of society in which she moved: a group of young artists, musicians and filmmakers. Prompted by Oldham, who possessed sufficient business acumen to see where money was to be made, Jagger and Richards became more prolific songwriters and 1965's Out of Our Heads contained much self-penned material, including the classic "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction," and saw the dynamic of the band begin to change, with Jagger and Richards starting to emerge as the perceived leaders of the band. Jones, not unaware of his reduced importance, retreated into drug abuse, alienating both Richards and Pallenberg, who began a relationship that would last over ten years. During this period Pallenberg seemed to exert an influence on the music as somebody whose opinions the band trusted, particularly on the dark single "Paint it Black", and the (for 1966) shockingly sexually ambiguous video for "Have You Seen Your Mother Baby (Standing in the Shadows)? ". With the main songwriters maintaining their rate of production, Aftermath (1966) continued the progression, consisting entirely of Jagger/Richards compositions including "Mother's Little Helper," about pill abuse, and the misogynistic "Under My Thumb", whereas on Between the Buttons (1967) they wore the influences of their many contemporaries, including The Who and The Kinks.

It was in this period that Tom Wolfe offered his 1965 summary that "The Beatles want to hold your hand, but The Stones want to burn your town."

Sex, Drugs, Death, and Rock & Roll: 1967–1971

The Rolling Stones, circa 1967.

By now the band had become almost synonymous with the rebellious spirit of the 1960s, and in particular a more relaxed attitude towards drug use. The British Sunday tabloid newspaper News of the World targeted the Stones and their perceived debauched lifestyles, and allegedly tipped off the police leading to a search of Keith Richard's country home, "Redlands" in West Wittering, Sussex. The February 1967 raid, now legendary in the band's mythology, occurred during one of the regular parties held there, and police discovered a moderate quantity of cannabis. The raid also served as a source of apocryphal stories, mainly concerning the appearance and demeanour of Mick Jagger's girlfriend Marianne Faithfull and a certain chocolate bar, which only served to augment their reputation for debauchery. It was also rumoured that the raid was delayed on police instructions to allow one guest George Harrison, guitarist with establishment favourites The Beatles to leave. Richards was charged and a few months later stood trial for allowing drug use in his home. Jagger was charged with possessing amphetamine tablets, which though bought legally in Italy to combat travel sickness, were still obtained without a doctor's prescription. Amidst intense press interest they were convicted, Richards was sentenced to a year's imprisonment and Jagger to four months, prompting The Times newspaper to run an editorial criticising the verdict. Beneath the title "Who Breaks a Butterfly on a Wheel?" editor William Rees-Mogg wrote:

During the furor, Decca shrewdly released Flowers in the United States. Despite being a quickly cobbled-together collection of hits and studio outtakes, it was nevertheless a hit. The Who also rush-released a single covering two Stones originals "Under My Thumb" and "The Last Time" in a show of solidarity.

With Richards and Jagger out on bail and shortly to be acquitted on appeal, Jagger was immediately whisked off in a helicopter to appear on a BBC television programme " World in Action " taking part, along with members of the British establishment, in a live debate discussing the morals of modern society. Maybe as a result of the pressure he was feeling, he looked out of his depth and his arguments cut little ice with his fellow participants. The band then set about recording a new single "We Love You", officially as a thank you for the loyalty shown by their fans, though privately it was seen as a barbed attack on their perceived persecutors; the News of the World, the Metropolitan police force and members of the British judiciary. The record featured the sounds of footsteps and a cell door banging shut, and which it is rumoured was taken from a secret recording from within Wormwood Scrubs, the London prison where Richards was held overnight. Work then commenced on a new psychedelic album, which Jagger envisioned as the group's response to the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper. The record, which would eventually be released as Their Satanic Majesties Request was recorded in difficult circumstances with various members of the band living under the threat of imprisonment, so much so, that Bill Wyman was able to get one of his songs "In Another Land" onto the album. The resulting record received lukewarm reviews observing that the songs and arrangements did not lend themselves to the band's natural style, although an increasingly drugged-out Jones continued an impressive display of instrumental experimentation. Despite Jagger later harshly pronouncing it "complete crap", a number of songs showcased the improving songwriting of Jagger and Richards, in particular the spacey "2000 Light Years From Home" which showcased Brian Jones's mellotron, and which has been revived for recent live performances. Within the band, however, the two principal writers were steadily wresting power from their former leader Jones.

After the excesses of Satanic Majesties, and with personal relations between Jones and Richards increasingly frayed, 1968's Beggars Banquet saw the band return to their roots. Despite the tension, and aided by an excellent sound from up-and-coming producer Jimmy Miller, Jagger and Richards produced some of their most memorable work, including the distorted acoustic guitar-driven "Street Fighting Man" and the anthemic "Sympathy for the Devil" and the Stones entered the phase that would see them billed as "The World's Greatest Rock and Roll Band". The songs themselves were firmly rooted in the blues, but tempered by the changes that occurred in 1960s music and assimilating the imagery of Dylan and the emergent heavy rock of Cream and Jimi Hendrix. In contrast to its predecessor, however, it was a clear rejection of the hippie ethos, replacing the platitudes of "free love" with a layer of sleaze. Two other events contributed to the change in The Stones' sound. First, Keith Richards played extensively with Ry Cooder, and was taught his open-G guitar tuning (as used by John Lee Hooker), later admitting "I took Ry Cooder for all I could get". Secondly, both Jagger and Richards befriended Gram Parsons, who introduced them to country music with which he had grown up. Music was not all the Stones and the independently wealthy Parsons had in common: "We liked drugs," Richards said later, "and we liked the finest quality."

An ever-increasing consumption of drugs, however, were making Brian Jones less and less reliable. The ill-fated Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus was one of his last projects with the band and increasingly he was either absent from recording sessions by choice, or simply not invited to attend. With a reduced contribution to Beggar's Banquet and a minimal one to Let It Bleed he found himself forced out of the band for good after an infamous late-night visit to his rural home from Jagger, Richards and Charlie Watts on June 8th 1969, to be replaced by the young, jazz-influenced guitarist, Mick Taylor, drafted in from John Mayall's Bluesbreakers and unveiled to the media only five days later.

Jones retreated to his Cotchford Farm home in Kent, a house formerly owned by Winnie the Pooh author A.A. Milne, drinking heavily in the local pub and planning his comeback with a blues band. However, within a month, and a matter of two days before the Stones were due to play a free concert in Hyde Park, London he was dead; found at the bottom of his swimming pool which was surrounded by statues of Christopher Robin and Winnie the Pooh. Although his death was recorded as being by misadventure, the cause of the drowning to this day remains a mystery. A recent death-bed confession to murder by Frank Thorogood, a builder employed by Jones at the time, has only served to cloud the issue further. This theory has been continued further by the 2005 film 'Stoned' by Stephen Woolley.

Despite the tragedy, the Hyde Park concert went ahead, with an audience of 200.000 fans, with Jagger reading from Shelley's "Adonais" and releasing hundreds of butterflies by way of tribute to the late guitarist. The band's performance, under-rehearsed and suffering from some of the remaining members' narcotic intake, was somewhat shambolic and was captured by a Granada Television production team, later to be shown on British television as "Stones in the Park". The band had released the first recording with the new line up, a single called "Honky Tonk Women", which was recorded with Jones but had sections of his guitar part edited out and Taylor's part dubbed in at the last minute. It was released on July 3, 1969, co-inciding with the death of Jones, and remains the band's last number 1 single in the UK. An album Let It Bleed followed in December and was rapidly hailed as another classic, featuring the brooding "Gimme Shelter," "You Can't Always Get What You Want" and a further nod to their roots with a cover of Robert Johnson's "Love In Vain". It was to become the defining Rolling Stones album. Immediately, the band set off on another US tour, characterised by the hedonism that their position in rock's aristocracy afforded them.

This was like no other tour the band had yet undertaken. Away from the stage since 1966, they found that live performing had moved on since then. Rather than performing in small and medium sized venues to audiences of screaming girls, they were booked into huge baseball and football stadiums with crowd sizes to match. They blazed a trail for a multitude of stadium tours by the super-bands of the seventies, which continues to this day.

In an attempt to recreate the atmosphere of Hyde Park, and as a reaction to the Woodstock festival, the tour culminated in a free concert given at Altamont, a disused racetrack located about 40 miles east of San Francisco. Originally, the Stones' appearance was to be a surprise for the festival in San Franciso's Golden Gate Park. Jagger's decision to announce at a press conference that the Stones would be performing at the event, possibly to ensure a sufficient audience for the concert movie, resulted in the city of San Francisco denying permits. This led to numerous problems as the event organizers had to scramble to plan the event. Image:Altamont1.jpg

The concert was a disaster. Jagger's refusal to perform during the day, again to ensure a better film with lighting at night, resulted in an escalation of violence between the 250.000 fans and security. The Rolling Stones had hired the local chapter of the Hells Angels to take care of security, as The Grateful Dead had a long and successful history of using the Angels for security. However, the American Angels were rather different from the British Angels, who were for the most part harmless Jagger-look-alikes. The Angels at Altamont may have in fact been consuming more drugs than most of the concert-goers. There are also rumours that they weren't real Angels, but just wannabes out to impress the gang with their toughness [1]. The running battles between fans and security reached a head when Meredith Hunter, a young black fan who had unwisely brought a pistol to the show, was stabbed and beaten to death by the Angels after aiming the firearm at the stage, during the band's performance of "Under My Thumb". The Altamont concert would be documented in Albert and David Maysles' film Gimme Shelter. Many cultural scholars of the time opined that Altamont marked the de facto end of the sixties.

Contrary to popular belief, The Grateful Dead, and particularly Jerry Garcia, were very opposed to hiring the Hell's Angels at this concert. They witnessed the crumbling of the show and as a result refused to play or even be associated with what was occurring.

1969 saw the end of the band's existing contract with Decca Records. The intervening years since they had signed with the record company had seen them become global superstars, and despite overtures they refused to sign a new contract. They recorded a final single as a contract obligation, the bawdy, unreleaseable ballad "Cocksucker Blues", and left to form their own record company under the financially astute eye of Mick Jagger. Sticky Fingers released in March (1971), the band's first album on their own Rolling Stones Records label, continued where Let It Bleed had left off, featuring one of their best known hits "Brown Sugar", the country influenced "Wild Horses" (which caused a disagreement between Gram Parsons and Mick Jagger over songwriting credits), the moody "Moonlight Mile" featuring Paul Buckmaster's evocative string arrangement and one of Jagger's finest vocal performances, and a version of Marianne Faithfull's "Sister Morphine" about her own ambiguous relationship with heroin. Mick Taylor collaborated heavily on this album with Jagger – probably because Richards was unable to contribute as constructively as usual due to his drug problems, and the sprawling " Can't You Hear Me Knocking' " attests to Taylor's influence. However, all the songs were credited as usual to 'Jagger/Richards' which frustrated Taylor.

Letting it bleed: 1972–1981

As Keith Richards removed himself from society, Mick Jagger began to move in more elevated social circles. He married the Nicaraguan model Bianca Perez Moreno de Macias, and the couple's jet-set lifestyle put further distance between himself and Richards. Pressured by the UK Inland Revenue service for several years of unpaid income tax, their recently appointed accountant Prince Rupert Lowenstein, a 'society' friend of Jagger's, advised the band to move abroad to avoid bankruptcy caused by the high rates of taxation of the Labour government of Harold Wilson. They eventually decided to quit Britain for the South of France, the band members taking to this enforced change of lifestyle with varying degrees of success. Bill Wyman, in particular, soon felt at home in his new mountainside house and became friendly with French painter Claude Chagall. Richards, however, adopted a more head-in-the-sand approach, ensconced in his London Cheyne Walk home in a state of insurrection until the very last minute.

Once in France Richards rented a gothic chateau "Villa Nellecote", which had been used as the headquarters for the local Nazi SS during the Second World War, and sublet rooms to the band members and a multitude of assorted hangers-on. Using the Rolling Stones Mobile studio, they began recording the double album Exile on Main St. (1972) in the basement of their new home, reputedly using electricity purloined from nearby railway lines. Dismissed by some on its release as sprawling and self-indulgent, the record is now considered among the band's (and rock & roll's) greatest. The film Cocksucker Blues, never officially released, documents the subsequent American tour.

The Rolling Stones on tour, 1972.

By the time Exile on Main St. had been completed Jagger had made the other band members aware that he was more interested in the celebrity lifestyle than working on its follow-up, and increasingly their records were made piecemeal, with tracks and parts laid down as and when the band, Jagger and Richards in particular, could get together and remain amicable sufficiently long enough to do so. When it finally arrived, Goats Head Soup (1973) was disappointing, and memorable largely for the hit single "Angie," popularly believed to be about David Bowie's new wife, but in reality another of Richards' odes to Anita Pallenberg.

Interestingly, the popular ballad "Waiting on a Friend" was recorded during the Goats Head Soup sessions, but not released until Tattoo You, nearly ten years later. The making of the record was not helped by another legal battle over drugs, this one dating back to their stay in France. But the tour of Europe in the fall of 1973 showed the Rolling Stones in top form, particularly Taylor, who played extensive solos on songs like "Midnight Rambler" and "You Can't Always Get What You Want" in an exciting interplay with Richards on rhythm guitar.

A live recording made in Brussels on 17 October was intended for an official release, but owing to legal problems it appeared only on bootlegs (Nasty Music, The Bedspring Symphony and Brussels Affair). Many fans and critics regard these as the best Rolling Stones concert recordings. By the time they came to the Musicland studios in Munich to record 1974's It's Only Rock'N'Roll, there were even more problems. Regular producer Jimmy Miller was not asked to participate because of his increasing unreliability and drug use. Critics generally wrote the album off as uninspired from a band seen as stagnating, but both album and the single of the same name were hits, even without the customary tour to promote them; and, if anything, It's Only Rock'N'Roll was a return to form, being closer to the great albums the band released between 1968 and 1972. Mick Taylor's intricate lead style lent itself well to the hard-rocking record though his shy persona never quite matched Keith Richards' outspoken image and basic, Chuck Berry-inspired rhythm work. By this time Richards was reportedly berating Taylor during recording sessions, and he contributed little to the album. Irked by perceived mistreatment and a small share of the band's royalties, Taylor announced he was leaving the band shortly before sessions started for the next album, Black and Blue (1976). The band used the album's recording sessions (again in Munich) to audition possible replacements. Guitarists as stylistically far-flung as Humble Pie lead Peter Frampton and ex-Yardbirds impresario Jeff Beck were auditioned. American session players Wayne Perkins and Harvey Mandel appeared on much of the album, but the band settled on Ron Wood, a long-time friend of Richards' and guitarist with The Faces, whose singer Rod Stewart had recently gone solo.

Wood had already contributed to It's Only Rock'N'Roll, but his first public act with the band would be the 1975 United States tour. The shows featured a new format for the Stones with their usual act replaced by increasingly theatrical stage props and gimmicks, including a giant inflatable phallus and a cherry picker on which Jagger would soar out over the audience. This represented a further breakdown in Jagger and Richards' relationship —the pragmatic Richards considering it entirely superfluous and distracting from the music. Once again, Jagger was, if nothing else, shrewdly interpreting market trends. The mid-1970s were the era of extravagant stage shows from the likes of Queen and Elton John, and the band's tours were to become even more expensive and elaborate in the years to come.

The Rolling Stones, Black and Blue, 1976.

Although the Rolling Stones remained hugely popular through the 1970s, music critics had grown increasingly dismissive of the band's output until the seminal late-1970s album Some Girls. Keith Richards would have more serious concerns in 1977: despite having spent much of the previous year undergoing a series of drug therapies to help withdraw from heroin, including (allegedly) having his blood filtered, and after a tip-off to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police from Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Richards and Pallenberg were arrested in a Toronto hotel room and charged with possession of heroin. The case would drag on for a year, with Richards eventually receiving a suspended sentence and ordered to play a concert for a local charity. This motivated a final, concerted attempt to end his drug habit, which proved largely successful. It also coincided with the end of his relationship with Anita Pallenberg, which had become increasingly strained since the tragic death of their third child (an infant son named Tara).

While Richards was settling his legal and personal problems, Jagger continued his jet-set lifestyle. He was a regular at New York's Studio 54 disco club, often in the company of model Jerry Hall. His marriage would end in 1977. By this time punk rock had become highly influential, and the Stones were increasingly criticized as being decadent, ageing millionaires and their music considered by many to be either stagnant or irrelevant. The Clash vocalist Joe Strummer even went so far as to declare "No Elvis, Beatles or Rolling Stones" in their song "1977". What people did not realise at the time was that many punk bands idolised The Stones, Keith Richards in particular, and this does not seem surprising given the band's earlier rebellious image.

In 1978 the band recorded Some Girls, their most focused and successful album in years, despite the perceived misogyny of the title track. Jagger and Richards seemed to channel much of the personal turmoil surrounding them into renewed creative vitality. With the notable exception of the disco-influenced "Miss You" (a hit single and a live staple) and the droll, country-ballad "Far Away Eyes", the songs in this album were fast, basic guitar-driven rock and roll or impeccable ballads like "Beast of Burden" (which prominently features the Richards-Wood guitar-playing style, the ancient form of weaving), and the album was widely praised as both a Stones classic and a summation of late 1970s music trends. Emotional Rescue (1980) was in a similar vein, but lacked the redeeming features of its predecessor.

Tattoo You (1981), was composed partially by using new material and by using unused songs from earlier recording outings (the ballad "Waiting on a Friend" dated back to the Goats Head Soup sessions). It also featured the hugely popular single "Start Me Up," showing that Richards was still capable of writing monster guitar parts of the same calibre as ten or fifteen years earlier. Several songs on the album ("Slave", "Waiting on a Friend" and possibly "Neighbours") featured the prominent jazz saxophonist Sonny Rollins. Tattoo You and the subsequent tour were major commercial successes.

In the summer of 1981 the band rehearsed for the Tattoo You tour at Studio Instrument Rentals located at West 52nd Street and 8th Avenue in Manhattan's Hell's Kitchen, at the site of the former Cheetah Club. They spent two weeks in midnight to eight a.m. jam sessions. Ian Stewart and Bobby Keys were present with the other members of the band for the rehearsals. During this time the Stones recorded the music video 'Start Me Up' at the rehearsal studio number 1. They also recorded the 'Waiting For a Friend' video at the same time.

Mixed emotions: 1981–1999

Throughout the early 1980s the Jagger/Richards partnership continued to falter, and their records would suffer because of it. 1983's Undercover was widely seen as Jagger's attempt to make the Rolling Stones' sound more compatible with current musical trends. Despite initial critical enthusiasm (Rolling Stone gave the album four and a half stars), its slick production and violent political and sexual content were coolly received by fans, and it was poorly promoted; the band filmed the accompanying videos in Mexico solely to save money; worse, no tour was forthcoming. It was not without controversy (the video for Undercover of the Night was said to include real assassination footage from Latin America and the guilty-pleasure Too Much Blood was criticized for being inspired too closely by slasher films and imagery).

To make matters worse, Ron Wood was now suffering from his own growing drug habit. In 1982 Jagger had signed a major solo deal with the band's new label, CBS Records. This angered Richards, who saw it as a lack of commitment to the band. To add to the band's woes in 1985, road manager Ian Stewart died of a heart attack. It cannot be overstated how important the gentle, cool-headed pianist's contribution to the Rolling Stones had been, from driving the tour van in the early days to keeping the warring band members from each other's throats during some of their darker moments. Without his presence, the band could well have imploded countless times. They performed a tribute concert for Stewart which was their only live appearance during this time.

Indeed, Jagger was spending a great deal of time on his solo recordings, and much of the material on 1986's turgid Dirty Work was authored solely by Keith Richards. The album again sold poorly, and sales were probably hurt by Jagger's decision not to tour in support of it. A bright spot that year was when the Stones were awarded a Grammy for lifetime achievement, but by this point Jagger and Richards had begun openly criticizing each other in the press and many observers assumed the band had broken up.

Neither the quality nor the sales of Jagger's solo records (She's the Boss (1985) and Primitive Cool (1987)) lived up to expectations, but ironically, Richards' first solo record, Talk is Cheap (1988), which he had been reluctant to make because of his loyalty to the Stones, was well received by both fans and critics.

In 1989, after they had had time to cool off, Jagger and Richards appeared to bury the hatchet and re-focus on the recording of a new album which would eventually become 1989's Steel Wheels and the subsequent world tour. Widely heralded as a return to form, the album even included a song called "Continental Drift" which featured the musicians of the Morroccan mountain village of Joujouka, previously recorded by Brian Jones during the ill-fated 1967 trip to North Africa with Keith Richards and Anita Pallenberg. 1989 also saw Stones, along with Ian Stewart, inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

In 1991 Bill Wyman finally left the band after years of deliberation and had published Stone Alone, a frank autobiography. After his departure, the band continued as a foursome. Charlie Watts was asked to choose a bass player, and he selected the respected session musician and Miles Davis and Sting sideman Darryl Jones, who appeared on Voodoo Lounge (1994) and played on the supporting tour. Bridges to Babylon (1997) featured another prolific bassist, Doug Wimbish, a journeyman session player and solo artist. Wimbish was offered the permanent position of bass player by the band, but declined in order to focus on his own material, and so did not play on the ensuing tour. Jones was brought back and has remained with the band since the Bridges tour. Both Voodoo Lounge and Bridges to Babylon were highly praised by fans and critics alike.

The Stones' song "Start Me Up" was used by Microsoft to launch their Windows 95 operating system. Some critics noted that the group who epitomised the way that rock and roll commercialised earlier rhythm and blues by delivering it to a global audience provided the soundtrack for the corporation which did the same with software. (Critics of Windows also noted the song's lyric "You make a grown man cry.")

The Rolling Stones had previously never licensed their music for commercial use. According to legend, Microsoft founder Bill Gates asked Jagger how much the rights to the song would cost; rather than refuse outright, Jagger replied with $13 million — a sum that he thought would self-evidently be outrageously high. However, Gates, immediately agreed to the amount.

The Verve's 1997 hit “Bittersweet Symphony” uses a small five-note sample from an orchestral version of the Rolling Stones’ “The Last Time”. After “Bittersweet Symphony” became a hit single, The Verve was sued by Allen Klein, who owns the copyrights to the Rolling Stones' pre-1970 songs. Klein claimed the Verve broke their licence agreement when they used a larger portion than was covered in the license.

The band handed over 100 percent of their songwriting royalties. They were then sued by Andrew Loog Oldham, who claimed to possess the copyright on the sampled sound recording. [2]

Don't stop: 2000–present

The Rolling Stones' "Tongue and Lip Design" logo;
mistakenly believed by many to have been designed by Andy Warhol; actually designed by John Pasche.

In 2002, the Rolling Stones released Forty Licks, a greatest hits album that spanned their career, that contained four new songs. The same year, Q magazine named the Rolling Stones as one of the "50 Bands To See Before You Die". On July 30, 2003, the band headlined the Molson Canadian Rocks for Toronto concert in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to help the city recover financially and psychologically from the effects of the 2003 SARS epidemic. It was attended by an estimated 490,000 people. On November 9, 2003, the band played its first ever concert in Hong Kong as part of the Harbour Fest celebration. In November of 2003 the band exclusively licensed the right to sell their new 4-DVD boxed set, Four Flicks, recorded on their most recent world tour, to the U.S Best Buy chain of stores. In response, other music retail chains (including Tower Records, Virgin Megastore and HMV) pulled all Rolling Stones CDs and related merchandise from their shelves and replaced them with signs explaining the situation.

Jagger and Richards worked on a new studio album in 2004 with producer Don Was at Jagger's residences in southern France and the Caribbean. Was said that the Stones would reconvene after the Christmas holidays and that the tracks recorded so far were significantly different to anything he had worked on with The Stones before. Charlie Watts later attended the sessions and was reported to be in excellent health after being treated for throat cancer.

On July 26, 2005, coinciding with Jagger's birthday, the band announced the name of their new album, A Bigger Bang, which was released September 6th to typically strong reviews, including a glowing write up in Rolling Stone magazine (often noted for its consistent support of the group). The album included perhaps the most controversial song from the Stones in years, "Sweet Neo Con", a criticism of American Neoconservatism from Jagger. The song was reportedly almost dropped from the album due to objections from Richards, who prefers to avoid music that's overtly political or topical, since such songs rarely stand the test of time.

On May 10, 2005 the Stones announced plans for another world tour starting on August 21st at Fenway Park in Boston. The tour is expected to include dates throughout the USA and Canada before going to South America, Asia and Europe. Launching the tour at the Julliard School in New York, Mick Jagger told reporters that it would not necessarily be their last.

The Rolling Stones, 2005.

In the last few years, Toronto, Ontario has been chosen as a pre-tour venue for the Rolling Stones. They have played at smaller venues such as the Palais Royale and The Phoenix prior to the full tour. In the wake of the SARS outbreak, the Stones came to Toronto to host a relief concert. Toronto has become something of a headquarters for the Stones, and they are considered there Toronto's stepchild of rock and roll.

The group kicked off their Bigger Bang world tour 2005—2006 with two shows at the historic Fenway Park in Boston. The Stones' huge stage caused extensive damage to the outfield, so that approximately 40,000 square feet (4,000 m²) of sod had to be brought in to repair it, and a subsequent baseball game held at the park three days later had to be pushed back an hour to give the grounds crew more time to complete the repairs.

On February 1, 2006, the Stones played their first concert at the Baltimore Arena since 1969, possibly the smallest venue they have played or will play for the entire tour. On February 18, 2006, they will perform a free concert on Copacabana Beach, Rio de Janeiro, where 1,000,000 spectators are expected. A special overpass is currently being constructed directly between the Copacabana Palace hotel, where they will be staying, and the stage across the street, to ensure their safe passage to and from the concert.

The group played during the half-time of Super Bowl XL. The show was produced by Sprint, and it followed in the same vein as the Super Bowl XXXIX half-time show featuring Paul McCartney—a set of straight up rock hits. [3] The Stones are also taking part in creating promotions throughout the entire NFL season which feature music from their new album, "A Bigger Bang" and footage from their supporting world tour. Before performing "Satisfaction," Jagger made an uncharacteristic comment on their longevity: "We could have played this one at Superbowl One."

At the end of 2005, it was announced by tour producer Michael Cohl that the Stones A Bigger Bang tour had made a record-shattering $162 million since the tour opening at Fenway Park in Boston on the 21st of August. This breaks the previous North American record, held by the Stones themselves for their 1994 Voodoo Lounge tour, which grossed approximately $120 million. It should however be noted that the North American leg of the A Bigger Bang tour is far from finished; there are still fifteen confirmed shows remaining. Also, ticket prices for the tour are rather high; they average about $200.00 USD for a single seat.

Band members

The Lorin Post in a 1986 edition called them "the ugliest band of the century."

Current line-up

  • Mick Jagger - Vocals, guitar, keyboards, harmonica, percussion (1961–)
  • Keith Richards - Guitar, vocals, keyboards (1961–)
  • Charlie Watts - drums and percussion (1962–)
  • Ron Wood - Guitar (1975–)


Notable sidemen

  • Darryl Jones has played bass for the group since Bill Wyman left the band, on all albums except Bridges to Babylon. He is not, however, an official member of the band (a position affored a salary that is significantly higher than that of a hired musician), and the Stones have remained a foursome since Wyman's departure.
  • Ian Stewart - Piano; continued to play for the band even after he was forced out of the Rolling Stones in 1962, serving as their road manager and frequent session player until his death in 1985. He appears on a virtually all of the Stones early recordings and a large number of their most famous mid-period songs (though piano duties were often provided by other musicians--most notably Nicky Hopkins--beginning in the late 60s).
  • Nicky Hopkins - Keyboards and piano; appears on a significant number of Stones recordings from their classic mid-period (late 60s through the 70s), and occasionally performed live, though he was not as closely associated with the group as former member Ian Stewart.
  • Chuck Leavell- Keyboards and piano; formerly of The Allman Brothers Band. Has played keyboards since Stewart's death, most notably on the Stones blockbuster 90s and 2000s tours, but also on studio recordings.
  • Lisa Fischer - Vocals; previously sung back up for Luther Vandross; went on tour with the Stones on their 1990 Urban Jungle European tour, and has accompanied them on every tour since. Notable for supplying the female vocal part (orginally sung by Merry Clayton) for "Gimme Shelter" and, on soul songs like Ray Charles' (The Night Time Is) The Right Time, which the Stones have covered on their current tour.
  • Billy Preston - Keyboards, organ; cheifly associated with the Stones 1970s shows and records, appears on Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main Street.
  • Bobby Keys - Saxophone; appeared as a primary horn player, alongside Jim Price, on a number of late 60s and 70s recordings and shows. Recently reinstated into the Stones touring lineup.

Discography

  • For a detailed discography, see: The Rolling Stones discography

See also...

  • Best selling music artists – World's top-selling music artists chart.
  • Rolling Stone's list of the 50 Moments that Changed Rock and Roll

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. In ancient Greece, shark flesh was forbidden to be eaten at women's festivals. The Lorin Post in a 1986 edition called them "the ugliest band of the century.". In other Pacific Ocean cultures, Dakuwanga was a shark god who was the eater of lost souls. Also, ticket prices for the tour are rather high; they average about $200.00 USD for a single seat. A listing of them follows:
. It should however be noted that the North American leg of the A Bigger Bang tour is far from finished; there are still fifteen confirmed shows remaining. They believed that sharks were guardians of the sea, and called them Aumakua.

This breaks the previous North American record, held by the Stones themselves for their 1994 Voodoo Lounge tour, which grossed approximately $120 million. Hawaiian mythology also contained many shark gods. At the end of 2005, it was announced by tour producer Michael Cohl that the Stones A Bigger Bang tour had made a record-shattering $162 million since the tour opening at Fenway Park in Boston on the 21st of August. The beach goers would laugh and ignore the warnings and go swimming, subsequently being eaten by the same shark man who warned them not to enter the water. Before performing "Satisfaction," Jagger made an uncharacteristic comment on their longevity: "We could have played this one at Superbowl One.". A common theme in the stories was that the shark men would warn beach goers that sharks were in the waters. [3] The Stones are also taking part in creating promotions throughout the entire NFL season which feature music from their new album, "A Bigger Bang" and footage from their supporting world tour. They could change form between shark and human at any time desired, and for any length.

The show was produced by Sprint, and it followed in the same vein as the Super Bowl XXXIX half-time show featuring Paul McCartney—a set of straight up rock hits. There are stories of shark men who have shark jaws on their back. The group played during the half-time of Super Bowl XL. Sharks figure prominently in the Hawaiian mythology. A special overpass is currently being constructed directly between the Copacabana Palace hotel, where they will be staying, and the stage across the street, to ensure their safe passage to and from the concert. Some organizations, such as the Shark Trust, campaign to limit shark fishing. On February 18, 2006, they will perform a free concert on Copacabana Beach, Rio de Janeiro, where 1,000,000 spectators are expected. This has caused concern among biologists regarding the increase in effort applied to catching sharks over time, and many species are considered to be threatened.

On February 1, 2006, the Stones played their first concert at the Baltimore Arena since 1969, possibly the smallest venue they have played or will play for the entire tour. Sharks generally reach sexual maturity slowly and produce very few offspring in comparison to other fishes that are harvested. The Stones' huge stage caused extensive damage to the outfield, so that approximately 40,000 square feet (4,000 m²) of sod had to be brought in to repair it, and a subsequent baseball game held at the park three days later had to be pushed back an hour to give the grounds crew more time to complete the repairs. Conservationists have campaigned for changes in the law to make finning illegal in the U.S. The group kicked off their Bigger Bang world tour 2005—2006 with two shows at the historic Fenway Park in Boston. There have been cases where hundreds of de-finned animals were swept up on local beaches without any way to convey themselves back into the sea. Toronto has become something of a headquarters for the Stones, and they are considered there Toronto's stepchild of rock and roll. Sharks are often killed for shark fin soup, in which many sharks are hunted for their fins, which are cut off with a hot metal blade before the live animal is tossed back into the water.

In the wake of the SARS outbreak, the Stones came to Toronto to host a relief concert. When served in fish and chip shops, it is called 'flake'. They have played at smaller venues such as the Palais Royale and The Phoenix prior to the full tour. In the Australian State of Victoria shark is the most commonly used fish in fish and chips, in which fillets are battered and deep fried or crumbed and grilled and served alongside chips. In the last few years, Toronto, Ontario has been chosen as a pre-tour venue for the Rolling Stones. Sharks are a common seafood in many places around the world, including Japan and Australia. Launching the tour at the Julliard School in New York, Mick Jagger told reporters that it would not necessarily be their last. Other sharks are hunted for food (Atlantic thresher, mako and others), and some species for other products.

The tour is expected to include dates throughout the USA and Canada before going to South America, Asia and Europe. It was used for purposes similar to sandpaper. On May 10, 2005 the Stones announced plans for another world tour starting on August 21st at Fenway Park in Boston. Sharkskin is covered with dermal denticles, which are similar to tiny teeth. The song was reportedly almost dropped from the album due to objections from Richards, who prefers to avoid music that's overtly political or topical, since such songs rarely stand the test of time. In the past they were fished simply for the sport of landing a good fighting fish (mako sharks for instance). The album included perhaps the most controversial song from the Stones in years, "Sweet Neo Con", a criticism of American Neoconservatism from Jagger. Every year, 100 million sharks are killed by people in commercial and recreational fishing.

On July 26, 2005, coinciding with Jagger's birthday, the band announced the name of their new album, A Bigger Bang, which was released September 6th to typically strong reviews, including a glowing write up in Rolling Stone magazine (often noted for its consistent support of the group). Sharks have two senses that many animals do not have:. Charlie Watts later attended the sessions and was reported to be in excellent health after being treated for throat cancer. There are three ways in which shark pups are born:. Was said that the Stones would reconvene after the Christmas holidays and that the tracks recorded so far were significantly different to anything he had worked on with The Stones before. No known sharks provide parental protection for their young, but females have a hormone that is released into their blood during the pupping season that apparently keeps them from feeding. Jagger and Richards worked on a new studio album in 2004 with producer Don Was at Jagger's residences in southern France and the Caribbean. These pups are either protected by egg cases or born live.

In response, other music retail chains (including Tower Records, Virgin Megastore and HMV) pulled all Rolling Stones CDs and related merchandise from their shelves and replaced them with signs explaining the situation. Instead of producing huge numbers of eggs and larvae (99.9% of which never reach sexual maturity in fishes that use this strategy) sharks normally produce around a dozen pups, some species up to 70-80 and some as few as 2-3. In November of 2003 the band exclusively licensed the right to sell their new 4-DVD boxed set, Four Flicks, recorded on their most recent world tour, to the U.S Best Buy chain of stores. Sharks have a much different reproductive strategy than most fishes. On November 9, 2003, the band played its first ever concert in Hong Kong as part of the Harbour Fest celebration. In some species, females have evolved thicker skin to withstand the sharks bite marks during mating. It was attended by an estimated 490,000 people. The male may come and bite the edges of the female to show his interest.

On July 30, 2003, the band headlined the Molson Canadian Rocks for Toronto concert in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to help the city recover financially and psychologically from the effects of the 2003 SARS epidemic. The bite marks can also come from the courtship of the sharks. The same year, Q magazine named the Rolling Stones as one of the "50 Bands To See Before You Die". Many females in the larger species have bite marks that appear to be a result of a male grasping her to maintain position. In 2002, the Rolling Stones released Forty Licks, a greatest hits album that spanned their career, that contained four new songs. In the less flexible species the two sharks swim parallel to each other while the male inserts the clasper into the female's oviduct. [2]. The smaller catsharks often mate with the male curling around the female.

They were then sued by Andrew Loog Oldham, who claimed to possess the copyright on the sampled sound recording. Mating has rarely been observed in sharks. The band handed over 100 percent of their songwriting royalties. This animal is the clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria) which has claspers of 15 cm (6 in) in size on a fish that reaches 1 m (3 feet) in length.). Klein claimed the Verve broke their licence agreement when they used a larger portion than was covered in the license. (As a side note, Class Chondrichthyes has the distinction of having the animal with the largest intromittent organ — an organ used for transmitting sperm — in relation to body length. After “Bittersweet Symphony” became a hit single, The Verve was sued by Allen Klein, who owns the copyrights to the Rolling Stones' pre-1970 songs. The name is somewhat misleading as they are not used to hold on to the female, but are the shark's version of the mammalian penis.

The Verve's 1997 hit “Bittersweet Symphony” uses a small five-note sample from an orchestral version of the Rolling Stones’ “The Last Time”. The males all have their pelvic fins modified into a pair of claspers. However, Gates, immediately agreed to the amount. The sex of a shark can be easily determined. According to legend, Microsoft founder Bill Gates asked Jagger how much the rights to the song would cost; rather than refuse outright, Jagger replied with $13 million — a sum that he thought would self-evidently be outrageously high. The jaw was realized to be inaccurate, and estimates revised downwards to around 43 feet (13 metres) to 52 feet (15.9 metres). The Rolling Stones had previously never licensed their music for commercial use. A reproduction of the jaw was based on some of the largest teeth (up to almost 17 cm (7 inches) in length) and suggested a fish that could grow 80 feet (25 metres) long to 100 feet (30.5 metres).

(Critics of Windows also noted the song's lyric "You make a grown man cry."). The Lamniformes include the extinct Megalodon (Carcharodon megalodon), which like all extinct sharks is only known from its teeth (the only bone found in these cartilaginous fishes, and therefore the only fossils produced). Some critics noted that the group who epitomised the way that rock and roll commercialised earlier rhythm and blues by delivering it to a global audience provided the soundtrack for the corporation which did the same with software. There are eight orders of sharks, listed below in roughly their evolutionary relationship from more primitive to more modern species:. The Stones' song "Start Me Up" was used by Microsoft to launch their Windows 95 operating system. Most of the species we know today are as old as the Jurassic period. Both Voodoo Lounge and Bridges to Babylon were highly praised by fans and critics alike. The first sharks appeared in the oceans 400 to 350 million years ago.

Jones was brought back and has remained with the band since the Bridges tour. There are more than 360 described species of sharks. Wimbish was offered the permanent position of bass player by the band, but declined in order to focus on his own material, and so did not play on the ensuing tour. It is currently thought that the sharks form a polyphyletic group: in particular, some sharks are more closely related to rays than they are to some other sharks. Bridges to Babylon (1997) featured another prolific bassist, Doug Wimbish, a journeyman session player and solo artist. The Elasmobranchii also include rays and skates; the Chondrichthyes also include Chimaeras. Charlie Watts was asked to choose a bass player, and he selected the respected session musician and Miles Davis and Sting sideman Darryl Jones, who appeared on Voodoo Lounge (1994) and played on the supporting tour. Sharks belong to the superorder Selachimorpha in the subclass Elasmobranchii in the class Chondrichthyes.

After his departure, the band continued as a foursome. The collective noun for a group of sharks is a shiver. In 1991 Bill Wyman finally left the band after years of deliberation and had published Stone Alone, a frank autobiography. The name may have been derived from the Mayan word for shark, xoc, pronounced "shock" or "shawk". 1989 also saw Stones, along with Ian Stewart, inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The name "Shark" first came into use around the late 1560s to refer to the large sharks of the Caribbean Sea, and later to all sharks in general. Widely heralded as a return to form, the album even included a song called "Continental Drift" which featured the musicians of the Morroccan mountain village of Joujouka, previously recorded by Brian Jones during the ill-fated 1967 trip to North Africa with Keith Richards and Anita Pallenberg. Until the late 16th century sharks were usually referred to in the English language as sea-dogs.

In 1989, after they had had time to cool off, Jagger and Richards appeared to bury the hatchet and re-focus on the recording of a new album which would eventually become 1989's Steel Wheels and the subsequent world tour. These exceptions may be due to the "warm-blooded", or homeothermic, nature of their physiology. Neither the quality nor the sales of Jagger's solo records (She's the Boss (1985) and Primitive Cool (1987)) lived up to expectations, but ironically, Richards' first solo record, Talk is Cheap (1988), which he had been reluctant to make because of his loyalty to the Stones, was well received by both fans and critics. Another exception, the Great White, the largest actively predatory shark, is capable of surprising bursts of speed. A bright spot that year was when the Stones were awarded a Grammy for lifetime achievement, but by this point Jagger and Richards had begun openly criticizing each other in the press and many observers assumed the band had broken up. The Mako shark is generally considered to be the fastest species of shark, and may be the fastest of all fish (for short bursts). The album again sold poorly, and sales were probably hurt by Jagger's decision not to tour in support of it. One exception to this generality is the Mako shark, whose speed may range upwards of thirty miles (48 kilometers) per hour.

Indeed, Jagger was spending a great deal of time on his solo recordings, and much of the material on 1986's turgid Dirty Work was authored solely by Keith Richards. In general, sharks swim ("cruise") at an average speed of five miles (8.25 kilometers) per hour, but when feeding or attacking, the average shark will reach speeds upwards of twelve miles (19.25 kilometers) per hour. They performed a tribute concert for Stewart which was their only live appearance during this time. A few other shark species do attack people every year, producing wounds that can potentially kill, but this occurs either specifically because they have been provoked, or through mistaken identity due to water conditions or the like. Without his presence, the band could well have imploded countless times. Many shark species are known to "display" when feeling threatened, and it is ill-advised to remain in the vicinity at such a time as this would generally be considered enough provocation to warrant an attack. It cannot be overstated how important the gentle, cool-headed pianist's contribution to the Rolling Stones had been, from driving the tour van in the early days to keeping the warring band members from each other's throats during some of their darker moments. In most cases, if a person moves away calmly, or remains still, they will be ignored.

To add to the band's woes in 1985, road manager Ian Stewart died of a heart attack. These sharks are also large, powerful predators which can be provoked simply by being in the water at the wrong time and place, but they are normally considered less dangerous to divers and swimmers than the previous group. This angered Richards, who saw it as a lack of commitment to the band. This group contains the Mako, Hammerhead, Gray Reef, Black Tip Reef, Lemon, Silky and Blue sharks. In 1982 Jagger had signed a major solo deal with the band's new label, CBS Records. A number of other species (perhaps 10 - 15) have threatened, attacked, and/or bitten (but not killed) humans without being obviously provoked. To make matters worse, Ron Wood was now suffering from his own growing drug habit. This protects the shark from retribution from a wounded and aggressive target, but also allows humans the time to get out of the water and survive.

It was not without controversy (the video for Undercover of the Night was said to include real assassination footage from Latin America and the guilty-pleasure Too Much Blood was criticized for being inspired too closely by slasher films and imagery). This behaviour has many possible explanations, one being that humans don't taste good (or at least, as good), or are lacking the necessary fat, and another being that sharks normally make one swift attack, and then retreat and wait for the victim to die, or exhaust itself, before it comes back to feed. Despite initial critical enthusiasm (Rolling Stone gave the album four and a half stars), its slick production and violent political and sexual content were coolly received by fans, and it was poorly promoted; the band filmed the accompanying videos in Mexico solely to save money; worse, no tour was forthcoming. Often the shark that attacks a human will make only one bite and then go away. 1983's Undercover was widely seen as Jagger's attempt to make the Rolling Stones' sound more compatible with current musical trends. Some claim that the shark is confusing a human for a seal or other prey animal; this would be typical in the case of an attack against a surfer. Throughout the early 1980s the Jagger/Richards partnership continued to falter, and their records would suffer because of it. There are many theories about why sharks attack people.

They also recorded the 'Waiting For a Friend' video at the same time. These sharks, being large, powerful predators perfectly capable of eating humans, will sometimes attack and kill people, but all of the above sharks, even the Great White, have been filmed in open water, with no cage, time and time again, without incident. During this time the Stones recorded the music video 'Start Me Up' at the rehearsal studio number 1. Out of the more than 360 described species of sharks, only 4 have been confirmed to have killed humans: the Great White, Tiger, Bull, and Oceanic Whitetip sharks. Ian Stewart and Bobby Keys were present with the other members of the band for the rehearsals. Contrary to popular belief, only a few sharks are dangerous to humans. jam sessions. only those people who enter the water in the areas populated by sharks).

They spent two weeks in midnight to eight a.m. several hundred people die anually struck by lightning; however, lightning may strike anywhere worldwide, whereas only a very small part of human population is susceptible to shark attacks, i.e. In the summer of 1981 the band rehearsed for the Tattoo You tour at Studio Instrument Rentals located at West 52nd Street and 8th Avenue in Manhattan's Hell's Kitchen, at the site of the former Cheetah Club. While sharks cause a few dozen human deaths annually, it is relatively not a large number (e.g. Tattoo You and the subsequent tour were major commercial successes. The fear of sharks has been fueled worldwide by a few unusual instances of unprovoked attack, such as the Jersey Shore Shark Attacks of 1916, and by sensationalized fiction and film, such as the Jaws series. Several songs on the album ("Slave", "Waiting on a Friend" and possibly "Neighbours") featured the prominent jazz saxophonist Sonny Rollins. Their upper jaw are not attached to the skull.

It also featured the hugely popular single "Start Me Up," showing that Richards was still capable of writing monster guitar parts of the same calibre as ten or fifteen years earlier. Urine in sharks accumulates in the blood and is then secreted through the skin. Tattoo You (1981), was composed partially by using new material and by using unused songs from earlier recording outings (the ballad "Waiting on a Friend" dated back to the Goats Head Soup sessions). [1]. Emotional Rescue (1980) was in a similar vein, but lacked the redeeming features of its predecessor. The evidence that sharks are at least resistant to cancer and disease is mostly anecdotal and there have been few, if any, scientific or statistical studies that have shown sharks to have heightened immunity to disease. With the notable exception of the disco-influenced "Miss You" (a hit single and a live staple) and the droll, country-ballad "Far Away Eyes", the songs in this album were fast, basic guitar-driven rock and roll or impeccable ballads like "Beast of Burden" (which prominently features the Richards-Wood guitar-playing style, the ancient form of weaving), and the album was widely praised as both a Stones classic and a summation of late 1970s music trends. A popular myth is that sharks are immune to disease and cancer, however, this is untrue and there are both diseases and parasites that affect sharks.

Jagger and Richards seemed to channel much of the personal turmoil surrounding them into renewed creative vitality. Researchers use this condition for handling sharks safely. In 1978 the band recorded Some Girls, their most focused and successful album in years, despite the perceived misogyny of the title track. A shark, if inverted, enters a natural state of paralysis. What people did not realise at the time was that many punk bands idolised The Stones, Keith Richards in particular, and this does not seem surprising given the band's earlier rebellious image. Their dermal teeth gives them hydrodynamic advantages as they are reducing the turbulence when swimming. The Clash vocalist Joe Strummer even went so far as to declare "No Elvis, Beatles or Rolling Stones" in their song "1977". A similar arrangement of collagen fibres has been discovered in dolphins and squids.

By this time punk rock had become highly influential, and the Stones were increasingly criticized as being decadent, ageing millionaires and their music considered by many to be either stagnant or irrelevant. The sharks saves more energy while swimming this way than if they didn't have their collagenous corset. His marriage would end in 1977. This works as an outer skeleton, providing attachment for their swimming muscles. He was a regular at New York's Studio 54 disco club, often in the company of model Jerry Hall. Unlike bony fish, the sharks have a complex dermal corset arranged as a helical network and made of flexible collagenous fibres surrounding their body. While Richards was settling his legal and personal problems, Jagger continued his jet-set lifestyle. Sand tiger sharks are known to gulp air at the surface and store it in their stomach to provide buoyancy.

It also coincided with the end of his relationship with Anita Pallenberg, which had become increasingly strained since the tragic death of their third child (an infant son named Tara). Also, unlike other fish, sharks do not have gas-filled swim bladders, but rather rely on an oil-filled liver for (limited) buoyancy, so they sink when they stop swimming; a resting shark always sinks to the sea bed. This motivated a final, concerted attempt to end his drug habit, which proved largely successful. The outflow is strong enough to allow for respiration, and it is believed that the reason for this behaviour is that the fresh water helps remove certain parasites. The case would drag on for a year, with Richards eventually receiving a suspended sentence and ordered to play a concert for a local charity. There are also known instances, such as in certain caves along the Yucatan coast, where sharks of varying species rest on the cave floors and allow the fresh water outflow to pass over them. Keith Richards would have more serious concerns in 1977: despite having spent much of the previous year undergoing a series of drug therapies to help withdraw from heroin, including (allegedly) having his blood filtered, and after a tip-off to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police from Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Richards and Pallenberg were arrested in a Toronto hotel room and charged with possession of heroin. Some sharks, like the Blacktip Reef Shark and Nurse Shark, can pump water over their gills as they rest.

Although the Rolling Stones remained hugely popular through the 1970s, music critics had grown increasingly dismissive of the band's output until the seminal late-1970s album Some Girls. If a shark were to stop swimming, the necessary water circulation for respiration would become too low and the animal could suffocate. The mid-1970s were the era of extravagant stage shows from the likes of Queen and Elton John, and the band's tours were to become even more expensive and elaborate in the years to come. Due to their size and the nature of their metabolism, sharks have a higher demand for oxygen than most fish and they cannot rely on ambient water current to provide an adequate supply of oxygenated water. Once again, Jagger was, if nothing else, shrewdly interpreting market trends. Like other fish, sharks extract their oxygen from seawater as it passes over their gills. This represented a further breakdown in Jagger and Richards' relationship —the pragmatic Richards considering it entirely superfluous and distracting from the music. This is possible because of the presence of the rete mirabile, a counter current exchange mechanism that reduces the loss of body heat.

The shows featured a new format for the Stones with their usual act replaced by increasingly theatrical stage props and gimmicks, including a giant inflatable phallus and a cherry picker on which Jagger would soar out over the audience. A few of the larger species, the Mako and White Shark, are mildly homeothermic, able to maintain their body temperature at a level above the ocean's temperature. Wood had already contributed to It's Only Rock'N'Roll, but his first public act with the band would be the 1975 United States tour. Although not unique among sharks, the Bull Shark is the better known of several species to regularly swim in both salt and fresh water environments (most famously in Lake Nicaragua, in Central America) and in most deltas. American session players Wayne Perkins and Harvey Mandel appeared on much of the album, but the band settled on Ron Wood, a long-time friend of Richards' and guitarist with The Faces, whose singer Rod Stewart had recently gone solo. Sharks include everything from the hand-sized Pygmy Shark, a deep sea species, to the Whale Shark, the largest fish (although sharks are not closely related to bony fish) which is known to grow to a maximum length of approximately 15m (49 feet) and which, like the great whales, feeds only on plankton. Guitarists as stylistically far-flung as Humble Pie lead Peter Frampton and ex-Yardbirds impresario Jeff Beck were auditioned. There are exceptions to the "large", "marine" (as in 'ocean-going') and "predatory" portions of the characterization.

The band used the album's recording sessions (again in Munich) to audition possible replacements. (Gilbertson, 7.3). Irked by perceived mistreatment and a small share of the band's royalties, Taylor announced he was leaving the band shortly before sessions started for the next album, Black and Blue (1976). The lower teeth are primarily used for holding prey, while the top are used for cutting into it. By this time Richards was reportedly berating Taylor during recording sessions, and he contributed little to the album. Their teeth are not attached to the jaw, but embedded in their flesh, and in many species are constantly replaced throughout the shark's life. Mick Taylor's intricate lead style lent itself well to the hard-rocking record though his shy persona never quite matched Keith Richards' outspoken image and basic, Chuck Berry-inspired rhythm work. Sharks generally rely on their superior sense of smell to find prey, but once they are close they also use the lateral lines running along their sides to sense movement in the water and also employ special sensory pores on their heads (Ampullae of Lorenzini) to detect electrical pulses created by the muscles of prey.

Critics generally wrote the album off as uninspired from a band seen as stagnating, but both album and the single of the same name were hits, even without the customary tour to promote them; and, if anything, It's Only Rock'N'Roll was a return to form, being closer to the great albums the band released between 1968 and 1972. This membrane covers the eyes during predation, and when it is being attacked. Regular producer Jimmy Miller was not asked to participate because of his increasing unreliability and drug use. To protect their eyes some have nictitating membranes. By the time they came to the Musicland studios in Munich to record 1974's It's Only Rock'N'Roll, there were even more problems. Sharks have eyelids, but they do not blink because the surrounding water cleans their eyes. Many fans and critics regard these as the best Rolling Stones concert recordings. The effectiveness of the tissue varies, with some sharks having stronger nocturnal adaptations.

A live recording made in Brussels on 17 October was intended for an official release, but owing to legal problems it appeared only on bootlegs (Nasty Music, The Bedspring Symphony and Brussels Affair). This tissue is behind the retina and reflects light back to the retina, thereby increasing visibility in the dark waters. But the tour of Europe in the fall of 1973 showed the Rolling Stones in top form, particularly Taylor, who played extensive solos on songs like "Midnight Rambler" and "You Can't Always Get What You Want" in an exciting interplay with Richards on rhythm guitar. Shark eyes are similar to the eyes of other vertebrates, including similar lenses, corneas and retinas, though their eyesight is well adapted to their marine environment with the help of a tissue called tapetum lucidum. The making of the record was not helped by another legal battle over drugs, this one dating back to their stay in France. The short duct between the anterior and posterior nasal openings are not fused like in bony fish. Interestingly, the popular ballad "Waiting on a Friend" was recorded during the Goats Head Soup sessions, but not released until Tattoo You, nearly ten years later. Some species, such as Nurse sharks, have external barbels that greatly increase their ability to sense prey.

When it finally arrived, Goats Head Soup (1973) was disappointing, and memorable largely for the hit single "Angie," popularly believed to be about David Bowie's new wife, but in reality another of Richards' odes to Anita Pallenberg. They are even more attracted to the chemicals found in the gut of many species, and often linger near or in sewage outfalls. By the time Exile on Main St. had been completed Jagger had made the other band members aware that he was more interested in the celebrity lifestyle than working on its follow-up, and increasingly their records were made piecemeal, with tracks and parts laid down as and when the band, Jagger and Richards in particular, could get together and remain amicable sufficiently long enough to do so. Sharks have keen olfactory senses, with some species able to detect as little as one part per million of blood in seawater. The film Cocksucker Blues, never officially released, documents the subsequent American tour. . Dismissed by some on its release as sprawling and self-indulgent, the record is now considered among the band's (and rock & roll's) greatest. Sharks are a group (superorder Selachimorpha) of fish, with a full cartilaginous skeleton, a streamlined body plan, with normally 5, but up to 7 (depending on species) gill slits along the side of, or beginning slightly behind, the head (in some species, a modified slit called a spiracle, is located just behind the eye), dermal denticles covering the body to protect from damage, parasites and improve fluid dynamics, and rows of replaceable teeth in the mouth.

Using the Rolling Stones Mobile studio, they began recording the double album Exile on Main St. (1972) in the basement of their new home, reputedly using electricity purloined from nearby railway lines. The black tip diving shark will can dive up to 250 feet down. Once in France Richards rented a gothic chateau "Villa Nellecote", which had been used as the headquarters for the local Nazi SS during the Second World War, and sublet rooms to the band members and a multitude of assorted hangers-on. The Basking shark is a shark that will never eat a human. Richards, however, adopted a more head-in-the-sand approach, ensconced in his London Cheyne Walk home in a state of insurrection until the very last minute. The people who worshipped him feared to eat, touch or cross the smoke of the kokala, his sacred fish. Bill Wyman, in particular, soon felt at home in his new mountainside house and became friendly with French painter Claude Chagall. Kane-i-kokala - A kind shark god that saved shipwrecked people by taking them to shore.

They eventually decided to quit Britain for the South of France, the band members taking to this enforced change of lifestyle with varying degrees of success. He sometimes moved to another cave on the windward side of island of Moloka'i. Pressured by the UK Inland Revenue service for several years of unpaid income tax, their recently appointed accountant Prince Rupert Lowenstein, a 'society' friend of Jagger's, advised the band to move abroad to avoid bankruptcy caused by the high rates of taxation of the Labour government of Harold Wilson. Kauhuhu - He was a fierce king shark that lived in a cave in Kipahulu on the island of Maui. He married the Nicaraguan model Bianca Perez Moreno de Macias, and the couple's jet-set lifestyle put further distance between himself and Richards. He was said to be 30 fathoms (55 m) long and was the husband of Ka'ahupahau. As Keith Richards removed himself from society, Mick Jagger began to move in more elevated social circles. Kuhaimoana - He was the brother of Pele and lived in the Ka'ula islet.

However, all the songs were credited as usual to 'Jagger/Richards' which frustrated Taylor. Kua - This was the main shark god of the people of Ka'u, and believed to be their ancestor. Mick Taylor collaborated heavily on this album with Jagger – probably because Richards was unable to contribute as constructively as usual due to his drug problems, and the sprawling " Can't You Hear Me Knocking' " attests to Taylor's influence. He had an affair with a human girl, who gave birth to a helpful green shark. Sticky Fingers released in March (1971), the band's first album on their own Rolling Stones Records label, continued where Let It Bleed had left off, featuring one of their best known hits "Brown Sugar", the country influenced "Wild Horses" (which caused a disagreement between Gram Parsons and Mick Jagger over songwriting credits), the moody "Moonlight Mile" featuring Paul Buckmaster's evocative string arrangement and one of Jagger's finest vocal performances, and a version of Marianne Faithfull's "Sister Morphine" about her own ambiguous relationship with heroin. He was called the protector of the Ka'u people. They recorded a final single as a contract obligation, the bawdy, unreleaseable ballad "Cocksucker Blues", and left to form their own record company under the financially astute eye of Mick Jagger. Keali'ikau 'o Ka'u - He was the cousin of Pele and son of Kua.

The intervening years since they had signed with the record company had seen them become global superstars, and despite overtures they refused to sign a new contract. Kawelomahamahai'a - Another human, he was transformed into a shark. 1969 saw the end of the band's existing contract with Decca Records. He was a trickster god who performed many heroic feats, including the calming of two legendary colliding hills that destroyed canoes trying to pass between. They witnessed the crumbling of the show and as a result refused to play or even be associated with what was occurring. Kane'apua - Most commonly, he was the brother of Pele and Kamohoali'i. Contrary to popular belief, The Grateful Dead, and particularly Jerry Garcia, were very opposed to hiring the Hell's Angels at this concert. Kaholia Kane - This was the shark god of the ali'i Kalaniopu'u and he was believed to live in a cave at Puhi, Kaua'i.

Many cultural scholars of the time opined that Altamont marked the de facto end of the sixties. She was also believed to live near Pearl Harbor. The Altamont concert would be documented in Albert and David Maysles' film Gimme Shelter. She was later transformed into shark form and was believed to protect the people who lived on O'ahu from sharks. The running battles between fans and security reached a head when Meredith Hunter, a young black fan who had unwisely brought a pistol to the show, was stabbed and beaten to death by the Angels after aiming the firearm at the stage, during the band's performance of "Under My Thumb". Ka'ahupahau - This goddess was born human, with her defining characteristic being her red hair. There are also rumours that they weren't real Angels, but just wannabes out to impress the gang with their toughness [1]. At one point he had a he'iau (temple or shrine) dedicated to him on every piece of land that jutted into the ocean on the island of Moloka'i.

The Angels at Altamont may have in fact been consuming more drugs than most of the concert-goers. A summit cliff on the crater of Kilauea is considered to be one of his most sacred spots. However, the American Angels were rather different from the British Angels, who were for the most part harmless Jagger-look-alikes. He was able to take on all human and fish forms. The Rolling Stones had hired the local chapter of the Hells Angels to take care of security, as The Grateful Dead had a long and successful history of using the Angels for security. Kamohoali'i - The most well known and revered of the shark gods, he was the older and favored brother of Pele, and helped and journeyed with her to Hawaii. Jagger's refusal to perform during the day, again to ensure a better film with lighting at night, resulted in an escalation of violence between the 250.000 fans and security. The shark can 'hear' frequencies in the range of 25 to 50 Hz using this sense.

The concert was a disaster. The shark uses this to detect other organisms moving, especially wounded fish. Image:Altamont1.jpg. It is used to detect motion or 'sound' in the water. This led to numerous problems as the event organizers had to scramble to plan the event. Lateral line - This system is found in most fishes, including sharks. Jagger's decision to announce at a press conference that the Stones would be performing at the event, possibly to ensure a sufficient audience for the concert movie, resulted in the city of San Francisco denying permits. It is this sense that sometimes confuses a shark into attacking a boat: when the metal interacts with salt water, sharks can detect the resultant electrical charge from over one mile away.

Originally, the Stones' appearance was to be a surprise for the festival in San Franciso's Golden Gate Park. This sense is used to find prey hidden in sand in bottom feeding sharks, by detecting the nerve impulses. In an attempt to recreate the atmosphere of Hyde Park, and as a reaction to the Woodstock festival, the tour culminated in a free concert given at Altamont, a disused racetrack located about 40 miles east of San Francisco. The shark has the greatest electricity sensitivity known in all animals. They blazed a trail for a multitude of stadium tours by the super-bands of the seventies, which continues to this day. Electroreception: The Ampullae of Lorenzini are small pits in the head that detect electricity. Rather than performing in small and medium sized venues to audiences of screaming girls, they were booked into huge baseball and football stadiums with crowd sizes to match. They choose such areas mainly because of the protection from predators (mainly other sharks) and the abundance of food.

Away from the stage since 1966, they found that live performing had moved on since then. Most ovoviviparous sharks generally give birth in sheltered areas, including bays, river mouths, and shallow reefs. This was like no other tour the band had yet undertaken. Whale shark eggs found are now thought to have been aborted. Immediately, the band set off on another US tour, characterised by the hedonism that their position in rock's aristocracy afforded them. The whale shark is now considered to be in this category after having been classified as oviparous for a long time. It was to become the defining Rolling Stones album. The survival strategy for the species that do this is that the young are able to grow to an even larger size before being born.

An album Let It Bleed followed in December and was rapidly hailed as another classic, featuring the brooding "Gimme Shelter," "You Can't Always Get What You Want" and a further nod to their roots with a cover of Robert Johnson's "Love In Vain". Sand tigers, makos, threshers, porbeagles and possibly great whites have oophagous young. It was released on July 3, 1969, co-inciding with the death of Jones, and remains the band's last number 1 single in the UK. Sometimes they are functional even before being born, as some species practice oophagy, where the first to hatch eat the remaining eggs in the oviduct. The band had released the first recording with the new line up, a single called "Honky Tonk Women", which was recorded with Jones but had sections of his guitar part edited out and Taylor's part dubbed in at the last minute. As in viviparity, the young are born alive and fully functional. The band's performance, under-rehearsed and suffering from some of the remaining members' narcotic intake, was somewhat shambolic and was captured by a Granada Television production team, later to be shown on British television as "Stones in the Park". The eggs hatch within the oviduct, and the young continue to be nourished by the remnants of the yolk and the oviduct's fluids.

Despite the tragedy, the Hyde Park concert went ahead, with an audience of 200.000 fans, with Jagger reading from Shelley's "Adonais" and releasing hundreds of butterflies by way of tribute to the late guitarist. The young are nourished by the yolk of their egg and by fluids secreted by glands in the walls of the oviduct. This theory has been continued further by the 2005 film 'Stoned' by Stephen Woolley. Ovoviviparity - Most sharks utilize this method. A recent death-bed confession to murder by Frank Thorogood, a builder employed by Jones at the time, has only served to cloud the issue further. The blue shark produces the most young of sharks that have had the number of pups recorded, the maximum reported being 82. Although his death was recorded as being by misadventure, the cause of the drowning to this day remains a mystery. Dogfishes also have the longest known gestation period of any shark, 22 months.

However, within a month, and a matter of two days before the Stones were due to play a free concert in Hyde Park, London he was dead; found at the bottom of his swimming pool which was surrounded by statues of Christopher Robin and Winnie the Pooh. Hammerheads, the requiem sharks (like the bull and tiger sharks), the basking shark and the smooth dogfishes fall into this category. Milne, drinking heavily in the local pub and planning his comeback with a blues band. The young are born alive and fully functional. Jones retreated to his Cotchford Farm home in Kent, a house formerly owned by Winnie the Pooh author A.A. Viviparity - These sharks actually maintain a placental link to the developing young, more analogous to mammals than other fishes. With a reduced contribution to Beggar's Banquet and a minimal one to Let It Bleed he found himself forced out of the band for good after an infamous late-night visit to his rural home from Jagger, Richards and Charlie Watts on June 8th 1969, to be replaced by the young, jazz-influenced guitarist, Mick Taylor, drafted in from John Mayall's Bluesbreakers and unveiled to the media only five days later. Oviparous sharks include the horn shark, catsharks, Port Jackson Sharks, and the swell shark.

The ill-fated Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus was one of his last projects with the band and increasingly he was either absent from recording sessions by choice, or simply not invited to attend. When they wash up empty on beaches, the egg cases are sometimes called mermaid's purses. An ever-increasing consumption of drugs, however, were making Brian Jones less and less reliable. Some of these cases are corkscrewed into crevices for protection. Music was not all the Stones and the independently wealthy Parsons had in common: "We liked drugs," Richards said later, "and we liked the finest quality.". In most of these species, the developing embryo is protected by an egg case with the consistency of leather. Secondly, both Jagger and Richards befriended Gram Parsons, who introduced them to country music with which he had grown up. Oviparity - Some sharks lay eggs.

First, Keith Richards played extensively with Ry Cooder, and was taught his open-G guitar tuning (as used by John Lee Hooker), later admitting "I took Ry Cooder for all I could get". They are distinguished by their large jaws and ovoviviparous reproduction. Two other events contributed to the change in The Stones' sound. They include the goblin shark, basking shark, megamouth shark, the thresher sharks, mako shark and great white shark. In contrast to its predecessor, however, it was a clear rejection of the hippie ethos, replacing the platitudes of "free love" with a layer of sleaze. Lamniformes: They are commonly referred to as the mackerel sharks. The songs themselves were firmly rooted in the blues, but tempered by the changes that occurred in 1960s music and assimilating the imagery of Dylan and the emergent heavy rock of Cream and Jimi Hendrix. They are distinguished by an elongated snout and a nictitating membrane which protects the eyes during an attack.

Despite the tension, and aided by an excellent sound from up-and-coming producer Jimmy Miller, Jagger and Richards produced some of their most memorable work, including the distorted acoustic guitar-driven "Street Fighting Man" and the anthemic "Sympathy for the Devil" and the Stones entered the phase that would see them billed as "The World's Greatest Rock and Roll Band". Carcharhiniformes: They are commonly referred to as the groundsharks, and some of the species include the blue, tiger, bull, reef and oceanic whitetip sharks (collectively called the requiem sharks) along with the houndsharks, catsharks and hammerhead sharks. After the excesses of Satanic Majesties, and with personal relations between Jones and Richards increasingly frayed, 1968's Beggars Banquet saw the band return to their roots. Orectolobiformes: They are commonly referred to as the carpet sharks, including zebra sharks, nurse sharks, wobbegongs and the largest of all fishes, the whale shark. Within the band, however, the two principal writers were steadily wresting power from their former leader Jones. Heterodontiformes: They are commonly referred to as the bullhead or horn sharks. Despite Jagger later harshly pronouncing it "complete crap", a number of songs showcased the improving songwriting of Jagger and Richards, in particular the spacey "2000 Light Years From Home" which showcased Brian Jones's mellotron, and which has been revived for recent live performances. Squatiniformes: Angel sharks.

The resulting record received lukewarm reviews observing that the songs and arrangements did not lend themselves to the band's natural style, although an increasingly drugged-out Jones continued an impressive display of instrumental experimentation. Pristiophoriformes: These are the sawsharks, with an elongated, toothed snout that they use for slashing the fishes that they subsequently eat. The record, which would eventually be released as Their Satanic Majesties Request was recorded in difficult circumstances with various members of the band living under the threat of imprisonment, so much so, that Bill Wyman was able to get one of his songs "In Another Land" onto the album. Squaliformes: Examples from this group include the bramble sharks, dogfish sharks and roughsharks. Pepper. Hexanchiformes: Examples from this group include the cow sharks, frilled shark and even a shark that looks on first inspection to be a marine snake. Work then commenced on a new psychedelic album, which Jagger envisioned as the group's response to the Beatles' Sgt.

The record featured the sounds of footsteps and a cell door banging shut, and which it is rumoured was taken from a secret recording from within Wormwood Scrubs, the London prison where Richards was held overnight. The band then set about recording a new single "We Love You", officially as a thank you for the loyalty shown by their fans, though privately it was seen as a barbed attack on their perceived persecutors; the News of the World, the Metropolitan police force and members of the British judiciary. Maybe as a result of the pressure he was feeling, he looked out of his depth and his arguments cut little ice with his fellow participants. With Richards and Jagger out on bail and shortly to be acquitted on appeal, Jagger was immediately whisked off in a helicopter to appear on a BBC television programme " World in Action " taking part, along with members of the British establishment, in a live debate discussing the morals of modern society.

The Who also rush-released a single covering two Stones originals "Under My Thumb" and "The Last Time" in a show of solidarity. Despite being a quickly cobbled-together collection of hits and studio outtakes, it was nevertheless a hit. During the furor, Decca shrewdly released Flowers in the United States. Beneath the title "Who Breaks a Butterfly on a Wheel?" editor William Rees-Mogg wrote:.

Amidst intense press interest they were convicted, Richards was sentenced to a year's imprisonment and Jagger to four months, prompting The Times newspaper to run an editorial criticising the verdict. Jagger was charged with possessing amphetamine tablets, which though bought legally in Italy to combat travel sickness, were still obtained without a doctor's prescription. Richards was charged and a few months later stood trial for allowing drug use in his home. It was also rumoured that the raid was delayed on police instructions to allow one guest George Harrison, guitarist with establishment favourites The Beatles to leave.

The raid also served as a source of apocryphal stories, mainly concerning the appearance and demeanour of Mick Jagger's girlfriend Marianne Faithfull and a certain chocolate bar, which only served to augment their reputation for debauchery. The February 1967 raid, now legendary in the band's mythology, occurred during one of the regular parties held there, and police discovered a moderate quantity of cannabis. The British Sunday tabloid newspaper News of the World targeted the Stones and their perceived debauched lifestyles, and allegedly tipped off the police leading to a search of Keith Richard's country home, "Redlands" in West Wittering, Sussex. By now the band had become almost synonymous with the rebellious spirit of the 1960s, and in particular a more relaxed attitude towards drug use.

It was in this period that Tom Wolfe offered his 1965 summary that "The Beatles want to hold your hand, but The Stones want to burn your town.". With the main songwriters maintaining their rate of production, Aftermath (1966) continued the progression, consisting entirely of Jagger/Richards compositions including "Mother's Little Helper," about pill abuse, and the misogynistic "Under My Thumb", whereas on Between the Buttons (1967) they wore the influences of their many contemporaries, including The Who and The Kinks. During this period Pallenberg seemed to exert an influence on the music as somebody whose opinions the band trusted, particularly on the dark single "Paint it Black", and the (for 1966) shockingly sexually ambiguous video for "Have You Seen Your Mother Baby (Standing in the Shadows)? ". Jones, not unaware of his reduced importance, retreated into drug abuse, alienating both Richards and Pallenberg, who began a relationship that would last over ten years.

Prompted by Oldham, who possessed sufficient business acumen to see where money was to be made, Jagger and Richards became more prolific songwriters and 1965's Out of Our Heads contained much self-penned material, including the classic "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction," and saw the dynamic of the band begin to change, with Jagger and Richards starting to emerge as the perceived leaders of the band. Two years later Brian Jones began to see Anita Pallenberg, an actress and model who introduced them to the circle of society in which she moved: a group of young artists, musicians and filmmakers. The three Stones became so fond of Phelge that they used his name as part of the 'Nanker/Phelge' pseudonym to indicate early band writing compositions. Jagger, Richards and Jones shared a squalid London flat in Edith Grove, Chelsea, throughout much of 1963 along with friend, reprobate, and later biographer James Phelge.

Back at home these early years of success represented a rare period of stability in the personal relationship between the band members. While on tour they took time to visit important locations in the history of the music that inspired them, recording the EP Twelve By Five at the studios of Chess Records in Chicago, Illinois. Encouraged by Oldham, the band toured Europe and America continuously, playing to packed crowds of screaming teenagers in scenes reminiscent of the height of Beatlemania. The follow-up album, The Rolling Stones #2 (Now in the U.S), was also composed mainly of cover tunes, only now augmented by a couple of songs written by the fledgling partnership of Jagger and Richards, having been locked in a room by their manager, who refused to let them out until they had written something they could release.

This made many girls go crazy for their bad boy image, and soon made them a teen idol group. More importantly perhaps, whilst The Beatles were still suited, clean-cut boys with mop-top haircuts, The Stones cultivated the opposite image: decidedly unkempt, and posing for publicity photographs like a gang of surly yobs. The performances were pivotal in introducing a generation of white British youth to rhythm and blues music, and helped to fuel the "British Invasion" of America. Similarly, the album The Rolling Stones (England's Newest Hitmakers) which appeared in April 1964 featured versions of such classics as "Route 66" (originally recorded by Nat King Cole), "Mona" (Bo Diddley) and "Carol" (Chuck Berry).

The choice of material on their first, self-titled EP, reflected their live shows. Another of Oldham's ideas was to convince Keith Richards to drop the 's' from his surname to become "Keith Richard", presumably in a bid to give him greater pop star credibility. By the time of their first single release; a cover of Chuck Berry's "Come On", Ian Stewart was, at the insistence of Andrew Oldham, officially not part of the band, though he continued to record and perform with them. The band rapidly gained a reputation for their frantic, highly energetic covers of the rhythm and blues songs of their idols and, through their recently appointed sharp young manager Andrew Loog Oldham, were signed to Decca Records (who had passed when offered The Beatles).

At first, Brian Jones, a guitarist who also toyed with numerous other instruments, was their creative leader, despite Mick Jagger increasingly becoming the focus during live performances. They soon got their own residency at The Crawdaddy Club in Richmond, which was run by Russian emigre Giorgio Gomelsky, and began to establish themselves as London's premier live act, even being honoured with a visit from The Beatles. United by their shared interest in rhythm and blues music, the group rehearsed extensively, initially playing in public at The Marquee Club in London, where Cyril Davies's rhythm and blues band was resident. Another early part-time member was influential drummer Carlo Little, who was with Cyril Davies All Stars.

He was replaced by Bill Wyman. Taylor left shortly after to return to art school, and was later to form The Pretty Things. The original line-up included Erik Eliason (vocals), Jones (guitar, harmonica, vocals), Richards (guitar), Ian "Stu" Stewart (piano), Mick Avory (drums) and Dick Taylor (bass). The band came into being in 1962 when former schoolmates Jagger and Richards met Brian Jones, who named the band after a lyric in the Muddy Waters song "Mannish Boy".

They are the longest surviving rock & roll band in history. Reggae, funk, disco/dance, country, folk, soul, and even psychedelia have leaked into their recordings. Founding members Mick Jagger and Keith Richards are regarded as one of the greatest songwriting teams in the history of rock; the band never stopped being inspired by other genres. Their first recordings were covers of Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Screamin' Jay Hawkins, Muddy Waters, Larry Williams and Howlin' Wolf songs, among others.

Early in their career they played covers of blues, rhythm and blues, country, and rock and roll music. See: Rolling with the Stones, Bill Wyman's book. The name Rollin' Stones was used for the first time on the 12th of July 1962 as they played in the Marquee club to replace Blues Incorperated. .

tour that saw them billed as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World.". Their music never strayed far from the blues, however, and by 1969, they returned triumphantly to blues-based hard-rock, embarking on the now infamous U.S. By the end of the Sixties, the Stones had racked up a great number of hit records, each single displaying an alarming rate of musical growth. Second in popularity only to The Beatles, the Stones affected a rebellious, bad-boy image that helped propel their rise from an energetic modern blues outfit to one of the world's biggest and most influential bands.

By the mid 1960s, the Stones had fused these influences into a signature, guitar-based sound that established a prototype for hard rock. Like most early British rock groups, they were influenced by a variety of other British and American musical forms, especially Jacob Lee Mabry and early porn stars. The Rolling Stones are an English rock group who rose to prominence during the 1960s. Rolling Stone's list of the 50 Moments that Changed Rock and Roll.

Best selling music artists – World's top-selling music artists chart. For a detailed discography, see: The Rolling Stones discography. Recently reinstated into the Stones touring lineup. Bobby Keys - Saxophone; appeared as a primary horn player, alongside Jim Price, on a number of late 60s and 70s recordings and shows.

Billy Preston - Keyboards, organ; cheifly associated with the Stones 1970s shows and records, appears on Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main Street. Notable for supplying the female vocal part (orginally sung by Merry Clayton) for "Gimme Shelter" and, on soul songs like Ray Charles' (The Night Time Is) The Right Time, which the Stones have covered on their current tour. Lisa Fischer - Vocals; previously sung back up for Luther Vandross; went on tour with the Stones on their 1990 Urban Jungle European tour, and has accompanied them on every tour since. Has played keyboards since Stewart's death, most notably on the Stones blockbuster 90s and 2000s tours, but also on studio recordings.

Chuck Leavell- Keyboards and piano; formerly of The Allman Brothers Band. Nicky Hopkins - Keyboards and piano; appears on a significant number of Stones recordings from their classic mid-period (late 60s through the 70s), and occasionally performed live, though he was not as closely associated with the group as former member Ian Stewart. He appears on a virtually all of the Stones early recordings and a large number of their most famous mid-period songs (though piano duties were often provided by other musicians--most notably Nicky Hopkins--beginning in the late 60s). Ian Stewart - Piano; continued to play for the band even after he was forced out of the Rolling Stones in 1962, serving as their road manager and frequent session player until his death in 1985.

He is not, however, an official member of the band (a position affored a salary that is significantly higher than that of a hired musician), and the Stones have remained a foursome since Wyman's departure. Darryl Jones has played bass for the group since Bill Wyman left the band, on all albums except Bridges to Babylon. Ron Wood - Guitar (1975–). Charlie Watts - drums and percussion (1962–).

Keith Richards - Guitar, vocals, keyboards (1961–). Mick Jagger - Vocals, guitar, keyboards, harmonica, percussion (1961–).

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