Pumpkin

Pumpkins Pumpkin attached to a stalk

A pumpkin is a vegetable, most commonly orange in colour when ripe, that grows as a fruit (gourd) from a trailing vine of the genus Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae). Cultivated in North America, continental Europe, as well as in English cottage gardens, Cucurbita varieties include Curcurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita mixta, or Cucurbita moschata — all plants native to the Western hemisphere. The pumpkin varies greatly in form, being sometimes nearly globular, but more generally oblong or ovoid in shape. The rind is smooth and very variable in colour. The larger kinds acquire a weight of 40 to 80 lb (18 to 36 kg) but smaller varieties are in vogue for garden culture. Pumpkins are a popular food, with their innards commonly eaten cooked and served in dishes such as pumpkin pie. Pumpkins are traditionally used to carve Jack-o'-lanterns for use as part of Halloween celebrations.

Pumpkins and squashes

Pumpkins on sale at a Caribbean market

The name "squash" is applied in America to this and other species of the genus Cucurbita. The name is adapted from an American Indian word (see L. H. Bailey, Cyclopaedia of American Horticulture, for a fuller account of the squashes).

Summer squashes, like pumpkins, are mostly varieties of Cucurbita pepo; if picked while immature they are eaten as summer squash or marrow, but if left to mature on the vine will form a hard fruit like winter squash. Winter squashes are either C. maxima or C. moschata, and are not eaten in immature form. The varieties of pumpkins and squashes are numerous and great variety in size and shape; it is difficult to keep them pure if various kinds are grown together, but the true squashes (C. maxima) do not hybridize with the true pumpkin (C. pepo) species. If carefully handled to avoid cracking of the skin, and kept dry and fairly warm, winter squashes may be kept for months.

Wagon full of pumpkins

Studies by the Royal Military College of Canada show promise for pumpkins and other members of the Cucurbita pepo family to be viable candidates for DDT phytoremediation. (see Scientific American, October 25, 2004)

Cultivation

Pumpkins have historically been pollinated by the native squash bee Peponapis pruinosa, but this bee has declined, probably due to pesticide sensitivity, and most commercial plantings are pollinated by honeybees today. One hive per acre (4,000 m² per hive) is recommended by the US Department of Agriculture. Gardeners with a shortage of bees, however, often have to hand pollinate.

Inadequately pollinated pumpkins usually start growing but abort before full development. Often there is an opportunistic fungus that the gardener blames for the abortion, but the solution to this problem of abortion tends to be better pollination rather than fungicide.

Placing honeybees for pumpkin pollination Mohawk Valley, NY

Pumpkins are grown today in the US more for decoration than for food, and popular contests continually lead growers to vie for the world record for the largest pumpkin ever grown. Growers have many techniques, often secretive, including hand pollination, removal from the vines of all but one pumpkin, and injection of fertilizer or even milk directly into the vines with a hypodermic needle.

Cooking

When ripe, the pumpkin can be boiled, baked and roasted, or made into various kinds of pie, alone or mixed with other fruit; while small and green it may be eaten in the same way as the vegetable marrow.

Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Pumpkin
  • Pumpkin soup
  • Pumpkin pie
  • Mashed pumpkin


Chunking

Pumpkin chunking is a competitive activity in which teams build various mechanical devices designed to throw a pumpkin as far as possible. Catapults, trebuchets, ballistas and air cannons are the most common mechanisms. Some pumpkin chunkers grow special varieties of pumpkin, which are bred and grown under special conditions intended to improve the pumpkin's chances of surviving being thrown.

Pumpkin seeds

The hulless or semi-hulless seeds of pumpkins are eaten as a snack, similar to the sunflower seed. They are a good source of essential fatty acids, potassium, and magnesium. In Latin America these are often greenish in color and known as pepitas. One of the typical pumpkin products of Austria is pumpkin seed oil.

Pumpkin trivia

  • The pumpkin is related to the cucumber.
  • The largest pumpkin ever grown weighed 1,469 lb (666 kg). Raised by Larry Checkon from Northern Cambria, Pennsylvania in 2005, it is technically a "squash," Cucurbita maxima, and was of the public variety "Atlantic Giant," which is the "giant" variety - culminated from the simple hubbard squash by enthusiast farmers through intermittent effort since the mid 1800's.
  • Pumpkins are orange because they contain massive amounts of lutein, alpha- and beta-carotene. These nutrients turn to vitamin A in the body.
  • Using pumpkins as lanterns at Halloween is based on an ancient Celtic custom brought to America by Irish immigrants. All Hallows Eve on 31 October marked the end of the old Celtic calendar year, and on that night hollowed-out turnips, beets and rutabagas with a candle inside were placed on windowsills and porches to welcome home spirits of deceased ancestors and ward off evil spirits and a restless soul called "Stingy Jack," hence the name "Jack-o'-lantern".
  • The town of Keene, New Hampshire currently holds the world record for the most lit pumpkins in one location.
  • 90% of all pumpkins sold in the United States are used for Jack-o'-lanterns.
  • Illinois produces more pumpkins than any other state in the United States.
  • Pumpkins were among the first foods from the "New World" adopted in Europe, probably due to a European cousin: Lagenaria
  • "Pumpkin" is sometimes used as an affectionate term, often referring to one's significant other. For example: "I love you, Pumpkin!"

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One of the typical pumpkin products of Austria is pumpkin seed oil. Nevertheless, the form "daylight savings time" appears without remark as to its nonstandardness in some dictionaries, including The American Heritage Dictionary. In Latin America these are often greenish in color and known as pepitas. Most compound adjectives are joined with a hyphen, but "daylight-saving time," too, is nonstandard. They are a good source of essential fatty acids, potassium, and magnesium. In the standard form of the name, "daylight saving" is a compound adjective (part of which is a participle) that modifies "time." A common variant is daylight savings time. Although this alternate form is frequently heard in speech, it is nonstandard and appears rarely in edited writing. The hulless or semi-hulless seeds of pumpkins are eaten as a snack, similar to the sunflower seed. This is especially important in autumn, just before the heating season causes an increase in home fires.

Some pumpkin chunkers grow special varieties of pumpkin, which are bred and grown under special conditions intended to improve the pumpkin's chances of surviving being thrown. For example, the Country Fire Authority of Victoria in Australia has been running a program called "Change Your Clock, Change Your Smoke Alarm Battery" for several years. Catapults, trebuchets, ballistas and air cannons are the most common mechanisms. Fire safety officials in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States encourage citizens to use the two annual time changes as a reminder to check the batteries in home and office fire alarms and smoke detectors. Pumpkin chunking is a competitive activity in which teams build various mechanical devices designed to throw a pumpkin as far as possible. Another common mnemonic of equal meaning is "spring ahead, fall behind.".
. This uses the word "fall" to mean "autumn"; while this usage has died out in British English, it is still very common in North American English.

When ripe, the pumpkin can be boiled, baked and roasted, or made into various kinds of pie, alone or mixed with other fruit; while small and green it may be eaten in the same way as the vegetable marrow. The mnemonic "spring forward, fall back" tells us how to reset clocks when the time changes, regardless of hemisphere (although it has to be remembered that spring and autumn occur during different months in the northern and southern hemispheres). Growers have many techniques, often secretive, including hand pollination, removal from the vines of all but one pumpkin, and injection of fertilizer or even milk directly into the vines with a hypodermic needle. Different people start their day at different times (office workers start their day later than factory workers, who start their day later than farm workers), regardless of daylight saving time. Pumpkins are grown today in the US more for decoration than for food, and popular contests continually lead growers to vie for the world record for the largest pumpkin ever grown. Other critics suggest that DST is, at its heart, government paternalism and that people rise in the morning as a matter of choice because many people enjoy nighttime hours and their jobs do not require them to make the most of daylight. Often there is an opportunistic fungus that the gardener blames for the abortion, but the solution to this problem of abortion tends to be better pollination rather than fungicide. DST is particularly unpopular among people working in agriculture because the animals do not observe it, and thus the people are placed out of synchronization with the rest of the community, including school times, broadcast schedules, and the like.

Inadequately pollinated pumpkins usually start growing but abort before full development. Opponents point to the longer hours of darkness on winter mornings, especially in Scotland, the north of England and Northern Ireland which might well cause an increase in road accidents. Gardeners with a shortage of bees, however, often have to hand pollinate. This would make winter evenings longer, thereby reducing traffic accidents and cases of seasonal affective disorder. One hive per acre (4,000 m² per hive) is recommended by the US Department of Agriculture. Alternatively, some would like Britain to adopt Central European Time and jump forward another hour during the summer (adopting a Single/Double Summer Time from Britain's perspective). Pumpkins have historically been pollinated by the native squash bee Peponapis pruinosa, but this bee has declined, probably due to pesticide sensitivity, and most commercial plantings are pollinated by honeybees today. Some campaigners in Britain would like the country to stay on British Summer Time (BST) all year round, or in other words, adopt Central European Time and abolish BST.

(see Scientific American, October 25, 2004). Some studies do show that changing the clock increases the traffic accident rate.[1] Following the spring shift to daylight saving time (when one hour of sleep is lost) there is a measurable increase in the number of traffic accidents that result in fatalities. Studies by the Royal Military College of Canada show promise for pumpkins and other members of the Cucurbita pepo family to be viable candidates for DDT phytoremediation. For example, during a North American time change, an autumn night where clocks are reset from 3 AM summer to 2 AM winter time, times between 2AM and 3AM will occur twice, causing confusion in transport schedules, payment systems, etc. If carefully handled to avoid cracking of the skin, and kept dry and fairly warm, winter squashes may be kept for months. No formal studies have been performed, but an enormous amount of time has been spent by software developers to deal with the fact that 2400 hours past 2pm is not necessarily 2pm 100 days later. pepo) species. It is also speculated that one of the benefits—more afternoon sun—would also actually increase energy consumption as people get into their cars to enjoy more time for shopping and the like.

maxima) do not hybridize with the true pumpkin (C. It was for this reason that Arizona rejected DST and opted to stay on standard time all year. The varieties of pumpkins and squashes are numerous and great variety in size and shape; it is difficult to keep them pure if various kinds are grown together, but the true squashes (C. Air conditioning often uses more energy than artificial lighting. moschata, and are not eaten in immature form. When air conditioning was not widely available, the change did save energy; however, air conditioning is much more widespread now than it was several decades ago. maxima or C. While many people use more sunlight under DST, most people also experience more heat, which prompts many people to turn on the air conditioner during the warmer afternoon hours.

Winter squashes are either C. There is also a question whether the decrease in lighting costs justifies the increase in summertime air conditioning costs. Summer squashes, like pumpkins, are mostly varieties of Cucurbita pepo; if picked while immature they are eaten as summer squash or marrow, but if left to mature on the vine will form a hard fruit like winter squash. It is also noted that much effort is spent reminding everyone twice a year of the change, and thousands are inconvenienced by showing up at the wrong time when they forget. Bailey, Cyclopaedia of American Horticulture, for a fuller account of the squashes). The disruption in sleep patterns associated with setting clocks either forward or backward correlates with a spike in the number of severe auto accidents, as well as lost productivity as sleep-disrupted workers adjust to the schedule change. H. Opponents claim that there is not enough benefit to justify the need to adjust clocks twice every year.

The name is adapted from an American Indian word (see L. DST is not universally accepted; many localities do not observe it. The name "squash" is applied in America to this and other species of the genus Cucurbita. (Stats from this article). . $28 million in traffic costs. Pumpkins are traditionally used to carve Jack-o'-lanterns for use as part of Halloween celebrations. went on extended DST in 1974 and 1975 in response to the 1973 energy crisis, Department of Transportation studies found that observing DST in March and April saved 10,000 barrels of oil a day, and prevented about 2,000 traffic injuries and 50 fatalities saving about U.S.

Pumpkins are a popular food, with their innards commonly eaten cooked and served in dishes such as pumpkin pie. When the U.S. The larger kinds acquire a weight of 40 to 80 lb (18 to 36 kg) but smaller varieties are in vogue for garden culture. Other benefits cited include prevention of traffic injuries (by allowing more people to return home from work or school in daylight), and crime reduction (by reducing people's risk of being targets of crimes that are more common in dark areas). The rind is smooth and very variable in colour. Most people plan outdoor activities during the increased hours of sunlight. The pumpkin varies greatly in form, being sometimes nearly globular, but more generally oblong or ovoid in shape. Another perceived benefit of DST is increased opportunities for outdoor activities.

Cultivated in North America, continental Europe, as well as in English cottage gardens, Cucurbita varieties include Curcurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita mixta, or Cucurbita moschata — all plants native to the Western hemisphere. During the summer most people would wake up after the sun rises, regardless of whether daylight saving time is in effect or not, so there is no increased need for morning lighting to offset the afternoon drop in energy usage. A pumpkin is a vegetable, most commonly orange in colour when ripe, that grows as a fruit (gourd) from a trailing vine of the genus Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae). Part of the reason that it is normally observed in the late spring, summer, and early autumn is because during the winter months the amount of energy saved by moving sunset one hour later is negated by the increased need for morning lighting by moving sunrise by the same amount. For example: "I love you, Pumpkin!". United States Department of Transportation studies showed that DST reduces the country's electricity usage by one percent while DST is in effect. "Pumpkin" is sometimes used as an affectionate term, often referring to one's significant other. Because people tend to observe the same bedtime year-round, by artificially moving sunset one hour later, the amount of energy used is theoretically reduced.

Pumpkins were among the first foods from the "New World" adopted in Europe, probably due to a European cousin: Lagenaria. Theoretically, the amount of residential electricity needed in the evening hours is dependent both on when the sun sets and when people go to bed. Illinois produces more pumpkins than any other state in the United States. One of the major reasons given for observing DST is energy conservation. 90% of all pumpkins sold in the United States are used for Jack-o'-lanterns. Starting and ending dates are variable: normally, Brazilian DST starts at 00:00 on an October (rarely November) Sunday and ends at 00:00 on a February Sunday. The town of Keene, New Hampshire currently holds the world record for the most lit pumpkins in one location. Brazil adopted DST for the first time in 1931, but uninterruptedly since 1985 in southern states (south, southeast regions and states of Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul).

All Hallows Eve on 31 October marked the end of the old Celtic calendar year, and on that night hollowed-out turnips, beets and rutabagas with a candle inside were placed on windowsills and porches to welcome home spirits of deceased ancestors and ward off evil spirits and a restless soul called "Stingy Jack," hence the name "Jack-o'-lantern". In specific years the starting and ending dates have been modified for political or climatic reasons. Using pumpkins as lanterns at Halloween is based on an ancient Celtic custom brought to America by Irish immigrants. The current law which affects the entire country was enacted in 1970, but it had observed the practice as early as 1927 when the country had been divided into two distinct time zones. These nutrients turn to vitamin A in the body. Chile switches to DST at 24:00 on the second Saturday in October and reverts to Local Standard Time (LST) at 24:00 on the second Sunday the following March. Pumpkins are orange because they contain massive amounts of lutein, alpha- and beta-carotene. Standard Time Zone Boundary in the State of Indiana (a 139 KB pdf file) has some history, public comments from each county, the final DOT determination, and the resulting time zone boundary.

Raised by Larry Checkon from Northern Cambria, Pennsylvania in 2005, it is technically a "squash," Cucurbita maxima, and was of the public variety "Atlantic Giant," which is the "giant" variety - culminated from the simple hubbard squash by enthusiast farmers through intermittent effort since the mid 1800's. Currently, Pulaski and Martin counties are reconsidering their bid to join the Central time zone. The largest pumpkin ever grown weighed 1,469 lb (666 kg). These counties are: Starke and Pulaski Counties in the Northwest, and Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin, Perry, and Pike in the Southwest. The pumpkin is related to the cucumber. As a result of the review, the United States Department of Transportation moved eight more counties to the Central time zone, effective when DST begins on April 2, 2006. Mashed pumpkin. The bill to observe DST also required the governor to request federal review of the time zone divisions in the state.

Pumpkin pie. On April 29, 2005, the Indiana legislature voted to begin observing daylight saving time statewide in 2006. Pumpkin soup. From 1991 until April 1, 2006 the state had three kinds of time zones and DST observances:. Opponents claimed that daylight saving time created costs and inconvenience associated with changing clocks twice a year and had little or no real value. Some supporters claimed that some businesses had located out-of-state due to the time-related confusion.

Being out of sync with neighboring states and the national changing of clocks, supporters argued, had a negative economic impact on the state. In the past, neighboring communities sometimes ended up one or even two hours apart. DST has been a long-standing controversy in Indiana, not only as an agricultural state, but also because the border separating the Eastern and Central time zones divides the state. Hawaii does not observe DST.

However, the large Navajo Indian Reservation within it does. Most of Arizona does not observe DST. Certain types of information systems (those that schedule future events with reference to UTC, for example) are almost guaranteed to encounter serious desynchronization problems unless both computers and databases are carefully updated—in some cases by hand. More difficult to quantify is the amount of labor and money that may be spent correcting errors that arise due to a failure to update computers.

A two-minute procedure for updating a computer, multiplied by a hundred million computers, represents nearly 1700 years of full-time labor. In order to change the dates and times at which the automatic jump to or from DST occurs, these tables must be modified, which requires some sort of manual intervention by a human being in the great majority of cases. Most computers are programmed to adjust automatically for DST, but they do so based on static tables stored directly on the computer itself. An additional issue raised by this extension is that it requires reconfiguration of virtually every computer in the United States.

The extension was greeted by criticism from the airline industry and those concerned for the safety of children traveling to school in the dark before the late sunrise. (See this article, for example.). There is very little recent research on what the actual positive effects, if any, might be. Department of Energy information from the 1970s, the accuracy and relevance of which the DoE no longer stands by.

Proponents claimed that the extension would save "the equivalent of" 10,000 barrels of oil per day, but this figure was based on U.S. The change was introduced by the Energy Policy Act of 2005; the House had originally approved a motion that would have extended DST even further. Starting March 11, 2007, daylight saving time will be extended another four to five weeks, from the second Sunday of March to the first Sunday of November. In response to the 1973 energy crisis, daylight saving in the United States was begun earlier in both 1974 and 1975, commencing on the first Sunday in January (January 6) in the former year and the last Sunday in February (February 23) in the latter.

The law was amended again in 1986 to begin daylight saving time on the first Sunday in April, to take effect the following year. The law was amended in 1972 to permit states that straddle a time zone boundary to exempt the entire area of the state lying in one time zone. Any state that wanted to be exempt from daylight saving time could do so by passing a state law, provided that it exempt the entire state. federal Uniform Time Act of 1966 mandated that daylight saving time begin nationwide on the last Sunday of April and end on the last Sunday of October.

The U.S. This resulted in a patchwork where some areas observed DST while adjacent areas did not, and it was not unheard of to have to reset one's clock several times during a relatively short trip (e.g., bus drivers operating between Moundsville, West Virginia, and Steubenville, Ohio had to reset their watches seven times over 35 miles). States and localities were free to observe daylight saving time or not. federal law did not address daylight saving time.

From 1945 to 1966, U.S. This remained in effect until World War II began winding down and the requirement was removed on September 30, 1945. Daylight saving time was reinstated in the United States on February 9, 1942, again as a wartime measure to conserve resources. Beginning in 2007, it will start DST on the second Sunday in March, and change back to standard time on the first Sunday in November.

Through the end of 2006, the United States starts its DST on the first Sunday in April, and changes back to standard time on the last Sunday in October. state of Arizona, which also does not observe DST. The Mexican state of Sonora does not observe DST because it borders on the U.S. Mexico has adopted DST nationwide, even in its tropical regions, because of its increasing economic ties to the United States.

Since April 2004, Cuba has remained on DST. Cuba always starts its DST on April 1 but the end date varies. Saskatchewan Government Relations gives further details on Saskatchewan's time policies. Lloydminster and its immediately surrounding region in Saskatchewan use the same timekeeping routine used by Alberta, DST with Mountain Standard Time.

The charter of the city of Lloydminster, which is bisected by the Saskatchewan–Alberta border, gives it a special exception (among areas in Saskatchewan) to use DST. Observationally, this is equivalent to the province being on Mountain Daylight Time year-round, though officially the province is considered to be part of the Central time zone. (This policy was implemented when the Saskatchewan Time Act was passed in 1966, to solve the problems that arose when time zones varied from town to town.) Thus, in the summer months Saskatchewan is in sync with Mountain Daylight Time and in the winter months it is in sync with Central Standard Time. Saskatchewan is bisected by 105° west meridian, the central meridian of the Mountain Standard Time Zone (UTC−7), yet clocks are kept at UTC−6 all year long.

The province of Saskatchewan is the largest part of that country that does not use DST, that is, it does not adjust clocks in spring and fall. The remaining provinces and territories will continue change time on the first Sunday of April and last Sunday of October unless they change their legislation. In 2007, their DST will start on the second Sunday of March, and return to standard time on the first Sunday in November. rules (The Calgary Sun).

The governments of Ontario, Manitoba, Quebec, and Alberta have pledged to change their daylight saving rules to match the new U.S. In Canada, time is under provincial and territorial jurisdiction, not federal. Also, in 1988, they experimented with Double Daylight Time, when the clocks went ahead by two hours, instead of the usual one hour. The Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador is an exception in that the time changes take place at 00:01 local standard time and 00:01 local daylight time respectively.

In 2007, the starting and ending dates for DST will change in the United States and parts of Canada (see below). North America generally follows the same procedure, going by local time in each zone, each time zone switching at 02:00 LST (local standard time) to 03:00 LDT (local daylight time) on the first Sunday in April, and again from 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the last Sunday in October. Polar or near-polar locations such as Iceland often opt out, as summer in these locations usually brings nearly uninterrupted daylight. With Iceland observing UTC all year round, despite being at a longitude which would indicate UTC-1, the country may be said to be on continuous DST.

Thus in Moscow (local time = UTC+3 in winter, UTC+4 in summer), daylight-saving time commences at 23:00 UTC on the day before the last Sunday in March, and ends at 23:00 UTC on the day before the last Sunday in October. In Russia, however, although the changeover dates are the same, clocks are moved forward or back at 02:00 winter time in all zones. (See also: European Summer Time). from local times of 01:00/02:00/03:00 to 02:00/03:00/04:00 in March, and vice versa in October.

In the West European (UTC), Central European (UTC+1), and East European (UTC+2) time zones the change is simultaneous: on both dates the clocks are changed everywhere at 01:00 UTC, i.e. All countries in Europe, except Iceland as noted below, observe daylight-saving time and change on the same date: moving clocks forward one hour on the last Sunday in March and back one hour on the last Sunday in October. The Department of Internal Affairs gives further historical information on their website. In New Zealand, daylight saving time begins at 2am (standard time) on the first Sunday in October each year, and ends at 2am (standard time) on the third Sunday of March.

See the Australian time zones article or this site for maps and further information on standard and daylight saving time in Australia. Queensland experimented with it for a year or two in the early 1970s, but it was not popular and was abandoned. Western Australia, Northern Territory and Queensland do not have daylight saving. Tasmania starts DST earlier than the others, usually near the beginning of October.

New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory and South Australia apply daylight saving time. Some states/territories implement it and some do not. In Australia, daylight saving time is a state/territory-based initiative. It has not used DST since then.

Pakistan experimented with DST in 2002 going from +5:00 to +6:00. For more on this subject, see Israeli Daylight Saving Law. Israel's Daylight Saving Time rules have changed repeatedly in recent years; there has been trouble reaching a consensus regarding Gregorian calendar end dates for DST as they are dependant on Jewish Holidays, which follow the lunar Hebrew calendar. Israel adopts Daylight Saving Time on the last Friday before April 2 at 02:00, and returns to standard time at 02:00 of the Sunday of the month of Tishrei between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.

Thus, DST in Iran starts on the first day of Farvardin (around 21-22 March) and ends on the first day of Mehr (around 22 September). Iran uses the Persian calendar. India used DST briefly during its wars with Pakistan and China. The PRC now uses one universal time zone for all of the nation from Urumqi in the northwest to Fujian in the southeast; the size of the nation was a major factor why DST was not considered practical in China.

The People's Republic of China experimented with DST from 1986, but abandoned it in the 1990s. Egypt operates Daylight-Saving Time between the last Friday in April and the last Thursday in September when the clocks are 3 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT+3). In the Southern Hemisphere, the beginning and ending dates are switched (thus the time difference between, e.g., the United Kingdom and Chile may be three, four, or five hours). DST commonly begins in the Northern Hemisphere on either the first Sunday in April or the last Sunday in March, and ends on the last Sunday in October.

With a few exceptions, switchovers between standard time and daylight saving time generally occur in the early morning hours of a Sunday morning, presumably because doing so then causes less disruption than a change on a weekday would. The dates of the beginning and ending of DST also vary by country. The amount of the time shift varies, but one hour is the most common. state in the tropics, does not observe DST.

Hawaii, the only U.S. Daylight saving time is generally a temperate zone practice; day lengths in the tropics do not vary enough to justify DST. The law, however, proved so unpopular (mostly because people rose and went to bed earlier than in current times) that the law was later repealed. It was observed for seven months in 1918 and 1919.

Congress established several time zones (which were already in use by railroads and most cities since 1883) and made daylight saving time official (which went into effect on March 31) for the remainder of World War I. Then on March 19, 1918, the U.S. Shortly afterward, the United Kingdom followed suit, first adopting DST between May 21 and October 1, 1916. The idea of daylight saving time was first put into practice by the German government during the First World War between April 30 and October 1, 1916.

It was first seriously proposed by William Willett in the "Waste of Daylight", published in 1907, but he was unable to get the British government to adopt it despite considerable lobbying. (Read the full text.) However, the article was humorous; Franklin was not proposing DST, but rather that people should get up and go to bed earlier. It is sometimes asserted that DST was first proposed by Benjamin Franklin in a letter to the editors of the Journal of Paris. .

Note that the term commonly used in the United States, daylight savings time, is incorrect, for both historic (the correct name as provided by the act which inaugurated it in the United States is daylight saving time) and grammatical reasons. DST is most commonly used in temperate regions, due to the considerable variation in the amount of daylight versus darkness through the seasons in those regions. This is intended to provide a better match between the hours of daylight and the active hours of work and school. The official time is adjusted forward, (usually) one hour from its official standard time, remaining that way for the duration of the spring and summer months.

Daylight saving time (also called DST) is a term used for a system intended to "save" daylight (It is also known as summer time in both Britain and Europe). American Journal of Public Health 85, 92–95. (1995) Daylight saving time and motor vehicle crashes: the reduction in pedestrian and vehicle occupant fatalities. et al.

^  Ferguson, S.A. Their observance of DST was unofficial in this case, as a strict reading of the Uniform Time Act would not allow for this situation, but by observing DST, they remained synchronized with the greater Louisville and Cincinnati metropolitan areas. 2 counties near Cincinnati, Ohio and 3 counties near Louisville, Kentucky were on Eastern Standard time but did observe DST. 5 northwestern counties near Chicago, Illinois and 5 southwestern counties near Evansville, Indiana were on Central Standard Time and did use DST.

77 counties — most of the state — were on Eastern Standard Time but did not use DST.

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