Pumpkin

Pumpkins Pumpkin attached to a stalk

A pumpkin is a vegetable, most commonly orange in colour when ripe, that grows as a fruit (gourd) from a trailing vine of the genus Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae). Cultivated in North America, continental Europe, as well as in English cottage gardens, Cucurbita varieties include Curcurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita mixta, or Cucurbita moschata — all plants native to the Western hemisphere. The pumpkin varies greatly in form, being sometimes nearly globular, but more generally oblong or ovoid in shape. The rind is smooth and very variable in colour. The larger kinds acquire a weight of 40 to 80 lb (18 to 36 kg) but smaller varieties are in vogue for garden culture. Pumpkins are a popular food, with their innards commonly eaten cooked and served in dishes such as pumpkin pie. Pumpkins are traditionally used to carve Jack-o'-lanterns for use as part of Halloween celebrations.

Pumpkins and squashes

Pumpkins on sale at a Caribbean market

The name "squash" is applied in America to this and other species of the genus Cucurbita. The name is adapted from an American Indian word (see L. H. Bailey, Cyclopaedia of American Horticulture, for a fuller account of the squashes).

Summer squashes, like pumpkins, are mostly varieties of Cucurbita pepo; if picked while immature they are eaten as summer squash or marrow, but if left to mature on the vine will form a hard fruit like winter squash. Winter squashes are either C. maxima or C. moschata, and are not eaten in immature form. The varieties of pumpkins and squashes are numerous and great variety in size and shape; it is difficult to keep them pure if various kinds are grown together, but the true squashes (C. maxima) do not hybridize with the true pumpkin (C. pepo) species. If carefully handled to avoid cracking of the skin, and kept dry and fairly warm, winter squashes may be kept for months.

Wagon full of pumpkins

Studies by the Royal Military College of Canada show promise for pumpkins and other members of the Cucurbita pepo family to be viable candidates for DDT phytoremediation. (see Scientific American, October 25, 2004)

Cultivation

Pumpkins have historically been pollinated by the native squash bee Peponapis pruinosa, but this bee has declined, probably due to pesticide sensitivity, and most commercial plantings are pollinated by honeybees today. One hive per acre (4,000 m² per hive) is recommended by the US Department of Agriculture. Gardeners with a shortage of bees, however, often have to hand pollinate.

Inadequately pollinated pumpkins usually start growing but abort before full development. Often there is an opportunistic fungus that the gardener blames for the abortion, but the solution to this problem of abortion tends to be better pollination rather than fungicide.

Placing honeybees for pumpkin pollination Mohawk Valley, NY

Pumpkins are grown today in the US more for decoration than for food, and popular contests continually lead growers to vie for the world record for the largest pumpkin ever grown. Growers have many techniques, often secretive, including hand pollination, removal from the vines of all but one pumpkin, and injection of fertilizer or even milk directly into the vines with a hypodermic needle.

Cooking

When ripe, the pumpkin can be boiled, baked and roasted, or made into various kinds of pie, alone or mixed with other fruit; while small and green it may be eaten in the same way as the vegetable marrow.

Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Pumpkin
  • Pumpkin soup
  • Pumpkin pie
  • Mashed pumpkin


Chunking

Pumpkin chunking is a competitive activity in which teams build various mechanical devices designed to throw a pumpkin as far as possible. Catapults, trebuchets, ballistas and air cannons are the most common mechanisms. Some pumpkin chunkers grow special varieties of pumpkin, which are bred and grown under special conditions intended to improve the pumpkin's chances of surviving being thrown.

Pumpkin seeds

The hulless or semi-hulless seeds of pumpkins are eaten as a snack, similar to the sunflower seed. They are a good source of essential fatty acids, potassium, and magnesium. In Latin America these are often greenish in color and known as pepitas. One of the typical pumpkin products of Austria is pumpkin seed oil.

Pumpkin trivia

  • The pumpkin is related to the cucumber.
  • The largest pumpkin ever grown weighed 1,469 lb (666 kg). Raised by Larry Checkon from Northern Cambria, Pennsylvania in 2005, it is technically a "squash," Cucurbita maxima, and was of the public variety "Atlantic Giant," which is the "giant" variety - culminated from the simple hubbard squash by enthusiast farmers through intermittent effort since the mid 1800's.
  • Pumpkins are orange because they contain massive amounts of lutein, alpha- and beta-carotene. These nutrients turn to vitamin A in the body.
  • Using pumpkins as lanterns at Halloween is based on an ancient Celtic custom brought to America by Irish immigrants. All Hallows Eve on 31 October marked the end of the old Celtic calendar year, and on that night hollowed-out turnips, beets and rutabagas with a candle inside were placed on windowsills and porches to welcome home spirits of deceased ancestors and ward off evil spirits and a restless soul called "Stingy Jack," hence the name "Jack-o'-lantern".
  • The town of Keene, New Hampshire currently holds the world record for the most lit pumpkins in one location.
  • 90% of all pumpkins sold in the United States are used for Jack-o'-lanterns.
  • Illinois produces more pumpkins than any other state in the United States.
  • Pumpkins were among the first foods from the "New World" adopted in Europe, probably due to a European cousin: Lagenaria
  • "Pumpkin" is sometimes used as an affectionate term, often referring to one's significant other. For example: "I love you, Pumpkin!"

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One of the typical pumpkin products of Austria is pumpkin seed oil.
. In Latin America these are often greenish in color and known as pepitas. Years reflect the year in which the awards were presented, for music released in the previous year. They are a good source of essential fatty acids, potassium, and magnesium. World. The hulless or semi-hulless seeds of pumpkins are eaten as a snack, similar to the sunflower seed. Traditional Pop.

Some pumpkin chunkers grow special varieties of pumpkin, which are bred and grown under special conditions intended to improve the pumpkin's chances of surviving being thrown. Spoken. Catapults, trebuchets, ballistas and air cannons are the most common mechanisms. Surround Sound. Pumpkin chunking is a competitive activity in which teams build various mechanical devices designed to throw a pumpkin as far as possible. Rock.
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When ripe, the pumpkin can be boiled, baked and roasted, or made into various kinds of pie, alone or mixed with other fruit; while small and green it may be eaten in the same way as the vegetable marrow. Rap. Growers have many techniques, often secretive, including hand pollination, removal from the vines of all but one pumpkin, and injection of fertilizer or even milk directly into the vines with a hypodermic needle. R&B. Pumpkins are grown today in the US more for decoration than for food, and popular contests continually lead growers to vie for the world record for the largest pumpkin ever grown. Production and engineering. Often there is an opportunistic fungus that the gardener blames for the abortion, but the solution to this problem of abortion tends to be better pollination rather than fungicide. Pop.

Inadequately pollinated pumpkins usually start growing but abort before full development. Polka. Gardeners with a shortage of bees, however, often have to hand pollinate. Packaging and notes. One hive per acre (4,000 m² per hive) is recommended by the US Department of Agriculture. New Age. Pumpkins have historically been pollinated by the native squash bee Peponapis pruinosa, but this bee has declined, probably due to pesticide sensitivity, and most commercial plantings are pollinated by honeybees today. Music Video.

(see Scientific American, October 25, 2004). Musical Show. Studies by the Royal Military College of Canada show promise for pumpkins and other members of the Cucurbita pepo family to be viable candidates for DDT phytoremediation. Latin. If carefully handled to avoid cracking of the skin, and kept dry and fairly warm, winter squashes may be kept for months. Jazz. pepo) species. Historical.

maxima) do not hybridize with the true pumpkin (C. Gospel. The varieties of pumpkins and squashes are numerous and great variety in size and shape; it is difficult to keep them pure if various kinds are grown together, but the true squashes (C. Folk. moschata, and are not eaten in immature form. Film/TV/Media. maxima or C. Disco.

Winter squashes are either C. Dance. Summer squashes, like pumpkins, are mostly varieties of Cucurbita pepo; if picked while immature they are eaten as summer squash or marrow, but if left to mature on the vine will form a hard fruit like winter squash. Country. Bailey, Cyclopaedia of American Horticulture, for a fuller account of the squashes). Composing and arranging. H. Comedy.

The name is adapted from an American Indian word (see L. Classical. The name "squash" is applied in America to this and other species of the genus Cucurbita. Children's. . Blues. Pumpkins are traditionally used to carve Jack-o'-lanterns for use as part of Halloween celebrations. Alternative.

Pumpkins are a popular food, with their innards commonly eaten cooked and served in dishes such as pumpkin pie. Béla Fleck has been nominated in more categories than any other musician, namely country, pop, jazz, bluegrass, classical, folk, and spoken word, as well as composition and arranging. The larger kinds acquire a weight of 40 to 80 lb (18 to 36 kg) but smaller varieties are in vogue for garden culture. Christopher Cross (Grammy Awards of 1981) and Norah Jones (Grammy Awards of 2003) are the only artists to receive the "Big Four" (Record of the Year, Album of the Year, Song of the Year, and Best New Artist) in a single ceremony. The rind is smooth and very variable in colour. The most Grammys won in a single night is eight -- a record shared by Michael Jackson (1984), and Carlos Santana (2000). The pumpkin varies greatly in form, being sometimes nearly globular, but more generally oblong or ovoid in shape. Conductor Sir Georg Solti holds the record for most Grammys won, having won a total of thirty-eight awards before his death in 1997.

Cultivated in North America, continental Europe, as well as in English cottage gardens, Cucurbita varieties include Curcurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita mixta, or Cucurbita moschata — all plants native to the Western hemisphere. Soul and R&B legend Aretha Franklin has won 11 awards for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance, including 8 consecutive (and the first 8 ever awarded) awards in the category:. A pumpkin is a vegetable, most commonly orange in colour when ripe, that grows as a fruit (gourd) from a trailing vine of the genus Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae). Legendary Opera Diva Leontyne Price has won 18 awards. For example: "I love you, Pumpkin!". Session drummer Hal Blaine played on six consecutive records which won Record of the Year:. "Pumpkin" is sometimes used as an affectionate term, often referring to one's significant other. Metheny, as of the 2004 Grammy Awards, holds the record for Grammy wins in the most different categories:.

Pumpkins were among the first foods from the "New World" adopted in Europe, probably due to a European cousin: Lagenaria. Pat Metheny and the Pat Metheny Group have won 16 Grammys in total, including six consecutive awards for six consecutive albums. Illinois produces more pumpkins than any other state in the United States. . 90% of all pumpkins sold in the United States are used for Jack-o'-lanterns. The Grammys are currently broadcast on CBS. The town of Keene, New Hampshire currently holds the world record for the most lit pumpkins in one location. So, for example, John Lennon & Yoko Ono's album Double Fantasy was released in November, 1980, a month-and-a-half too late to qualify for the 1981 Grammys, and thus eligible for the 1982 awards (it eventually won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year).

All Hallows Eve on 31 October marked the end of the old Celtic calendar year, and on that night hollowed-out turnips, beets and rutabagas with a candle inside were placed on windowsills and porches to welcome home spirits of deceased ancestors and ward off evil spirits and a restless soul called "Stingy Jack," hence the name "Jack-o'-lantern". Unlike the Academy Awards, for which the eligibility period begins January 1, the eligibility period for the Grammys begins October 1, which results in September being considered the Christmas sales period for the music industry (in which artists generally release big albums to qualify for the next year's Grammy). Using pumpkins as lanterns at Halloween is based on an ancient Celtic custom brought to America by Irish immigrants. Of the "big three" music awards shows, the Grammys are the highest rated. These nutrients turn to vitamin A in the body. In fact, many artists who are placed in high regard, artistically, by many fans and critics (such as Elvis Presley, Mariah Carey, Garth Brooks, Pink Floyd, Kenny Rogers, The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Radiohead, ) have been awarded very few Grammys. Pumpkins are orange because they contain massive amounts of lutein, alpha- and beta-carotene. Hence, the Grammys are not taken seriously by some musicians and music fans.

Raised by Larry Checkon from Northern Cambria, Pennsylvania in 2005, it is technically a "squash," Cucurbita maxima, and was of the public variety "Atlantic Giant," which is the "giant" variety - culminated from the simple hubbard squash by enthusiast farmers through intermittent effort since the mid 1800's. Some feel that because Grammy voters tend to vote conservatively, and are marketed to by record companies, the most widely-recognized Grammys tend to go to either well-established artists or those being hyped by the recording industry. The largest pumpkin ever grown weighed 1,469 lb (666 kg). The awards ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and some of the more prominent Grammys are presented in a widely-viewed televised ceremony. The pumpkin is related to the cucumber. The awards are named for the trophy which the winner receives - a small gilded statuette of a gramophone, handcrafted by Billings Artworks. Mashed pumpkin. Like the Oscars, the Grammys, which currently have 108 categories within 30 genres of music (such as pop, gospel, and rap), are voted upon by peers - voting members of the Recording Academy - rather than being based upon popularity (as with the AMAs) or sales and chart achievements (the BMAs).

Pumpkin pie. However, the Grammys, usually held in February, (last of what are considered the "big three" music awards shows, including the BMA and AMA shows) are considered the approximate equivalent to the Oscars, in the music world. Pumpkin soup. The Grammy Awards (originally the Gramophone Awards), presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music Awards, the American Music Awards, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony, make up the rest). Best Contemporary World Music Album. Best Traditional World Music Album.

Best World Music Album. Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album. Best Spoken Comedy Album. Best Spoken Word Album.

Best Surround Sound Album. Best Rock Album. Best Rock Song. Best Hard Rock/Metal Performance Vocal or Instrumental.

Best Metal Performance. Best Hard Rock Performance. Best Rock Instrumental Performance. Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal.

Best Rock Vocal Performance, Solo. Best Male Rock Vocal Performance. Best Female Rock Vocal Performance. Best Reggae Album.

Best Rap Album. Best Rap Song. Best Rap/Sung Collaboration. Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group.

Best Male Rap Solo Performance. Best Female Rap Solo Performance. Best Rap Solo Performance. Best Rap Performance.

Best Contemporary R&B Album. Best R&B Album. Best R&B Song. Best Rhythm & Blues Recording.

Best Urban/Alternative Performance. Best R&B Instrumental Performance. Best Traditional R&B Vocal Performance. Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals.

Best R&B Solo Vocal Performance, Male or Female. Best Male R&B Vocal Performance. Best Female R&B Vocal Performance. Remixer of the Year, Non-Classical.

Producer of the Year, Classical. Producer of the Year, Non-Classical. Best Remixed Recording, Non-Classical. Best Engineered Recording - Special or Novel Effects.

Best Engineered Album, Classical. Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical. Best Pop Instrumental Album. Best Pop Vocal Album.

Best Contemporary Song. Best Pop Instrumental Performance with Vocal Coloring. Best Pop Instrumental Performance. Best Performance by an Orchestra or Instrumentalist with Orchestra - Primarily Not Jazz or for Dancing.

Best Performance by an Orchestra - for Dancing. Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals. Best Contemporary Performance by a Chorus. Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal.

Best Contemporary (R&R) Solo Vocal Performance - Male or Female. Best Male Pop Vocal Performance. Best Female Pop Vocal Performance. Best Instrumental Performance.

Best Performance by a Vocal Group or Chorus. Best Performance by a Chorus. Best Performance by a Vocal Group. Best Vocal Performance, Male.

Best Vocal Performance, Female. Best Polka Album. Best Album Notes - Classical. Best Album Notes.

Best Boxed or Special Limited Edition Package. Best Recording Package. Best Album Cover, Photography. Best Album Cover, Graphic Arts.

Best Album Cover - Other Than Classical. Best Album Cover - Classical. Best Album Cover. Best New Age Album.

Video of the Year. Best Performance Music Video. Best Concept Music Video. Best Long Form Music Video.

Best Short Form Music Video. Best Sound Track Album or Recording of Original Cast From a Motion Picture or Television. Best Musical Show Album. Best Salsa/Merengue Album.

Best Merengue Album. Best Salsa Album. Best Tejano Album. Best Latin Rock/Alternative Album.

Best Mexican/Mexican-American Album. Best Traditional Tropical Latin Album. Best Latin Pop Album. Best Latin Recording.

Best Latin Jazz Album. Best Contemporary Jazz Album. Best Jazz Vocal Album. Best Original Jazz Composition.

Best Jazz Fusion Performance. Best Large Jazz Ensemble Album. Best Jazz Instrumental Album, Individual or Group. Best Jazz Instrumental Solo.

Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Duo or Group. Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Male. Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Female. Best Historical Album.

Best Gospel Choir or Chorus Album. Best Southern, Country or Bluegrass Gospel Album. Best Contemporary Soul Gospel Album. Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album.

Best Rock Gospel Album. Best Pop/Contemporary Gospel Album. Best Inspirational Performance. Best Soul Gospel Performance by a Duo or Group, Choir or Chorus.

Best Soul Gospel Performance, Male or Female. Best Soul Gospel Performance, Male. Best Soul Gospel Performance, Female. Best Soul Gospel Performance, Contemporary.

Best Soul Gospel Performance, Traditional. Best Soul Gospel Performance. Best Gospel Vocal Performance by a Duo or Group, Choir or Chorus. Best Gospel Vocal Performance, Male.

Best Gospel Vocal Performance, Female. Best Gospel Performance, Contemporary. Best Gospel Performance, Traditional. Best Gospel Performance.

Best Hawaiian Music Album. Best Native American Music Album. Best Contemporary Folk Album. Best Traditional Folk Album.

Best Ethnic or Traditional Folk Recording. Best Score Soundtrack Album for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media (previously in the "composing and arranging" field). Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media (previously in the "composing and arranging" field). Best Compilation Soundtrack Album for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media.

Best Disco Recording. Best Electronic/Dance Album. Best Dance Recording (previously in "Pop"). Best New Country & Western Artist.

Best Bluegrass Album. Best Country Album. Best Country Song. Best Country & Western Single.

Best Country & Western Recording. Best Country Instrumental Performance. Best Country Collaboration with Vocals. Best Country Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal.

Best Country Performance, Duo or Group - Vocal or Instrumental. Best Male Country Vocal Performance. Best Female Country Vocal Performance. Best Vocal Arrangement for Two or More Voices.

Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist(s). Best Instrumental Arrangement. Best Arrangement. Best Score Soundtrack Album for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media (now in the "film/TV/media" field).

Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media (now in the "Film/TV/Media" field). Best Instrumental Composition. Best Spoken Comedy Album. Best Comedy Album.

Best New Classical Artist. Best Classical Crossover Album. Best Classical Album. Best Classical Contemporary Composition.

Best Chamber Music Performance. Best Small Ensemble Performance (with or without conductor). Best Instrumental Soloist Performance (without orchestra). Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance (with orchestra).

Best Classical Performance - Instrumental Soloist or Soloists (with or without orchestra). Best Choral Performance. Best Opera Recording. Best Classical Performance, Operatic or Choral.

Best Classical Vocal Performance. Best Orchestral Performance. Best Spoken Word Album for Children. Best Musical Album for Children.

Best Album for Children. Best Contemporary Blues Album. Best Traditional Blues Album. Best Alternative Music Album.

Grammy Trustees Award. Grammy Tech Award. Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Grammy Legend Award.

Grammy Hall of Fame. Best New Artist. Song of the Year. Album of the Year.

Record of the Year. 1988 - Aretha. 1986 - "Freeway of Love". 1982 - "Hold On, I'm Comin'".

1975 - "Ain't Nothing Like The Real Thing". 1974 - "Master of Eyes". 1973 - Young, Gifted, and Black. 1972 - "Bridge Over Troubled Water".

1971 - "Don't Play That Song". 1970 - "Share Your Love With Me". 1969 - "Chain of Fools". 1968 - "Respect".

1971 Simon & Garfunkel - "Bridge Over Troubled Water". 1970 5th Dimension - "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In". Robinson". 1969 Simon & Garfunkel - "Mrs.

1968 5th Dimension - "Up, Up and Away". 1967 Frank Sinatra - "Strangers in the Night". 1966 Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass - "A Taste of Honey". Best New Age Album (2004).

Best Jazz Instrumental Solo (2001). Best Rock Instrumental Performance (1999). Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Individual or Group (1998, 2000). Best Contemporary Jazz Performance/Album (1993, 1994, 1996, 1999, 2003).

Best Instrumental Composition (1991). Best Jazz Fusion Performance (1983, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1990).

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