Pablo Picasso

Young Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

Periods

Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg

  • Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.
  • Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting.
  • African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work.
  • Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.
  • Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art.

Early life

An 1896 self-portrait by Picasso.

Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year.

Picasso's first painting at age 8, Picador (1889).

The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques.

Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica.

The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures.

Pacifism

Picasso's Guernica was a reaction to the bombing of Guernica in the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle.

As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.

After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism.

Personal life

Picasso's friend Gertrude Stein, who had more than 80 sittings for this 1906 portrait.

Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital.

Marie-Thérèse Walter painted in Nu couché aux fleurs (1932)

In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.

From left to right, Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, Henri-Pierre Roché (in uniform), Marie Vassilieff, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso (1915).

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. This came as a severe blow to Picasso.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her.

Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him.

In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances.

Later works

Las Meninas (1957) based on the Las Meninas by Velazquez.

In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.

Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art.

Picasso sculpture in Chicago, Illinois

He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago.

In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time.

Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. His final words were "drink to me".

Legacy

Garçon à la pipe, which sold for $104 million in 2004.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.

The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie.

In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings).

Lists of works

L'Accordéoniste, a 1911 cubist painting by Picasso.

(For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project)



  • List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900
  • List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910
  • List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920
  • List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930
  • List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940
  • List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950
  • List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960
  • List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970
  • List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973

References

  • The Museum of Modern Art. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. Ed. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. New York. 1980. ISBN 0-87070-519-9
  • Mallen, Enrique. The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Berlin: Peter Lang. 2003.
  • Mallen, Enrique. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. 2005.
  • Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Prestel Publ. 2004. 320 p. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography)
  • Mary Ann, Caws. Introd. by Arthur C. Danto. PICASSO, PABLO. London 2005. 173 p. 30 pict (biography).

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. Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, philosopher, politician, Enlightenment thinker.
. Severo Ochoa, 1959 Nobel Prize winner for Medicine. (For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project). Letizia, Princess of Asturias, a native of Oviedo and wife of Felipe, Prince of Asturias. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings). Fernando Alonso, Formula 1 racing driver, 2005 World Champion.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. Leopoldo Alas, 19th century author of La Regenta, a seminal work in the Spanish literary canon. In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million. There are also services to Barcelona, Salamanca, León, Valladolid, La Coruña, Bilbao, Seville, San Sebastián, Paris, Brussels or Nice, to name just a few. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie. It links Avilés, Gijón, Oviedo and Mieres with Madrid, several times a day. The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. There is also a bus service within and without the region, run by the ALSA company.

In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga. FEVE rail company links also the center of the region with Eastern and Western Asturias. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. Major stops are the regional capital, Oviedo, and the main coastal city, Gijón. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. Spain's national RENFE rail network also serves Asturias well; trains regularly depart to and from the Spanish interior. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Eastern Asturias is now quite easily reached from Santander.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. Internal Spanish carriers such as Iberia and Spanair also serve Asturias, direct from Madrid and Barcelona, Brussels, London, Paris, Seville and others. His final words were "drink to me". A UK-based international carrier, Easyjet, began daily flights to the airport in March 2005. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. Asturias is served by Ranon Airport (OVD), which is about an hour's road journey from Oviedo, near the northwest coast and the industrial town of Avilés. Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. These subsidies are lately in doubt, given the expansion of the Union in 2004 to include the poorer states of the former Communist bloc.

Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time. Asturias has benefited extensively since 1986 from European Union investment in roads and other essential infrastructure, though there has also been some controversy regarding how these funds are spent, for example, on miners' pensions. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Large out-of-town retail parks have opened near the region's largest cities (Gijón and Oviedo), whilst the ever-present Spanish construction industry appears to continue to thrive. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. Regional economic growth is below the broader Spanish rate, though in recent years growth in service industries has helped reduce Asturias's high rate of unemployment. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. The steel industry is now in decline, as is mining, as a result of competition from Eastern Europe, high costs of production, and declines in global steel demand.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. The industry created many jobs which resulted in significant migration from other provinces in Spain, mainly Extremadura, Andalucía and Castilla y León. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output. The then state-owned ENSIDESA company is now part of the privatised ARCELOR Group. In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. The main regional industry, though, is steel: in the times of Francisco Franco´s dictatorship, it was one of the most powerful in the world. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago. Production of milk and its derivatives has also been traditionally strong, with products from the Central Lechera Asturiana being exported all over Spain.

The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. For many centuries the backbone of the Asturian economy was coal mining, steel production and fishing. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. Asturian cheeses, especially Cabrales, are also famous throughout Spain and beyond; Asturias is often called "the land of cheeses" (el pais de los quesos) due to the product's diversity and quality in this region. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. Apple groves foster the production of the traditional alcoholic drink, a natural cider (sidra). He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. The most famous regional dish is Fabada Asturiana, a rich stew made with large white beans (fabes), shoulder of pork (lacón), black sausage (morcilla), spicy sausage (chorizo) and saffron (azafrán).

The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art. Asturias is especially known for its seafood. Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. VIRTUAL TOURS (with over 450 photographs) http://www.asturiasenimagenes.com/. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. Best viewed at low tide. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. The unusual rock formation on the beach at Buelna village: east of Llanes.

He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. The coastal way (senda costera) between Pendueles and Llanes: This partly-paved nature route takes in some of Asturias' most spectacular coastal scenery, such as the noisy bufones (large water spouts created naturally by the erosion of the sea) and the Playa de Ballota. In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. La Mesa (The Table): an unusually-shaped peak above the village of Tuiza de Arriba, high in the Ubiñas mountain range south of Oviedo. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances. The Dobra River: south of Cangas de Onís, famous for its unusual colour and natural beauty. In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Of particular interest in this exemplary settlement are the traditional horreo grain silos, raised on stilts so as to keep field mice from getting at the grain.

Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him. Ceceda village: east of Oviedo along the N634 road. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Other places of interest are.... Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. The Asturian coast: especially the beaches in and around the summer resort of Llanes, and the Playa del Silencio near Cudillero fishing village. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. The Reconquista and eventual unification of all Spain is therefore said to have started in this very location.

The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. The shrine to the Virgin Mary of Covadonga and the mountain lakes (los lagos), near Cangas de Onís: Legend has it that in the 8th century, the Virgin blessed Asturian Christian forces with a well-timed signal to attack Spain's Moorish conquerors, thereby taking the invaders by surprise. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. Weather permitting, it can be viewed clearly from Camarmeña village, near Las Arenas de Cabrales. Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. The Picos de Europa National park, and other parts of the Asturian mountain range: The most famous peak in the park is the Picu Urriellu, also known as Naranjo de Bulnes (2519 m), a molar-shaped mountain which glows orange in the evening sun, hence its name. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her. Santa María del Naranco and San Miguel de Lillo, a prerromanic church and a prerromanic castle build by the first Asturian kings are held in the Naranco mountain.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. Oviedo, the capital city of Asturias: Nowadays is a cosmopolite city where art, culture and tradition are found in the town center. This came as a severe blow to Picasso. Major attractions include.... Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. Annual rainfall is above 900 mm in all the region (Gijón-Xixón, 971 mm), increasing as we move from the coast to the interior, and reaching its peak in Picos de Europa ( Amieva, 1800 mm). The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. Both rain and sunshine are regular weather features of Asturian winters.

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. The cold is especially felt in the mountains, where snow is present from November till May. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica. Winters are fairly mild but with some very cold snaps. The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. Summers are generally humid and warm, with considerable sunshine, but also some rain. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death. The climate of Asturias, as with the rest of northwest Spain, is more varied than that of southern parts of the country.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Most of Asturias' beaches are sandy, clean and bordered by steep cliffs, on top of which it is not unusual to see grazing livestock. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955. Notable examples include the Playa del Silencio (Beach of Silence) near the fishing village of Cudillero (west of Gijón), as well as the many beaches surrounding the summer resort of Llanes, such as the Barro, Ballota and Torimbia (the latter a predominantly nudist beach). Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. The Asturian coastline is extensive, with hundreds of beaches, coves and natural sea caves. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Perhaps surprisingly, climate change appears to have benefited the ski stations in recent times: relatively heavy snowfalls sustained the stations in the winters of 2003/2004 and 2004/2005.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. In this era of climate change snow fall is unpredictable, but the skiing season generally runs from December to April inclusive. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Asturias has two impressive ski stations, San Isidro and Pajares, both of which are easily accessed by road from the capital, Oviedo. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The Cantabrian mountains offer opportunities for activities such as climbing, walking, skiing and caving, and extend some 200 kilometres in total, as far as Galicia province to the west of Asturias, and Cantabria province to the east. In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Other notable features of this predominantly-limestone range are the Parque Natural de Redes in the central east, the central Ubiñas south of Oviedo, and the Parque Natural de Somiedo in the west.

Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital. The Picos de Europa National Park forms the eastern range and contains the highest and arguably most spectacular mountains, rising to 2648 metres at the Torrecerredo peak. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. The Cantabrian mountain range (Cordillera Cantábrica) is Asturias' natural border with León province to the south. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. The key features of Asturian geography are its rugged cliffy coast and its mountainous interior. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. Since 1999 the President of the Government of Asturias has been Vicente Álvarez Areces, of the Spanish Socialist Worker's Party (PSOE).

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. The Asturian regional government holds comprehensive competencies in important areas such as health, education and protection of the environment. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women. In 1982 Asturias became an Autonomous Community within the decentralized territorial structure established by the Constitution of 1978. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. The province's name was restored fully after the return of democracy to Spain, in 1977. Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. With Franco eventually gaining control of all Spain, Asturias - traditionally linked to the Spanish crown - was known merely as the 'Province of Oviedo' from 1936 until Franco's death in 1975.

His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism. As a result, Asturias remained loyal to the democratic republican government during the war, and was the scene of an extraordinary defence in extreme terrain, the Battle of El Mazuco. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. Troops under the command of Francisco Franco were brought from the North African colonies to put down the rebellion and a ferocious oppression followed. After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. In 1934, the left-wing workers' movement fought the right-wing government of the Second Spanish Republic in the so-called 'Revolution of Asturias'. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened. Like all Spain, Asturias played its part in the events that led up to and include the Spanish Civil War.

In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. The heritage of these wealthy families can still be seen in Asturias today: many large 'modernista' villas are dotted across the region, as well as cultural institutions such as free schools and public libraries. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. These entrepreneurs were known collectively as 'Indianos', for having visited and made their fortunes in the West Indies and beyond. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. At the same time there was significant migration to the Americas; those who succeeded overseas often returned to their native land much wealthier. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. The Industrial Revolution came to Asturias with the discovery and systematic exploitation of coal and iron resources.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, a polimath and prominent reformer and politician of the late 18th century, was born in the seaside town of Gijón (Xixón in the Asturian language). While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him. The renowned thinker Benito de Feijoo settled in the Benedictine Monastery of San Vicente, Oviedo. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. During the 18th Century, Asturias was one of the centres of the Spanish Enlightenment. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. After the fading of the 'Regnum Astorum' (Kingdom of Asturias), this historic land survived as a marginal territory in the north of Spain, although it provided the Spanish court with high-ranking aristocrats and played an important role in the colonisation of the Americas.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. For this reason since the 14th century the heir to the Spanish throne automatically takes the title Prince of Asturias, much as the heir to the British throne is the Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree. Due to its situation and difficult terrain, the territories along the north coast of Spain were never part of Islamic Spain; the north served as the nucleus of a small Christian enclave, the Kingdom of Asturias, which was linked to Spain's visigoth kingdom. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. . While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them. Asturias is bordered to the east by Cantabria, to the south by Castilla y León, to the west by Galicia, and to the north by the Cantabrian Sea.

In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. See also List of municipalities in Asturias, Comarcas of Asturias.. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. Other towns include Mieres, Langreo, Pola de Siero, Cangas de Onís, Cangas del Narcea, Grado, Pola de Lena, Pola de Laviana, El Entrego, Villaviciosa, and Llanes. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle. The capital is Oviedo, and other noteworthy cities are the major seaport Gijón, the largest city in Asturias, and the industrial town of Avilés. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. It is situated on the north coast facing the Cantabrian Sea (Mar Cantábrico, the Spanish name for the Bay of Biscay).

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. The Principality of Asturias (Asturian: Principau d'Asturies or Asturies) has an extensive history and is an autonomous community within the country of Spain. The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work.

A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques. The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary.

Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg. Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". . He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. 30 pict (biography).

173 p. London 2005. PICASSO, PABLO. Danto.

by Arthur C. Introd. Mary Ann, Caws. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography).

320 p. 2004. Prestel Publ. PICASSO: The Real Family Story.

Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). 2005. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter.

Mallen, Enrique. 2003. Berlin: Peter Lang. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series.

The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Mallen, Enrique. ISBN 0-87070-519-9. 1980.

New York. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. Ed. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective.

The Museum of Modern Art. List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973. List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970. List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960.

List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950. List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940. List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930. List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920.

List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910. List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900. Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.

Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting. Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins.

Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.

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