Pablo Picasso

Young Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

Periods

Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg

  • Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.
  • Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting.
  • African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work.
  • Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.
  • Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art.

Early life

An 1896 self-portrait by Picasso.

Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year.

Picasso's first painting at age 8, Picador (1889).

The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques.

Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica.

The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures.

Pacifism

Picasso's Guernica was a reaction to the bombing of Guernica in the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle.

As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.

After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism.

Personal life

Picasso's friend Gertrude Stein, who had more than 80 sittings for this 1906 portrait.

Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital.

Marie-Thérèse Walter painted in Nu couché aux fleurs (1932)

In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.

From left to right, Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, Henri-Pierre Roché (in uniform), Marie Vassilieff, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso (1915).

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. This came as a severe blow to Picasso.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her.

Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him.

In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances.

Later works

Las Meninas (1957) based on the Las Meninas by Velazquez.

In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.

Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art.

Picasso sculpture in Chicago, Illinois

He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago.

In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time.

Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. His final words were "drink to me".

Legacy

Garçon à la pipe, which sold for $104 million in 2004.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.

The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie.

In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings).

Lists of works

L'Accordéoniste, a 1911 cubist painting by Picasso.

(For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project)



  • List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900
  • List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910
  • List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920
  • List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930
  • List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940
  • List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950
  • List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960
  • List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970
  • List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973

References

  • The Museum of Modern Art. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. Ed. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. New York. 1980. ISBN 0-87070-519-9
  • Mallen, Enrique. The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Berlin: Peter Lang. 2003.
  • Mallen, Enrique. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. 2005.
  • Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Prestel Publ. 2004. 320 p. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography)
  • Mary Ann, Caws. Introd. by Arthur C. Danto. PICASSO, PABLO. London 2005. 173 p. 30 pict (biography).

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. Total Worldwide Sales: 30 million (Taking into account her albums in Spanish: Xuxa, Xuxa 2, Xuxa 3, Todos sus Éxitos, El Pequeño Mundo, Xuxa Dance, El Mundo es de los Dos, Xuxa Solamente para Bajitos) Since Xou da Xuxa era, she sold 14 million copies.
. Her first animated movie and 5th 'Só para Baixinhos' CD are coming out soon. (For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project). Her show 'TV Xuxa' is in the number one spot for children's programming in Brazil. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings). She has an on and off relationship with model and heir Luciano Szafir, father of her daughter.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. Nine months before, she had announced live at Globo's Sunday show Domingão do Faustão that her dream would come true and she would have a child. In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million. In 1998, her daughter was born live on Jornal Nacional, the most important and most watched news shows in Brazil. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie. Xuxa is one of the richest women in Brazil, with a net worth of more than US$160 million. The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. She and Julio Iglesias were the only Latin Americans on the list.

In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga. In 1991, she was one of the 40 Best Paid Celebrities in the World according to Forbes. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. Xuxa is richer than Roberto Carlos, the best-selling artist ever in Brazil. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. But, while Xuxa is just a TV personality, Silvio Santos is also the owner of SBT. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Ahead of her, only Silvio Santos, who is the presenter of lots of shows from the number 2-net: SBT.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. Xuxa is one of the richest Brazilian entertainers. His final words were "drink to me". Her revealing clothes were not a big controversy in Brazil, which has traditionally been more relaxed about nudity than North America or Western Europe, and most of Brazilians didn't see anything wrong with the clothes she wore. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. Just about anything could be found with her face on it in stores in Brazil and across Latin America. Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. She had a multiplicity of licensed products since the 80s, from bubble gum to televisions, Shampoos, soap, food, books, clothes, shoes, dolls, toys, video games and board games.

Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time. Xuxa's biggest singles were during her Xou da Xuxa era, the biggest of them all being Ilariê, but she was also successful with Lua de Cristal; Tindolelê; Brincar de Índio and Arco-Íris. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". The album included the hit Ilarie, which went to Number 1 across Latin America and it was the bestselling single and most-played song on the radio in 1989. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. Her third album is the best-selling album in Brazilian history, selling almost 4 million copies. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. She is still popular with children today, who listen to her CD collection 'Só Para Baixinhos'.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Xuxa is a Brazilian icon, who was part of the childhood of many young people born in the 1980s and 1990s. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output.
. In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. After she was hospitalized for several days due to exhaustion, she decided to give up her international career. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago. Her international ambitions ended after she taped 22 episodes of her American show in a month.

The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. The theme song of the show spent 8 weeks on the top of the charts and her CD charted gold. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. Also in 1993, she taped "Xuxa Park" in Spain. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. Many parents were taken aback by her seemingly open displays of sexuality and lack of modest clothing as well as her practice of putting on bright red lipstick and kissing the cheeks of prepubescent males at the end of each show. He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. However, the show was sold in many countries throughout the world, among them Japan, Israel, Russia and some Arab countries.

The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art. Xuxa did not master the English language, which was her greatest barrier to success. Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. In 1993 Xuxa hosted an English language series in the United States, "Xuxa", but it did not achieve the popularity Xuxa had enjoyed throughout Latin America and Spain. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. She also recorded a programme in Spain in 1992, Xuxa Park, which achieved a huge success. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. In the 90s, Xuxa became very popular in the whole of Latin America, widening her appeal among Spanish-speaking audiences, when she recorded a programme in Argentina, Show de Xuxa, which was also popular when broadcast in Chile, Mexico and other 16 Latin American countries.

He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. As of 2005, Xuxa is about to release her first animated movie. In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. In 2003 she did another fantasy movie, Xuxa em Abracadabra and in 2004, Xuxa e o Tesouro da Cidade Perdida (Xuxa and the Treasure of the Lost City). Picasso always played himself in his film appearances. The movie was a hit and a sequel was made for the following year. In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. A fantasy movie, it not only had many cameos, but also a story line and no advertisements, a first for Xuxa's movie.

Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him. Then, in 2001 she did her first children's movie in twelve years, Xuxa e os Duendes. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Targeted at teenagers, the movie was still a hit with the audience and next year, a movie in the same style (no story line, lots of advertisements, lots of popular actors/groups/singers making cameos) was made, called Xuxa Popstar. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. In 1999 Xuxa appeared in Xuxa Requebra (Xuxa in Shake It), a movie that was a critical flop but a big hit with the audience. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. The second was her biggest box office hit, spawning her hit single 'Lua de Cristal'.

The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. The following year, she starred in two movies: Xuxa e os Trapalhões em 'O Mistério de Robin Hood' (Xuxa and The Messed-Up Guys in 'The Mystery of Robin Hood') and Lua de Cristal (Crystal Moon). Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. In 1989 she starred for the first time in a movie with the comedy group Os Trapalhões in A Princesa Xuxa e Os Trapalhões (Princess Xuxa and The Messed-Up Guys), which was another hit. Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Xuxa is also an actress and, together with comedy group Os Trapalhões, she has the 9 biggest Box Office hits in Brazilian history. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her. In her children's shows, she consistently wore tight clothing, showing her belly, legs, and even parts of her buttocks, and in her first LP (also targeted at children), she revealed her breasts on the cover by wearing a translucent shirt.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. Xuxa, however, being one of the most popular Brazillian TV personalities at the time, was kept on and a new show, TV Xuxa was launched, containing more educational content and cartoons, and less of Xuxa than previous shows. This came as a severe blow to Picasso. The show was initially successful, but following a dispute between Xuxa and her manager, Marlene Matos, ratings for the show began to decline, resulting in the show being pulled from air in 2004. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. In 2001 Xuxa began a new children's show, Xuxa No Mundo da Imaginação (Xuxa at the World of Imagination), a show for preschool children on weekday mornings. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. She also began her first tour since the end of her Xou da Xuxa show, and won two Grammy awards.

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. Reinvented as a children's entertainer, Xuxa began the Xuxa Só para Baixinhos (Xuxa Just for Kids) series, releasing CDs and a videotape with song clips. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica. Both shows had good ratings but were cancelled after a fire on the set at Xuxa Park during a show casued serious injuries to members of the crew and children in the audience. The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. Xuxa Park was a modern version of her original show, Xou da Xuxa. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death. Xuxa Planet was a show aimed at teenagers, and was controversial in that she would interview stars about their sex lives.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. In the early 1990s Xuxa hosted two more shows: Xuxa Planet, and Xuxa Park. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955. In 1988, at her peak in popularity, she featured in the highly successful movie Super Xuxa Contra o Baixo Astral (Super Xuxa Against the Low Happiness), that included her hit song Arco-Íris (Rainbow), a hit across Latin America that was the biggest box office success of the year in Brazil. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. After becoming famous for dating soccer star Pele, she hosted Xou da Xuxa, a weekday morning show that featured musical performances, games, guests and cartoons from 1986 to 1993. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Some scenes with underage actors in this movie would not be allowed by current Brazilian laws concerning child pornography.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. While performing at nightclubs, she graced the centerfold of Playboy magazine's Brazilian edition in December 1982, which led to her being cast in the motion picture Amor Estranho Amor (Love Strange Love) IMDB page in which she plays a prostitute who seduces a 13 year old boy. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. . Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. One, for instance, involved a rented theme park, while another came with a $1,000,000 bill. In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Xuxa's maternal habits are often criticized, particularly as she has been very indulgent with Sasha, throwing her lavish parties.

Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital. Sasha studies at Brazil's most expensive school, the bilingual "Escola Americana do Rio de Janeiro" (EARJ), aslo known as the American School of Rio de Janeiro), with a tuition of about $2,000 per month. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. She had a daughter, Sasha, in 1998 whose birth was televised live. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Xuxa's personal life has often been very public and sometimes scandalous. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. Xuxa has dated Pelé and the late Ayrton Senna, both regarded as important figures in Brazil.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. Xuxa is of German, Austrian, Italian and Polish descent and was the first Brazilian to appear on Forbes Magazine's list of richest artists in 1991, taking 37th place with an annual gross income of US$19 million. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women. Her various shows have been broadcast in Portuguese, Spanish, and English languages. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Xuxa born (Maria da Graça Meneghel) on March 27, 1963 in Santa Rosa, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) is a Brazilian television actress and singer and children's television show host. Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. 2005- Xuxinha e Guto Contra Os Monstros do Espaço.

His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism. 2004 - Xuxa em O Tesouro da Cidade Perdida. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. 2003 - Xuxa em Abracadabra. After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. 2002 - Xuxa e os Duendes 2. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened. 2001 - Xuxa e os Duendes.

In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. 2000 - Xuxa Pop Star. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. 1999 - Xuxa Requebra. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. 1991 - Gaúcho Negro. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. 1990 - Lua de Cristal.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. 1990 - Xuxa e os Trapalhões e o Mistério de Hobin Hood. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him. 1989 - A Princesa Xuxa e os Trapalhões. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. 1988 - Super Xuxa contra Baixo-Astral. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. 1985 - Os Trapalhões no reino da fantasia.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. 1984 - Os Trapalhoes e o Mágico de Orós. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree. 1983 - O Trapalhão na Arca de Noé. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. 1982 - Amor estranho Amor. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them. 1982 - Fuscão Preto.

In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. 2005-Xuxa Só Pra Baixinhos 6 - Xuxa Festa. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. 2004-Xuxa Só Pra Baixinhos 5. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle. 2003-Xuxa Só Pra Baixinhos 4. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. 2002-Xuxa Só Pra Baixinhos 3.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. 2001-Xuxa Só Pra Baixinhos 2. The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures. 2000-Xuxa Só Pra Baixinhos. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica. 1999-Xuxa 2000. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. 1998-Só Faltava Você.

A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. 1997-Boas Notícias. Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. 1997-Arraiá da Xuxa. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques. 1996-Tô de Bem Com A Vida. The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. 1996-Xuxa 10 Anos.

Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year. 1995-Luz No Meu Caminho. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. 1994-Sexto Sentido. Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. 1993-Xuxa. Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López. 1992-Xou da Xuxa 7.

While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg. 1991-Xou da Xuxa 6. Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". 1990-Xuxa 5. . Xou da Xuxa. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits. 1989-4o.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. 1988-Xou da Xuxa 3. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. 1987-Karaokê da Xuxa. Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. 1987-Xegundo Xou da Xuxa. 30 pict (biography). 1986-Xou da Xuxa.

173 p. London 2005. PICASSO, PABLO. Danto.

by Arthur C. Introd. Mary Ann, Caws. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography).

320 p. 2004. Prestel Publ. PICASSO: The Real Family Story.

Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). 2005. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter.

Mallen, Enrique. 2003. Berlin: Peter Lang. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series.

The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Mallen, Enrique. ISBN 0-87070-519-9. 1980.

New York. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. Ed. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective.

The Museum of Modern Art. List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973. List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970. List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960.

List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950. List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940. List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930. List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920.

List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910. List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900. Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.

Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting. Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins.

Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.

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