Pablo Picasso

Young Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

Periods

Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg

  • Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.
  • Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting.
  • African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work.
  • Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.
  • Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art.

Early life

An 1896 self-portrait by Picasso.

Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year.

Picasso's first painting at age 8, Picador (1889).

The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques.

Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica.

The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures.

Pacifism

Picasso's Guernica was a reaction to the bombing of Guernica in the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle.

As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.

After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism.

Personal life

Picasso's friend Gertrude Stein, who had more than 80 sittings for this 1906 portrait.

Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital.

Marie-Thérèse Walter painted in Nu couché aux fleurs (1932)

In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.

From left to right, Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, Henri-Pierre Roché (in uniform), Marie Vassilieff, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso (1915).

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. This came as a severe blow to Picasso.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her.

Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him.

In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances.

Later works

Las Meninas (1957) based on the Las Meninas by Velazquez.

In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.

Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art.

Picasso sculpture in Chicago, Illinois

He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago.

In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time.

Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. His final words were "drink to me".

Legacy

Garçon à la pipe, which sold for $104 million in 2004.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.

The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie.

In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings).

Lists of works

L'Accordéoniste, a 1911 cubist painting by Picasso.

(For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project)



  • List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900
  • List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910
  • List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920
  • List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930
  • List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940
  • List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950
  • List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960
  • List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970
  • List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973

References

  • The Museum of Modern Art. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. Ed. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. New York. 1980. ISBN 0-87070-519-9
  • Mallen, Enrique. The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Berlin: Peter Lang. 2003.
  • Mallen, Enrique. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. 2005.
  • Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Prestel Publ. 2004. 320 p. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography)
  • Mary Ann, Caws. Introd. by Arthur C. Danto. PICASSO, PABLO. London 2005. 173 p. 30 pict (biography).

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. After being exposed to the vibrant dance scene, he gradually incorporated dance-like elements into his subsequent works, such as Tubular Bells III.
. Mike Oldfield, a prominent British musician, owned a house on Ibiza, where he worked on a couple of his albums. (For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project). Popular tracks in this genre include:. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings). The atmosphere is brought on with the use of synthesized string instruments, the sound of waves, mandolins and guitars, and wispy vocals.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. The style tries to reflect the atmosphere of Ibiza, and listeners often say they can see a Mediterranean sunset when they hear its euphoric, uplifting melodies. In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million. There also exists a genre of trance music named for Ibiza dubbed Balearic Beat, similarly to the way Goa trance is named for Goa, India. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie. Ibiza is also famous for Café del Mar, a chill spot in Sant Antoni de Portmany where many people watch the sunset every night. The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. The most famous clubs include Privilege Ibiza (the world's largest club which holds the weekly event known worldwide as Manumission on Monday nights), Es Paradis (famous for its water parties), Amnesia (famous for its foam parties and what goes on there), Space (opens at around 8AM) and Pacha.

In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga. Eivissa is a very popular tourist destination, especially due to its legendary riotous nightlife (mainly in Ibiza Town, the island's capital on the eastern shore). These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. The island was conquered by James I of Aragon in 1235. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. This survival made Ibiza an excellent place to study Carthaginian-Punic civilization in later years, but also turned the island into a sleepy imperial outpost as it became more and more detached from the important trading routes of the time. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Ibiza managed to negotiate a favorable treaty with the Romans, who spared Ibiza from further destruction and allowed it to survive with its Carthaginian-Punic institutions well into the Empire days, when it became an official Roman municipality.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. With Carthaginian military luck running out on the Iberian mainland, Ibiza was last used by the fleeing Carthaginian General Mago to gather supplies and men before sailing to Menorca and then to Liguria. His final words were "drink to me". During the Second Punic War the island was assaulted by the two Scipio brothers 209 BC but remained loyal to Carthage. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. Iberia began setting up its own trading stations along the nearby Balearic island of Mallorca, from which great quantities of the renowned Balearic slingers were hired as mercenaries for the diverse wars Carthage was fighting. Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Ibiza was a major trading post along the Mediterranean routes.

Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time. A shrine with offerings to the goddess Tanit was established in the cave at Es Cuyram, and the rest of the Balearic Islands entered Eivissa's commercial orbit after 400 BC. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". The island produced dye, salt, fish sauce (garum), and wool. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. With the decline of Phoenicia after the Assyrian invasions, Ibiza came under the umbrella of Carthage, also a former Phoenician colony. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. The Greeks who came to Ibiza during the time of the Phoenicians were the first to call the two islands of Ibiza and Formentera the Pitiusas ("pine-covered islands").

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. In 654 BC Phoenician settlers founded a port in the Balearic Islands, as Ibossim, later known to Romans (as "Ebusus") for its wine, marble, and lead. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output. . In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. Eivissa is the official Catalan name and the name used by its inhabitants; but the name used by Spanish speakers and the rest of the world is Ibiza (usually pronounced using the Castilian morphology: ih-'bee-thuh). Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago. Major cities are Ibiza Town, Santa Eulària des Riu and San Antonio.

The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. With Formentera, it is one of the two Illes Pitiüses. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. Eivissa or Ibiza is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea, and belonging to Spain. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. Beachball by Nalin & Kane. He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. Offshore by Chicane.

The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art. Seven Cities by Solar Stone. Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix.

He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances. In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus.

Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot.

The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. This came as a severe blow to Picasso. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma.

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica. The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome.

Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working.

His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.

In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work.

A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques. The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary.

Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg. Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". . He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. 30 pict (biography).

173 p. London 2005. PICASSO, PABLO. Danto.

by Arthur C. Introd. Mary Ann, Caws. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography).

320 p. 2004. Prestel Publ. PICASSO: The Real Family Story.

Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). 2005. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter.

Mallen, Enrique. 2003. Berlin: Peter Lang. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series.

The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Mallen, Enrique. ISBN 0-87070-519-9. 1980.

New York. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. Ed. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective.

The Museum of Modern Art. List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973. List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970. List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960.

List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950. List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940. List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930. List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920.

List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910. List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900. Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.

Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting. Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins.

Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.

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