Pablo Picasso

Young Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

Periods

Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg

  • Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.
  • Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting.
  • African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work.
  • Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.
  • Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art.

Early life

An 1896 self-portrait by Picasso.

Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year.

Picasso's first painting at age 8, Picador (1889).

The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques.

Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica.

The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures.

Pacifism

Picasso's Guernica was a reaction to the bombing of Guernica in the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle.

As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.

After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism.

Personal life

Picasso's friend Gertrude Stein, who had more than 80 sittings for this 1906 portrait.

Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital.

Marie-Thérèse Walter painted in Nu couché aux fleurs (1932)

In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.

From left to right, Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, Henri-Pierre Roché (in uniform), Marie Vassilieff, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso (1915).

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. This came as a severe blow to Picasso.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her.

Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him.

In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances.

Later works

Las Meninas (1957) based on the Las Meninas by Velazquez.

In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.

Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art.

Picasso sculpture in Chicago, Illinois

He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago.

In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time.

Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. His final words were "drink to me".

Legacy

Garçon à la pipe, which sold for $104 million in 2004.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.

The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie.

In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings).

Lists of works

L'Accordéoniste, a 1911 cubist painting by Picasso.

(For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project)



  • List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900
  • List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910
  • List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920
  • List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930
  • List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940
  • List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950
  • List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960
  • List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970
  • List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973

References

  • The Museum of Modern Art. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. Ed. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. New York. 1980. ISBN 0-87070-519-9
  • Mallen, Enrique. The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Berlin: Peter Lang. 2003.
  • Mallen, Enrique. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. 2005.
  • Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Prestel Publ. 2004. 320 p. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography)
  • Mary Ann, Caws. Introd. by Arthur C. Danto. PICASSO, PABLO. London 2005. 173 p. 30 pict (biography).

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. United are one of three clubs (the others being Liverpool and Arsenal) that have finished first more often than in any other one table spot in the top division.
. Manchester United have spent 79 seasons in the national top flight (only Everton, Aston Villa, Liverpool, and Arsenal have more seasons at top level), finishing in these positions:. (For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project). ¹ More than any other English club. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings). players.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. See Also: List of Manchester United players and Category:Manchester United F.C. In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million. Dutch Eredivisie. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie. French Ligue 1. The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot.
Brazilian Série A.

In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga. Belgian Second Division. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. League Two. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. League One. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. League Championship.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. Premier League. His final words were "drink to me". As of February 1, 2006. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. Although the full effects of Glazer's takeover on the club's support are not yet known, the club has claimed a record number of season ticket sales, however, given the many empty seats in the ground in some European games and lack of freedom of information from the club, this is as yet unverified. Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. The new club plays in the North West Counties League Second Division, and attracts an average attendance of almost 3000.

Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time. United of Manchester. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Many supporters were outraged, and some formed a new club called F.C. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. However, this scheme failed to prevent Malcolm Glazer from becoming the majority shareholder in the club. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. Another pressure group, Shareholders United Against Murdoch (which became Shareholders United and is now the Manchester United Supporters Trust) was formed at around this time to encourage supporters to buy shares in the club, partly to enable supporters to have a greater say in the issues that concern them, such as ticket prices and allocation, and partly to reduce the risk of an unwanted party buying enough shares to take over the club.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. The supporters’ group IMUSA (Independent Manchester United Supporters' Association) were extremely active in opposing a proposed takeover by Rupert Murdoch in 1999. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output. In the late 1990s and early part of the 2000s, an increasing source of concern for many United supporters was the possibility of the club being taken over. In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. The club estimates they have 675 million fans around the world, with 80 million fans in Asia alone. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago. A 2002 report, Do You Come From Manchester? indicate that Manchester City, have a higher proportion of season ticket holders living in the Manchester area, althogh they sold fewer season tickets overall.

The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. This swelled United’s support and is one reason why United have had the highest league attendances in English football for almost every season since then, even as a second division side in 1974-75. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. Following the Munich air disaster in 1958, more people from outside Manchester began to support United and, as travel became quicker and cheaper, many started to go to matches. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. When United won the league in 1956, they had the highest average home attendance in the league, a record that had been held by Newcastle for the previous few years. He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. After the war, a stronger rivalry developed and it became more common for a supporter to choose one team to follow exclusively.

The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art. As United and City played home matches on alternate Saturdays, many Mancunians would watch United one week and City the next. Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Before the Second World War, few English football supporters travelled to away games because of the time and cost. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. The Glazers have promised that Sir Alex Ferguson will still be able to purchase "big-name" players. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. Some United fans have expressed concern that in the fallout from the Glazer takeover, which left the club £265 million in debt, Manchester United will no longer have the money to compete in the transfer market with the likes of Barcelona, Real Madrid and Chelsea.

He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. On 7 June he appointed his sons Joel, Avram, and Bryan to the board with Joel becoming Exectuive Co Chairman, Avram Non Exective Co Chairman and Bryan a Non Executive Director, at the same time Sir Roy Gardner resigned the chairmanship, and two other non-executive directors resigned. In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. On May 16, he increased his share to the 75% necessary to delist the club from the Stock Exchange, taking it private again, and announced his intention to do so within 20 days. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances. On May 12, 2005, the United States businessman Malcolm Glazer acquired a controlling interest in the club in a takeover valuing it at approximately £800 million ($1.47 billion). In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus.
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Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him. United made a poor start to the 2005-06 season, with team captain Roy Keane leaving the club to join his boyhood heroes Celtic after publicly criticising several of his teammates, and the club failed to qualify for the knock-out phase of the UEFA Champions League for the first time in over a decade. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Off the pitch, the main story was the possibility of the club being taken over and at the end of the season, Tampa businessman Malcolm Glazer acquired a controlling interest in the club. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. Cup eluded them — although they completely outplayed Arsenal in one of the most one-sided finals ever seen they were beaten on penalties. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. This time, even the "consolation prize" of the F.A.

The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. The 2004-05 season was characterised by a failure to score goals, mainly due to the injury of striker Ruud van Nistelrooy and United finished the season trophyless and in third place in the league. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. Cup, however, knocking out Arsenal (that season's eventual champions) on their way to the final. Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. They did win the 2004 F.A. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her. They regained the league the following season (2002-03) and started the following season well, but their form dropped significantly when Rio Ferdinand received an eight month suspension for missing a drugs test.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. Ferguson adopted more defensive tactics to make United harder to beat in Europe but it was not a success and United finished the season in third place in 2002. This came as a severe blow to Picasso. United won the league by record margins in 2000 and 2001 but the press saw these seasons as failures as they failed to regain the European Cup. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. Ferguson was knighted for his contributions to British football as a result. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. (See The Treble for an explanation of different types of "Treble" or Manchester United Treble for a more in-depth look at the 1998-1999 season.) The final of the Champions League, widely regarded as the one of the greatest finals ever, was especially exciting as United were trailing 1-0 with one minute to go, but two goals in stoppage time gave them a win over Bayern Munich (The only team ever to have come from behind to win a Champions League final in normal time.) The club's first choice central-midfielders, Roy Keane and Paul Scholes, missed the match through suspension.

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. 1998-99 was the most successful season in the club's history as United became the first English team to win The Treble - the league, the FA Cup and the Champions League in the same season. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica. They started the following season (1997-98) well but their results were affected by a series of injuries and they finished the season in second place, behind the double winning champions Arsenal. The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. They won the league in 1997, and Eric Cantona, announced his retirement from football at the age of 30, several years earlier than most players. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death. Ferguson then outraged the supporters by selling key players and replacing them with players from the club's youth team, but the new players, several of whom quickly became regular internationals, did surprisingly well and United won the double again in 1995-96.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Drawing their last league match and losing to Everton in the FA Cup final left United as runners-up in both the league and FA Cup. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955. In 1994-95, Cantona received an eight month suspension for jumping into the crowd and assulting Crystal Palace supporter Matthew Simmons. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. They won the double (the league and the FA Cup) for the first time the following season, but legendary manager and club president Matt Busby died that year, on 20 January 1994. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. The arrival of Eric Cantona in November 1992 provided the crucial spark for United, and they finished the 1992-93 season as Champions for the first time since 1967.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. Meanwhile in 1991 the club had floated on the London Stock Exchange with a valuation of £18 million, thus bringing its finances into the public eye as never before. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. United won the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1990-91, beating that season's Spanish champions Barcelona in the final, but the following season was a disappointment for United as a late season slump saw them miss out on the league to rivals Leeds United. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. There was speculation that Ferguson would be sacked at the beginning of 1990 but a win in the third round of the FA Cup over Nottingham Forest kept the season alive and United went on to win the competition. In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. However, United struggled badly throughout 1989, with many of Ferguson's signings not reaching the expectations of the fans.

Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital. The following season (1987-88), United finished second, with Brian McClair becoming the first United player since George Best to score twenty league goals in a season. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Alex Ferguson replaced Atkinson and guided the club to an 11th place finish. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. The poor form continued into the following season, and with United on the edge of the First Division's relegation zone, Atkinson was sacked. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. The team's form collapsed, however, and United finished the season in fourth place.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. United won the FA Cup in 1983 and 1985 and were overwhelming favourites to win the league in the 1985-86 season after winning their first ten league games, opening a ten-point gap over their rivals as early as October. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women. Atkinson's team featured new signings such as Jesper Olsen and Gordon Strachan playing alongside the former youth-team players Norman Whiteside and Mark Hughes. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. He was replaced by the flamboyant Ron Atkinson who immediately broke the British record transfer fee to sign Bryan Robson from West Brom. Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. This style was unpopular with supporters, who were used to the attacking football preferred by Docherty and Busby, and after failing to win a trophy Sexton was sacked in 1981.

His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism. Dave Sexton replaced Docherty as manager in the summer of 1977, and made the team play in a more defensive formation. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. In spite of this success, and his popularity with the supporters, Docherty was sacked soon after the final when he was found to have had an affair with the physiotherapist's wife. After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. They reached the final again in 1977, beating Liverpool and preventing their opponents from completing the first ever treble, which United would go on to win in 1999. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened. The team won promotion at the first attempt and reached the FA Cup final in 1976, but were beaten by Southampton.

In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. Docherty, or 'the Doc', saved United from relegation that season but United were relegated in 1974. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. United struggled to replace Busby, and the team struggled under Wilf McGuinness and Frank O'Farrell before Tommy Docherty became manager at the end of 1972. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Busby resigned as manager in 1969 and was replaced by the reserve-team coach and former United player Wilf McGuinness. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. This team was notable for containing three European Footballers of the Year: Bobby Charlton, Denis Law and George Best.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. The team won the FA Cup in 1963, then won the league in 1965 and 1967 and the European Cup in 1968, the first English Club to do so. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him. Busby rebuilt the team throughout the early 1960s, signing players such as Denis Law and Pat Crerand. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. They somehow reached the FA Cup final again, where they lost to Bolton. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. There was talk of the club folding but, with Jimmy Murphy taking over as manager while Matt Busby recovered from his injuries, the club continued playing with a makeshift side.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. The Munich air disaster of 6 February 1958 claimed the lives of eight players and another fifteen passengers. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree. Tragedy struck the following season, when the plane carrying the team home from a European Cup match crashed on take off at a refuelling stop in Munich. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. They also became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, and reached the semi-final. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them. The following season, they won the league again and reached the FA Cup final, losing to Aston Villa.

In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. He adopted a policy of bringing in players from the youth team whenever possible, and the team won the league in 1956 with an average age of only 22. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. He was immediately successful, with the club finishing second in the league in 1947 and winning the FA Cup in 1948. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle. Matt Busby was appointed manager in 1945 and took a then-unheard of approach to his job, joining the players for training as well as performing administrative tasks. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. The team struggled between the first and second world wars, and by time the second world war began they were £70,000 in debt.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. They won the Championship for the second time in 1911. The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures. Then with financial assistance from Davies, United moved from Bank Street to a new stadium at Old Trafford in 1910. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica. With their new name, they won the league in 1908 and the FA Cup on April 26, 1909 against Bristol City at Crystal Palace. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. Davies who paid off the club's debts and changed the name to Manchester United, changing the team's colours from gold and green to red and white.

A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. The club faced bankruptcy in 1902 and was rescued by J.H. Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. The earliest known film of Manchester United is the 2–0 victory at Burnley on 6 December 1902, filmed by Mitchell and Kenyon. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques. They were founder members of the Football Alliance in 1889 and joined the Football League in 1892 when it merged with the Football Alliance. The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. The name was soon shortened to Newton Heath.

Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year. The club were formed as Newton Heath (Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway) (Newton Heath (L&YR) for short) by a group of Manchester railway workers in 1878. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Manchester was founded by someone who cheats!! All they can do is cheat! Van Nistlerooy stop diving save that for swimming!. Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. . Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López. An attempted takeover by Rupert Murdoch had been blocked by the British Government in 1999, but in 2005 Malcolm Glazer completed a hostile takeover of the club, despite considerable protests from many of United's supporters.

While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg. The club had been run as a Public Limited Company since 1991, and a takeover was a real possiblility. Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". In 1999, Manchester United became the first team to win the FA Premier League, the FA Cup and the European Cup in the same season — a record that has still not been equalled. . The club did not see great success again until the 1990s and early 2000s, when Sir Alex Ferguson guided them to eight league championships in eleven years. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits. It was thought that the club might fold, but once Busby had recovered from his injuries he built another great team which went on to win the football league in 1965 and 1967, and became the first English winners of the European Cup in 1968.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. This success was halted by the Munich air disaster of 1958, in which eight of the club's players died. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. United appointed Sir Matt Busby as manager after the Second World War, and his then-unheard-of policy of producing most of the players through the club's youth team brought great success, with the club winning the Football League in 1956 and 1957. Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. Davies who changed its name to Manchester United. 30 pict (biography). After nearing bankuptcy in 1902, the club was taken over by J.H.

173 p. The club was formed as Newton Heath (L & Y.R.) F.C. in 1878 as the works team of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. London 2005. The club has had the highest average attendance in English football for the majority of the past fifty seasons. PICASSO, PABLO. The club is one of the most successful clubs in England, having won the FA Premier League/Football League fifteen times, FA Cup eleven times and the European Cup/UEFA Champions League twice. Danto. Manchester United Football Club is an English football club, based at Old Trafford Football Ground located just outside of the city boundaries of Manchester, Lancashire.

by Arthur C. Most points in a season: 92 1993/94. Introd. Most League Goals in a season; 103 1956/57, 1958/59. Mary Ann, Caws. Longest unbeaten Run : (All competitions) 45, December 24, 1998 to October 3, 1999. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography). Record Attendance Old Trafford: 76,962, Wolves v Grimsby Town, FA Cup, semi-final, 25 March 1939.

320 p. Record 'home' League Attendance: Maine Road 83,250 v Arsenal, Division 1, 7 January 1948. 2004. Record League Attendance: Old Trafford 70,504 v Aston Villa, Division 1, 27 December 1920. Prestel Publ. Most League Appearances: 606 Bobby Charlton, 1956-73. PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Most Capped Player: Bobby Charlton, 106 England.

Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). Most Goals scored in a Match: 6 George Best v Northampton Town, 1970. 2005. Most League Goals in a Season: 32 Dennis Viollet, Division 1, 1959-60. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. Most League Goals: 199 Bobby Charlton, 1956-73. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Most Goals scored : 247 Bobby Charlton.

Mallen, Enrique. Most Appearances : Bobby Charlton 754. 2003. Record Cup Defeat: 1-7 v Burnley, FA Cup, 1st Round, 13 February 1901. Berlin: Peter Lang. Record League Defeat: 0-7 v Blackburn Rovers, Division 1, 10 April 1926. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Record away win: 8-1 v Nottingham Forest February 1999.

The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Record Cup Victory: 10-0 v Anderlecht, Champions Cup, Preliminary Round, 26 September 1956. Mallen, Enrique. Record Premiership Victory: 9-0 Ipswich Town March 1995. ISBN 0-87070-519-9. Record League Victory: 10-1 v Wolves, Division 1, 15 October 1892. 1980. 1968, 1999.

New York. BBC Sports Personality of the Year Team Award: 2

    . William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. 1908, 1911, 1952, 1956, 1957, 1965*, 1967*, 1977*, 1983, 1990*, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 2003 (*as joint holders). Ed. FA Charity Shield/Community Shields: 15¹
      . Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. 1991.

      The Museum of Modern Art. European Super Cup: 1

        . List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973. 1999. List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970. Intercontinental Cup: 1¹
          . List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960. 1991.

          List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950. UEFA Cup Winners' Cup: 1

            . List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940. 1998-99, 2-1 vs FC Bayern M. List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930. 1967-68, 4-1 vs Benfica. List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920. UEFA Champions League Championships: 2
              .

              List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910. 1992. List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900. League Cup: 1

                . Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art. 1909, 1948, 1963, 1977, 1983, 1985, 1990, 1994, 1996, 1999, 2004. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other. FA Cups: 11¹
                  .

                  Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. 1936, 1975. African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work. Football League Second Division/Football League Division 1/Football League Championship: 2

                    . He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting. 1908, 1911, 1952, 1956, 1957, 1965, 1967, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003. Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. FA Premier League/Football League Championships: 15
                      .

                      Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists. Fraizer Campbell. Darron Gibson. Floribert N'Galula. Mark Howard.

                      Danny Rose. Markus Neumayr (reserve team captain). David Jones (on loan to NEC Nijmegen). David Bellion (on loan to Nice).

                      Rincón (on loan to São Paulo). Souleymane Mamam (on loan to Royal Antwerp). Dong Fangzhuo (on loan to Royal Antwerp). Danny Simpson (on loan to Royal Antwerp).

                      Lee Martin (on loan to Royal Antwerp). Thomas Heaton (on loan to Royal Antwerp). Adam Eckersley (on loan to Royal Antwerp). Sylvan Ebanks-Blake (on loan to Royal Antwerp).

                      Tommy Lee (on loan to Macclesfield Town). Mads Timm (on loan to Walsall). Phil Picken (on loan to Chesterfield). Ben Foster (on loan to Watford).

                      Eddie Johnson (on loan to Leeds United). Paul McShane (on loan to Brighton & Hove Albion). Chris Eagles (on loan to Watford). Liam Miller (on loan to Leeds United).

                      Jonathan Spector (on loan to Charlton Athletic).

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