Pablo Picasso

Young Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

Periods

Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg

  • Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.
  • Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting.
  • African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work.
  • Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.
  • Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art.

Early life

An 1896 self-portrait by Picasso.

Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year.

Picasso's first painting at age 8, Picador (1889).

The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques.

Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica.

The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures.

Pacifism

Picasso's Guernica was a reaction to the bombing of Guernica in the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle.

As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.

After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism.

Personal life

Picasso's friend Gertrude Stein, who had more than 80 sittings for this 1906 portrait.

Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital.

Marie-Thérèse Walter painted in Nu couché aux fleurs (1932)

In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.

From left to right, Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, Henri-Pierre Roché (in uniform), Marie Vassilieff, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso (1915).

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. This came as a severe blow to Picasso.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her.

Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him.

In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances.

Later works

Las Meninas (1957) based on the Las Meninas by Velazquez.

In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.

Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art.

Picasso sculpture in Chicago, Illinois

He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago.

In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time.

Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. His final words were "drink to me".

Legacy

Garçon à la pipe, which sold for $104 million in 2004.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.

The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie.

In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings).

Lists of works

L'Accordéoniste, a 1911 cubist painting by Picasso.

(For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project)



  • List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900
  • List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910
  • List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920
  • List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930
  • List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940
  • List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950
  • List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960
  • List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970
  • List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973

References

  • The Museum of Modern Art. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. Ed. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. New York. 1980. ISBN 0-87070-519-9
  • Mallen, Enrique. The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Berlin: Peter Lang. 2003.
  • Mallen, Enrique. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. 2005.
  • Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Prestel Publ. 2004. 320 p. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography)
  • Mary Ann, Caws. Introd. by Arthur C. Danto. PICASSO, PABLO. London 2005. 173 p. 30 pict (biography).

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. However, most people, both inside and outside France, are not aware of this, and assume that the stadium was called after the country France. (For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project). The name reflected this. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings). In particular, the mayor of Saint-Denis made it very clear that he wanted the new stadium to be a stadium of the northern suburbs of Paris, and not just a national stadium which happens to be located in the northern suburbs.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. It was decided to call the stadium after the Pays de France, to give it a local touch. In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million. Another example of the use of France in this meaning is the new Stade de France, which was built near Saint-Denis for the 1998 Football World Cup. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie. The name of the town literally means "Roissy in the Pays de France", and not "Roissy in the country France", as many people wrongly believe. The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. This fourth meaning is found in many place names, such as the town of Roissy-en-France, on whose territory is located Charles de Gaulle International Airport.

In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga. Pays de France is now almost entirely built up, being but the northern extension of the Paris suburbs. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. Its historic main town is Saint-Denis, where the first gothic cathedral in the world was built in the 12th century, and inside which the kings of France are buried. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. "Plain of France"). In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Pays de France is also called Plaine de France (i.e.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. Pays de France is the extremely fertile plain located immediately north of Paris which supported one of the most productive agriculture during the Middle Ages and was responsible for the tremendous wealth of the kingdom of France before the Hundred Years' War, making possible the emergence of Gothic art and architecture which spread all over western Europe. His final words were "drink to me". The province of Île-de-France is thus made up of several pays: Pays de France, Parisis, Hurepoix, French Vexin, and so on. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. French provinces are traditionally made up of several pays, which are the direct continuation of the pagi set up by the Roman administration during Antiquity. Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. In a fourth meaning, "France" refers only to the Pays de France, one of the many pays (Latin: pagi, singular pagus) of Île-de-France.

Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time. In modern French, the French language is called le français, while the old language of Île-de-France is called le francien. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". It is not until the 19th and 20th centuries that the language of Île-de-France indeed became the language of the whole country France. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. This meaning is also found in the name of the French language (langue française), whose literal meaning is "language of Île-de-France". Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. Likewise, French Vexin was the part of Vexin inside Île-de-France, as opposed to Normandy Vexin (Vexin normand) which was inside Normandy.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. French Brie, the area where the famous Brie cheese is produced, is the part of Brie that was annexed to the royal demesne, as opposed to Champagne Brie (Brie champenoise) which was annexed by Champagne. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output. This meaning is found in some geographic names, such as French Brie (Brie française) and French Vexin (Vexin français). In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. In a third meaning, "France" refers specifically to the province of Île-de-France (with Paris at its centre) which historically was the heart of the royal demesne. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago. This is the most common meaning.

The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. In a second meaning, it refers to metropolitan France only. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. In a first meaning, "France" refers to the whole French Republic. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. The name "France" (and its adjective "French") can have four different meanings which it is important to distinguish in order to avoid ambiguities. He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. In a few languages (essentially Greek and Breton), France is known as "Gaul".

The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art. In almost all the languages of the world, France is known by the word "France" or any of its derivatives. Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Nonetheless, contemporary Frenchmen could not help noticing the striking similarity between the two names, and it added to the aura surrounding de Gaulle. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. William and Guillaume). He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. It seems that "Gaulle" comes from an old Germanic word meaning "wall", where w- evolved into g- under the influence of French (cf.

He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. Note that the family name of Charles de Gaulle (with two "l") has nothing to do with the name Gaul (French: Gaule, with one "l"). In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. The adjective Gallic is sometimes used to refer to French people, especially in a derisive and critical way, such as "Gallic pride" or "Gallic hygiene". Picasso always played himself in his film appearances. In English the word Gaul is never used in a modern context. In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. The adjective gaulois is also used to describe a kind of humour located below the belt.

Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him. During the French Third Republic, the authorities often referred to notre vieille Nation gauloise ("our old Gallic Nation"), a case in which the adjective gaulois is used with a positive connotation. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. The adjective gaulois (Gallic) is still sometimes used when a Frenchman wants to stress some idiosyncrasies of the French people entrenched in history, such as notre vieux fond gaulois querelleur ("the love of quarrels of our old Gallic stock"), a phrase used when denouncing French propensity for strikes or controversies. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. Gaul is in the plural in the title, reflecting the three Gallic entities identified by the Romans (Celtica, Belgica, and Aquitania). Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. The only current use of the word is in the title of the leader of the French bishops, the archbishop of Lyon, whose official title is Primate of the Gauls (Primat des Gaules).

The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Today, in modern French, the word Gaule has completely disappeared, and is only used in a historical context. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. In fact, for as long as the cultural elites of Europe used Latin predominantly (until the 18th century), the name Gallia continued to be used alongside the name France. Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. This name continued to be used for a very long time after the Franks arrived in what is now France. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her. Before the arrival of the Franks, France was called Gaul (Latin: Gallia; French: Gaule).

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. These new coins were called francs, because they were minted to "free" the king. This came as a severe blow to Picasso. In order to raise the money to pay the ransom, a new coinage had to be minted. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. The English asked for a ransom to liberate the king, which amounted to twice the yearly income of France. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France was captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers (1356).

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. "freemason"). The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica. "free port") or franc-maçon (i.e. The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The meaning "free" was lost, except in a few set phrases, such as port franc (i.e. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death. In modern French, franc means "frank, sincere".

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Instead, the name of the currency comes from Old French franc, a word which meant "free", directly borrowed from the Germanic word frank ("free"). The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955. Contrary to what many people believe, the name of the former French currency, the franc, does not come from the name of the country. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. However, rather than the ethnic name of the Franks coming from the word frank ("free"), it is more probable that the word frank ("free") comes from the ethnic name of the Franks, the connection being that only the Franks, as the conquering class, had the status of freemen. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Another proposed etymology is that Frank means "the free men", based on the fact that the word frank meant "free" in the ancient Germanic languages.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. The name of the Franks itself is said to come from the Proto-Germanic word *frankon which means "javelin, lance". The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. In order to distinguish from the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne, France is called Frankreich, while the Frankish Empire is called Frankenreich. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. Noticeably, in German, France is still called Frankreich, which literally means "Reich (realm) of the Franks". In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. The French state has been in continuous existence since 843 (except for a brief interruption in 885-887), with an unbroken line of heads of states since the first king of Francia Occidentalis (Charles the Bald) to the current president of the French Republic (Jacques Chirac).

Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital. Since the name Francia Orientalis had disappeared, there arose the habit to refer to Francia Occidentalis as Francia only, from which the word France is derived. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. The Battle of Bouvines in 1214 definitely marked the end of the efforts by the Holy Roman Empire to reunify the old Frankish Empire by conquering France. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. The kings of Francia Occidentalis successfully opposed this claim, and managed to preserve Francia Occidentalis as an independent kingdom, distinct from the Holy Roman Empire. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. The rulers of Francia Orientalis, who soon claimed the imperial title and wanted to reunify the Frankish Empire, dropped the name Francia Orientalis and called their realm the Holy Roman Empire (see History of Germany).

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. "Eastern Frankland"). Picasso married twice and had four children by three women. "Western Frankland") and Francia Orientalis (i.e. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. At the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the Frankish Empire was divided in three parts, and eventually only two: Francia Occidentalis (i.e. Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. Originally it applied to the whole Frankish Empire, extending from southern France to eastern Germany.

His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism. The name France comes from Medieval Latin Francia, which literally means "land of the Franks, Frankland". But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. A Gallup poll established that 15% of the French population attend places of worship. After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. When questioned about their religion, 62% answered Roman Catholic, 6% Muslim, 2% Protestant, 1% Jewish, 2% "other religions" (except for Orthodox or Buddhist, which were negligible), 26% "no religion" and 1% declined to answer. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened. 33% declared that "atheist" described them rather or very well, and 51% said they were "Christian".

In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. However, in a 2003 poll 41% said that the existence of God was "excluded" or "unlikely". Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. Statistics from an unspecified source and date given in the CIA World Factbook gives the following number: Roman Catholic 83 to 88%, Muslim 5 to 10%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. The government does not maintain statistics as to the religion of its inhabitants. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Tensions occasionally erupt about alleged or real discrimination against minorities; see Islam in France.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. The dominant concept of the relationships between the public sphere and religions is that of laïcité, which implies that the government and government institutions (such as schools) should not endorse any particular religion or intervene in religious dogma, and that religions should refrain from intervening in policy-making. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him. Freedom of religion is constitutionally a right, inspired by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. Traditionally a predominantly Roman Catholic country, yet also with anticlerical leanings, France has since the 1970s been a very secular country. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. She also features on everyday articles such as postage stamps and coins.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. Recent ones are Sophie Marceau, and Laetitia Casta. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree. In recent times, famous French actresses are given the title of Marianne. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. She was represented in several different manners, depending on whether the aim was to emphasize her revolutionary nature or her "wisdom." Over time, the Phrygian cap was felt to be too seditious, and was replaced by a diadem or a crown. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them. Under the Third Republic, statues, and especially busts, of Marianne began to proliferate, particularly in town halls.

In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. Mediterranean seamen and convicts manning the galleys also wore a similar type of cap. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. It is believed that revolutionaries from the South of France adopted the Phrygian cap as it symbolised liberty, having been worn by freed slaves in both Greece and Rome. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle. Anti-revolutionaries of the time derisively called her La République. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. The origins of the name Marianne are unknown, but Marie-Anne was a very common first name in the 18th century.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. The earliest representations of Marianne are of a woman wearing a Phrygian cap. The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures. She is an allegorical figure of liberty and the Republic and first appeared at the time of the French Revolution. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica. Marianne is a symbol of the French Republic. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. The principal cities by population include:.

A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. If we add up people with mother tongue and people with some exposure to the language before the age of 5, then the five most important languages in metropolitan France are (note that the percentages add up to more than 100, because many people are now counted twice):. Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. It is important to read the notes at the Languages of France article in order to correctly interpret the numbers. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques. Here is a list of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France based on Enquête familiale. The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. The results were published in Enquête familiale, Insee, 1999.

Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year. This is the first time serious statistics were computed about the proportion of mother tongues in France. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. One of the questions was about the languages that their parents spoke with them before the age of 5. Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. At the 1999 census, INSEE sampled 380,000 adult people all across Metropolitan France, and asked them questions about their family situation. Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López. Some languages spoken by immigrants are also frequently spoken, especially in large cities: Portuguese, Maghreb Arabic, several Berber languages, several languages of Sub-Saharan Africa, Turkish, several spoken variants of Chinese (most notably Wu, Cantonese, Min Nan, and Mandarin), Vietnamese, and Khmer are the most frequently spoken.

While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg. They are now taught at some schools, though French remains the only official language in use by the government, local or national. Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". These historical regional languages have been known as patois, though this has been considered depreciative. . However, several regional languages (including Alsatian, Basque, Breton, Caribbean Creole, Catalan, Corsican, Flemish, Franco-Provençal dialects, Gascon, Lorraine German dialect, Norman, Occitan, and some Oïl dialects - e.g., Picard) are also occasionally understood and spoken, mostly by elderly people, but the French government and state school system discouraged the use of any of them until recently. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits. The sole official language of France is French.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. In the most extreme case, the population of Creuse fell by 24%. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. Over the period 1960-1999 fifteen rural départements experienced a decline in population. Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. A perennial political issue concerns rural depopulation. 30 pict (biography). France thereby replaced the United States as the world's top destination for asylum-seekers in 2004.

173 p. According to the UNHCR, the number of people seeking political asylum in France rose by around 3 % between 2003 and 2004, while in the same period, the number of asylum applications submitted in the United States fell by about 29 %. London 2005. By 2050 it is estimated that the population of the European Union (of the current 25 members) will have declined to 445 million inhabitants, of whom 17.5% will be living in France. PICASSO, PABLO. In mid-2004 the EU had 460 million inhabitants, 13.6% of whom were living in France (including overseas départements). Danto. It would be the first time since the 1860s that France is the largest Nation of Europe (Russia excluded).

by Arthur C. If these estimates become reality, it may fundamentally alter the balance of power in Brussels. Introd. Demographers now estimate that by 2050 metropolitan France's population will be 75 million, at which time it will be the most populated country of the European Union, above Germany (71 million), the United Kingdom (59 million), and Italy (43 million). Mary Ann, Caws. By 2050, demographers initially thought the population of metropolitan France would be 64 million inhabitants, but they now agree that their estimates were too conservative, being based on the 1990s growth rate of population. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography). At the moment, France is the third most populous country of Europe, behind Russia and Germany.

320 p. These unexpected results bear great consequences for the future. 2004. In 2004 the natural increase in France's population reached 256,000, but figures for other European countries are not available yet. Prestel Publ. In 2003, France's natural population growth (excluding immigration) was responsible for almost all the natural growth in European population: the population of the European Union increased by 216,000 inhabitants (without immigration), of which 211,000 was the increase in France's population alone, and 5,000 was the increase in all the other countries of the EU combined. PICASSO: The Real Family Story. France is now well ahead of all other European countries (except for the Republic of Ireland).

Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). 2004 was the year with the highest increase in French population since 1974. 2005. In 2004, population growth was 0.68%, almost reaching North American levels. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. Between 1999-2003, annual population growth was 0.58%. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. The census revealed that population growth rebounded significantly after the 1999 census, something nobody had anticipated.

Mallen, Enrique. However, first results from the 2004 French census have greatly surprised demographers. 2003. After 1974, France's population growth stalled, and reached its nadir in the 1990s with only 0.39% annual growth, being now more in tune with the rest of Europe, which has entered demographic decline. Berlin: Peter Lang. On the other hand, it experienced a much stronger growth in the second half of the 20th century than the rest of Europe or indeed its own growth in the previous centuries. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Unlike the rest of Europe, France did not experience a strong population growth in the 19th century and first half of the 20th century.

The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Starting with the 19th century, the historical evolution of the population in France has been extremely atypical in the Western World. Mallen, Enrique. Nevertheless, the immigrants from other European countries have an easier time blending in, while the 'non-European' groups tend to assimilate at a slower pace, because of greater cultural barriers and social discrimination which is, according to left-wing thought, tied to economic exploitation. ISBN 0-87070-519-9. It is currently estimated that about 40% of the French population descends in varying amounts from these different waves of migrations, making France the most ethnically diverse country of Europe, despite the still popular stereotypes of France as an essentially Gallic country. 1980. Besides these "historic" populations, new populations have migrated to France since the 19th century: Belgians, Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese, Poles, Armenians, Jews from Eastern Europe and the Maghreb, Arabs and Berbers from the Maghreb, Black Africans, and Chinese, to list only the most prominent.

New York. Four basic European ethnic stocks - Celtic (Gallic and Breton), Aquitanian (Basque related), Latin, and Germanic (Franks, Visigoths, Burgundians, Vikings) - have blended over the centuries to make up its present population. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. Since prehistoric times, France has been a crossroads of trade, migrations, and invasions. Ed.
. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. Today the two countries form what is often referred to as the "core" countries in favour of greater integration of the European Union.

The Museum of Modern Art. Since the end of the Second World War the government made efforts to integrate more and more with Germany, both economically and politically. List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer in Europe. List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970. France is also the most energy independent Western country due to heavy investment in nuclear power, which also makes France the smallest producer of carbon dioxide among the seven most industrialised countries in the world. List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960. France has an important aerospace industry led by the European consortium Airbus and is the only European power to have its own national spaceport (Centre Spatial Guyanais).

List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950. It features cities of high cultural interest (Paris being the foremost), beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity (green tourism). List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940. With over 75 million foreign tourists in 2003, France is ranked as the first tourist destination in the world, ahead of Spain (52.5 million) and the United States (40.4 million). List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930. Liberal and Keynesian economists have different answers to that issue. List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920. In their opinion, it is an issue of structural reforms, in order to increase the size of the working population in the overall population.

List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910. As many economists have stressed repeatedly over the years, the main issue with the French economy is not an issue of productivity. List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900. This phenomenon is the result of almost thirty years of massive unemployment in France, which has led to three consequences reducing the size of the working population: about 10% of the active population is without a job; students delay as long as possible their entry into labour market; and finally the French government gives various incentives to workers to retire in their early 50s, though these are now receding. Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art. In 2003, 41.5% of the French population was working, compared to 50.7% in the US, and 47.3% in the UK. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other. In fact, France has one of the lowest percentage of its population at work among the OECD countries.

Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. The reason for this is because a much smaller percentage of the French population is working compared to the US, which sinks the GDP per capita of France, despite its higher productivity. African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work. Despite a higher productivity per hour worked than in the US, France's GDP per capita is significantly lower than the US GDP per capita, being in fact comparable to the GDP per capita of the other European countries, which is on average 30% below US level. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting. [6]. Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. [5] In 2004, the GDP per hour worked in France was 47.7 USD, ranking France above the United States (46.3 USD per hour worked), Germany (42.1 USD per hour worked), the United Kingdom (39.6 USD per hour worked), or Japan (32.5 USD per hour worked).

Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists. In the 2005 edition of OECD in Figures, the OECD also noted that France leads the G7 countries in terms of productivity (measured as GDP per hour worked). At the same time, French companies invested 57.3 billion USD outside of France, ranking France as the second most important outward direct investor in the OECD, behind the United States (173.8 billion USD of outward FDI), but ahead of the United Kingdom (55.3 billion USD of outward FDI), Japan (28.8 billion USD of outward FDI), or Germany (2.6 billion USD of outward FDI). With 47 billion USD of foreign direct investments, France ranked above the United States (39.9 billion USD of FDI received), the United Kingdom (14.6 billion USD of FDI received), Germany (12.9 billion USD of FDI received), or Japan (6.3 billion USD of FDI received). Yet according to the OECD, in 2003 France was the OECD country that received the most foreign direct investment (Luxembourg excepted, where foreign direct investment was mostly monetary transfers to banks located in that country).

It was also the fourth-largest importer of manufactured goods (behind the United States, Germany, and China, but ahead of the United Kingdom and Japan). According to the OECD, in 2004 France was the world's fifth-largest exporter of manufactured goods, behind the United States, Germany, Japan, and China, (but ahead of the United Kingdom). France joined 10 other EU members to launch the Euro on January 1, 1999, with euro coins and banknotes completely replacing the French franc in early 2002. A member of the G8 group of leading industrialised countries, it ranked as the fifth-largest economy in the world in 2004, behind the United States, Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

The government is slowly selling off holdings in France Télécom, Air France, as well as the insurance, banking, and defence industries. It has been gradually relaxing its control over these sectors since the early 1990s. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, and telecommunication firms. France's economy combines extensive private enterprise (nearly 2.5 million companies registered) with substantial (though declining) government intervention (see dirigisme).

See Islands controlled by France in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. France also maintains control over a number of small uninhabited islands in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Tromelin Island. The departmental and overseas collectivities have an intermediate status between overseas départements and overseas territories. In contrast, the overseas "départements" used the French franc and now use the euro.

The Pacific territories continue to use the Pacific Franc whose value is linked to that of the Euro. Overseas territories and countries form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the EU or its fiscal area. The French Republic is further made up of a number of overseas territories, overseas countries, departmental collectivities and overseas collectivities. Four of the départements are overseas départements which are an integral part of France (and the EU) and thus enjoy a status similar to metropolitan départments.

Historically, the cantons were also territorial collectivities with elected assemblies. Until 1940, the arrondissements were also territorial collectivities with elected assemblies (arrondissement council), but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and abolished by the Fourth Republic in 1946. The régions, départements, and communes are known as territorial collectivities (collectivités territoriales), and possess local assemblies and executives. The departments are subdivided into 342 arrondissements and 4,035 cantons which serve only administrative and electoral purposes, and 36,682 communes as the lowest tier.

The departments are numbered (mainly alphabetically) and this number is used in postal codes and vehicle number plates. The régions are subdivided into 100 départements. France has 26 administrative régions: 21 metropolitan régions, the territorial collectivity of Corse (Corsica) (commonly referred to as a région), and four overseas régions.
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About 10% of France's defence budget goes toward its force de frappe, or nuclear weapons.
. In most other EU countries, defence spending is less than 1.5% of GDP. Those two countries account for 40% of EU defence spending. Among the larger European economies, France and the United Kingdom are the only significant spenders on defence: France with 2.6% of GDP, and the UK at 2.4%, according to 2003 figures from NATO.

The French armed forces are divided into four branches:. France hosts the headquarters of the OECD, UNESCO, Interpol, and the International Bureau for Weights and Measures in charge of the international metric system. France is also a member of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), the Indian Ocean Commission (COI), an associate member of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) and a leading member of the International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of fifty-one fully or partly French-speaking countries. The outcome of the vote was widely regarded as crucial for the future development of the EU, as well as for France's ability to retain leadership in Europe.

On May 29, 2005 the French electorate voted in the referendum with about 55% against ratification of the proposed Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union. Lately its share of the votes has remained stable at approximately 16%. The right-wing Front National party made significant inroads in the early 1980's, seized on voter concern about the perceived decline of France and 'national dissolution' as a result of immigration and globalisation, by advocating tougher law-and-order and immigration policies.

For the past thirty years, French politics has been characterised by the two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing, centred around the French Socialist Party, and the other right-wing, centred around the Rassemblement pour la République (RPR) and its successor the Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP). The government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament. Senators are chosen by electoral college for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms), and one half of the seats are submited to election every 3 years starting in September 2008.[4] The Senate's legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the National assembly has the final say, except for constitutional laws (amendments to the constitution & "lois organiques"). The Assembly has the power to dismiss the cabinet, and thus the majority in the Assembly determines the choice of government.

The National Assembly deputies represent local constituencies and are directly elected for 5-year terms. The French parliament is a bicameral legislature comprising a National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and a Senate. The president names the prime minister, presides over the cabinet, commands the armed forces, and concludes treaties. Presidential arbitration assures regular functioning of the public powers and the continuity of the state.

Under the constitution, the President of the French Republic is elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 5-year (originally 7-year) term. It greatly strengthened the authority of the executive in relation to Parliament. The constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on September 28, 1958. However the French electorate voted against ratification of the European Constitutional Treaty in May 2005.

France has been at the forefront of European states seeking to exploit the momentum of monetary union to create a more unified and capable European political, defence and security apparatus. In recent decades, France's reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the political and economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of the Euro in January 1999. The Fourth Republic was established after World War II, to be replaced in 1958 by the current semi-presidential Fifth Republic established under General Charles de Gaulle. France's ultimate victory in World War I and World War II after initially being invaded and partly occupied by German forces did not prevent the loss of the empire, the comparative economic status, population and status as a dominant nation state.

Louis-Napoléon was unseated following the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 to be replaced by the Third Republic. The short-lived Second Republic ended in 1852 when Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte proclaimed the Second French Empire. In 1830, a civil uprising established the constitutional July Monarchy followed by the Second Republic in 1848. Following Napoleon's defeat in 1815, the French monarchy was re-established.

In the course of several wars, his armies conquered many countries, with members of the Bonaparte family being appointed as monarchs of newly established kingdoms. Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in 1799, making himself First Consul, and later Emperor of what is now known as the First French Empire (1804-1814). The monarchy ruled France until 1792, when the French Revolution established the First Republic. At this time France had a tremendous influence over the European politics, economy and culture as well as possessing the largest population in Europe (see Demographics of France).

The monarchy reached its height during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. His descendants, the Capetian, Valois and Bourbon dynasties progressively unified the country through a series of wars and dynastic inheritance. Charlemagne's descendants ruled France until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned King of France. The western part approximated to much of modern France.

Existence as a separate entity began in 843, with the division of Charlemagne's Carolingian empire into eastern, central and western parts. The modern name "France" derives from the name of the feudal domain of the Capetian Kings of France around Paris. In the fourth century CE, Gaul's eastern frontier along the Rhine was overrun by Germanic tribes, principally the Franks, from whom the ancient name of "Francie" was derived. Christianity also took root in the second and third centuries CE.

Gaul was conquered by the Romans in the first century BCE, and the Gauls eventually adopted Roman speech and culture. The borders of modern France are roughly the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls. Due to its overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second-largest Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the world, covering 11,035,000 km² (4,260,000 mi²), just behind the EEZ of the United States (11,351,000 km² / 4,383,000 mi²), but ahead of the EEZ of Australia (8,232,000 km² / 3,178,000 mi²).[3] The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area on Earth. France also has extensive river systems such as the Loire, the Rhône, the Garonne and the Seine.

There are several other elevated regions such as the Massif Central, the Jura, the Vosges, and the Ardennes which are quite rocky and forested. The French Alps contain the highest point in western Europe, Mont Blanc at 4810 m. Metropolitan France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges in the south-east (the Alps) and the south-west (the Pyrenees). These territories have varying forms of government ranging from overseas département to "overseas country".

While the main territory of France (metropolitan France; French: la Métropole, or France métropolitaine) is located in Western Europe, France is also constituted from a number of territories in North America, the Caribbean, South America, the southern Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and Antarctica (sovereignty claims in Antarctica are governed by the Antarctic Treaty System). . More precisely, the region around Paris, called Île-de-France, was the original French royal demesne. The name France originates from the Franks, a Germanic tribe that occupied the region after the fall of the Roman Empire.

It is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council wielding veto power, and it is also one of only eight acknowledged nuclear powers. France is also a founding member of the United Nations. France is one of the founding members of the European Union, and has the largest land area of all members. It is a highly developed country with the fifth-largest economy in the world in 2004.[2] Its main ideals are expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

The French Republic is a democracy organised as a unitary semi-presidential republic. France is also linked to the United Kingdom via the Channel Tunnel, which passes underneath the English Channel. In some of its overseas parts, France also shares land borders with Brazil, Suriname, and the Netherlands Antilles. France is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra, and Spain.

French people often refer to Metropolitan France as l'Hexagone (the "Hexagon") because of its geographical shape. [1] Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and North Sea, and from the Rhine River to the Atlantic Ocean. France (pronounced /fʀɑ̃s/ in French), officially the French Republic (French: République française, pronounced /ʀepyblik fʀɑ̃sɛz/), is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in Western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. France also uses .eu, shared with other members of the European Union..

or 247 acres) as well as the estuaries of rivers
6 Whole of the French Republic except the overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean
7 French overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean only
8 In addition to .fr, several other Internet TLDs are used in French overseas départements and territories: .re, .mq, .gp, .tf, .nc, .pf, .wf, .pm, and .yt. mi. European) France only
4 French National Geographic Institute data
5 French Land Register data, which exclude lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km² (0.386 sq. 1 See Languages section for regional languages
2 Whole territory of the French Republic, including all the overseas departments and territories, but excluding the French territory of Terre Adélie in Antarctica where sovereignty is suspended since the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959
3 Metropolitan (i.e.

URL accessed on January 29, 2006. Page is in French without apparent English version available. ^  Symboles de la République et 14 juillet. URL accessed on August 31, 2005. Page is in French without apparent English version available. ^  Sénat - Statut des Sénateurs.

^  According to a different calculation cited by the Pew Research Center, the EEZ of France would be 10,084,201 km² (3,893,532 mi²), still behind the United States (12,174,629 km² / 4,700,651 mi²), and still ahead of Australia (8,980,568 km² / 3,467,416 mi²) and Russia (7,566,673 km² / 2,921,508 mi²). ^  Rank by nominal GDP: 5 (2004); Rank by GDP per capita: 16 (2005); Rank by GDP at purchasing power parity per capita: 21 (2005). ^  For more information, see Category:French overseas departments, territories and collectivities. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2005 - 18th of 159 countries.

Reporters Without Borders world-wide press freedom index 2005: Rank 30 out of 167 countries. Human Development Index, 2004: 16th (out of 177). Total value of foreign trade (imports and exports), 2002: 4th (out of 185). Total GDP, 2004: 5th (out of 184) (World Bank data).

Other very popular and well-known tourist sites include: Louvre Museum, Eiffel Tower, Palace of Versailles, Disneyland Resort Paris, Centre Pompidou, the châteaux of the Loire Valley, the ski resorts of the French Alps, Tahiti and the lagoons of French Polynesia, etc. The Mont-Saint-Michel is the most visited tourist site in France. Paris is also home to numerous historical buildings and monuments. The capital and most populous city, Paris, is considered by many to be one of the most famous and beautiful cities in the world.

They vowed to remain faithful to "the Nation, the Law, the King". On the occasion of the Fête de la Fédération, celebrated exactly one year after the storming of the Bastille, all the representatives of the provinces of France gathered on the Champ de Mars in Paris in presence of the king Louis XVI and proclaimed the national unity of France. The national holiday of France since 1880 is the Fête Nationale (National Holiday), colloquially known as le 14 juillet, celebrating the Fête de la Fédération (July 14, 1790) and not the storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789) as is often mistakenly believed, even by a majority of French people, and is the reason why the holiday is referred to as Bastille Day in English. Although commonly associated with the French Revolution and suggested by Robespierre in December, 1790, France's motto, "Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité" was not adopted until the Revolutions of 1848 in France.[7].

The French state has been in continuous existence since 843, among the oldest states in existence in the world. The Treaty of Verdun in 843, which divided the Frankish Empire and created the kingdom of Francia Occidentalis (“Western Frankland”), from which France is descended, represents only the legal founding of the state. The foundation of France as a kingdom is dated 496 (baptism of Clovis I) since this event funds put together three essential features of the country: the definition of a territorial limit (however much smaller than the current one), the definition of a power rule (succession from a king to his first son) and the definition of a social system (3 categories of people: warriors, priest and workers). Description of the flag: three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red (the ratio being 30:33:37) became the flag during the French Revolution and made popular by Marquis de Lafayette; known as the drapeau tricolore (Tricolour Flag).

Holidays in France. Music of France. Cinema of France. Cuisine of France.

List of French people. French art. French literature. Académie française.

Education in France. Arabic: 1,170,000 (2.55%). Oïl languages: 1,420,000 (3.10%). German and German dialects: 1,440,000 (3.15%).

Oc languages: 1,670,000 (3.65%). French: 42,100,000 (92%). Since the Algerian War of Independence, conscription has been steadily reduced and was abolished by the government of Jacques Chirac in 1996. Military age is 17.

Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie Nationale), a military police force which serves for the most part as a rural and general purpose police force. Air Force (Armée de l'Air). Navy (Marine Nationale). Army (Armée de Terre).

08-31-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.