Pablo Picasso

Young Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

Periods

Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg

  • Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.
  • Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting.
  • African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work.
  • Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.
  • Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art.

Early life

An 1896 self-portrait by Picasso.

Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year.

Picasso's first painting at age 8, Picador (1889).

The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques.

Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica.

The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures.

Pacifism

Picasso's Guernica was a reaction to the bombing of Guernica in the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle.

As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.

After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism.

Personal life

Picasso's friend Gertrude Stein, who had more than 80 sittings for this 1906 portrait.

Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital.

Marie-Thérèse Walter painted in Nu couché aux fleurs (1932)

In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.

From left to right, Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, Henri-Pierre Roché (in uniform), Marie Vassilieff, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso (1915).

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. This came as a severe blow to Picasso.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her.

Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him.

In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances.

Later works

Las Meninas (1957) based on the Las Meninas by Velazquez.

In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.

Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art.

Picasso sculpture in Chicago, Illinois

He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago.

In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time.

Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. His final words were "drink to me".

Legacy

Garçon à la pipe, which sold for $104 million in 2004.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.

The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie.

In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings).

Lists of works

L'Accordéoniste, a 1911 cubist painting by Picasso.

(For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project)



  • List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900
  • List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910
  • List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920
  • List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930
  • List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940
  • List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950
  • List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960
  • List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970
  • List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973

References

  • The Museum of Modern Art. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. Ed. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. New York. 1980. ISBN 0-87070-519-9
  • Mallen, Enrique. The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Berlin: Peter Lang. 2003.
  • Mallen, Enrique. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. 2005.
  • Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Prestel Publ. 2004. 320 p. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography)
  • Mary Ann, Caws. Introd. by Arthur C. Danto. PICASSO, PABLO. London 2005. 173 p. 30 pict (biography).

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. Other titles:.
. Garfield was also transported into video games, the first being a never-released Atari 2600 prototype, in 1983, and there was also an NES game of Garfield made in Japan in 1989. (For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project). Several early-reader adventure novels featuring Garfield were published in the late 1990's:. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings). Additionally, adaptations of Garfield television specials have been published in comic format:.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. Newer versions of the books will be released in paperback only, and in full color for every cartoon, not just the Sunday strips. In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million. They are currently being reprinted in a larger format, showing the Sunday strips to be formatted in a size as they usually are, instead of shrunken-down to meet the book size. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie. These books introduced the "Garfield format" in publishing, whereby the books are horizontally oriented to match comic strip dimensions. The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. The titles of these books were styled as double entendres alluding to Garfield's weight or his habits.

In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga. These books were originally printed in black and white, but recent ones have been in color, each book covers approximately six months of comics, including the larger weekend comics (in black and white in all except the recent editions). These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. These books, generally released twice a year, contain reprints of the comic as it appears in newspapers daily. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. It can tint memories of the past, shade perceptions of the present, or paint a future so vivid that it can entice...or terrify, all depending on how we conduct ourselves today.". In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. This is revealed to have been a dream of some kind, and ends with this narration: "An imagination is a powerful tool.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. It depicts Garfield awakening in a future in which the house is abandoned and he no longer exists. His final words were "drink to me". One storyline, which lasted a week from October the 23rd, 1989 (possibly to coincide with Halloween, although the 31st actually fell the following week), is unique in that it is not humorous. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. Jokes are introduced seasonally, with snow-related gags common in January or February and beach or heat themed jokes in the summer. Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Occasionally the strip celebrates Halloween as well with scary-themed jokes.

Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time. Every week before June 19th, the strip focuses on his birthday, which Garfield dreads. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Most of December is spent preparing for Christmas, with a predictable focus on presents. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. Another particular theme is the "National Fat Week", where Garfield spends the week making fun of skinny people. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. Some more unique themes are things like "Garfield's Believe It or Don't", "Garfield's Law", "Garfield's History", which show the world, history, and science from Garfield's point-of-view.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Garfield's often engages in week-long interactions with a minor character, event, or thing, such as Nermal, Arlene, the mailman, an alarm clock, a scale, the TV, Pooky, spiders, mice, coffee, hamburgers, balls of yarn, rubber chickens, dieting, shedding, pie throwing, fishing, Mondays, Clive, lasagna, the "Caped Avenger", sweaters, colds, etc. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output. Occasionally, Garfield ventures elsewhere and when goes somewhere else, he usually spends a week or two in that area. In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. Usually, the standard setting is Garfield standing on a table or floor, always flat. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago. Major characters in Garfield include:.

The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. [4]. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. [2] Chris Sullentrop of Slate accuses Davis of creating Garfield merely for the merchandising [3] while internet humorist "Maddox" charges Davis with "traumatizing millions with his bland humor week after tragic week". He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. Watterson, when asked for his opinion of fellow cartoonists, including Jim Davis, once tactfully described Garfield as "consistent". He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. Garfield's inoffensive, merchandising-oriented approach has been widely criticized by many commentators including Calvin and Hobbes creator Bill Watterson, whose views against merchandising were explained at great detail in The Calvin and Hobbes Tenth Anniversary Book.

The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art. While this is not unique to Garfield, as Calvin in Calvin and Hobbes and the children of Peanuts never age, other strips such as For Better or For Worse, Cathy, and Doonesbury maintain a continuity with characters who develop, age, and may even die as the strip proceeds. Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The characters and situations are constant, with no change or development for the past several years. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. Jim Davis consciously disavowed social commentary in an interview published at the beginning of one of the book compilations, joking that he once believed that OPEC was a denture adhesive. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. Although a couple of strips in 1978 addressed inflation and, arguably, organized labor, as well as Jon frequently smoking a pipe or subscribing to a "bachelor magazine", these elements were ultimately pruned from the product with the intent of maintaining a more universal appeal.

He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. The strip is deliberately written to be inoffensive, typically avoiding the social or political commentary present in some of Garfield's contemporaries, such as Boondocks, Doonesbury, Dilbert, and Cathy. In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. Davis spends most of his time managing the business and merchandising aspects of Garfield. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances. Jim Davis's company, Paws Inc., employs cartoonists and writers who do most of the work of scripting, drawing, and inking the strip, while Davis's work is usually confined to approving and signing the finished strip. In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Like many comic strips, Garfield is not exclusively drawn and written by its creator.

Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him. For his work on the strip, creator Jim Davis received the National Cartoonist Society Humor Strip Award for 1981 and 1985, and their Reuben Award for 1989. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Prior to Murray being cast, it was widely reported that actor John Goodman had been picked to provide Garfield's voice for the film. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. Murray became the fourth actor to provide a voice for the Garfield: Tommy Smothers voiced the role in a cat food commercial, and an unnamed Music soundalike was used in another TV spot. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Murray's laid-back, deadpan delivery has often been compared to Music's; indeed, Music provided the voice of Murray's Peter Venkman character in the cartoon version of Ghostbusters.

The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Lorenzo Music had passed away prior to the filming of the movie, and Bill Murray was cast as the voice of Garfield. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The film employed a computer-animated Garfield and live-action Odie. Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. A live-action movie version of the comic strip, Garfield: The Movie had its debut in the United States on June 11, 2004. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her. On June 7, 1999, newspapers began to be offered full-color Garfield weekday strips.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. Twelve television specials were made (through 1991) as well as a television series, Garfield and Friends, which ran from 1988 to 1995. This came as a severe blow to Picasso. Soul singer Lou Rawls provided musical accompaniment. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. Actor Lorenzo Music, previously known as the voice of Carlton the doorman on the show Rhoda, was hired to portray the voice of Garfield. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. The comic strip was turned into a cartoon special for television in 1982 called Here Comes Garfield.

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. Davis is no longer the sole, or even principal, artist. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica. A number of the strip's readers feel that the quality of the writing has lessened, even as the artwork retained a consistent level of quality. The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. By this time, Garfield was walking on two feet, and the strip emphasized sitcom situations such as Garfield making fun of Jon's stupidity and Jon's inability to make social connections. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death. By 1983, his familiar appearance—featuring oval-shaped eyes—had taken shape.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Later, his appearance was slimmed down and his eyes enlarged. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955. Initially, he was drawn grossly obese with flabby jowls and small round eyes. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. Over the course of the strip, Garfield's behavior and appearance evolved. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Garfield apparently is able to type and a few times has written messages that Jon has read and understood (typically letters to Santa Claus), however this happens very rarely.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. Most of the other animals (Arlene, Nermal, mice, and the other dogs) are capable of a two-way conversation with Garfield. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Odie understands what Garfield says to him, but in general can not communicate back to Garfield except by barking. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. However, Garfield is able to talk to Odie and the other animals. In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Garfield is able to understand anything that Jon or other humans say, but is unable to talk to humans (he communicates to the reader in thought balloons).

Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital. Garfield also struggles with human problems, such as diets, loathing of Mondays, apathy, boredom, and so on. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. The strip pokes fun at pet owners and their relationship with their pets often portraying the pet as the true master of the home. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Garfield had its debut on June 19, 1978, which is also considered Garfield's birthday. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. .

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. president James Garfield. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women. The main character is named after Davis' grandfather, James Garfield Davis, who was named after former U.S. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. The popularity of the strip has led to a children's cartoon show, several television specials and a feature-length film, as well as a large amount of Garfield-related merchandise. Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. As of 2006, it is syndicated in roughly 2,570 newspapers and journals and it currently holds the Guinness World Record for being the world's most widely syndicated comic strip [1].

His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism. Garfield is a comic strip created by Jim Davis featuring the cat Garfield, the pet dog Odie, and their socially inept owner Jon Arbuckle. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. Garfield 2 (2006) — same cast. After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. Garfield: The Movie (2004) — Breckin Meyer, Jennifer Love Hewitt, and Bill Murray as the voice of Garfield. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened. Garfield Bound for Home (2006) for Nintendo DS.

In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. Garfield a tale of two kitties (2006) for Nintendo DS. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. Garfield his nine lives (2006) for GBA. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Garfield: The Search for Pooky (2005) for GBA. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Garfield's Mad About Cats (2005), for PC.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. Garfield (2004), for PC and PS2. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him. Garfield: Caught in the Act (1995), for Genesis , Game Gear and PC. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. Garfield no Isshukan (1989) for the NES. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. Garfield: A Winter's Tail (1989) for Atari ST (Will not work on Atari STe computers), Amiga, ZX Spectrum and Commodore 64.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. Garfield: A Big Fat Hairy Deal (1987) for ZX Spectrum and Commodore 64. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree. Create With Garfield [5] (1985) for Apple II and Commodore 64. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. Garfield and the Wicked Wizard (1999). While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them. Garfield and the Teacher Creature (1998).

In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. Garfield and the Mysterious Mummy (1998). As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. Garfield and the Beast in the Basement (1998). Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle. Garfield Travel Adventures (2005) collects three previous books:. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. A Garfield Christmas (1987).

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Garfield and the Santa Spy. The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures. Garfield's Big Book of Excellent Excuses (2000). His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica. Give Me Coffee and No One Gets Hurt (discontinued). During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. Garfield Crazy about Numbers (sticker book).

A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. Garfield book of Cat Names (1988). Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. Garfield's Guide to Everything (2004). There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques. Garfield and the Truth About Cats (1991). The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. Garfield: His 9 Lives (1984) - graphic novel, later made into a TV special.

Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year. The format is slightly different, as the strips are presented in a vertical style. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. In the UK, over 60 Garfield books, mainly 'Pocket Books' or paperbacks, have been published by Ravette. Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Garfield Pigs Out: His 42nd Book 2006. Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López. Garfield Older and Wider: His 41st Book 2005.

While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg. Garfield Survival of the Fattest: His 40th Book 2004. Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". Garfield Eats Crow: His 39th Book 2003. . Garfield Gets Cookin': His 38th Book 2001. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits. Garfield Beefs Up: His 37th Book 2000.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. Garfield Hogs the Spotlight: His 36th Book 2000. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. Garfield Feeds the Kitty: His 35th Book 1999. Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. Garfield Life to the Fullest: His 34th Book 1999. 30 pict (biography). Garfield Throws His Weight Around: His 33rd Book 1998.

173 p. Garfield Thinks Big: His 32nd Book 1997. London 2005. Garfield Hams it Up: His 31st Book 1997. PICASSO, PABLO. Garfield Bigger and Better: His 30th Book 1996. Danto. Garfield Tons of Fun: His 29th Book 1996.

by Arthur C. Garfield Life in the Fat Lane: His 28th Book 1995. Introd. Garfield Dishes it Out: His 27th Book 1995. Mary Ann, Caws. Garfield Pulls his Weight: His 26th Book 1994. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography). Garfield Hits the Big Time: His 25th Book 1993.

320 p. Garfield Takes His Licks: His 24th Book 1993. 2004. Garfield Keeps His Chins Up: His 23rd Book 1992. Prestel Publ. Garfield By the Pound: His 22nd Book 1992. PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Garfield Says a Mouthful: His 21st Book 1991.

Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). Garfield Takes Up Space: His 20th Book 1991. 2005. Garfield Hangs Out: His 19th Book 1990. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. Garfield Goes to Waist: His 18th Book 1990. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Garfield Chews the Fat: His 17th Book 1989.

Mallen, Enrique. Garfield Rounds Out: His 16th Book 1988. 2003. Garfield World Wide: His 15th Book 1988. Berlin: Peter Lang. Garfield Swallows His Pride: His 14th Book 1987. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Garfield Food for Thought: His 13th Book 1987.

The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Garfield Out to Lunch: His 12th Book 1986. Mallen, Enrique. Garfield Rolls On: His 11th Book 1985. ISBN 0-87070-519-9. Garfield Makes it Big: His 10th Book 1985. 1980. Garfield Loses His Feet: His Ninth Book 1984.

New York. Garfield Tips the Scales: His Eighth Book 1984. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. Garfield Sits Around the House: His Seventh Book 1983. Ed. Garfield Eats His Heart Out: His Sixth Book 1983. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. Garfield Takes the Cake: His Fifth Book 1982.

The Museum of Modern Art. Garfield Weighs In: His Fourth Book 1982. List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973. Garfield Bigger than Life: His Third Book 1981. List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970. Garfield Gains Weight: His Second Book 1981. List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960. Garfield At Large: His First Book 1980.

List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950. Here Comes Garfield (animated special) 1982. List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940. Garfield on the Town (animated special) 1983. List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930. Garfield in the Rough (animated special) 1984. List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920. Garfield's Halloween Adventure (animated special) 1985.

List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910. Garfield in Paradise (animated special) 1986. List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900. A Garfield Christmas (animated special) 1987. Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art. Garfield Goes Hollywood (animated special) 1987. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other. Garfield: His 9 Lives (animated special) 1988.

Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Garfield's Babes and Bullets (animated special) 1989. African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work. Garfield's Thanksgiving (animated special) 1989. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting. Garfield's Feline Fantasies (animated special) 1990. Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. Garfield Gets a Life (animated special) 1991.

Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists. Garfield and Friends (Animated cartoon series, 1988–1995). His Fantasy Books: Garfield and friends appear in a series of fantasy books called Garfield's Pet Force where Garfield, Nermal, Arlene, Odie and Pooky were given super powers in an alternate dimension. The concept was created after an idea trade with Scott Adams in 1990, which involved what type of object could hold the thing other than sticky items. His suction-cupped kitties: "Stuck on You" phenomenon across America and takes several years for production met the demand.

His album: Am I Cool or What?. This is paralleled in the used refrigerator store and used Christmas tree lot which appear later. Jon always gets conned by the overly clever and sneaky salesman, while Garfield knows it all along. The used car lot is an entertaining scene that parodies the business.

This results in comical displays of stupidity by Jon and his family, and their interactions. Jon periodically visits his parents and brother on the farm. Sometimes Jon joins him. The window is a setting showing Garfield looking from inside the house, making comments on events going on outside.

The food is terrible, and is the center of most of the jokes, along with the poor management. Irma is a chirpy, but slow-witted and unattractive waitress/manager, and one of Jon's few friends. Irma's diner was visited often early on, but not as much as the series progressed. This theme will often show up in the summer.

Garfield hates the beach simply because it has no TV, and is too hot. The Beach is frequented by Garfield and company, and is another site at which Jon fails at finding girls. They also introduce new scenarios, which are usually rare in this strip. These are funny because they portray Jon's inability to get along with people normally.

Early in the series, Garfield had to sneak along in the suitcase, but at some point Jon gave up and took him along as an equal. Vacations are taken by Jon and his pets every so often, usually to exotic places. Jon tries to meet girls in the park, but always fails miserably and humorously. Sometimes Jon takes Garfield to the park.

At the end of one date, Jon got a kiss, currently his only on-screen kiss in the comic. In this setting, Jon always tries to get a date with Liz, the vet, and usually fails badly, his failures causing Garfield to snicker. Occasionally, Garfield will be taken to the vet's office, a place he loathes. One time, Jon got stuck up the tree trying to rescue him.

A firefighter usually has to save him on the last day of the week. Garfield knows not to climb, but ironically can never overcome the urge. Up the tree is another area where Garfield often traps himself. He does sometimes get applause from his audience, though one time the audience consisted solely of his mother.

Garfield, however, loves the attention he receives, and once complained that he thought a joke deserved more than a single shoe. Garfield is frequently the target of disgusted fans, who throw shoes, rotten vegetables, and houseplants at him and once burned down his fence with burning arrows (Garfield's temporary replacement, a plastic flamingo, just "didn't feel the same"). Odie joins the act from time to time, once as a ventriloquist's dummy, and once as "Mr Skins", who accompanied Garfield on the drums. The Fence in the Alley is an area where Garfield often tells bad jokes or caterwauls, in a homage to vaudeville.

After this, Jon bought Venetian blinds (which Garfield, somehow, still manages to get stuck in). This was one of the few storylines in which a Sunday strip was part of the regular story arc. This culminated in a two-week storyline in which Garfield, Odie, Jon, two complete strangers, and even a street lamp (Odie had to go) all got trapped in the blinds. Early in the series, Garfield would spend time on the window ledge and always get trapped in the roll-up blinds.

He finds it a lot easier to capture flowers though, and often eats them. Garfield tries to capture birds in the bird fountain, often unsuccessfully (However, unlike Tom in Tom and Jerry, Garfield does occassionally kill and consume his prey). "Beware of Dog" signs are abound, and Garfield often tries to torment the chained-up dogs as some kind of revenge. Outside, Garfield has confrontations with various characters, such as dogs (more vicious than Odie), birds, worms, and even conscious flowers.

Many of the shows mentioned are absurd and stupid, and give Jim Davis an opportunity to comment on pop-culture. The TV Chair is one of Garfield's favorite places, where he entertains himself with shows such as Binky the Clown and others.

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