Pablo Picasso

Young Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

Periods

Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg

  • Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.
  • Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting.
  • African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work.
  • Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.
  • Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art.

Early life

An 1896 self-portrait by Picasso.

Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year.

Picasso's first painting at age 8, Picador (1889).

The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques.

Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica.

The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures.

Pacifism

Picasso's Guernica was a reaction to the bombing of Guernica in the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle.

As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.

After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism.

Personal life

Picasso's friend Gertrude Stein, who had more than 80 sittings for this 1906 portrait.

Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital.

Marie-Thérèse Walter painted in Nu couché aux fleurs (1932)

In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.

From left to right, Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, Henri-Pierre Roché (in uniform), Marie Vassilieff, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso (1915).

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. This came as a severe blow to Picasso.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her.

Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him.

In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances.

Later works

Las Meninas (1957) based on the Las Meninas by Velazquez.

In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.

Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art.

Picasso sculpture in Chicago, Illinois

He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago.

In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time.

Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. His final words were "drink to me".

Legacy

Garçon à la pipe, which sold for $104 million in 2004.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.

The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie.

In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings).

Lists of works

L'Accordéoniste, a 1911 cubist painting by Picasso.

(For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project)



  • List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900
  • List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910
  • List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920
  • List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930
  • List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940
  • List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950
  • List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960
  • List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970
  • List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973

References

  • The Museum of Modern Art. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. Ed. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. New York. 1980. ISBN 0-87070-519-9
  • Mallen, Enrique. The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Berlin: Peter Lang. 2003.
  • Mallen, Enrique. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. 2005.
  • Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Prestel Publ. 2004. 320 p. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography)
  • Mary Ann, Caws. Introd. by Arthur C. Danto. PICASSO, PABLO. London 2005. 173 p. 30 pict (biography).

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. In a referendum on July 6, 2003, a narrow majority of Corsican voters opposed a project from the government of Jean-Pierre Raffarin and Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy that would have suppressed the two départements of the island and granted greater autonomy to the territorial collectivity of Corsica.
. However, the plans for increased autonomy were opposed by the Gaullist opposition in the French National Assembly, who feared that they would lead to calls for autonomy from other régions (such as Brittany or Alsace), eventually threatening France's unity as a country. (For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project). According to the UNESCO classification, the Corsican language is currently in danger of becoming extinct. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings). The proposed autonomy for Corsica would have included greater protection for the Corsican language (Corsu), the island's traditional language (which is also considered to be a dialect of Italian), whose practice and teaching, like other regional or minority languages in France, had in the past been discouraged.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. In 2000, Prime Minister Lionel Jospin agreed to grant increased autonomy to Corsica in exchange for an end to violence. In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million. It is sometimes suggested that such behavior could be directly related to longstanding cultural traditions of banditry in the rugged interior of the island. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie. Prosecutions are made difficult by a pervasive "law of silence". The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. Journalists writing articles critical of the armed groups have sometimes been threatened.

In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga. Non-Corsican homeowners may be threatened with the destruction of their home, able to be avoided only through paying a ransom. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. Some of the independence groups are known to practice extortion and other intimidatory tactics, not dissimilar from mafia activity in Sicily and southern Italy. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. Recent attacks on Muslims have reinforced this opinion. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. However, events such as the murder of préfet Claude Érignac on February 6, 1998 (for which Yvan Colonna was arrested five years later) have only served to convince many in Corsica, as well as in the French government and the general French public, that Corsican nationalists cannot be trusted with more autonomy.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. The peaceful occupation of a pied-noir vineyard in Aléria in 1975 marked a turning point when the French government responded with overwhelming force, generating sympathy for the independence groups among the Corsican population. His final words were "drink to me". Some groups who claim to support Corsican independence have carried out a violent campaign since the 1970s that includes bombings and a few assassination attempts, usually targeting pieds-noirs and other non-Corsicans, or buildings and officials representing the French government. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. There is support on the island for proposals of greater autonomy, but polls show that a large majority of Corsican are opposed to full independence. Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. The French government is opposed to full independence, as it would threaten France's unity, but has at times shown support for some level of autonomy.

Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time. Generally speaking, autonomist proposals focus on the promotion of the Corsican language, more power for local governments, and some exemptions from national taxes in addition to those already applying to Corsica. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". There are several movements on the island calling for some degree of Corsican autonomy from France, or even full independence. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. Corsica is currently governed almost as any other région of France, as explained in the introduction. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. Tourism is particularly concentrated in the area around Porto Vecchio and Bonifacio in the south of the island and Calvi in the northwest.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. However, the island has not had the same level of intensive development as other parts of the Mediterranean and is thus relatively unspoiled. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output. The island's pleasant climate, beautiful mountains and breathtaking coastlines make it a popular destination among the French and other Western Europeans. In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. Tourism plays a major role in the Corsican economy. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago. A local referendum held in 2003, aimed at disbanding the départements and leaving only the territorial collectivity with extended powers, was voted down by a narrow margin.

The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. Recent attempts to gain greater autonomy for the territorial collectivity of Corsica have failed. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. These two départements were created on September 15, 1975 by splitting the hitherto united département of Corse. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. The territorial collectivity is divided in two départements: Corse-du-Sud and Haute-Corse. He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. The capital of the territorial collectivity of Corsica is Ajaccio (Corsican: Aiacciu).

The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art. In an attempt to do so, Napoleon's parents travelled to court in France, and, like many other Corsican nobles, sent their son to school there. Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Corsica was under French control at the time, and Corsican nobles were offered the ability to gain French titles if they could prove their genealogy sufficiently. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. Corsica is also the birthplace of Napoleon Bonaparte, who was born in Ajaccio, into minor Corsican nobility. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. It was essentially with him that the Moor's head ("Testa Maura") became Corsica's emblem in 1760, hearking back to the period when Corsica had been controlled by Moors (850 to 1034).

He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. An important figure in Corsican history is Pasquale Paoli (1725-1807), the Corsican general and patriot who struggled for Corsican independence, first against Genoa, then against France. In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. The city state of Genoa held sway over the island for centuries before ceding Corsica to France in 1768 to help pay off a debt. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances. During those times, possible unification with the neighbouring island of Sardinia was seen as a dangerous eventuality by many European states, because it would have given the ruler of the islands a dominant position in the Mediterranean Sea. In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Because of the strategic position it occupies in the Mediterranean, Corsica has long been considered significant as a platform for military operations, particularly during the several centuries of violent conflict between Italy and France.

Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him. Two endangered subspecies of hoofed mammals, the mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) and Corsican red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus) inhabit the island; the Corsican red deer is endemic. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. This park is protected and cannot be reached on foot, but sumptuous sails are available in order to discover unique landscapes. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. The park was created in 1972 and includes the Golfe de Porto, the Réserve Naturelle de Scandola (a UNESCO World Heritage Site), and some of the highest mountains on the island. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. The island has a natural park (Parc Naturel Régional de Corse), which protects thousands of rare animal and plant species.

The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Much of the coastal lowlands has been cleared for agriculture, and grazing and logging have reduced the mountain forests considerably. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The mountains are cooler and wetter, and home to the Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion, which support diverse forests of oak, pine, and broadleaf deciduous trees, with vegetation more typical of northern Europe on the slopes of the highest peaks. Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. The coastal lowlands are part of the Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests ecoregion, in which forests and woodlands of evergreen sclerophyll oaks predominate, chiefly Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) and Cork Oak (Quercus suber). A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her. The natural vegetation was Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. The island has a Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. This came as a severe blow to Picasso. Other towns and villages:. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. Main towns: (Corsican names). The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. The island is separated from Sardinia by the Strait of Bonifacio.

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. Corsica has 1,000km of coastline and more than 200 beaches, as well as being largely mountainous, with Monte Cinto as the highest peak at 2706m and 50 other summits of more than 2000m. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica. . The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. Corsica is famed as the birthplace of Napoléon Bonaparte. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death. Although the island is separated from the continental mainland by the Ligurian Sea, politically Corsica is considered part of Metropolitan France.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Corsica is referred to as a "région" in common speech, and is almost always listed among the other régions of France. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955. As a territorial collectivity, it enjoys powers slightly more important than other French régions, but for the most part its status is quite similar to the status of the other French régions. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. Corsica is one of the 26 régions of France, although strictly speaking Corsica is called a "territorial collectivity" (collectivité territoriale) by law. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. It is located west of Italy, southeast of France, and north of the island of Sardinia.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. Corsica (French: Corse; Corsican: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily, Sardinia, and Cyprus). The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome.

Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working.

His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.

In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work.

A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques. The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary.

Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg. Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". . He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. 30 pict (biography).

173 p. London 2005. PICASSO, PABLO. Danto.

by Arthur C. Introd. Mary Ann, Caws. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography).

320 p. 2004. Prestel Publ. PICASSO: The Real Family Story.

Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). 2005. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter.

Mallen, Enrique. 2003. Berlin: Peter Lang. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series.

The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Mallen, Enrique. ISBN 0-87070-519-9. 1980.

New York. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. Ed. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective.

The Museum of Modern Art. List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973. List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970. List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960.

List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950. List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940. List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930. List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920.

List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910. List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900. Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.

Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting. Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins.

Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.

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