Pablo Picasso

Young Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits.

Periods

Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg

  • Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists.
  • Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting.
  • African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work.
  • Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other.
  • Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art.

Early life

An 1896 self-portrait by Picasso.

Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.

Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year.

Picasso's first painting at age 8, Picador (1889).

The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques.

Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica.

The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures.

Pacifism

Picasso's Guernica was a reaction to the bombing of Guernica in the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle.

As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.

After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism.

Personal life

Picasso's friend Gertrude Stein, who had more than 80 sittings for this 1906 portrait.

Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital.

Marie-Thérèse Walter painted in Nu couché aux fleurs (1932)

In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.

From left to right, Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, Henri-Pierre Roché (in uniform), Marie Vassilieff, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso (1915).

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. This came as a severe blow to Picasso.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her.

Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him.

In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances.

Later works

Las Meninas (1957) based on the Las Meninas by Velazquez.

In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.

Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art.

Picasso sculpture in Chicago, Illinois

He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago.

In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time.

Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. His final words were "drink to me".

Legacy

Garçon à la pipe, which sold for $104 million in 2004.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.

The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie.

In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings).

Lists of works

L'Accordéoniste, a 1911 cubist painting by Picasso.

(For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project)



  • List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900
  • List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910
  • List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920
  • List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930
  • List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940
  • List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950
  • List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960
  • List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970
  • List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973

References

  • The Museum of Modern Art. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. Ed. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. New York. 1980. ISBN 0-87070-519-9
  • Mallen, Enrique. The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. Berlin: Peter Lang. 2003.
  • Mallen, Enrique. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. 2005.
  • Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Prestel Publ. 2004. 320 p. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography)
  • Mary Ann, Caws. Introd. by Arthur C. Danto. PICASSO, PABLO. London 2005. 173 p. 30 pict (biography).

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. The fictional seaside town of Watermouth—the setting of Malcolm Bradbury's campus novel The History Man—bears a lot of resemblance to Brighton.
. First the Aldrington Tramway (1884-1912), then Brighton Corporation Tramways (1901-1939) ran routes from the Aquarium to Brighton Station (Route S), London Road (Route B), Ditchling Road (route D) and Elm Grove (route E), Lewes Road (Route L), Queens Park (Route Q), New England Hill/Dyke Road (Route N). (For a comprehensive catalogue of his works visit the On-Line Picasso Project). The building of Brighton Marina in 1970s caused the line to terminate at Black Rock, rather than Rottingdean. On May 4, 2004 Picasso's painting Garçon à la pipe was sold for USD $104 million at Sotheby's, thus establishing a new price record (see also List of most expensive paintings). Volk's Electric Railway, which runs along the beach, is claimed to be the world's oldest operating electric railway and was the electrification model adopted by London Underground.

Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. The council and bus company run a city-wide realtime bus information service. In 1999, Picasso's Les Noces (The Marriage of Pierrette) sold for more than USD $51 million. It was bought by Brighton and Hove, who then merged into the Go-Ahead Group in1993. Anthony Hopkins played Picasso in the movie. The former Brighton "Blue Buses" company dates back to the 1880s. The film Surviving Picasso was made about Picasso in 1996, as seen through the eyes of Françoise Gilot. Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company operates the local bus service with over 250 buses.

In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga. The express London Victoria service takes 51 minutes today, compared with 60 minutes in 1910, 80 minutes in 1859 and up to two hours in 1841. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. Regular servies also operate to Birmingham New Street and on to Glasgow, Scotland, and via Bristol to Tenby, Wales. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state, were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. The station provides fast and frequent connections to London Gatwick Airport, London Victoria, London Bridge, and via the Thameslink line, King's Cross, London Luton Airport and Bedford. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Brighton railway station was built by the London & Brighton Railway in 1840, and in 1970 was saved from redevelopment.

At the time of his death, he had many paintings, as he had kept off the art market what he didn't need to sell. On 28th October 2005 fans rejoiced when the Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott, granted Brighton & Hove Albion permission to build the stadium they had been waiting for since 1995. His final words were "drink to me". Plans for a new 23,000 seater stadium had been in place since 1998, and Falmer, just north of the city, was chosen as the best location in 1999. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. Despite fans not having to make the 140 mile round trip to Kent, the 6000 seater stadium is not suitable for Championship games. Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhône. Two years of sharing Gillingham's stadium in Kent ended when the team was granted permission to play their home games at the Withdean Sports Complex in Brighton.

Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as usual, ahead of his time. Near relegation from Division 3 in 1997, having played their last game at the Goldstone Stadium, saw a new board of directors installed. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper, called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man". In 1995 Brighton & Hove Albion's Goldstone Stadium, in central Hove, was sold without viable plans for an alternative. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. and the Hove ground of Sussex County Cricket Club, which is used for international one day matches, and the Brighton Bears. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. Brighton is the home of Brighton & Hove Albion F.C.

Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his styles and periods changing right until the end of his life. Additionally, Brighton has a lively gay and lesbian scene centred in the Kemptown area of the city. To a man for whom this was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output. Some of the most important clubs in the UK dance music scene are based in Brighton, such as The Honey Club and The Ocean Rooms, and the famous but now rebranded Escape and Zap clubs, which have become Audio and The Union respectively. In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more and more impotent. There are a large number of bars and nightclubs in Brighton, though due to problems with binge-drinking and vagrancy, alcohol consumption on the street is now banned in some areas. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of Chicago. There is also a significant array of local listings and review publications, which serve as a useful showcase for the many local graphic designers.

The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks of downtown Chicago was unveiled in 1967. There is a healthy free party scene, which has been in action since the early 90s. What the figure is exactly is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. Brighton is renowned for its lively music scene, having spawned a number of successful artists, such as The Levellers and Fatboy Slim, and record labels including Skint Records. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and became somewhat controversial. This has been demonstrated by the Green Party taking 22% of the vote of the Brighton Pavilion constituency in the 2005 general election, versus just 1% nationally. He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50 foot high sculpture to be built in Chicago, Illinois, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. Brighton is considered a fairly progressive town due to the large numbers of political movements and activities, for instance SchNEWS, a local newsletter.

The media would give him much attention, though they were often more interested in his personal life than his art. However, the site of the pool itself remains empty except for a skate park and graffiti wall, and further development is planned for the area including a high-rise hotel which has aroused considerable local controversy, mirroring the situation with proposals for the site of the King Alfred leisure centre in neighbouring Hove. Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Since the 1978 demolition of the Art Deco open-air swimming lido at Black Rock, the most easterly part of Brighton's seafront, the area has been developed considerably and now features one of Europe's largest marinas. During this time he lived at Cannes and in 1955 helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. Part of the beach has been designated an official nudist area — one of very few naturist beaches in the United Kingdom to be located adjacent to an urban area. He also based paintings on works on art by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix. In the summer, thousands of young students from all over Europe gather in the city to attend language courses.

He made a series of works based on Velazquez's painting of Las Meninas. It is sometimes known as 'London by the Sea' because of its lively atmosphere and cosmopolitan nature and also because of the large number of visitors from London. In the 1950s his style changed once again as he began looking at the art of the great masters, and making new art about it. Brighton is home to two universities, the University of Sussex and the University of Brighton, as well as a public school, Brighton College. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances. The biggest arts festival in England—the Brighton Festival—takes place in May each year. In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Every August sees a large annual LGBT Pride event which has now become one of the most popular such events in the UK calendar.

Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him. Some indicators suggest a gay population approaching 25%. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. The city has a large Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community, mainly based in the Kemptown area of the city. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. named for the Hanoverian monarchy of the day. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Hilly Laine, on the east slope facing North Laine is now generally known as 'Hanover', such name coming from the early nineteenth century terraces at the base of the hill: Hanover Crescent, Hanover Terrace et al.

The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. The North Laine area still keeps the original spelling. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. That name was derived from 'Laine', which was apparently an old unit of Anglo-Saxon field measurement. Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. In Brighton, the area occupied by the original fishing village has become The Lanes — a collection of narrow alleyways now filled with a mixture of antique shops, restaurants, bistros and pubs. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her. However, no member of the cabinet was killed.

He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that he was an old man, now in his 70s, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. The Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, narrowly escaped injury, although members of her Government were injured — most notably Norman Tebbit. This came as a severe blow to Picasso. Four people were killed in the blast (including Sir Anthony Berry), and Norman Tebbit's wife subsequently died of her injuries. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. In the early hours of October 12th 1984 an IRA bomb exploded in the Grand Hotel where leading members of the governing Conservative Party were staying. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. The stubby remains of some of the pier's iron piles, sunk ten feet into bedrock, can still be seen at the most extreme low tides.

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Françoise Gilot. They were saved this task by a storm which destroyed the already closed and rather decrepit pier on December 4, 1896. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica. The Chain Pier survived the construction of the West Pier, but a condition for permission to build the Palace Pier was that the builders would dismantle the oldest pier. The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. An esplanade with an entrance toll-booth controlled access to the pier which was roughly in line with today's New Steine. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death. The pier was primarily intended as a landing stage, Brighton having no natural harbour, but it also featured a small number of attractions including initially a camera obscura.

Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Brighton had one further major pier, the Brighton Chain Suspension Pier ("Chain Pier") of 1823. The two remained legally married until Khoklova's death in 1955. However, in September 2005 the Trust revealed in their newsletter that they are forming further plans to rebuild the original structure with help from private funding. Picasso's marriage to Khoklova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce and Picasso did not want Khoklova to have half his wealth. Finally, in December 2004, the Trust admitted defeat, after their plans were rejected by the Heritage Lottery Fund and subsequent less ambitious plans to restore only the oldest, structural parts of the pier were also rejected by English Heritage. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Despite all these setbacks, the owner of the site West Pier Trust remained adamant they would soon begin full restoration work.

Khoklova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. On June 23, 2004 high winds caused the middle of the pier to completely collapse. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. The West Pier Trust refers to the fires as the work of 'professional arsonists', (notwithstanding that there is no evidence linking the fires to the owners of the Palace Pier). Khoklova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. Arson was suspected. In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khoklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. On May 12, 2003, another fire broke out, consuming most of what was left of the concert hall.

Humbert was diagnosed with cancer and during her rapid deterioration, Picasso administered to her every need, making daily trips across Paris to visit her in the hospital. The cause of the fire remains unknown. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Firefighters were unable to save the building from destruction because they could not reach the end of the pier - the previous collapse had destroyed the walkway. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. On March 28, 2003 the pavilion at the end of the pier caught fire. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. On January 20, 2003 a further collapse saw the destruction of the concert hall in the middle of the pier.

In the early years of the twentieth century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. The West Pier partially collapsed on December 29, 2002 when a walkway connecting the concert hall and pavilion fell into the sea after being battered by storms. Picasso married twice and had four children by three women. The restoration was also opposed by the owners of the Brighton Pier, who reportedly saw its subsidised rebuilding, were it to happen, as unfair competition. In Paris, in addition to having a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Gertrude Stein and others, he usually maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Plans by The West Pier Trust to renovate the pier with help from Heritage Lottery Fund have been opposed by some local residents who claimed that the proposed new onshore structures — which the renovators needed to pay for the work on the pier — would obstruct their view of the sea. Picasso hated to be alone when he wasn't working. The West Pier is one of only two Grade 1 listed piers in the UK, the other being Clevedon Pier.

His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism. The older West Pier, built in 1866 by Eugenius Birch, has been closed and deteriorating since 1975, awaiting renovation. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. It suffered a large fire on 4 February 2003 but the damage was limited and most of the pier was able to reopen the next day. After the Second World War, Picasso rejoined the French Communist Party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. The Brighton Marine Palace and Pier, generally known as the Palace Pier before being unofficially renamed by its current owners as Brighton Pier in 2000, opened in May 1899 and is still popular. In 1992 the painting hung in the Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened. Luckily this proved not to be the case - a consortium formed by residents and owners were able to wrestle the freehold of the building from the previous inneffectual management company, and restoration commenced in 2004.

In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. The building made the local press after chunks of render and windows fell from the building onto the street below, and it appeared until recently that it may suffer the same ignomious fate met by the West Pier sat opposite it, which finally succumbed to the elements (and arsonists) in early 2004. Guernica hung in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. When built in 1935, designed by architect Welles Coates, the building contrasted sharply with the more sedate and ornamental architecture of King's Road; but by the 1990s, the structure drew comment because of its terribly run down nature. The act of painting was captured in a series of photographs by Picasso's most famous lover, Dora Maar, a distinguished artist in her own right. Embassy Court is one of the most striking buildings on the seafront at Brighton and Hove, although the reasons for this have differed over the years. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Brighton, with its cutting edge scene, is hard to imagine without the 20,000+ students of the now two Universities.

Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica, Spain — Guernica. The University has aquired a strong academic reputation, not least in left-leaning humanities subjects. While the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso was still able to continue because of the French resistance who would smuggle bronze to him. The single most important postwar development was the opening in the mid sixties of Sussex University, designed by Sir Basil Spence. He retreated into his studio, continuing to paint all the while. Pubs and restaurants are abundant. The Nazis hated his style of painting, so he was not able to show his works during this time. The growth in mass tourism stimulated numerous Brighton businesses to serve the insatiable appetites of the holidaying masses.

During the Second World War, Picasso resided in Paris when the Germans occupied the city. In many ways, Brighton's postwar growth has been a continuation of the 'fashionable Brighton' that drew the Georgian upper classes at the beginning of its recent history. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree. Brighton's character evolved over the course of the twentieth century but not so as to leave it unrecognisable. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. Visitors were further encouraged by the arrival of the London and Brighton Railway in 1840, which also established one of the first railway-owned locomotive works. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them. The Kemp Town estate (at the heart of the Kemptown district) was constructed between 1823 and 1855, and is a good example of Regency architecture.

In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. Eventually he spent much of his leisure time in the town and constructed the exotic-looking Royal Pavilion, which is the town's best-known landmark. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. The growth of the town was further encouraged when, in 1786, the young Prince Regent later King George IV, rented a farmhouse in order to escape from public life. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle. By 1780, development of the Regency terraces had started and the town quickly became the fashionable resort of Brighton. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. Currently approaching the conclusion of its ambitious restoration, Marlborough House on the Steine was built by Robert Adam in 1765 and purchased shortly afterwards by the eponymous Duke.

Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. He set up house there and before long, the rich and the sick had started to make their way to the seaside. The Guinness Book of Records names Picasso as the most prolific painter ever – In his lifetime, he produced around 13,500 paintings, 100,000 prints and engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures. Brighthelmstone began to change in 1753 when Dr Richard Russell of Lewes published his thesis on sea bathing, which proclaimed the benefit to health of the salt water of Brighton. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and appears in Picasso's Guernica. Brighton remained a small fishing village up until the 18th century. During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a motif which he used often in his work. A display copy of the map can be seen in Hove Museum.

A comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, the harlequin became a personal symbol for Picasso. Part of their 'pitch' was an illustrated map (1545) showing the French raid of 1511. Picasso used harlequins in many of his early works, especially in his Blue and Rose Periods. Later on in Henry's reign, the residents of the town petitioned the monarch for defensive cannon. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as rarely seen works from his old age that clearly demonstrate Picasso's firm grounding in classical techniques. In June 1514, the fishing village then known as Brighthelmstone was burnt to the ground by the French as part of a war between the two which began as a result of the Treaty of Westminster (1511). The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days who, for many years, was Picasso's personal secretary. It is now a pub.

Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year. A medieval priory on the site of the present Town Hall has left no visible trace, though Hangleton Manor to the north of the suburb of Portslade is a sixteenth century flint manor building, very well preserved, juxtaposed in amongst a twentieth century housing estate. It was from his father that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. The church contracted through ruin down to just this part, before nineteenth century restoration returned it to the comparably mighty edifice visible today. Picasso's father, José Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter, and for most of his life a professor of art at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts and a curator of a local museum. While other ecclesiastical buildings in Brighton date from the post-Russell period, St Andrew's Church on Church Road, Hove has a dramatic thirteenth century nave. Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain, the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López. As such, it is among the oldest art in Brighton.

While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are: Image:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg. A medieval fresco depicting the murder of Thomas a Beckett was discovered under paint following a fire in the early part of the twentieth century. Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". Although the present day manor house is relatively recent in construction, the church — St Peters, currently under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust — is fourteenth century. . From the manorial system, Preston manor lingers on today as a museum. He famously rendered complex scenes as just a few geometric shapes in his mixed-media cubist works, but also produced masterful realist portraits. In the Domesday Book, Brighton was called Bristemestune and a rent of 4000 herring was established.

He worked mainly with paint, but had equal facility in oil, watercolour, pastels, charcoal, pencil and ink. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains the first mention of a settlement in the area at Beorthelm's-tun (the town of Beorthelm). One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. In the thirties, the garage owner had a small display of Roman statues and broaches in the forecourt shop. Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Full name) (October 25, 1881 in Málaga, Spain – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. Numerous artefacts were found as well as the foundations of the building. 30 pict (biography). The villa was excavated in the 1930s prior to the building of a (now gone) garage on the site.

173 p. The villa was sited more or less at the water's edge, immediately south of Preston Park — which area itself would perhaps have been part of the outer grounds. London 2005. At the time of its construction in the late first or second century AD there was a river running along what is now the tarmac of London Road. PICASSO, PABLO. Having conquered Britannica (43AD), and after brutally surpressing the Boudicaen counter-invasion (61AD), the Romans built villas throughout Sussex and indeed there was a villa in Brighton. Danto. Cissbury Ring, at a distance of about ten miles from Hollingbury and quite awesome in its construction, is reckoned by some to have been the tribal 'capital'.

by Arthur C. Hollingbury is one of numerous 'hillforts' found across southern Britain. Introd. As a 'ball park figure', its diameter is about 300 metres. Mary Ann, Caws. Commanding panoramic views over Brighton, this Celtic Iron Age encampment is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls. ISBN 3-79133-149-3 (biography). Undoubtedly the single most impressive pre-Roman site in Brighton is Hollingbury Camp.

320 p. Made of translucent red Baltic Amber and approximately the same size as a regular china teacup, the impressive artefact can be seen in Hove Museum. 2004. A defining point on the landscape since at least 1500BC, this 20 foot high tomb yielded, amongst other treasures, the Hove Amber Cup. Prestel Publ. During nineteenth century building work near Palmeira Square, workmen tasked with removing an earth mound 'excavated' a significant burial mound. PICASSO: The Real Family Story. Of considerable interest from the middle Bronze Age is the Hove Amber Cup.

Olivier Widmaier Picasso (grandson of Picasso (Maya's son)). After a scholarly review, Paul Harwood of Birmingham's Institute of Archaeology & Antiquity noted that "there are a concentration of Beaker burials on the fringes of the central chalklands around Brighton, and a later cluster of Early and Middle Bronze Age ‘rich graves' in the same area.". 2005. A standing stone circle nearby (today's Hove Park) is documented up to 1820, when the farmer had had one too many "antiquarians" traipsing over his crop and buried the stones. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. There is a plaque telling us it was believed to be in use (ceremonial? geomantic?) around 2000BC. La Sintaxis de la Carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. More of prehistoric Brighton and Hove can be observed just north of the small retail park on Old Shoreham Road, built over the site of the town's football ground in the late 1990s, where you can visit The Goldstone.

Mallen, Enrique. The building of a new housing estate in the early nineties over the South Eastern portion of the enclosure resulted in damage to the archeology, the loss of the ancient panoramic view and a diminishment in atmosphere of the historical site. 2003. Significant vestiges of the mounds remain and you can trace their arc with the eye. Berlin: Peter Lang. There are four concentric circles of ditches and mounds, broken or 'causewayed' in many places. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics & Semiotics Series. The centre of this early Neolithic causewayed enclosure c.3500BC is someway toward the aerial mast on the south side of Manor Road, opposite the grandstand.

The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso. Whitehawk Camp — a natural viewpoint — is bisected by Manor Road. Mallen, Enrique. While any British history predating the first mentions by literate Romans is, by definition, consigned to an obscured landscape known intimidatingly as 'prehistory', a few things are known about the area. ISBN 0-87070-519-9. . 1980. The two boroughs were joined together to form the unitary authority of Brighton & Hove in 1997, which in 2000 was granted city status by the Queen as part of the millennial celebrations, following competition from other large towns which coveted city status.

New York. Brighton's lively atmosphere is a direct contrast to its near neighbour, Hove which has quieter and more refined character. William Rubin, chronology by Jane Fluegel. Brighton and Hove form a single conurbation. Ed. Brighton on the southern Sussex coast is one of the largest and most famous seaside resorts in England. Pablo Picasso, a retrospective. MirrorMask (2005).

The Museum of Modern Art. Wimbledon (2004). List of Picasso artworks 1971-1973. The Chalk Garden (1963). List of Picasso artworks 1961-1970. Carry On At Your Convenience (1971). List of Picasso artworks 1951-1960. Carry On Girls (1973).

List of Picasso artworks 1941-1950. Circus (2000). List of Picasso artworks 1931-1940. Mona Lisa (1986). List of Picasso artworks 1921-1930. Me Without You. List of Picasso artworks 1911-1920. The End Of The Affair.

List of Picasso artworks 1901-1910. Dirty Weekend (1993). List of Picasso artworks 1889-1900. Oh! What A Lovely War (1969). Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), involving the use of collage and cut paper, the first time collage had been used in fine art. Quadrophenia (1979) Franc Roddam. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time are very similar to each other. Genevieve (1953) Henry Cornelius.

Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), a style of painting he developed along with Braque using monochrome brownish colours, where they took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Brighton Rock (1947) John Boulting. African-influenced Period (1908–1909), influenced by the two figures on the right in his painting of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he used African artifacts as the inspiration for his work. Helen Zahavi. He met Fernande Olivier,a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris at this time, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his exposure to French painting. William Makepeace Thackeray. Rose Period (1905–1907), characterized by a more cheerful style with orange and pink colors, and again featuring many harlequins. Nigel Richardson.

Blue Period (1901–1904), consisting of somber, blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the recent death of a friend, often featuring depictions of acrobats, harlequins, prostitutes, beggars and artists. Louise Rennison. Phillip Reeve. Robert Rankin:. Henry James.

Patrick Hamilton. Graham Greene. George Gissing:. Jane Austen:.

Mark Williams, star of The Fast Show and the Harry Potter films. Rachel Whiteread, artist and Turner Prize winner. Keith Tyson, artist and Turner Prize winner. Dusty Springfield, lived at Wilbury Road, Hove & formed band The Springfields there.

Jimmy Somerville, 1990s pop star formerly of band The Communards. Captain Sensible. Dame Flora Robson, 1960 until her death in 1984. Robert Rankin, Fiction author.

Katie Price, model (also known as Jordan). Patsy Palmer, ex-EastEnders television actress. Lord Lawrence Olivier & Joan Plowright, lived at Royal Crescent, Kemptown 1960 to 1978. Dame Anna Neagle, lived at Lewes Crescent, Kemptown.

Bob Meek, journalist. Paul McCartney, musician, and his wife Heather Mills McCartney, designer (Hove). Ida Lupino, C1914 to C1949. Ken Livingstone, Mayor of London.

Vivien Leigh. Prince Peter Alexeevich Kropotkin, 1912 to 1917. Rudyard Kipling, 1897 to 1903. James Herbert, author.

Phil Hartnoll, of band Orbital. Graham Greene. Michael Fabricant MP, born in Brighton in 1950 and educated at the Brighton and Hove Grammar School. Chris Eubank, ex-boxer.

Roger Dean. Ashes scattered at Devil's Dyke. Aleister Crowley, died in a nursing home in Brighton in December 1947. Gaz Coombes, lead singer of Supergrass.

Formerly of band The Housemartins (Hove). Norman Cook aka Fatboy Slim, musician & DJ. Steve Coogan. Julian Clary, comedian.

Sir Winston Churchill, attended school. Nick Cave. Sir Edward Burne-Jones, 1880 to 1898. Julie Burchill, journalist.

Dora Bryan. Cate Blanchett. Steve Cornflower, Björk's new german boyfriend. Björk.

Patrick Bergin, star of films including Sleeping with the Enemy and Patriot Games. Aubrey Beardsley, born in Brighton 1872, and for some time lived at Lower Rock Gardens, Kemptown. Michael "Atters" Attree, satirist. Richard Attenborough.

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