The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries' take on the Western movie.
It generally took two forms:
Naturally many of these contained political messages, but they can still be watched impartially as action films, comedies etc, and it is certainly true to say that American director John Ford imbued his films with controversial political messages too.
'Red Westerns' in an international context
'Red Westerns' of the first type are often compared to 'Spaghetti Westerns' (although technically these are 'Paella Westerns' being shot in Spain, rather than Italy), in that they use local scenery to double up for the American West. In particular, Yugoslavia, Mongolia and the Southern USSR were used.
'Red Westerns' provide a counterpoint to familiar mythologies and conventions of the original genre, particularly as the makers were on the other side of a propaganda war without parallel, the Cold War, and this is partially why many have never been shown in the west, at least not until after the Cold War ended. In a war in which many fabrications were made on both sides, there was often a lingering fascination with the cultural developments in enemy countries.
Westerns have proven particularly transferrable in the way that they create a mythology out of relatively recent history, a malleable idea that translates well to different cultures. In Russia, the Ostern uses the generic calling cards of the American Western to dramatise the civil war in Central Asia in the 1920s and 30s, in which the Red Army fought to maintain their country against Islamic Turkic 'Basmachi' rebels. By substituting, 'red' for 'blue' and 'Turk' for Mexican, there are the same opportunities for a sweeping drama played out against a backdrop of wide-open spaces. The Ural Mountains can be equivalent to Monument Valley, the Volga river for the Rio Grande. Add the gun slinging ethos, horse riding, working the land, pioneers of a sort (ideological often in this case!), the bounty hunter traversing difficult terrain with outlaw in tow, railroading and taming the wild frontier and you have a generic mirror image of the American genre.
Red Westerns which use the actual American west as a setting include, the Romanian The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, 1981) which dramatises the struggles of Romanian and Hungarian settlers in a new land. The Czech Lemonade Joe and the Soviet A Man from the Boulevard des Capuchines plump for pastiche or satire, making fun of the hard worn conventions of the American films. The German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) turned the traditional American "Cowboy and Indian" conventions on their head, casting the Native Americans as the heroes and the American Army as the villains, with some obvious Cold War overtones... it started a series of "Indian films" by the East German DEFA studios which were quite successful.
Interestingly, many of the non-Soviet examples of the genre were international co-productions akin to the Spaghetti Westerns. The Sons of the Great Mother Bear for example was a co-production between East Germany and Czechoslovakia, starring a Yugoslav, scripted in German, and shot in a number of different Eastern Bloc countries and used a variety of locations including Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Mongolia and Czechoslovakia. The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians was a Romanian film, but featured emigrant Hungarians heavily in the storyline.
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The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians was a Romanian film, but featured emigrant Hungarians heavily in the storyline. They are:. The Sons of the Great Mother Bear for example was a co-production between East Germany and Czechoslovakia, starring a Yugoslav, scripted in German, and shot in a number of different Eastern Bloc countries and used a variety of locations including Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Mongolia and Czechoslovakia. Melbourne has a number of sister cities. Interestingly, many of the non-Soviet examples of the genre were international co-productions akin to the Spaghetti Westerns. There are a variety of interesting things to see outside Melbourne proper but still within a day trip of Melbourne. it started a series of "Indian films" by the East German DEFA studios which were quite successful. As one would expect from a city its size, Melbourne has a wide variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, which can be found all over the metropolitan area.
The German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) turned the traditional American "Cowboy and Indian" conventions on their head, casting the Native Americans as the heroes and the American Army as the villains, with some obvious Cold War overtones.. Some of the best restraunts can be found in St Kilda along Fitzroy Street, South Yarra along Chapel Street, Fitzroy along Brunswick Street, Carlton along Lygon St, South Melbourne along Clarendon St, Richmond along Bridge Rd and Victoria St and Collingwood along Smith Street, as well as in the CBD and Southbank precincts. The Czech Lemonade Joe and the Soviet A Man from the Boulevard des Capuchines plump for pastiche or satire, making fun of the hard worn conventions of the American films. Melbourne's restaurants are numerous, and are generally of reasonable quality and good value. Red Westerns which use the actual American west as a setting include, the Romanian The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, 1981) which dramatises the struggles of Romanian and Hungarian settlers in a new land. Melbourne will host the Commonwealth Games in 2006. Add the gun slinging ethos, horse riding, working the land, pioneers of a sort (ideological often in this case!), the bounty hunter traversing difficult terrain with outlaw in tow, railroading and taming the wild frontier and you have a generic mirror image of the American genre. Melbourne's best-known sporting events are the Australian F1 Grand Prix, numerous international Cricket matches, the Australian Football League Grand Final and the Spring Racing Carnival wheich culminates with the running of the Melbourne Cup horse race at Flemington.
The Ural Mountains can be equivalent to Monument Valley, the Volga river for the Rio Grande. Melbourne hosts a disproportionately large number of spectator sports. By substituting, 'red' for 'blue' and 'Turk' for Mexican, there are the same opportunities for a sweeping drama played out against a backdrop of wide-open spaces. The Crown Casino entertainment complex can also be found in the Southbank precinct. In Russia, the Ostern uses the generic calling cards of the American Western to dramatise the civil war in Central Asia in the 1920s and 30s, in which the Red Army fought to maintain their country against Islamic Turkic 'Basmachi' rebels. Southbank on the southern bank of the Yarra River attracts locals and tourists alike for its mix of dining, shopping and recreational facilities. Westerns have proven particularly transferrable in the way that they create a mythology out of relatively recent history, a malleable idea that translates well to different cultures. Along St Kilda Road there are many cultural attractions, including the National Gallery of Victoria, the Shrine of Remembrance, King's Domain and the Sidney Myer Music Bowl, the Arts Centre, and Victoria Barracks.
In a war in which many fabrications were made on both sides, there was often a lingering fascination with the cultural developments in enemy countries. The Fitzroy Gardens in East Melbourne has many attractions including Captain Cook's Cottage. 'Red Westerns' provide a counterpoint to familiar mythologies and conventions of the original genre, particularly as the makers were on the other side of a propaganda war without parallel, the Cold War, and this is partially why many have never been shown in the west, at least not until after the Cold War ended. Melbourne attracts large numbers of tourists, particularly young backpackers. In particular, Yugoslavia, Mongolia and the Southern USSR were used. Avalon Airport located between Melbourne and Geelong is a freight and maintenance facility and handles some low cost flights. 'Red Westerns' of the first type are often compared to 'Spaghetti Westerns' (although technically these are 'Paella Westerns' being shot in Spain, rather than Italy), in that they use local scenery to double up for the American West. Essendon Airport, which was once the city's main airport before the construction of Tullamarine, handles general aviation and some cargo flights, and is the base of the Victoria Police air wing and air ambulance.
Naturally many of these contained political messages, but they can still be watched impartially as action films, comedies etc, and it is certainly true to say that American director John Ford imbued his films with controversial political messages too. Moorabbin Airport is a significant general aviation airport in the city's south east. It generally took two forms:. Melbourne International Airport located at Tullamarine is the city's main international and domestic gateway. The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries' take on the Western movie. Melbourne has four significant airports. Examples of these include The Burning Miles (Ognennie Versti/Огненные вёрсты, 1957), The Bodyguard (Telokhranitel/Телохранитель, 1979), At Home among Strangers (1971), and famous Soviet film White Sun of the Desert (Beloye Solntse Pustynt/Белое солнце пустыни', 1970). While some of these are obviously influenced by Westerns, in some cases, the material can be seen as a parallel formation. Station Pier in Port Phillip Bay handles cruise ships and the Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to Tasmania.
Easterns (Osterns), which took place usually on the steppes or Asian parts of the USSR, especially during the Russian Revolution or following Civil War. Melbourne Airport is the nation's second busiest. These were much more common in Eastern Europe, rather than the USSR itself. The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port. Proper Red Westerns, set in America's 'Wild West', such as Czechoslovakia's Lemonade Joe (Limonadovy Joe, 1964), or the East-German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) or The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, Romania, 1981) involving radically different themes and genres. The city has rail connections wth several regional cities in the state, as well as interstate rail services to Sydney and Adelaide. From the 1920s to the 1940s it was the world's busiest passenger station.
Flinders Street Station is a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place. It has one of the world's most extensive tram networks, almost 300 bus routes and a train system with more than 15 lines. Like many major cities in the world, Melbourne has an integrated public transport system, however some of its outlying suburbs still face transport difficulties. Melbourne is served with an extensive public transport network.
Carols by Candlelight, first held in 1938, is a Christmas Eve tradition held annually at the Sidney Myer Music Bowl. Through her he has performed cutting odes to Melbourne mores and the middle class suburbs of Moonee Ponds and Highett, among others. Melbourne-born satirist Barry Humphries created his main character Dame Edna Everage as a comedic version of a suburban homemaker. "Balwyn Calling", "Carlton (Lygon Street Limbo)" and "Toorak Cowboy" are examples.
Singer Paul Kelly has written several well-known songs about aspects of the city close to the heart of many Melburnians, notably "Leaps And Bounds" and "From St Kilda To King's Cross", while Skyhooks also wrote some more tongue in cheek songs about Melbourne. Other contemporary television shows set in Melbourne include Stingers (a police drama), The Secret Life Of Us, and MDA. Perhaps better known to a contemporary audience is the daily soap opera Neighbours, set in the fictional eastern suburb of Erinsborough, which presents a 'whitebread' microcosm of suburban Australian life. Nice Guy and The Castle.
Some of the more famous include Mad Max, Chopper, Romper Stomper, featuring a young Russell Crowe as a terrifying Melburnian skinhead; Jackie Chan's Mr. In recent years, many more films have been made in Melbourne. Similar filming was undertaken when a 2000 television movie remake was produced. The purported quote was invented by journalist Neil Jillett.
Filmed on location in and around Melbourne (a great novelty for Melbourne at the time), it is perhaps best remembered for a comment Ava Gardner possibly never actually made - describing Melbourne as 'the perfect place to make a film about the end of the world', commenting on the dreary conservatism of Melbourne in the late 1950s. The film depicted the denizens of Melbourne quietly slipping off into eternity as the last victims of a global nuclear holocaust. In 1959, it was made into a film directed by Stanley Kramer, and starring Gregory Peck, Ava Gardner and Anthony Perkins. Perhaps the best-known novel internationally is Nevil Shute's novel On the Beach.
Frank Hardy's Power Without Glory tells the story of Melbourne businessman John West (based on the real-life John Wren) and is set in a thinly-disguised Collingwood, a Melbourne working-class suburb. Fergus Hume's international best-seller Mystery of a Hansom Cab, which outsold the Sherlock Holmes stories at the time, was set in Melbourne of the Gold Rush era. Melbourne has been the setting for many novels, television dramas, and films. The Melbourne Shuffle, a style of dance, had its birth here, and has been evolving ever since.
There are dance parties happening almost every night of the year, frequently attracting some of the world's best DJs to the city. The dance music scene in Melbourne is large and lively. Live shows constantly occur in the city with open-mic contests and performances by up-and-coming artists held throughout the week at different locations. Melbourne is home to a gritty style of home grown Hip Hop and is home to artists such as Lyrical Commission, Muphin, Reason and Pegz.
Obese Records, a leading Australian Hip Hop recording label, was founded in 1995 in Melbourne and is located in Prahran, just off the famous Chapel Street. Melbourne is home to a large Australian hip hop scene, generally known as "Melburn" or "The Burn" throughout the unique sub-culture. Melbourne's lively rock and pop music scene has fostered many internationally renowned artists and musicians, with links to AC/DC, Nick Cave, Crowded House, John Farnham, Graeme Bell, Kylie Minogue, and Jet. Several professional theatre companies operate in Melbourne, of which the Melbourne Theatre Company has the most institutional support of any in Australia, and there is a wide range of smaller companies.
Many of its most significant works hang in the National Gallery of Victoria, which has one of Australia's top collections of visual art, particularly early Australian western-tradition art. It was largely the work of Melbourne-based artists, and was arguably the first distinctly Australian art movement (in the Western canon, at least). The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century centered in Melbourne. Melbourne was strongly associated with the establishment of Australia's visual arts.
The Melbourne Symphony Orchestra is highly regarded both at home and internationally. Melbourne is the home of the Australian Ballet and the second home of Opera Australia. Annuals arts celebrations include the Melbourne Arts Festival, the Melbourne Fringe Festival, the Melbourne International Comedy Festival, the Melbourne International Film Festival, and Moomba. Melbourne has a large and vibrant arts and cultural life.
Melbourne also boasts a number of community radio stations, of which the best known are 3RRR and 3PBS. 3AW is consistently the city's highest-rating commercial radio station. Melbourne has a wide range of radio stations and is the base for the Australia-wide Austereo network. There are three commercial television channels: the Seven, Nine and Ten networks — and three public channels: ABC, SBS, and a community television channel, Channel 31 Melbourne.
Melbourne has two major daily newspapers, The Age and The Herald Sun, as well as the free afternoon tabloid mX. In 2007, Melbourne will be the host of the FINA World Aquatics Championships. The 2006 Commonwealth Games will be held in Melbourne, the first time the city has hosted the event. Melbourne co-hosted the 2003 Rugby Union World Cup, including many pool matches as well as a quarter final – all of which were played at the Telstra Dome; broke new ground as the first city outside the United States to host the World Police and Fire Games in 1995, and the President's Cup golf tournament in 1999; and was the first city in the Southern Hemisphere to host the World Cup Polo Championship in 2001.
Since the 1956 Olympic Games were held in Melbourne, the city has hosted numerous sporting events which rotate host cities. The Wallabies, Australia's national rugby union team, usually also play at least one Test annually at Melbourne's Telstra Dome. Annually, Melbourne hosts the Australian Open tennis tournament, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments; the Melbourne Cup horse race; the 'Boxing Day' cricket test match held each year from 26-30 December at the Melbourne Cricket Ground; and the Australian Grand Prix Formula One championship. The city has hosted several major international sporting events.
The city also has two National Basketball League franchises, the Melbourne Tigers and the South Dragons (to enter the league in 2006). Olympic Park is also the home of Melbourne Victory, a team in the newly formed Australian football (soccer) competition, the A-League. Melbourne Storm, a National Rugby League team, are based at Olympic Park. It is the traditional venue for the Boxing Day cricket Test match.
The MCG was the site of many events at the 1956 Summer Olympics, including the Opening and Closing Ceremonies. The AFL Grand Final, one of the biggest sporting events in Australia, is played on the last weekend in September at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), a massive arena that has held up to 120,000 spectators. The city is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the Australian Football League (AFL), whose five Melbourne games per week attract an average 35,000 people per game. Melbourne is where Australian rules football originated, and it still the most popular sport in Victoria.
A majority of the oldest schools in Melbourne belong to the Associated Public Schools of Victoria and Associated Grammar Schools of Victoria associations. From years 7 to 12 students attend high schools. Primary school consists of seven grades; a preparatory year and grades 1 to 6. Melbourne has numerous government, independent and other secondary schools.
Several other universities are also located in Melbourne, including Deakin University, La Trobe University, RMIT University, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria University of Technology and the St Patrick's campus of the Australian Catholic University. Both are also highly ranked among the best universities in the world by The Times Higher Education Supplement. They are both members of the Group of Eight, a lobby group including the most prestigious universities in Australia. Melbourne's two most notable tertiary institutions are the University of Melbourne and Monash University.
Although Brisbane and Perth are growing faster in percentage terms, and Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the Melbourne statistical division has grown by approximately 50,000 people a year since 2003, more than any other Australian city. The newest wave of immigrants comes from North Africa, particularly Sudan. Melbourne also boasts the largest Jewish community in Oceania (See Judaism in Australia). Refugees from Cambodia and Vietnam made Melbourne their home in the 1970s and 1980s and were joined by people from India, the Philippines and Malaysia.
Melbourne has one of the world's largest population of people with Greek ancestry outside Greece -- in fact it is 3rd only to Athens and Thessaloniki as a metropolis for Greek-speakers . Large numbers from Italy and Greece arrived in the 1950s and 1960s, to become the largest groups after those from Britain and Ireland. The need for a population increase and a labour force saw many British, Yugoslav, Dutch, German, Arab and Maltese migrants arrive in 1945 after the devastation of the homelands in World War II. As a consequence property prices took decades to recover.
Much of Melbourne's population loss during the 1890s was the result of the unemployed moving west seeking gold, or, employment in the burgeoning industries stimulated by gold. During the 1890s a world economic depression hit Melbourne's overleveraged economy with particular savagery. In the following decades of the 1870s and 1880s, Melbourne was Australia's most populous city and led to a spectacular property boom, and exuberance still in evidence in the much loved late Victorian architecture. From 20,000 inhabitants in 1851, an additional 15,000 arrived almost overnight with the discovery of gold in August 1852 .
Melbourne's population exploded during the 1850s' gold rush. As the capital city, Melbourne has over time become a large urban centre and the home to around 80% of the state's population. Almost a quarter of Victoria's population was born overseas and come from 233 countries, speak over 180 languages and dialects and follow 116 religious faiths. Today Melbourne is one of the world's most diverse and multicultural cities.
In 2006, Melbourne will play host to the summit of G20 finance ministers. At a cost of $434 million the project involves reconstructing the old Olympic and Ponsford stands. At the centrepiece of the Commonwealth Games projects is the redevelopment project for the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the stadium set for the opening and closing ceremonies of the Games. The project is set for completion in early 2006, before the start of the Games.
Such projects include the $AUD700 million Southern Cross Station redevelopment, including a $350 million world-class transport interchange facility with $350 million also set aside for office accommodation, residential towers and hotel and also a retail plaza. Most current major infrastructure projects are generally centred on the upcoming 2006 Commonwealth Games, which are to be held in the city. Melbourne is home to Australia's largest seaport and much of Australia's automotive industry (including the engine manufacturing facility of Holden and the Ford and Toyota manufacturing facilities), in addition to many other manufacturing industries. The peak body representing workers in Australia, the Australian Council of Trade Unions, is also headquartered in Melbourne.
Many of Australia's largest companies have their headquarters there, and many multinational corporations (approximately one-third of the 100 largest multinationals operating in Australia as of 2002), have their main Australian office there. Melbourne is a large commercial and industrial centre.
Because three quarters of Victoria's population lives in Melbourne, state governments have traditionally been reluctant to allow the development of city-wide governmental bodies, which would tend to create a rival to the state government. These include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, and planning of major infrastructure projects. Most city-wide government activities are controlled by the state government. Melbourne's overwhelming dominance of the state of Victoria's population and economy means the Victorian state government is also effectively the city government of greater Melbourne.
The councils are collectively represented by the Local Government Association of Victoria. Councils levy rates from their residents to pay for these services. These include planning, rubbish collection, beaches, parks and gardens, child-care and preschool facilities, local festivals and cultural activities, services to the elderly, supervision of public health, sanitation and similar matters. These municipalities all have elected councils and are responsible for a range of functions delegated to them by the Victorian state government.
The rest of the metropolitan area is divided into 30 municipalities, all of which are styled as cities except for five on the city's outer fringes which are styled as shires (see a list of these at Local Government Areas of Victoria). The current Lord Mayor is John So. However the head of the Melbourne City Council, the Lord Mayor of Melbourne, is frequently treated as a representative of greater Melbourne (the entire metropolitan area), particularly when interstate or overseas. The Melbourne City Council governs only the City of Melbourne, which takes in the CBD and a few adjoining inner suburbs.
There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of Melbourne, such as in the cities of Stonnington and Booroondara, south east of the CBD. There is an abundance of parks and gardens close to the CBD with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped vistas, pedestrian pathways, and majestic tree lined avenues that help make Melbourne one of the world's most livable cities. Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city. The central business district (the original city) is laid out in the famous mile-by-half-a-mile Hoddle Grid, its southern edge fronting on to the Yarra.
Geologically it is built on the confluence of Quaternary lava flows to the west, Silurian mudstones to the east and Holocene sand accumulation to the southeast along Port Phillip, its suburbs sprawling to the east, following the Yarra River out to the Yarra and Dandenong Ranges, south-east to the mouth of the bay, and following the Maribyrnong River and its tributaries west and north to flat farming country. Melbourne is located in the south-eastern corner of mainland Australia, and is the southernmost mainland capital city. This has continued under the government of current Premier Steve Bracks (Labor). In the 1990s, the Victorian state government of Premier Jeff Kennett (Liberal) sought to reverse this trend with the aggressive development of new public buildings, such as the Melbourne Museum, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre (nicknamed "Jeff's Shed"), Crown Casino, capital works (most notably the City Link tollway), the selling off state assets (the State Electricity Commission and redundant state schools), the pruning back of state services and the publicising of Melbourne's merits both to outsiders and Melburnians.
After a boom in the 1980s Melbourne experienced a largely property market and manufacturing driven slump from 1989 to 1992, with a loss of employment and a drain of population to New South Wales and Queensland. Melbourne also developed as a centre of the arts. Even after the national capital moved to Canberra, Melbourne remained Australia's business and finance capital until the 1970s, when it began to lose this primacy to Sydney. Melbourne continued to expand steadily throughout the first half of the 20th century, particularly with the post-World War II influx of immigrants and the prestige of hosting the Olympic Games in 1956.
The seat of government and the national capital remained in Melbourne until 1927 when it moved to the new capital city of Canberra. The first Federal parliament was opened on 9 May of that year in the Royal Exhibition Building. Melbourne became Australia's national capital at Federation on 1 January 1901. Victorian architecture abounds in Melbourne and today the city is home to the largest number of surviving Victorian era buildings of any city in the world other than London.
During the 1880s, Melbourne was the second largest city in the British Empire, and came to be known as "Marvellous Melbourne". Later it became Australia's leading manufacturing centre. With the discovery of gold in Victoria in the 1850s, leading to the Victorian gold rush, Melbourne quickly grew as a port and service centre. It was the capital first of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales and then of the separate colony of Victoria.
Ultimately, settlement continued regardless . A transaction was negotiated for 600,000 acres of land from eight of their representatives; this was later anulled by the New South Wales government (then governing all of eastern mainland Australia), who compensated the settlers in exchange. The area was already inhabited by the Kulin people, then indigenous to the area. The European settlement at Melbourne was founded in 1835 by settlers coming from Tasmania (then known as Van Diemen's Land), where they had difficulty finding available land.
Melbourne in Derbyshire derives its name from the Old English for Mill Stream (Mylla Burne). The city was named after the British Prime Minister William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose home was near the village of Melbourne in Derbyshire. . A resident of Melbourne is referred to as a Melburnian.
It has one of the highest numbers of international students studying in its universities, after London, New York City, and Paris. Melbourne has undergone a major urban 'revival', such that it is sometimes classed as being in a second tier of "world cities"; the GaWC study group in the UK ranks Melbourne, on the basis of relative availability of specialised "advanced services," as a "minor world city" comparable to cities such as Montreal, Osaka, and Prague. The US's Utne Reader puts it thus: "Add a long tradition of civic pride, communities of new immigrants from around the world, and the best food in Australia, and you have a recipe for what many claim is the hippest city in the Southern Hemisphere" (Nov/Dec 2001). In 2005, however, it was ranked 2nd, behind Vancouver, Canada.
Melbourne has twice ranked first in a survey by The Economist of The World's Most Livable Cities on the basis of its cultural attributes, climate, cost of living, and social conditions such as crime rates and health care, once in 2002 , and again in 2004 – a year in which the Economist truly took a shine to Australian cities, with the five largest cities in Australia given rankings of 6 or better. It is also considered to be the fashion, shopping, dining and cultural capital of Australia. Melbourne is considered by most Australians to be the sporting capital of Australia, as it is home to The Melbourne Cup, Australian F1 Grand Prix, Australian Open Tennis, AFL Grand Final and MotoGP Motorcycle Grand Prix, and will host the Commonwealth Games in 2006. Melbourne was the capital city of Australia from 1901 until 1927.
The city's name is pronounced as either /ˈmel.bən/ or /ˈmæl.bən/. Melbourne is the state capital and largest city in the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-largest city in Australia (after Sydney), with a population of approximately 3.8 million (2006 estimate) in the Melbourne metropolitan area and 69,670 in the City of Melbourne (which covers only the central city area). ^ Coban, Suzie: “The immigration rush”, Special Broadcasting Service, (Unknown date). Retrieved December 14, 2005.
Melbourne and Vancouver are the world’s best cities to live in . ^ Economist Intelligence Unit (2002). Galle, Sri Lanka – 2005 (after the 2004 tsunami disaster Melbourne adopted Galle in order to fund the reconstruction of its cricket ground). Milan, Italy – 2004.
Saint Petersburg, Russia – 1989. Boston, United States – 1985. Thessaloniki, Greece – 1984. Tianjin, China (PRC) – 1980.
Osaka, Japan – 1978.