Ostern

The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries' take on the Western movie.

It generally took two forms:

  1. Proper Red Westerns, set in America's 'Wild West', such as Czechoslovakia's Lemonade Joe (Limonadovy Joe, 1964), or the East-German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) or The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, Romania, 1981) involving radically different themes and genres. These were much more common in Eastern Europe, rather than the USSR itself.
  2. Easterns (Osterns), which took place usually on the steppes or Asian parts of the USSR, especially during the Russian Revolution or following Civil War. Examples of these include The Burning Miles (Ognennie Versti/Огненные вёрсты, 1957), The Bodyguard (Telokhranitel/Телохранитель, 1979), At Home among Strangers (1971), and famous Soviet film White Sun of the Desert (Beloye Solntse Pustynt/Белое солнце пустыни', 1970). While some of these are obviously influenced by Westerns, in some cases, the material can be seen as a parallel formation.

Naturally many of these contained political messages, but they can still be watched impartially as action films, comedies etc, and it is certainly true to say that American director John Ford imbued his films with controversial political messages too.

'Red Westerns' in an international context

'Red Westerns' of the first type are often compared to 'Spaghetti Westerns' (although technically these are 'Paella Westerns' being shot in Spain, rather than Italy), in that they use local scenery to double up for the American West. In particular, Yugoslavia, Mongolia and the Southern USSR were used.

'Red Westerns' provide a counterpoint to familiar mythologies and conventions of the original genre, particularly as the makers were on the other side of a propaganda war without parallel, the Cold War, and this is partially why many have never been shown in the west, at least not until after the Cold War ended. In a war in which many fabrications were made on both sides, there was often a lingering fascination with the cultural developments in enemy countries.

Westerns have proven particularly transferrable in the way that they create a mythology out of relatively recent history, a malleable idea that translates well to different cultures. In Russia, the Ostern uses the generic calling cards of the American Western to dramatise the civil war in Central Asia in the 1920s and 30s, in which the Red Army fought to maintain their country against Islamic Turkic 'Basmachi' rebels. By substituting, 'red' for 'blue' and 'Turk' for Mexican, there are the same opportunities for a sweeping drama played out against a backdrop of wide-open spaces. The Ural Mountains can be equivalent to Monument Valley, the Volga river for the Rio Grande. Add the gun slinging ethos, horse riding, working the land, pioneers of a sort (ideological often in this case!), the bounty hunter traversing difficult terrain with outlaw in tow, railroading and taming the wild frontier and you have a generic mirror image of the American genre.

Red Westerns which use the actual American west as a setting include, the Romanian The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, 1981) which dramatises the struggles of Romanian and Hungarian settlers in a new land. The Czech Lemonade Joe and the Soviet A Man from the Boulevard des Capuchines plump for pastiche or satire, making fun of the hard worn conventions of the American films. The German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) turned the traditional American "Cowboy and Indian" conventions on their head, casting the Native Americans as the heroes and the American Army as the villains, with some obvious Cold War overtones... it started a series of "Indian films" by the East German DEFA studios which were quite successful.

Interestingly, many of the non-Soviet examples of the genre were international co-productions akin to the Spaghetti Westerns. The Sons of the Great Mother Bear for example was a co-production between East Germany and Czechoslovakia, starring a Yugoslav, scripted in German, and shot in a number of different Eastern Bloc countries and used a variety of locations including Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Mongolia and Czechoslovakia. The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians was a Romanian film, but featured emigrant Hungarians heavily in the storyline.


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The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians was a Romanian film, but featured emigrant Hungarians heavily in the storyline. Past Robots E0 E0 (1986) Honda E1 E1 (1987 - 1991) E2 (1987 - 1991) E3 (1987 - 1991) E4 (1991 - 1993) E5 (1991 - 1993) E6 (1991 - 1993) P1 (1993 - 1993) P2 (1993 - 1993) P3 (1993 - 1993) ASIMO (2000 - Today). The Sons of the Great Mother Bear for example was a co-production between East Germany and Czechoslovakia, starring a Yugoslav, scripted in German, and shot in a number of different Eastern Bloc countries and used a variety of locations including Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Mongolia and Czechoslovakia. Honda's entry into the US motorcycle market during the 1960s is used as a case study for teaching introductory strategy at many business schools worldwide. Interestingly, many of the non-Soviet examples of the genre were international co-productions akin to the Spaghetti Westerns. For example, the high power-to-weight ratio engines Honda produced for its racing bikes provided technology and expertise which was transferable into mopeds. it started a series of "Indian films" by the East German DEFA studios which were quite successful. Creating the concept of core competencies with Honda as an example, they argued that Honda’s success was due to its focus on leadership in the technology of internal combustion engines.

The German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) turned the traditional American "Cowboy and Indian" conventions on their head, casting the Native Americans as the heroes and the American Army as the villains, with some obvious Cold War overtones.. Prahalad in 1989. The Czech Lemonade Joe and the Soviet A Man from the Boulevard des Capuchines plump for pastiche or satire, making fun of the hard worn conventions of the American films. K. Red Westerns which use the actual American west as a setting include, the Romanian The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, 1981) which dramatises the struggles of Romanian and Hungarian settlers in a new land. The most recent school of thought on Honda’s strategy was put forward by Gary Hamel and C. Add the gun slinging ethos, horse riding, working the land, pioneers of a sort (ideological often in this case!), the bounty hunter traversing difficult terrain with outlaw in tow, railroading and taming the wild frontier and you have a generic mirror image of the American genre. It was only when the team found that the scooters they were using to get themselves around their US base of San Francisco attracted positive interest from consumers that they came up with the idea of selling the Supercub.

The Ural Mountains can be equivalent to Monument Valley, the Volga river for the Rio Grande. For example, Honda’s initial plan on entering the US was to compete in large motorcycles, around 300cc. By substituting, 'red' for 'blue' and 'Turk' for Mexican, there are the same opportunities for a sweeping drama played out against a backdrop of wide-open spaces. As opposed to the tightly focused strategy of low cost and high scale that BCG accredited to Honda, Pascale found that their entry into the US market was a story of “miscalculation, serendipity, and organizational learning” – in other words, Honda’s success was due to the adaptability (and hard work) of its staff, rather than any long term strategy. In Russia, the Ostern uses the generic calling cards of the American Western to dramatise the civil war in Central Asia in the 1920s and 30s, in which the Red Army fought to maintain their country against Islamic Turkic 'Basmachi' rebels. The second story is told in 1984 by Richard Pascale, who had interviewed the Honda executives responsible for the firm’s entry into the US market. Westerns have proven particularly transferrable in the way that they create a mythology out of relatively recent history, a malleable idea that translates well to different cultures. It blamed the decline of the British motorcycle industry on the failure of British managers to invest enough in their businesses to profit from economies of scale and scope.

In a war in which many fabrications were made on both sides, there was often a lingering fascination with the cultural developments in enemy countries. The report concluded that the Japanese firms, including Honda, had sought a very high scale of production (they had made a large number of motorbikes) in order to benefit from economies of scale and learning curve effects. 'Red Westerns' provide a counterpoint to familiar mythologies and conventions of the original genre, particularly as the makers were on the other side of a propaganda war without parallel, the Cold War, and this is partially why many have never been shown in the west, at least not until after the Cold War ended. The first of these explanations was put forward when, in 1975, Boston Consulting Group (BCG) was commissioned by the UK government to write a report explaining why and how the British motorcycle industry had been out-competed by its Japanese competitors. In particular, Yugoslavia, Mongolia and the Southern USSR were used. Competing explanations have been advanced to explain Honda’s strategy and the reasons for their success. 'Red Westerns' of the first type are often compared to 'Spaghetti Westerns' (although technically these are 'Paella Westerns' being shot in Spain, rather than Italy), in that they use local scenery to double up for the American West. Taking Honda’s story as an archetype of the smaller manufacturer entering a new market already occupied by highly dominant competitors, the story of their market entry, and their subsequent huge success in the US and around the world, has been the subject of some academic controversy.

Naturally many of these contained political messages, but they can still be watched impartially as action films, comedies etc, and it is certainly true to say that American director John Ford imbued his films with controversial political messages too. During the 1960s, when it was a small manufacturer, Honda broke out of the Japanese motorcycle market and began exporting to the US. It generally took two forms:. In 2004, Honda-powered cars won 14 of 16 IRL events, including the Indianapolis 500, and claimed the IRL Manufacturers' Championship, Drivers' Championship and Rookie of the Year titles. The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries' take on the Western movie. In 2003, Honda became an engine supplier to the Indy Racing League. Examples of these include The Burning Miles (Ognennie Versti/Огненные вёрсты, 1957), The Bodyguard (Telokhranitel/Телохранитель, 1979), At Home among Strangers (1971), and famous Soviet film White Sun of the Desert (Beloye Solntse Pustynt/Белое солнце пустыни', 1970). While some of these are obviously influenced by Westerns, in some cases, the material can be seen as a parallel formation. This racing tragedy, coupled with their commercial difficulties selling automobiles in the United States, prompted Honda to withdraw from all international motorsport that year.

Easterns (Osterns), which took place usually on the steppes or Asian parts of the USSR, especially during the Russian Revolution or following Civil War. In 1968, Jo Schlesser was killed in a Honda RA302 at the French Grand Prix. These were much more common in Eastern Europe, rather than the USSR itself. Hailwood would later pick up their first senior TT win in 1966. Proper Red Westerns, set in America's 'Wild West', such as Czechoslovakia's Lemonade Joe (Limonadovy Joe, 1964), or the East-German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) or The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, Romania, 1981) involving radically different themes and genres. While always having good power, it took until 1961 for Honda to tune their chassis well enough to allow Mike Hailwood to claim their first race victories in the 125 and 250 cc classes. In 1959, Honda entered five motorcycles into the Isle of Man TT race, the most prestigious motorcycle race in the world.

Soichiro Honda, being a race driver himself, could not stay out of international motorsport. Honda also plans to make its vehicles safer for pedestrians, with more safely-designed hoods, hinges, frame constructs, and breakaway wiper pivots. By 2006, Honda plans to have as standard equipment Vehicle Safety Assist and rollover sensors in all light trucks, including the CR-V, Odyssey, and Acura MDX. For the 2007 model year, Honda plans to improve the safety of its vehicles by providing front-seat side airbags, side-curtain airbags, and anti-lock brakes as standard equipment in all automobiles available in North America (except the Insight, S2000, and Acura NSX, which will not have side-curtain airbags).

A more aggressive, longer duration, cam engages when engine RPM reaches a set point resulting in more power during hard acceleration. Normal driving would use a "shorter" cam lobe that resulted in more efficient operation. One of the first of its kind in passenger vehicles, it worked on the premise of tuning one engine to operate at two different 'settings' depending on load. In 1989 Honda launched their VTEC variable valve timing system in its production car engines, which gave improved efficiency and performance across a broader range of engine speeds.

Created in 1986 and known as Acura, the line is made up of modified versions of Honda vehicles usually with more power and sportiness than their Honda counterparts. Honda was also the first Japanese automaker to introduce a separate luxury line of vehicles. Honda's Canadian and many US-market Civics are manufactured in their plant in Alliston, Ontario since 1985. headquarters are located in Torrance, California.

Honda's North American and U.S. They now have plants in Marysville, Anna, and East Liberty, as well as in Lincoln, Alabama (Honda Manufacturing of Alabama), and Timmonsville, South Carolina, and plan to open a new plant in Tallapoosa, Georgia. In 1982, Honda was the first Japanese car manufacturer to build car plants in the US, starting with an Accord plant in Marysville, Ohio. In 1976, the Accord was immediately popular because of its economy and fun-to-drive nature; Honda had found its niche in the United States.

However, Honda's introduction of the 1975 Civic CVCC, CVCC being a variation on the stratified charge engine, allowed the Civic to pass emissions tests without a catalytic converter. New emissions laws in the US, requiring American car makers to affix expensive catalytic converters to exhaust systems, noticeably increased sticker prices. Honda finally established a foothold in the American market in 1972 with the introduction of the Civic—larger than their previous models, but still small compared to the typical American car—just as the 1970s energy crisis was impacting worldwide economies. Built for Japanese buyers, Honda's small cars had failed to gain the interest of American buyers.

Though participating in international motorsport (see Racing), Honda was having difficulty selling its automobiles in the United States. Honda began producing road cars in 1960, mostly intended for the Japanese market. By the 1970s, Honda was the largest producer of motorcycles in the world, a title it has never relinquished. The British were especially slow to respond to the Honda introduction of electric starters to motorcycles.

By the late 1960s, Honda had conquered most world markets. Honda quickly began to produce a range of scooters and motorcycles and Soichiro Honda quickly recovered from the losses incurred during the war. remains the same, in honor of Soichiro Honda's efforts. Ltd.

Interestingly, the official Japanese name for Honda Motor Co. Honda and associates would fit engines to bicycles. Ltd." Despite its grandiose name, the first facility bearing that name was a simple wooden shack where Mr. Soichiro Honda created a new company with what he had left, giving it the unusual name of "Honda Giken Kōgyō Kabushiki Kaisha" which translates to "Honda Research Institute Co.

The Honda piston manufacturing facilities were almost completely destroyed. Honda, utilizing his manufacturing facilities, attached an engine to a bicycle, creating the cheap and efficient transport that was required. Soichiro Honda took advantage of a gap in the Japanese market that was decimated by World War II, Japan was starved of money and fuel, but still in need of basic transport. was founded.

On September 24, 1948 the Honda Motor Co. He quickly became a sub-contractor to Toyota, and then expanded into other engine parts. Soichiro Honda began by manufacturing piston rings in November 1937. .

Honda Canada is based in Alliston, Ontario. American Honda Motor Co., is based in Torrance, CA. Their shares trade on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange, as well as exchanges in Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Kyoto, Fukuoka, London, Paris and Switzerland. Honda is headquartered in Tokyo.

It is arguable, however, that the foundation of Honda's success is the motorcycle division, for which the name is still probably the best known. Honda's high-end line of cars are branded Acura in North America. In 2004, the company began to produce diesel motors, which were both very quiet whilst not requiring particulate filters to pass pollution standards. With more than 14 million internal combustion engines built each year, Honda is the largest engine-maker in the world.

They also make ATVs, water craft, electrical generators, marine engines, and lawn and garden equipment. Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (in Japanese: 本田技研工業株式会社, in romaji: Honda Giken Kōgyō Kabushiki Kaisha, in pinyin: Bentian Jiyan Gongye Zhushi Huishe) TYO: 7267 (NYSE: HMC), is a Japanese manufacturer of automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, and scooters. ASIMO Humanoid Robot - Official US Site. ASIMO ASIMO, a bipedal humanoid robot.

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