Ostern

The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries' take on the Western movie.

It generally took two forms:

  1. Proper Red Westerns, set in America's 'Wild West', such as Czechoslovakia's Lemonade Joe (Limonadovy Joe, 1964), or the East-German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) or The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, Romania, 1981) involving radically different themes and genres. These were much more common in Eastern Europe, rather than the USSR itself.
  2. Easterns (Osterns), which took place usually on the steppes or Asian parts of the USSR, especially during the Russian Revolution or following Civil War. Examples of these include The Burning Miles (Ognennie Versti/Огненные вёрсты, 1957), The Bodyguard (Telokhranitel/Телохранитель, 1979), At Home among Strangers (1971), and famous Soviet film White Sun of the Desert (Beloye Solntse Pustynt/Белое солнце пустыни', 1970). While some of these are obviously influenced by Westerns, in some cases, the material can be seen as a parallel formation.

Naturally many of these contained political messages, but they can still be watched impartially as action films, comedies etc, and it is certainly true to say that American director John Ford imbued his films with controversial political messages too.

'Red Westerns' in an international context

'Red Westerns' of the first type are often compared to 'Spaghetti Westerns' (although technically these are 'Paella Westerns' being shot in Spain, rather than Italy), in that they use local scenery to double up for the American West. In particular, Yugoslavia, Mongolia and the Southern USSR were used.

'Red Westerns' provide a counterpoint to familiar mythologies and conventions of the original genre, particularly as the makers were on the other side of a propaganda war without parallel, the Cold War, and this is partially why many have never been shown in the west, at least not until after the Cold War ended. In a war in which many fabrications were made on both sides, there was often a lingering fascination with the cultural developments in enemy countries.

Westerns have proven particularly transferrable in the way that they create a mythology out of relatively recent history, a malleable idea that translates well to different cultures. In Russia, the Ostern uses the generic calling cards of the American Western to dramatise the civil war in Central Asia in the 1920s and 30s, in which the Red Army fought to maintain their country against Islamic Turkic 'Basmachi' rebels. By substituting, 'red' for 'blue' and 'Turk' for Mexican, there are the same opportunities for a sweeping drama played out against a backdrop of wide-open spaces. The Ural Mountains can be equivalent to Monument Valley, the Volga river for the Rio Grande. Add the gun slinging ethos, horse riding, working the land, pioneers of a sort (ideological often in this case!), the bounty hunter traversing difficult terrain with outlaw in tow, railroading and taming the wild frontier and you have a generic mirror image of the American genre.

Red Westerns which use the actual American west as a setting include, the Romanian The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, 1981) which dramatises the struggles of Romanian and Hungarian settlers in a new land. The Czech Lemonade Joe and the Soviet A Man from the Boulevard des Capuchines plump for pastiche or satire, making fun of the hard worn conventions of the American films. The German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) turned the traditional American "Cowboy and Indian" conventions on their head, casting the Native Americans as the heroes and the American Army as the villains, with some obvious Cold War overtones... it started a series of "Indian films" by the East German DEFA studios which were quite successful.

Interestingly, many of the non-Soviet examples of the genre were international co-productions akin to the Spaghetti Westerns. The Sons of the Great Mother Bear for example was a co-production between East Germany and Czechoslovakia, starring a Yugoslav, scripted in German, and shot in a number of different Eastern Bloc countries and used a variety of locations including Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Mongolia and Czechoslovakia. The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians was a Romanian film, but featured emigrant Hungarians heavily in the storyline.


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The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians was a Romanian film, but featured emigrant Hungarians heavily in the storyline. For details of extinct varieties of football invented and/or played during the Middle Ages in Europe, see the medieval football article.. The Sons of the Great Mother Bear for example was a co-production between East Germany and Czechoslovakia, starring a Yugoslav, scripted in German, and shot in a number of different Eastern Bloc countries and used a variety of locations including Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Mongolia and Czechoslovakia. The different codes are listed below and are described more fully in their own articles. Interestingly, many of the non-Soviet examples of the genre were international co-productions akin to the Spaghetti Westerns. In other countries or regions within them, the word "football" may refer to American football, Australian rules football, Canadian football, Gaelic football, or one of the two codes of rugby football: rugby league or rugby union. it started a series of "Indian films" by the East German DEFA studios which were quite successful. However, even in the countries where football is the official name of association football, this name may be at odds with common usage.

The German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) turned the traditional American "Cowboy and Indian" conventions on their head, casting the Native Americans as the heroes and the American Army as the villains, with some obvious Cold War overtones.. Of the 48 national FIFA affiliates in which English is an official or primary language, only five — Canada, the Marshall Islands, New Zealand, Samoa and the United States — use soccer in their name, while the rest use football. The Czech Lemonade Joe and the Soviet A Man from the Boulevard des Capuchines plump for pastiche or satire, making fun of the hard worn conventions of the American films. In most English-speaking countries, the word "football" usually refers to Association football, also known as soccer (soccer originally being a slang abbreviation of Association). Red Westerns which use the actual American west as a setting include, the Romanian The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, 1981) which dramatises the struggles of Romanian and Hungarian settlers in a new land. Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football, primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world. Add the gun slinging ethos, horse riding, working the land, pioneers of a sort (ideological often in this case!), the bounty hunter traversing difficult terrain with outlaw in tow, railroading and taming the wild frontier and you have a generic mirror image of the American genre. The word "football", when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

The Ural Mountains can be equivalent to Monument Valley, the Volga river for the Rio Grande. This situation endured until 1948, when at the instigation of the French league, the Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) was formed at a meeting in Bordeaux. By substituting, 'red' for 'blue' and 'Turk' for Mexican, there are the same opportunities for a sweeping drama played out against a backdrop of wide-open spaces. However the rules of professional rugby varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match. In Russia, the Ostern uses the generic calling cards of the American Western to dramatise the civil war in Central Asia in the 1920s and 30s, in which the Red Army fought to maintain their country against Islamic Turkic 'Basmachi' rebels. In 1907, a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, and as a result the New South Wales Rugby League was formed. Westerns have proven particularly transferrable in the way that they create a mythology out of relatively recent history, a malleable idea that translates well to different cultures. Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in 1906, with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players, and the introduction of the play the ball (heeling the ball back after a tackle).

In a war in which many fabrications were made on both sides, there was often a lingering fascination with the cultural developments in enemy countries. However, the number of deaths and injuries did gradually decline. 'Red Westerns' provide a counterpoint to familiar mythologies and conventions of the original genre, particularly as the makers were on the other side of a propaganda war without parallel, the Cold War, and this is partially why many have never been shown in the west, at least not until after the Cold War ended. The changes did not immediately have the desired effect, and 33 American football players were killed during 1908 alone. In particular, Yugoslavia, Mongolia and the Southern USSR were used. The report of the meetings introduced many restrictions on tackling and two more divergences from rugby: the banning of mass formation plays, as well as the forward pass. 'Red Westerns' of the first type are often compared to 'Spaghetti Westerns' (although technically these are 'Paella Westerns' being shot in Spain, rather than Italy), in that they use local scenery to double up for the American West. However, Harvard University had just built a concrete stadium, objected and proposed instead legalisation of the forward pass.

Naturally many of these contained political messages, but they can still be watched impartially as action films, comedies etc, and it is certainly true to say that American director John Ford imbued his films with controversial political messages too. One proposed change was a widening of the playing field. It generally took two forms:. The meetings are now considered to be the origin of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries' take on the Western movie. This occurred reputedly at the behest of President Theodore Roosevelt, who was considered to be a fancier of the game, but who had threatened to ban it, unless the rules were modified to reduce the numbers of deaths and disabilities. Examples of these include The Burning Miles (Ognennie Versti/Огненные вёрсты, 1957), The Bodyguard (Telokhranitel/Телохранитель, 1979), At Home among Strangers (1971), and famous Soviet film White Sun of the Desert (Beloye Solntse Pustynt/Белое солнце пустыни', 1970). While some of these are obviously influenced by Westerns, in some cases, the material can be seen as a parallel formation. Consequently, a series of meetings was held by 19 colleges in 1905-06.

Easterns (Osterns), which took place usually on the steppes or Asian parts of the USSR, especially during the Russian Revolution or following Civil War. By the early 20th century in the USA, this had resulted in national controversy and American football was banned by a number of colleges. These were much more common in Eastern Europe, rather than the USSR itself. Both forms of rugby and American football were noted at the time for serious injuries, as well as the deaths of a significant number of players. Proper Red Westerns, set in America's 'Wild West', such as Czechoslovakia's Lemonade Joe (Limonadovy Joe, 1964), or the East-German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) or The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, Romania, 1981) involving radically different themes and genres. Eventually, to differentiate the two codes of rugby, the code played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB became known as Rugby Union. The separate Lancashire and Yorkshire competitions of the NRFU merged in 1901, forming the Northern Rugby League, the first time the name Rugby League was used officially.

Within a few years the NRFU rules had started to diverge from the RFU, most notably with the abolition of the line out. In 1895 representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU), a professional competition. In Britain, by the 1890s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries. Professionalism was beginning to creep into the various codes of football.

The International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) was founded in 1886, but rifts were beginning to emerge in the code. The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule (an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football). Davan's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise an Irish code of football distinct from Rugby and Association football. The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davan and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, 1887.

The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject "foreign" (particularly English) imports. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in 1884. Caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which even allowed tripping. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.

Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby (see the Developments in the 1850s section, above). By the 1870s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. "Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, and carrying the ball were all allowed. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and; the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary.

One observer, Father W. Main article: History of Gaelic football. In the mid-19th century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid, remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry. (The Canadian Rugby Union was not formed until 1965.) American football was also frequently described as "rugby" in the 1880s. For example, the Canadian Rugby Football Union, founded in 1884 was the forerunner of the Canadian Football League, rather than a Rugby Union body.

One of these was that Canadian football, for many years, did not officially distinguish itself from rugby. Over the years Canadian football absorbed some developments in American football, but also retained many unique characteristics. successful tackles). These were complemented in 1882 by another of Camp's innovations: a team had to surrender possession if they did not gain five yards after three downs (i.e.

In 1880, Yale coach Walter Camp, devised a number of major changes to the American game, beginning with the reduction of teams from 15 to 11 players, followed by reduction of the field area by almost half, and; the introduction of the scrimmage, in which a player heeled the ball backwards, to begin a game. US colleges did not generally return to soccer until the early twentieth century. Princeton, Rutgers and others continued to compete using soccer-based rules for a few years before switching to the rugby-based rules of Harvard and its competitors. The convention decided that, in the US game, four touchdowns would be worth one goal; in the event of a tied score, a goal converted from a touchdown would take precedence over four touch-downs.

However, a touch-down (as it was also known in rugby football at the time) only counted toward the score if neither side kicked a field goal. In 1876, at the Massasoit Convention, it was agreed by these universities to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules. Within a few years, however, Harvard had both adopted McGill's rugby rules and had persuaded other US university teams to do the same. This made it easy for Harvard to adapt to the rugby-based game played by McGill and the two teams alternated between their respective sets of rules.

At the time, Harvard students are reported to have played the "Boston Game" — a running code — rather than the FA-based kicking games favored by US universities. Modern American football grew out of a match between McGill University of Montreal, and Harvard University in 1874. This is also often considered to be the first US game of college football, in the sense of a game between colleges (although the eventual form of American football would come from rugby, not soccer). The first match generally said to have occurred under English FA (soccer) rules in the USA was a game between Princeton and Rutgers in 1869.

The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded football club in Canada. However, the first game of "rugby" in Canada is generally said to have taken place in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. Bethune devised rules based on the Rugby School game. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A.

In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. The club may have invented the "Boston Game", a running code which was being played several years later in Massachusetts. However, the rules that the Oneida club used are also unknown, and it was formed before the FA rules were formulated. It has often been said that this club was the first to play soccer outside Britain.

The first "football club" in the USA was the short-lived Oneida Football Club in Boston, Massachusetts, founded in 1862. A football club was formed at the university soon afterwards, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear: it is not known whether they played a kicking or handling game, or both, and its members mostly played against each other. The first documented football match in Canada was a game played at University College, University of Toronto on November 9, 1861. In 1827, a Harvard University student composed a humorous epic poem called The Battle of the Delta, one of the first accounts of football in American universities.

By the 1820s, a game known as Ballown was being played at the College of New Jersey (later known as Princeton University) and Old Division Football was being played at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire. As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students. (Ironically, Blackheath now lobbied to ban hacking.) The first official RFU rules were adopted in June 1871. However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until 1871, when 21 clubs in England came together to form the Rugby Football Union (RFU).

There were also "rugby" clubs in Ireland, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. In Britain, by 1870, there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby School game, including Blackheath (founded in 1858 and arguably the world's oldest surviving, non-university rugby club). These first FA rules still contained elements that are recognisable in other games for instance, a player could make a fair catch and claim a mark and if a player touched the ball behind the opponents' goal line, his side was entitled to a free kick at the goal 15 yards from the goal line. After the final meeting on 8 December the FA published the "Laws of Football", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association football (or, colloquially, soccer).

The motion was carried nonetheless but at the final meeting, Campbell withdrew his club from the FA. He said, "hacking is the true football". Campbell, the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected strongly. W.

Most of the delegates were favourable to this suggestion but F. At the fifth meeting a motion was proposed that these two rules be expunged from the FA rules. The two contentious draft rules were as follows:. The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely 'running with the ball' and 'hacking' (kicking an opponent in the shins).

At the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the fact that a number of newspapers had recently published the Cambridge Rules of 1863. At the close of the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published that most of the delegates were happy to endorse, but this agreement was not to last. In total, six meetings were held between October and December 1863. Rugby, Eton and Winchester did not even reply.

With the exception of Thring at Uppingham, most schools declined. The first meeting resulted in the issuing of a request for representatives of the public schools to join the association. The aim was to produce a single code of football that everybody could agree to and to set up a governing body for the regulation of the game. Charterhouse was the only school represented at that first meeting.

The meeting had been called, not by public school figures, but by members of several football clubs in the London Metropolitan area. It was the world's first official football body. On the evening of October 26, 1863 at the Freemason's Tavern in Great Queen Street, London, The Football Association (FA) met for the first time. This later revised version of the Cambridge Rules rules were to form the basis of what eventually became the rules adopted by The Football Association (FA).

In early October of 1863 a new revised set of Cambridge Rules rules were drawn up by a seven man committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was now a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" (these are also known as the Uppingham Rules). C. In 1862, J.

The official name of the code is now Australian football. By 1866, however, several other clubs in the Colony of Victoria had agreed to play an updated version of the Melbourne FC rules, which were later known as "Victorian Rules" and/or "Australasian Rules". Australian Rules is sometimes said to be the first form of football to be codified but — as was the case in all kinds of football at the time, there was no official body supporting the rules — and play varied from one club to another. The 1859 rules did not include some elements which would soon become important to the game, such as the requirement to bounce the ball while running.

The club had a strong and long-standing association with the Melbourne Cricket Club and cricket ovals — which vary in size and are much larger than the fields used in other forms of football — became the standard playing field. However, running while holding the ball was allowed and although it was not specified in the rules, an oval ball (like those later used in rugby) was used. A free kick was awarded for a mark (clean catch). These men had similar backgrounds to Wills and their code also had pronounced similarities to the Sheffield rules, most notably in the absence of an offside rule.

Harrison). A. C. Thompson and Thomas Smith (some sources include H.

B. Hammersley, J. J. They were drawn up at the Parade Hotel, East Melbourne on May 17, by Wills, W.

The club's rules of 1859 are the oldest surviving set of laws for Australian Rules. The Melbourne Football Club was also founded in 1858 and is the oldest surviving Australian football club, but the rules it used during its first season are unknown. It appears that Australian Rules also has some similarities to the Indigenous Australian game of Marn Grook (see above). There were pronounced similarities between Wills's game and Gaelic football (as it would be codified in 1887).

The extent to which Wills was directly influenced by British and Irish football games is unknown, but there were similarities between some of them and his game. Wills had been educated in England, at Rugby School and had played cricket for Cambridge University. Tom Wills began to develop Australian Rules football in Melbourne during 1858. (For more details see: Oldest football clubs.).

By the end of the 1850s, many clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. In 1867 the Sheffield Football Association was formed by a number of clubs in the local area and the Sheffield clubs continued to play by their own rules until they decided to fall in line with the FA in 1878.). (How long this set of rules lasted is unclear, but by 1866, when Sheffield played a combined FA side, they were employing their own version of offside that differed from the FA rule. There were some similarities to the Cambridge Rules, but players were allowed to push or hit the ball with their hands, and there was no offside rule at all, so that players known as 'kick throughs' could be permanently positioned near the opponents' goal.

Creswick and Prest devised their own version of football: the Sheffield Rules. It was founded by former Harrow School pupils Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, in 1857. Sheffield Football Club also has a claim to be the world's oldest football club, in the sense of a club not attached to a school or university. Dublin University Football Club — founded at Trinity College, Dublin in 1854 and later famous as a bastion of the Rugby School game — is arguably the world's oldest football club in any code.

The increasing interest and development of the various English football games was shown in 1851, when William Gilbert, a shoemaker from Rugby, exhibited both round and oval-shaped balls at the Great Exhibition in London. However, the Cambridge Rules were not widely adopted. Handling was only allowed for a player to take a clean catch entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal. The rules clearly favour the kicking game.

No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa 1856 is held in the library of Shrewsbury School. An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge Rules. Thring, who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School, called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury. J.C.

de Winton and Mr. H. In 1848 at Cambridge University, Mr. While local rules for athletics could be easily understood by visiting schools, it was nearly impossible for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules.

Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. The boom in rail transport in Britain during the 1840s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before. This further assisted the spread of the Rugby game. These were the first set of written rules (or code) for any form of football.

In 1845, three boys at Rugby School were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school. However, some have argued that this club is too poorly documented to be considered to have existed since that time. The club is said to have played the Rugby School game. For example, it is said that the world's first "football club" (that is one which was not part of a school or university), was the Guy's Hospital Football Club, founded in London in 1843.

During this period, the Rugby School rules appear to have spread at least as far, perhaps further, than the other schools' games. At Charterhouse and Westminster the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the cloisters making the rough and tumble of the handling game difficult. The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. Some favoured a game in which the ball could be carried (as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham), whilst others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted (as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse).

Soon, two schools of thought about how football should be played had developed. However, by 1841 (some sources say 1842), running with the ball had become acceptable at Rugby, as long as a player gathered the ball on the full or from a bounce, he was not offside and he did not pass the ball. In 1823 William Webb Ellis, a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "showed a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time" by picking up the ball and running to the opponents' goal, but the evidence for this bold act does not stand up to close examination. Each school drafted their own rules as they saw fit and they often varied widely and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils.

Football had come to be adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. These gradually evolved into the modern football games that we know today. Thus the public school boys, who were free from constant toil, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules. Feast day football on the public highway was at an end.

They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force. By the early 19th century, (before the Factory Act of 1850), most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day. Frankland also mentions the "Football Fields" at Eton. Nugae Etonenses (1766) by T.

He describes how "...we may play quoits, or hand-ball, or bat-and-ball, or football; these games are innocent and lawful...". The first specific mention of football can be found in a Latin poem by Robert Matthew, a Winchester scholar from 1643 to 1647. Horman had been headmaster at Eton College and Winchester and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde". The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Horman in 1519.

(The Duke also presented the ball before the match — a ritual that continues to this day.) In 1835, the British Highways Act banned the playing of football on public highways, with a maximum penalty of forty shillings. In 1827, the annual Alnwick Shrove Tuesday game proceeded only after the Duke of Northumberland provided a field for the game to be played on. Even in the early modern era, efforts were made to ban football at a local level, and force it off the streets. Charles II of England gave the game royal approval in 1681 when he attended a fixture between the Royal Household and the Duke of Albemarle's servants.

In the period following the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell had some success in suppressing football games, although they became even more popular following the Restoration, in 1660. ("Spurn" literally means to kick away, thus implying that the game involved kicking a ball between players.). Shakespeare also mentions the game in A Comedy of Errors (Act II Scene 1):. Shakespeare's play King Lear (which was first published in 1608) contains the line: "Nor tripped neither, you base football player" (Act I Scene 4).

That same year, the modern spelling of the word "football" is first recorded, when it was used disapprovingly by William Shakespeare. By 1608, the local authorities in Manchester were complaining that:. All of these attempts failed to curb the people's desire to play the game. Despite evidence that Henry VIII of England played the game — in 1526, he ordered the first known pair of football boots — in 1540 Henry also attempted a ban.

In Scotland, football was banned by James I in 1424 and by James II in 1457. In England, the outlawing of sport was attempted by Richard II in 1389 and Henry IV in 1401. In France it was banned by Phillippe V in 1319, and again by Charles V in 1369. Football featured in similar attempts by monarchs to ban recreational sport across Europe.

The reasons for the ban by Edward III, on June 12, 1349, were explicit: football and other recreations distracted the populace from practicing archery, which was necessary for war, and after the great loss of life that had occurred during the Black Death, England needed as many archers as possible. King Edward II was so troubled by the unruliness of football in London that on April 13, 1314 he issued a proclamation banning it:. Between 1324 and 1667, football was banned in England alone by more than 30 royal and local laws. Numerous attempts have been made throughout history to ban football games, particularly the most rowdy and disruptive forms.

Calcio is still played, mostly as a tourist attraction. The game was not played between January 1739 and May 1930, when it was revived to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the match mentioned above. This is sometimes credited as the earliest known published rules of any football game. In 1580, Count Giovanni de' Bardi di Vernio wrote Discorso sopra 'l giuoco del Calcio Fiorentino.

While the troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor were besieging Florence, a game of calcio was organised as a show of defiance. The most famous match took place on February 17, 1530. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise. Blows below the belt were allowed.

For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football. In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game known as "o Calcio storico" ("kickball in costume") in the Piazza della Novere or the Piazza Santa Croce. (The earliest recorded football match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath, at Slane, in 1712.).

The first reference to football in Ireland occurs in the Statute of Galway of 1527, which allowed the playing of football and archery but banned "hokie' — the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves" as well as other sports. However, the first clear reference to a ball being used did not occur until 1486.[3]. In 1424, King James I of Scotland also attempted to ban the playing of "fute-ball". The first clear reference to football was not recorded until 1409, when King Henry IV of England issued an edict to ban it.

This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked. Most of the early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball". He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday. 1174-1183).

The first description of football in England was given by William FitzStephen (c. Shrovetide games survive in a number of English towns (see below). A legend that these games in England evolved from a more ancient and bloody ritual of kicking the "Dane's head" is unlikely to be true. These archaic forms of football would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams, who would clash in a heaving mass of people struggling to drag an inflated pig's bladder by any means possible to markers at each end of a town.

Reports of a game played in Brittany, Normandy and Picardy, known as Choule or Soule, suggest that some of these football games could have arrived in England as a result of the Norman Conquest. The game played in England at this time may have arrived with the Roman occupation, but there is little evidence to indicate this. The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England. However, the route towards the development of modern football games appears to lie in Western Europe and particularly England.

These games and others may well stretch far back into antiquity and have influenced football over the centuries. The ancient Aztec game of ollamalitzli also involved kicking a ball, but it generally had more similarities to basketball. Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and then at a goal. In northern Canada and/or Alaska, the Inuit (Eskimos) played a game on ice called Aqsaqtuk.

An 1878 book by Robert Brough-Smyth, The Aborigines of Victoria, quotes a man called Richard Thomas as saying, in about 1841, that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: "Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick a ball made from the skin of a possum and how other players leap into the air in order to catch it." It is widely believed that Marn Grook had an influence on the development of Australian Rules Football (see below). In Victoria, Australia, Indigenous Australians played a game called Marn Grook. For example, William Strachey of the Jamestown settlement is the first to record a game played by the Native Americans called Pahsaheman, in 1610. There are a number of less well-documented references to prehistoric, ancient or traditional ball games, played by indigenous peoples all around the world.

The game appears to have vaguely resembled rugby. The Roman game of Harpastu is believed to have been adapted from a team game known as "επισκυρος" (episkyros) or pheninda that is mentioned by Greek playwright, Antiphanes (388-311BC) and later referred to by Clement of Alexandria. The Roman writer Cicero describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barbers shop. The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games some of which involved the use of the feet.

In 1903 in a bid to restore ancient traditions the game was revived and it can now be seen played for the benefit of tourists at a number of festivals. The game survived through many years but appears to have died out sometime before the mid 19th century. In kemari several individuals stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground (much like keepie uppie). This is known to have been played within the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto from about 600AD.

Another Asian ball-kicking game, which may have been influenced by tsu chu, is kemari. It was not a game as such but more of a spectacle for the amusement of the Emperor and it may have been performed as long as 3000 years ago. It describes a practice known as tsu chu (Traditional Chinese:蹴鞠 or 蹴踘 ; Pinyin: cù jū) which involved kicking a leather ball through a hole in a piece of silk cloth strung between two 30 foot poles. Documented evidence of what is possibly the oldest organized activity resembling football can be found in a Chinese military manual written during the Han Dynasty in about 2nd century BC.

Football-like games predate recorded history in all parts of the world, though the earliest forms of football are not known. Throughout the history of mankind the urge to kick at stones and other such objects is thought to have led to many early activities involving kicking and/or running with a ball. .
.

In all football games, the winning team is the one that has the most points or goals when a specified length of time has elapsed. The object of all football games is to advance the ball by kicking, running with, or passing and catching, either to the opponent's end of the field where points or goals can be scored by, depending on the game, putting the ball across the goal line between posts and under a crossbar, putting the ball between upright posts (and possibly over a crossbar), or advancing the ball across the opponent's goal line while maintaining possession of the ball. Many of the modern games have their origins in England, but many peoples around the world have played games which involved kicking and/or carrying a ball since ancient times. All football games involve scoring points with a spherical or ellipsoidal ball (itself called a football), by moving the ball into, onto, or over a goal area or line defended by the opposing team.

(See football (word) for more details.). In some cases, the word football has been applied to games which have specifically outlawed kicking the ball. While there is no conclusive evidence for this explanation, the word football has always implied a variety of games played on foot, not just those that involved kicking a ball. While it is widely believed that the word football, or "foot ball", originated in reference to the action of a foot kicking a ball, there is a rival explanation, which has it that football originally referred to a variety of games in medieval Europe, which were played on foot.[1] These games were usually played by peasants, as opposed to the horse-riding sports often played by aristocrats.

(See also: Players who have converted from one football code to another.). The English language word football is also applied to Rugby football (Rugby union and Rugby league), American football, Australian rules football, Gaelic football, and Canadian football. The most popular of these worldwide is Association football, which is called soccer in several countries. Football is the name given to a number of different, but related, team sports.

Williams, Graham (1994); The Code War; Yore Publications, ISBN 1874427658. Green, Geoffrey (1953); The History of the Football Association; Naldrett Press, London. Mandelbaum, Michael (2004); The Meaning of Sports; Public Affairs, ISBN 1586482521. Madden NFL.

Fantasy football (American). Blood Bowl. Based on American Football:

    . Paper football.

    Based on Rugby:

      . Button football (also known as Futebol de Mesa; Jogo de Botões). Fantasy football (soccer). Foosball (also known as table football/soccer, babyfoot, bar football or gettone).

      Blow football. Subbuteo. Category:Football (soccer) computer and video games. Based on FA rules:

        .

        Force em' Backs. Scuffleball. Based on Rugby:

          . Triskelion.

          Three sided football. Cubbies. Based on FA rules:

            . Murder Ball.

            Based on Medieval football:

              . Winchester Football. Harrow Football. Eton Wall Game.

              Eton Field Game. Calcio Fiorentino — a modern revival of Renaissance football from 16th century Florence. Outside the UK other Mediæval games include:

                . Kirkwall in the Orkney Islands.

                Scone, Perthshire. Duns, Berwickshire. In Scotland the Ba game ("Ball Game") is still popular around Christmas and Hogmanay at:

                  . Sedgefield in County Durham.

                  Hurling the Silver Ball takes place at St Columb Major in Cornwall. Haxey in Lincolnshire (the Haxey Hood, actually played on Epiphany). Corfe Castle in Dorset The Shrove Tuesday Football Ceremony of the Purbeck Marblers. Atherstone in Warwickshire.

                  Ashbourne in Derbyshire (known as Royal Shrovetide Football). Alnwick in Northumberland. Alternative names include mob football, Shrovetide football and folk football.

                    . Traditional Shrove Tuesday matches in the UK — annual town- or village-wide football games with their own rules.

                    Marn Grook — a game played by some Australian Aboriginal communities, which is considered to have partly inspired Australian football. International rules football — a compromise code used for games between Gaelic and Australian Rules players. Gaelic football. Austus – a compromise between Australian rules and American football, invented in Melbourne during World War II.

                    Samoa Rules — localised version adapted to Samoan conditions, such as the use of rugby fields. Rec Footy — "Recreational Football", a modified non-contact touch variation of Australian rules, created by the AFL, which replaces tackles with tags. (Includes contact and non-contact varieties.). 9-a-side Footy — a more open, running variety of Australian rules, requiring 18 players in total and a proportionally smaller playing area.

                    Metro Footy (or Metro rules footy) — a modified version invented by the USAFL, for use on gridiron fields in North American cities (which often lack grounds large enough for conventional Australian rules matches). Auskick — a version of Australian rules designed by the AFL for young children. Often (erroneously) referred to as "AFL", which is the name of the main organising body.

                      . Australian rules football — now known officially as Australian football and informally as "Aussie rules" or "footy".

                      (Another game known as speedball is a combination of soccer and handball.). It has since been played occasionally on an experimental basis, but is not known to have had organised competitions amateur leagues. There is an coincidental resemblance to Gaelic football. Mitchell at the University of Michigan in 1912.

                      Speedball (American) — a combination of American football, soccer, and basketball, devised by Elmer D. Canadian flag football — non-tackle Canadian football. Canadian football — called simply "football" in Canada.

                        . Flag football — non-tackle American football, like touch football, in which a flag that is held by velcro on a belt tied around the waist is pulled by defenders to indicate a tackle.

                        Touch football — non-tackle American football.

                          . Arena football — an indoor version of American football. American football — called "football" in the United States, and "gridiron" in Australia and New Zealand.
                            . Quad Rugby.

                            Wheelchair Power Tag Rugby. Wheelchair Rugby

                              . Tag Rugby — a form of Touch Rugby, in which a velcro tag is taken to indicate a tackle. Touch Rugby — a form of rugby union without tackles.
                                .

                                Rugby Sevens. Rugby Union

                                  . OzTag — a form of Rugby League replacing tackles with tags. Touch football — usually known simply as "Touch".

                                  Rugby League

                                    . Rugby football
                                      . Beach soccer — football played on sand, also known as sand soccer. Paralympic Football — modified association football for disabled competitors.

                                      Indoor soccer — the six-a-side indoor game as played in North America. Futsal — the FIFA-approved Five-a-side indoor game. Five-a-side football - played throughout the world under various rules including:

                                        . Indoor varieties of Association football:
                                          .

                                          Association football, also known as soccer.

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