Ostern

The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries' take on the Western movie.

It generally took two forms:

  1. Proper Red Westerns, set in America's 'Wild West', such as Czechoslovakia's Lemonade Joe (Limonadovy Joe, 1964), or the East-German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) or The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, Romania, 1981) involving radically different themes and genres. These were much more common in Eastern Europe, rather than the USSR itself.
  2. Easterns (Osterns), which took place usually on the steppes or Asian parts of the USSR, especially during the Russian Revolution or following Civil War. Examples of these include The Burning Miles (Ognennie Versti/Огненные вёрсты, 1957), The Bodyguard (Telokhranitel/Телохранитель, 1979), At Home among Strangers (1971), and famous Soviet film White Sun of the Desert (Beloye Solntse Pustynt/Белое солнце пустыни', 1970). While some of these are obviously influenced by Westerns, in some cases, the material can be seen as a parallel formation.

Naturally many of these contained political messages, but they can still be watched impartially as action films, comedies etc, and it is certainly true to say that American director John Ford imbued his films with controversial political messages too.

'Red Westerns' in an international context

'Red Westerns' of the first type are often compared to 'Spaghetti Westerns' (although technically these are 'Paella Westerns' being shot in Spain, rather than Italy), in that they use local scenery to double up for the American West. In particular, Yugoslavia, Mongolia and the Southern USSR were used.

'Red Westerns' provide a counterpoint to familiar mythologies and conventions of the original genre, particularly as the makers were on the other side of a propaganda war without parallel, the Cold War, and this is partially why many have never been shown in the west, at least not until after the Cold War ended. In a war in which many fabrications were made on both sides, there was often a lingering fascination with the cultural developments in enemy countries.

Westerns have proven particularly transferrable in the way that they create a mythology out of relatively recent history, a malleable idea that translates well to different cultures. In Russia, the Ostern uses the generic calling cards of the American Western to dramatise the civil war in Central Asia in the 1920s and 30s, in which the Red Army fought to maintain their country against Islamic Turkic 'Basmachi' rebels. By substituting, 'red' for 'blue' and 'Turk' for Mexican, there are the same opportunities for a sweeping drama played out against a backdrop of wide-open spaces. The Ural Mountains can be equivalent to Monument Valley, the Volga river for the Rio Grande. Add the gun slinging ethos, horse riding, working the land, pioneers of a sort (ideological often in this case!), the bounty hunter traversing difficult terrain with outlaw in tow, railroading and taming the wild frontier and you have a generic mirror image of the American genre.

Red Westerns which use the actual American west as a setting include, the Romanian The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, 1981) which dramatises the struggles of Romanian and Hungarian settlers in a new land. The Czech Lemonade Joe and the Soviet A Man from the Boulevard des Capuchines plump for pastiche or satire, making fun of the hard worn conventions of the American films. The German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) turned the traditional American "Cowboy and Indian" conventions on their head, casting the Native Americans as the heroes and the American Army as the villains, with some obvious Cold War overtones... it started a series of "Indian films" by the East German DEFA studios which were quite successful.

Interestingly, many of the non-Soviet examples of the genre were international co-productions akin to the Spaghetti Westerns. The Sons of the Great Mother Bear for example was a co-production between East Germany and Czechoslovakia, starring a Yugoslav, scripted in German, and shot in a number of different Eastern Bloc countries and used a variety of locations including Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Mongolia and Czechoslovakia. The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians was a Romanian film, but featured emigrant Hungarians heavily in the storyline.


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The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians was a Romanian film, but featured emigrant Hungarians heavily in the storyline. Tattooing is also used as a form of cosmetic surgery, like permanent cosmetics, to hide or neutralize skin discolorations. The Sons of the Great Mother Bear for example was a co-production between East Germany and Czechoslovakia, starring a Yugoslav, scripted in German, and shot in a number of different Eastern Bloc countries and used a variety of locations including Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Mongolia and Czechoslovakia. An example is the symbol (Φ) tattooed in the ears of pet cats and dogs in Australia to indicate that they have been neutered. Interestingly, many of the non-Soviet examples of the genre were international co-productions akin to the Spaghetti Westerns. Tattoos may be located anywhere on the animal's body including its ear (common for small mammals) or inner lip (bears). it started a series of "Indian films" by the East German DEFA studios which were quite successful. Animals are marked with symbols or alphanumeric characters for identification.

The German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) turned the traditional American "Cowboy and Indian" conventions on their head, casting the Native Americans as the heroes and the American Army as the villains, with some obvious Cold War overtones.. Tattooing is also used in managing wildlife and livestock. The Czech Lemonade Joe and the Soviet A Man from the Boulevard des Capuchines plump for pastiche or satire, making fun of the hard worn conventions of the American films. Japanese people commonly soak the tattoo in hot water to clean it. Red Westerns which use the actual American west as a setting include, the Romanian The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, 1981) which dramatises the struggles of Romanian and Hungarian settlers in a new land. Some tattooists will recommend leaving the covering on for several hours or overnight, and then gently washing the area. Add the gun slinging ethos, horse riding, working the land, pioneers of a sort (ideological often in this case!), the bounty hunter traversing difficult terrain with outlaw in tow, railroading and taming the wild frontier and you have a generic mirror image of the American genre. Immediately after completing the tattoo, most tattooists will cover the area to keep out dirt and keep the tattoo from oozing into clothes; sometimes the area is wrapped in clingfilm, paper towel, poultry packs (that come in chicken packs) or gauze.

The Ural Mountains can be equivalent to Monument Valley, the Volga river for the Rio Grande. New tattoos are wounds which must be looked after properly. By substituting, 'red' for 'blue' and 'Turk' for Mexican, there are the same opportunities for a sweeping drama played out against a backdrop of wide-open spaces. Most tattoo artists recommend and sell them. In Russia, the Ostern uses the generic calling cards of the American Western to dramatise the civil war in Central Asia in the 1920s and 30s, in which the Red Army fought to maintain their country against Islamic Turkic 'Basmachi' rebels. These products are safe, efficient, and dermatologically tested. Westerns have proven particularly transferrable in the way that they create a mythology out of relatively recent history, a malleable idea that translates well to different cultures. In the last few years, cosmetic and pharmaceutical aftercare products have been developed for the tattoo world.

In a war in which many fabrications were made on both sides, there was often a lingering fascination with the cultural developments in enemy countries. There is also the possibility of allergic reactions to these products, and application to a new tattoo can cause skin reactions leading to loss of ink and permanent damage to a tattoo. 'Red Westerns' provide a counterpoint to familiar mythologies and conventions of the original genre, particularly as the makers were on the other side of a propaganda war without parallel, the Cold War, and this is partially why many have never been shown in the west, at least not until after the Cold War ended. The majority of these products contain petroleum or lanolin which, when applied to a new tattoo, can clog skin pores and actually retard the body's healing process. In particular, Yugoslavia, Mongolia and the Southern USSR were used. These products were intended to prevent cuts, burns, scrapes, and abrasions from becoming infected and not for the healing of new tattoos. 'Red Westerns' of the first type are often compared to 'Spaghetti Westerns' (although technically these are 'Paella Westerns' being shot in Spain, rather than Italy), in that they use local scenery to double up for the American West. Tattoo artists have had to recommend a variety of products available from local drug stores.

Naturally many of these contained political messages, but they can still be watched impartially as action films, comedies etc, and it is certainly true to say that American director John Ford imbued his films with controversial political messages too. However, many of the most notable tattooists do not belong to any association. It generally took two forms:. Membership in professional organizations, or certificates of appreciation/achievement, may imply that the artist is aware of the latest trends in equipment and sterilization. The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries' take on the Western movie. A reputable artist will:. Examples of these include The Burning Miles (Ognennie Versti/Огненные вёрсты, 1957), The Bodyguard (Telokhranitel/Телохранитель, 1979), At Home among Strangers (1971), and famous Soviet film White Sun of the Desert (Beloye Solntse Pustynt/Белое солнце пустыни', 1970). While some of these are obviously influenced by Westerns, in some cases, the material can be seen as a parallel formation. The studio should have all of the following:.

Easterns (Osterns), which took place usually on the steppes or Asian parts of the USSR, especially during the Russian Revolution or following Civil War. See the sections under "Risks" above. These were much more common in Eastern Europe, rather than the USSR itself. They also cite a well documented case Tattoo-Induced Skin Burn During MR Imaging by Wagle and Smith. Proper Red Westerns, set in America's 'Wild West', such as Czechoslovakia's Lemonade Joe (Limonadovy Joe, 1964), or the East-German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin, 1966) or The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (Pruncul, Petrolul Si Ardelenii, Romania, 1981) involving radically different themes and genres. However, research by Shellock and Crues MR Safety and the American College of Radiology White Paper reports adverse reactions to MRI and tattoos in a very small number of cases. In any case, today the majority of professional tattoos do not contain metal particles and therefore raise no concern for MRI or x-ray.

The television show MythBusters tested the theory, and concluded that there is no risk of interaction between tattoo inks and MRI. Allegedly, the magnetic fields produced by MRI machines could interact with these metal particles, potentially causing burns or distortions in the image. There has been concern expressed about the interaction between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures and tattoo inks, some of which contain trace metals. The local department of health regulates tattoo studios in many jurisdictions, and should accept requests for records and violation histories of tattoo parlors.

The following precautions can also reduce the risk of infection: shops should appear clean; sinks with hot water and soap should be available in the bathroom as well as in the studio; tattooists should wash their hands regularly and wear latex gloves; surfaces should be cleaned with disinfectant and floors should appear clean; proper procedures for sterilizing equipment should be followed strictly. People who have a compromised immune system, including those who have no spleen, should consult a physician before getting a tattoo or body piercing. Infections include surface infections of the skin, Staphylococcus aureus, infections that can cause cardiological damage, sexually transmitted diseases, and some forms of hepatitis. Infection from tattooing in clean and modern tattoo studios is rare.

This is not necessarily useful, however, because it may take years of exposure before an allergic reaction occurs. Some tattoo artists do small test patches of pigments to be used allowing a week or two for the client to develop a negative reaction before proceeding with the actual tattoo. People with allergies should think carefully about getting a tattoo because of the risk of anaphylactic shock (hypersensitive reaction), which can be life threatening. Allergic reactions to latex should also be stated before being tattooed or pierced.

It should go away with time, but can be very uncomfortable, so one should still consult a doctor. A reaction to the green soap will result in itchy redness that may swell. People who are allergic to green soap should let their tattooist know before being tattooed, because the area is cleaned before and during the tattoo with green soap and it will ultimately get into the tattoo. People who are sensitive or allergic to certain metals may react to pigments in the skin by becoming swollen and/or itchy, oozing of clear fluid called sebum is also common.

Allergic reactions to tattoo pigments are uncommon except for certain brands of red and green. Most reputable tattoo shops use fresh disposable needles for each client and sterilize reusable instruments between clients using an autoclave as well as employing universal precautions, such as washing the hands, wearing latex, nitrile or vinyl gloves and the thorough cleaning of counters and other work surfaces, and elimination of cross contamination. Since tattoo instruments come in contact with blood and bodily fluids, diseases may be transmitted if the instruments are used on more than one person without being sterilized. In addition, it is important that cross contamination not occur, this is why many counties require that tattooists have bloodborne pathogen training as is provided through the Red Cross.

[2]. Inmates will be trained to staff and operate the tattoo parlors once six of them open successfully. However there is a program underway in Canada as of the summer of 2005 that opens legitimized tattoo parlors in prison, this is intended to reduce the risk of infections and may also provide the inmates with a marketable talent. In most prisons there is a significant risk of illness due to tattooing being done without following universal precautions, including such blood-borne diseases as HIV and hepatitis.

Risk reduction in the body arts requires single use items including gloves and needles. Permanent tattooing of any form carries small risks, including of infection, allergy, disease, and stress or phobic reactions. Glycolic acid is also used for facial peels; when used for tattoo removal, a lower percentage mix is used. This method supposedly scars less than lasering.

A newer method of removal is by tattooing glycolic acid in to the skin with a tattoo machine, the acid pushes the ink to the surface of the skin in the scab, the scab is later removed. The tattoo is retraced with the chemical. An old method of tattoo removal includes hydrogen peroxide loaded into a tattoo machine. Black ink is most readily broken down by the laser, and unprofessional tattoos done at home are the easiest ones to remove, due to the low quality of ink used, as well as the inneffective manner in which they were applied.

Overall, green-based ink is the most difficult to remove. It also may not be entirely effective in leaving unblemished skin, due to the fact that tattoos also scar the skin to varying degrees, depending on how the tattoo was applied, the way the skin healed, and the area that was tattooed. The procedure can be expensive, and very painful (some say more so than the original tattoo) and often requires many repeated visits to remove a small tattoo. After this, the patients body then absorbs the broken-down ink and the skin heals once more.

The laser reacts with the ink in the tattoo, and breaks it down. Tattoos can be wholly or partially removed by cosmetic surgical techniques, most commonly through the use of lasers. This ink is reportedly quite safe for use, and claims to be FDA approved for use on wildlife that may enter the food supply. The technical name is BIOMETRIX System-1000, and is marketed under the name "Chameleon Tattoo Ink".

Recently, a blacklight-reactive tattoo ink using PMMA microcapsules has surfaced. In a survey[1], many pigments were found to be used among professional tattooists:. Iron oxide pigments are used in greater extent in cosmetic tattooing. For the tattooing, a wide range of dyes and pigments can be used; from inorganic materials like titanium dioxide and iron oxides to carbon black, azo dyes, and acridine, quinoline, phthalocyanine and naphthol derivates.

Both methods, silver nitrate and henna, can take up to two weeks to fade from the skin. Other forms of temporary "tattoos" are henna tattoos, also known as Mehndi, and the marks made by the stains of silver nitrate on the skin when exposed to ultraviolet light. Temporary tattoos are easily removed with soap and water or oil-based creams, and are intended to last a few days. They are generally applied to the skin using water to transfer the design to the surface of the skin.

Temporary tattoos are a type of body sticker, like a decal. In addition, tattooing of the gingiva from implantation of amalgam particles during dental filling placement and removal is possible and not uncommon. These are particularly difficult to remove as they tend to be spread across several different layers of skin, and scarring or permanent discoloration is almost unavoidable depending on the location. Similarly, a traumatic tattoo occurs when a substance such as asphalt is rubbed into a wound as the result of some kind of accident or trauma.

This can also occur with substances like gunpowder. According to George Orwell, workers in coal mines would wind up with characteristic tattoos owing to coal dust getting into wounds. Permanent cosmetics are tattoos that enhance eyebrows, lips (liner or lipstick), eyes (shadow, mascara), and even moles, usually with natural colors as the designs are intended to resemble makeup. See main article at permanent makeup.

The unit rapidly and repeatedly drives the needles in and out of the skin, usually 50 to 3,000 times a minute. Ink is inserted into the skin via a group of needles that are soldered onto a bar, which is attached to an oscillating unit. The most common method of tattooing in modern times is the electric tattoo machine. Traditional Japanese tattoos (irezumi) are still "hand-poked," that is, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, hand-made and hand held tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel.

Some cultures create tattooed marks by "tapping" the ink into the skin using sharpened sticks or animal bones. This may be an adjunct to scarification. Some tribal cultures still create tattoos by cutting designs into the skin and rubbing the resulting wound with ink, ashes or other agents. (Branding would not be considered a tattoo since no ink or dye is inserted).

Such tattoos are performed by veterinarians and the animals are anaesthetized to prevent pain. Pets, show animals, thoroughbred horses and livestock are sometimes tattooed with identification marks, and certain of their body parts (for example, noses) have also been tattooed to prevent sunburn. Tattoos are also placed on animals, though very rarely for decorative reasons. European sailors were known to tattoo the crucifixion on their backs to prevent flogging as a punishment as at that time it was a crime to deface an image of Christ.

The best known is the ka-tzetnik identification system for Jews in part of the concentration camps during the Holocaust. People have also been forcibly tattooed for a variety of reasons. Some Māori still choose to wear intricate moko on their faces. Today, people choose to be tattooed for cosmetic, religious and magical reasons, as well as a symbol of belonging to or identification with particular groups (see Criminal tattoos).

Human history shows that tattoos have served in many diverse cultures as rites of passage, marks of status and rank, symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, sexual lures and marks of fertility, pledges of love, punishment, amulets and talismans, protection, and as the marks of outcasts, slaves and convicts. This survey was conducted online between July 14 and 20, 2003 by Harris Interactive(R) among a nationwide sample of 2,215 adults. Democrats are more likely to have tattoos (18%) than Republicans (14%) and Independents (12%) while approximately equal percentages of males (16%) and females (15%) have tattoos. Regionally, people living in the West (20%) are more likely to have tattoos.

The highest incidence of tattoos was found among the gay, lesbian and bisexual population (31%) and among Americans ages 25 to 29 years (36%) and 30 to 39 years (28%). A recent Harris Poll finds that 16% of all adults in the United States have at least one tattoo. Current estimates suggest one in seven or over 39 million people in North America have at least one tattoo. Tattoos are more popular now than at any time.

Tattoos can have additional negative associations for women; "tramp stamp" and other similarly derogatory slang phrases are sometimes used to describe a tattoo on a woman's lower back. At the same time, members of the US military have an equally established and longstanding history of tattooing to indicate military units, battles, etc., and this association is also widespread among older Americans. This cultural use of tattoos predates the widespread popularity of tattoos in the general population, so older people may still associate tattoos with criminality. In the USA many prisoners and criminal gangs use distinctive tattoos to indicate facts about their criminal behavior, prison sentences, and organizational affiliation.

It is widely believed that one of the initiation rites in becoming a triad member is silently withstanding the pain of receiving a large tattoo in one sitting, usually performed in the traditional "hand-poked" style. At least according to popular belief, most triad members in Hong Kong have a tattoo of a black dragon on the left bicep and one of a white tiger on the right; in fact, many people in Hong Kong use "left a black dragon, right a white tiger" as a euphemism for a triad member. Tattoos, particularly full traditional body suits, are still popularly associated with the yakuza (mafia) in Japan. For example, many businesses such as gyms, hot springs and recreational facilities in Japan still ban people with visible tattoos.

In some cultures, tattoos still have negative associations, despite their increasing popularity and are generally associated with criminality in the public's mind; therefore those who choose to be tattooed in such countries usually keep their tattoos covered for fear of reprisal. Tattoos can therefore impair a wearer's career prospects, particularly when inked on places not typically covered by clothing, such as hands or neck. Some employers, especially in professional fields, still look down on tattoos or regard them as contributing to an unprofessional appearance. The first twin coil machine, the predecessor of the modern configuration, was invented by another Englishman, Alfred Charles South of London, in 1899.

The first coil machine was patented by Thomas Riley in London, 1891 using a single coil. Modern tattoo machines use electromagnetic coils. O'Reilly's machine was based on the rotary technology of the electric engraving device invented by Thomas Edison. The modern electric tattoo machine is far removed from the machine invented by Samuel O'Reilly in 1891.

Nevertheless, in most western countries tattooing is rather seen by the general public as a minority choice, hence usually on less visible parts of the body (even in the case of some adepts who transform a large part of their skin into a 'tattoo gallery'; the contrary can thus by a non-conformist statement), except for certain circles (such as sailors or oil rig drillers, certain military units and clubs), impulsive kick choices (unwisely done while intoxicated or as a dare) or fashionable rages. Carrying on the family tradition, Winston Churchill was himself tattooed. Winston Churchill's mother, Lady Randolph Churchill, not only had a tattoo of a snake around her wrist, which she covered when the need arose with a specially crafted diamond bracelet, but had her nipples pierced as well. Aside from her consort Prince Albert, there are persistent rumours that Queen Victoria had a small tattoo in an undisclosed 'intimate' location; Denmark's king Frederick was filmed showing his tattoos taken as a young sailor.

There, it was not uncommon for members of the social elite to gather in the drawing rooms and libraries of the great country estate homes after dinner and partially disrobe in order to show off their tattoos. The tattooing craze spread to upper classes all over Europe in the nineteenth century, but particularly in England where it was estimated in Harmsworth Magazine in 1898 that as many as one in five members of the gentry were tattooed. King Alfonso of modern Spain also has a tattoo. Taking their sartorial lead from the British Court, where King Edward VII followed King George V's lead in getting tattooed; King Frederik IX of Denmark, the King of Romania, Kaiser Wilhelm II, King Alexandar of Yugoslavia and even Czar Nicholas of Russia, all sported tattoos, many of them elaborate and ornate renditions of the Royal Coat of Arms or the Royal Family Crest.

George's sons, The Duke of Clarence and The Duke of York were also tattooed in Japan while serving in the British Admiralty, solidifying what would become a family tradition. On a trip to Japan he also received a dragon on the forearm, from the needles of an acclaimed Japanese tattoo master. The English Royal Court must have been fascinated with the Tahitian chief's tattoos because King George V himself got inked with the 'Cross of Jerusalem' when he traveled to the Middle East in 1862. Cook went on to write, "This method of Tattowing I shall now describe...As this is a painful operation, especially the Tattowing of their Buttocks, it is performed but once in their Lifetimes.".

This is done by inlaying the Colour of Black under their skins, in such a manner as to be indelible.". In the Ship's Log Cook recorded this entry : "Both sexes paint their Bodys, Tattow, as it is called in their Language. It was in Tahiti aboard the Endeavour, in July of 1769, that Cook first noted his observations about the indigenous body modification and is the first recorded use of the word tattoo. In the process sailors and seamen re-introduced the practice of tattooing in Europe and it spread rapidly to seaports around the globe.

Many of Cook's men, ordinary seamen and sailors, came back with tattoos, a tradition that would soon become associated with men of the sea in the public's mind and the press of the day. In turn, Cook brought back with him a tattooed Tahitian chief, whom he presented to King George and the English Court. Banks was a highly regarded member of the English aristocracy and had acquired his position with Cook by putting up what was at the time the princely sum of some ten thousand pounds in the expedition. Cook's Science Officer and Expedition Botanist, Sir Joseph Banks, returned to England with a tattoo.

Crew members of those voyages returned with more than just fabulous tales of what they had seen, many of the sailors returned with tattoos. When Cook and his men returned home to Europe from their voyages to Polynesia, the salons of Paris and London were soon abuzz with tales of the 'tattooed savages' that Cook and his men had seen on their travels and discovered in previously unknown lands. Between 1766 and 1779, Captain James Cook made three voyages to the South Pacific, the last trip ending with Cook's death in Hawaii in February, 1779. See irezumi.

The Water Margin had a major influence on tattooing in Japan. In addition, Chinese legend has it that the mother of Yue Fei, the most famous general of the Song Dynasty, tattooed the words 精忠報國 (pinyin: jin zhong bao guo) on his back with her sewing needle before he left to join the army, reminding him to "repay his country with pure loyalty". Tattooing has also been featured prominently in one of the Four Classic Novels in Chinese literature, Water Margin, in which at least two of the 108 characters, Shi Jun and Yan Qing, are described as having tattoos covering nearly the whole of their bodies. One reading of Leviticus is to apply it only narrowly to this specific practice contemporary with the book's writing.

In essence, people were literally carrying with them a reminder of the recently deceased in the form of tattoos created by ash being rubbed into shallow wounds cut or slashed into the body, usually the forearms. It was a sign of respect for the dead and a symbol of reverence and a sense of the profound loss for the newly departed; and it is surmised that the ash that was rubbed into the self-inflicted wounds came from the actual funeral pyres that were used to cremate bodies. An ancient practice in the Middle East involved people cutting themselves and rubbing in ash during a period of mourning after an individual had died. Some Christians, Jews and Muslims believe Leviticus 19:28 prohibits believers from getting tattoos: Do not cut your bodies for the dead or put tattoo marks on yourselves. A more literal translation of Leviticus is: Do not cut your bodies for the dead nor put marks upon you. The practice proscribed by Leviticus may or may not be tattooing directly (though it is certainly some form of bodily modification).

According to Robert Graves in his book The Greek Myths, tattooing was common amongst certain religious groups in the ancient Mediterranean world, which probably contributed to the prohibition of tattooing in Leviticus 19:28 in the Old Testament. The Man of Pazyryk was also tattooed with dots that lined up along the spinal column (lumbar region) and around the right ankle. Their tattooing involved animal designs carried out in a curvilinear style. 300 BC) were extracted from the permafrost of Altaï in the second half of the 20th century (the Man of Payzyrk, during the 1940s; one female mummy and one male in Ukok plateau, during the 1990s).

Three tattooed mummies (c. Mair, The Tarim Mummies, London, 2000), some of them could date from the end of the 2nd millennium before our era. Mallory and V H. Still relatively unknown (the only current publications in Western languages are those of J P.

Tarim Basin (West China, Xinjiang) revealed several tattooed mummies of a European physical type. "Ötzi the Iceman", dated circa 3300 BC, exhibits therapeutic tattoos (small parallel dashes along lumbar and on the legs). Tattooing has been a Eurasian practice since Neolithic times. Tattooing was widespread among Polynesian peoples, and in the Philippines, Borneo, Africa, North America, South America, Mesoamerica, Japan, and China.

The Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, wore facial tattoos. Tattooing has been a nearly ubiquitous human practice. Within traditional indigenous cultures, tattooing most often takes place within the context of a rite of passage between adolescence and adulthood. A decline in traditional tribal tattooing practices usually came after first contact with Europeans and the resultant efforts to convert aboriginal and indigenous people to Western religous and cultural practices, which usually held tattooing to be a "pagan" or "heathen" activity.

In many traditional cultures tattooing has enjoyed a resurgence, as native people are once again proud of their cultural heritage. A majority of the respondents—54 percent—said tattoos were a form of art, while 40 percent said they were not. residents to give their opinions of tattoos as an art form. An August, 2005 telephone poll conducted by Zogby International asked 1,042 U.S.

Movie stars, models, popular musicians and sports figures are just some of the people in the public eye who are commonly tattooed, which in turn has fueled the acceptance of tattoos within mainstream popular culture. The growth in tattoo culture has seen the influx of new artists into the industry, many of whom have technical and fine art training, and that coupled with advancements in tattoo pigments and the ongoing refinement of the equipment used for tattooing has led to a marked improvement in the quality of tattoos being produced. Tattoos have become increasingly popular in recent decades in many parts of the world, particularly in North America, Japan, and Europe. Tattoo designs that are mass produced and sold to tattoo artists and studios and displayed in shop are known as flash.

This usage is gaining support, with mainstream art galleries holding exhibitions of tattoo designs and photographs of tattoos. Most tattoo enthusiasts refer to tattoos as tats, ink, art or work, and to tattooists as artists. . In Japanese the word used for traditional designs or those that are applied using traditional methods is irezumi ("insertion of ink"), while "tattoo" is used for non-Japanese designs.

The word is traced to the Tahitian tatu or tatau, meaning to mark or strike (the latter referring to traditional methods of applying the designs). Tattoos are a type of body modification. In technical terms, tattooing is micro-pigment implantation. A tattoo is a design or marking made by the insertion of a pigment into punctures or cuts in the skin.

American Journal of Roentgenology: Article. and Smith, M. Tattoo-Induced Skin Burn During MR Imaging Wagle, W.A. American Journal of Roentgenology White Paper.

and Crues, J.V. MR Safety and the American College of Radiology Shellock, F.G. Russian Criminal Tattoo Encyclopaedia Danzig Baldaev, ISBN 3882439203. Tattoo Art Magazine.

Total Tattoo Book Amy Krakow, ISBN 0446670014. The Tattoo Encyclopedia: A Guide to Choosing Your Tattoo Terisa Green, ISBN 0743223292. Ink: The Not-Just-Skin-Deep Guide to Getting a Tattoo Terisa Green, ISBN 0451215141. Renaut, 2004, French and English abstract).

PhD Thesis on body-marking in Antiquity (L. Renaut, 2004, French and English abstract). Comparative study about Ötzi's therapeutic tattoos (L. provide clear aftercare instructions and products.

always use fresh ink for each session, placing small amounts in disposable containers which are used for one client only. always use properly sterilized non-disposable and disposable supplies. always open new, sterile needle packages in front of the client, and always use new, sterile or sterile disposable instruments. Artists will change gloves one or more times during sessions.

wash his or her hands with water and soap or an approved sanitizing agent, and wear latex gloves. be willing and able to answer questions. ensure that the customer is satisfied with and sure about the design before applying it. refuse to tattoo minors, intoxicated people, people with contraindicated skin conditions, or those incapable of consent due to mental incapacity.

be knowledgeable, courteous and helpful. accessible facilities for washing the hands with hot water and soap. It is also a good idea to ask for recent spore test results. an autoclave - usually required by law, and necessary for sterilizing tools.

sharps containers for old needles. biohazard containers for blood-stained objects. Allowed in all cosmetics: Pigment White 6 (titanium dioxide), Pigment Blue 15, Pigment Black 7 (carbon black), Pigment Brown 6 (iron oxide), Pigment Red 101 (iron(III) oxide), Jernoxid (iron(II) oxide), Pigment Yellow 42 (iron oxide-hydroxide), Sudan Red, Food Yellow 13 (Quinoline Yellow WS), Mangan Violet (manganese ammonium pyrophosphate), Food Red 17 (Allura Red AC), Food Blue 2 (Brilliant Blue FCF), Acid Red 87 (Eosin Y). Allowed in all cosmetics except those used around the eyes: Pigment Green 7.

Allowed in all cosmetics that do not come in contact with mucous membranes: Pigment Yellow 1, Pigment Orange 43. Allowed for cosmetics with only temporary contact with skin: Pigment Violet 23, Pigment Red 122. Substances not approved for cosmetic use: Pigment Orange 36, Pigment Yellow 74, Pigment Red 170, Pigment Yellow 97, Pigment Red 146, Pigment Brown 25, Pigment Red 266.

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