Opodo is like Orbitz an Internet travel agency. It is a pan-European enterprise, owned by a consortium of European airlines, including British Airways, Air France, Alitalia, Iberia, KLM, Lufthansa, Aer Lingus, Austrian Airlines and Finnair. The travel technology provider Amadeus is a majority shareholder. Opodo offers a full worldwide range of travel products including flights (from more than 500 scheduled and low cost airlines), package holidays, dynamic packaging, city-breaks, hotels, car rental, event tickets, excursions, ski holidays, cottages, holiday rentals, and cruises.
Opodo operates out of nine European countries. For United Kingdom customers see http://www.opodo.co.uk, for German customers see http://www.opodo.de, for French customers see http://www.opodo.fr, for Italian customers see http://www.opodo.it Spanish customers should visit: http://www.opodo.es. Opodo also runs other successful online travel businesses such as Travellink in the Nordic region (Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finaland) - see http://www.travellink.no, http://www.travellink.se, http://www.travellink.dk, http://www.travellink.fi, and in France Karavel at http://www.karavel.fr and http://www.promovacances.fr and http://www.vivacances.fr as well as a tour operator offering tailor-made deals to Australia, New Zealand, Middle East, South Africa, America, and the Far East from the UK at http://www.questtravel.co.uk
The name "opodo" is an ambigram, with rotational symmetry.
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The name "opodo" is an ambigram, with rotational symmetry. Much of the drive for computer-driven vehicles has been led by DARPA with their Grand Challenge race. Opodo also runs other successful online travel businesses such as Travellink in the Nordic region (Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finaland) - see http://www.travellink.no, http://www.travellink.se, http://www.travellink.dk, http://www.travellink.fi, and in France Karavel at http://www.karavel.fr and http://www.promovacances.fr and http://www.vivacances.fr as well as a tour operator offering tailor-made deals to Australia, New Zealand, Middle East, South Africa, America, and the Far East from the UK at http://www.questtravel.co.uk. In order to limit deaths, there has been a push for self-driving automobiles. For United Kingdom customers see http://www.opodo.co.uk, for German customers see http://www.opodo.de, for French customers see http://www.opodo.fr, for Italian customers see http://www.opodo.it Spanish customers should visit: http://www.opodo.es. A much higher number of accidents result in injury or permanent disability. Opodo operates out of nine European countries. The death toll is expected to nearly double worldwide by 2020.
Opodo offers a full worldwide range of travel products including flights (from more than 500 scheduled and low cost airlines), package holidays, dynamic packaging, city-breaks, hotels, car rental, event tickets, excursions, ski holidays, cottages, holiday rentals, and cruises. This figure increases annually in step with rising population and increasing travel, but the rate per capita and per mile travelled decreases steadily. The travel technology provider Amadeus is a majority shareholder. Despite technological advances, there is still significant loss of life from car accidents: About 40,000 people die every year in the U.S., with similar trends in Europe. It is a pan-European enterprise, owned by a consortium of European airlines, including British Airways, Air France, Alitalia, Iberia, KLM, Lufthansa, Aer Lingus, Austrian Airlines and Finnair. There are also tests run by organizations such as IIHS and backed by the insurance industry. Opodo is like Orbitz an Internet travel agency. There are standard tests for safety in new automobiles, like the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests.
Since then, most research has focused on absorbing external crash energy with crushable panels and reducing the motion of human bodies in the passenger compartment. Systematic research on crash safety started in 1958 at Ford Motor Company. Brakes are hydraulic so that failures are slow leaks, rather than abrupt cable breaks. For example, modern engine compartments are open at the bottom so that fuel vapors, which are heavier than air, vent to the open air.
Early safety research focused on increasing the reliability of brakes and reducing the flammability of fuel systems. Both safety modifications of the roadway are thought to be too expensive by most funding authorities, although these modifications could dramatically increase the number of vehicles that could safely use a high-speed highway. Shoulder-belted passengers could tolerate a 32G emergency stop (reducing the safe intervehicle gap 64-fold) if high-speed roads incorporated a steel rail for emergency braking. Automated control has been seriously proposed and successfully prototyped.
Cars have two basic safety problems: They have human drivers who make mistakes, and the wheels lose traction near a half gravity of deceleration. The first recorded automobile fatality was Bridget Driscoll on 1896-08-17 in London and the first in the United States was Henry Bliss on 1899-09-13 in New York City, NY. Joseph Cugnot crashed his steam-powered "Fardier" against a wall in 1770. Accidents seem as old as automobile vehicles themselves.
Millions have been able to reach medical care much more quickly when transported by ambulance. Automobiles were a significant improvement in safety on a per passenger mile basis, over the horse based travel that they replaced. Other R&D efforts in alternative forms of power focus on developing fuel cells, alternative forms of combustion such as GDI and HCCI, and even the stored energy of compressed air (see water Engine). As of 2005, The car is still in production and achieves around 60 mpg.
The first hybrid vehicle available for sale in the USA was the Honda Insight. Current research and development is centered on "hybrid" vehicles that use both electric power and internal combustion. Battery powered cars have used lead-acid batteries which are greatly damaged in their recharge capacity if discharged beyond 75% on a regular basis and NiMH batteries. Attempts at building viable battery-powered electric vehicles continued throughout the 1990s (notably General Motors with the EV1), but cost, speed and inadequate driving range made them uneconomical.
Brazil is the only country which produces ethanol-running cars, since the late 1970s. In the United States, alcohol fuel was produced in corn-alcohol stills until Prohibition criminalized the production of alcohol in 1919. Of course, certain measures are available to increase this efficiency, such as different camshaft configurations, altering the timing/spark output of the ignition, or simply, using a larger fuel tank. Therefore, if your vehicle is capable of 300 miles on a 15-gallon tank, the efficiency is reduced to approximately 150 miles.
Further, the use of higher levels of alcohol requires that the automobile carry/use twice as much. There has been some concern that the ethanol-gasoline mixtures prematurely wear down seals and gaskets. All petrol fuelled cars can run on LPG. Most cars that are designed to run on gasoline are capable of running with 15% ethanol mixed in, and with a small amount of redesign, gasoline-powered vehicles can run on ethanol concentrations as high as 85%.
Many cars that currently use gasoline can run on ethanol, a fuel made from plant sugars. Diesel-powered cars can run with little or no modification on 100% pure biodiesel, a fuel that can be made from vegetable oils. With heavy taxes on fuel, particularly in Europe and tightening environmental laws, particularly in California, and the possibility of further restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions, work on alternative power systems for vehicles continues. For example, in the 1950s, Chevrolet shared hood, doors, roof, and windows with Pontiac; the LaSalle of the 1930s, sold by Cadillac, used the cheaper mechanical parts made by the Oldsmobile division.
The makes shared parts with one another so that the larger production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one firm, so that buyers could "move up" as their fortunes improved. It was Alfred P. Cars are not merely continually perfected mechanical contrivances; since the 1920s nearly all have been mass-produced to meet a market, so marketing plans and manufacture to meet them have often dominated automobile design.
Developed by Bosch, these electronic systems have enabled automobiles to drastically reduce exhaust emissions while increasing efficiency and power. The chief exception to this was electronic engine management, which entered into wide use in the 1960s, when electronic parts became cheap enough to be mass-produced and rugged enough to handle the harsh environment of an automobile. For the most part, "new" automotive technology was a refinement on earlier work, though these refinements were sometimes so extensive as to render the original work nearly unrecognizable. Since 1960, the number of manufacturers has remained virtually constant, and innovation slowed.
After 1930, the number of auto manufacturers declined sharply as the industry consolidated and matured. For example, front-wheel drive was re-introduced by Andre Citroën with the launch of the Traction Avant in 1934, though it appeared several years earlier in road cars made by Alvis and Cord, and in racing cars by Miller (and may have appeared as early as 1897). By the 1930s, most of the technology used in automobiles had been invented, although it was often re-invented again at a later date and credited to someone else. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering, for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910-1911), independent suspension, and four-wheel brakes.
Through the period from 1900 to the mid 1920s, development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to the hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Early automobiles were often referred to as 'horseless carriages', and did not stray far from the design of their predecessor. The large scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted by Oldsmobile in 1902, then greatly expanded by Henry Ford in the 1910s. Steam, electric, and gasoline powered autos competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s.
A major breakthrough came with the historic drive of Bertha Benz in 1888. This patent did more to hinder than encourage development of autos in the USA. Patent 549160). Selden was granted a United States patent for a two-stroke automobile engine (U.S.
On 5 November 1895, George B. The first automobile patent in the United States was granted to Oliver Evans in 1789; in 1804 Evans demonstrated his first successful self-propelled vehicle, which not only was the first automobile in the US but was also the first amphibious vehicle, as his steam-powered vehicle was able to travel on wheels on land and via a paddle wheel in the water. Electric vehicles were produced by a small number of manufacturers. It was in Birmingham also that the first British four wheel petrol-driven automobiles were built in 1895 by Frederick William Lanchester who also patented the disc brake in the city.
It was here that the term horsepower was first used.
Selden didn't build a single car until 1905, when he was forced to do so due to the lawsuit. The first American automobile with gasoline-powered internal combustion engines was supposedly designed in 1877 by George Baldwin Selden of Rochester, New York, who applied for a patent on the automobile in 1879. They were inspired by Daimler's Stalhradwagen of 1889, which was exhibited in Paris in 1889. In 1890, Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began series-producing vehicles with Daimler engines, and so laid the foundation of the motor industry in France.
From about 1890-1895 about 30 vehicles were built by Daimler and his innovative assistant, Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after having a falling out with their backers. In 1889, he built two vehicles from scratch, with several innovations. Daimler built a car in 1886 - a new horse carriage fitted with his new high-speed 4-stroke engine. Because France was more open to the automobile in general, more were built and sold in France than by Benz himself in Germany.
Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz car to his line of products. They were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Appromixately 25 were built until 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced. Benz, after building his first three-wheeled car in 1885, built improved versions in 1886 and 1887, and went into production in 1888 -- the world's first vehicle to do so.
The internal-combustion-engined car really can be said to have begun with Benz and Daimler in 1886, for their vehicles were successful, they went into series-production, and they inspired others. But if all of the above experiments hadn't taken place, the development of the automobile wouldn't have been retarded by so much as a moment, since they were unknown experiments that went no further than the testing stage. Although nothing more than a toy, it is said to have operated somewhat successfully, unlike Murginotti's and Deboutteville's vehicles. The same year, Enrico Bernardi, another Italian, installed a similar engine on his son's tricycle.
Also about 1884, an Italian by the name of Murginotti installed an IC engine on a tricycle, but it appears the engine wasn't powerful enough to make the vehicle move. No one else knew of the vehicles and experiments until years later. No more vehicles were built by the two men, and their venture went completely unnoticed and their patent unexploited. However, during the vehicle's first test, the frame broke apart, the vehicle literally "shaking itself to pieces," in Malandin's own words.
The patent, and presumably the vehicle, contained many innovations, some of which wouldn't be used for decades. This one consisted of two four-stroke, liquid-fueled engines mounted to an old four-wheeled horse cart. In 1884, Delamare-Deboutteville and Malandin built and patented a second vehicle. As they tested the vehicle, the tank hose came loose, resulting in an explosion.
In 1883, Edouard Delamare-Deboutteville and Leon Malandin of France installed an internal-combustion engine powered by a tank of city gas on a tricycle. Reithmann had been experimenting with IC-engines as early as 1852. There is some evidence, although not conclusive, that one Christian Reithmann, an Austrian living in Germany, had built a four-stroke engine entirely on his own by 1873. He knew nothing of Beau de Rochas's patent or idea, and came upon the idea entirely on his own; in fact, he began thinking about it in 1861, but abandoned the idea until the mid-1870's.
Most historians agree that Nikolaus Otto of Germany built the world's first four-stroke engine. Beau de Rochas never built a single engine. In fact, hardly anyone knew of it to begin with. He printed about 300 copies of his pamphlet and they were distributed in Paris, but nothing came of this, with the patent expiring soon after and the pamphlet disappearing into total obscurity.
The four-stroke engine had already been written down and patented in 1862 by the Frenchman Beau de Rochas in a long-winded and rambling pamphlet. In 1888/1889, he built a second car, this one with seats, brakes and steering, and a four-stroke engine of his own design. It was tested in Vienna in September of 1870. In 1870, he built a crude vehicle, with no seats, steering or brakes, but it was spectacular for one reason: it was the world's first internal-combustion-engine-powered vehicle fueled by gasoline.
He developed the idea of using gasoline as a fuel in a two-stroke internal-combustion engine. The next innovation comes in the 1860s, with Siegfried Marcus, a German working in Vienna, Austria. If he did, he most certainly didn't use gasoline, as this was not well-known and was considered a waste product. Lenoir is said to have tested liquid fuel, such as alcohol, in his stationary engines; but it doesn't appear he used them in his vehicle.
It seems to have been powered by city lighting-gas in bottles, and was said by Lenoir to have "travelled slower than a man could walk, with breakdowns being frequent." Lenoir, in his patent of 1860, included the provision of a carburettor, so liquid fuel could be substituted for gas, particularly for mobile purposes, i.e., vehicles. In about 1863, Lenoir installed his engine in a vehicle. Etienne Lenoir produced the first successful internal-combustion engine in 1860, and within a few years, about 400 were in operation in Paris. It was not very successful, as was the case with the British inventor, Brown, and the American inventor, Morey, who produced clumsy IC-engine-powered vehicles about 1826.
He subsequently used it to develop the world’s first vehicle to run on such an engine, one that used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen to generate energy. In 1806 Fransois Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss, designed the first internal combustion engine (sometimes abbreviated "ICE" today). In 1771 he designed another steam-driven car, which ran so fast that it rammed into a wall, producing the world’s first car accident. The first self-propelled car was built by [[--184.108.40.206 00:57, 4 February 2006 (UTC)]] 00:54, 4 February 2006 (UTC)]] in 1769—it could attain speeds of up to 6 km/h.
Steam-powered self-propelled cars were devised in the late 18th century. These inventors are: Karl Benz on July 3, 1886 in Mannheim, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart (also inventors of the first motor bike) and in 1888/89 German-Austrian inventor Siegfried Marcus in Vienna, although Marcus didn't go beyond the prototype stage.
. The biggest two companies are General Motors (GM) and Toyota. As of 2005 there are 500 million cars worldwide (0.074 per capita), of which 220 million are located in the United States (0.75 per capita). It is the main source of transportation across the world.
An automobile has seats for the driver and, almost without exception, one or more passengers. Earlier terms for automobile include 'horseless carriage' and 'motor car'. The term is derived from Greek 'autos' (self) and Latin 'movére' (move), referring to the fact that it 'moves by itself'. Different types of automobiles include cars, buses, trucks, vans, and motorcycles, with cars being the most popular.
An automobile is a wheeled vehicle that carries its own motor.