Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office is a suite of productivity programs created by Microsoft and developed for Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems. As well as the office applications, it includes associated servers and Web-based services. Recent versions of Office are now called the 'Office System' rather than the 'Office Suite' to reflect the fact that they include Servers as well.

Office made its first appearance in the early '90s, and was initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications that were previously marketed and sold separately. The main selling point was that buying the bundle was substantially cheaper than buying each of the individual applications on their own. The first version of Office contained Word, Excel and Powerpoint. Additionally, a "Pro" version of Office included Microsoft Access and Schedule Plus. Over the years the Office applications have grown substantially closer together from a technical standpoint, sharing features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. In recent years, Microsoft has attempted to position Office as a development platform in its own right, but has had mixed results with this.

Office is currently the most popular office suite in the world and considered to be the de facto standard for productivity programs, although its market share is currently decreasing with the rise of viable free and open source alternatives. It has certain features not present in other suites, and other programs have capabilities Office lacks. The next version, 12.0, will have a radically different user interface from the older versions.


Office programs

These programs are included in all editions of Microsoft Office 2003, except Microsoft Office Basic Edition 2003. Microsoft Office Basic Edition includes Word, Excel and Outlook only.

Office Word

Microsoft Word is a word processor. It is considered to be the main program of Office. It possesses a dominant market share in the word processor market. Its proprietary DOC format is considered a de facto standard, although its most recent version, Word 11.0/2003, also supports an XML-based format. Word is also available in some editions of Microsoft Works. It is available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Writer, StarOffice, Corel WordPerfect, Apple Pages and AbiWord.

Office Excel

Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program. Like Microsoft Word, it possesses a dominant market share. It was originally a competitor to the dominant Lotus 1-2-3 but it eventually outsold it and became the de facto standard. It is available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Calc, StarOffice, Corel Quattro Pro and Gnumeric. SPSS is often used for advanced statistical applications.

Office Outlook

Microsoft Outlook, not to be confused with Outlook Express, is a personal information manager and e-mail communication software. The replacement for Microsoft Mail starting in the 1997 version of Office, it includes an e-mail client, calendar, task manager and address book. Its e-mail program's main competitors are Mozilla Thunderbird/Mozilla, and Eudora. Its personal information manager's main competitors are Mozilla, Lotus Organizer, and Novell Evolution. It is available for Windows; a version is also included with most Pocket PC handhelds. Its Macintosh equivalent is Microsoft Entourage.

Office PowerPoint

Microsoft PowerPoint is a popular presentation program for Windows and Macintosh. It is used to create slideshows, composed of text, graphics, movies and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and navigated through by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides. Windows Mobile 2005 (Magneto) will have a version of this program. It possesses a dominant market share. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Impress, Corel WordPerfect and Apple Keynote.

Other programs included in the Windows versions

An office dinosaur, as depicted in a Microsoft Office ad encouraging businesses to update.
  • Microsoft Access – database manager. For the 2003 version, included in Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003, and Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003.
  • Microsoft InfoPath – application that enables users to design rich XML-based forms. Included in Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003.
  • Microsoft Publisher – Desktop publishing software. For the 2003 version, included in Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 2003, Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003, and Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003.
  • Microsoft FrontPage – web design software (also requires its own server program). Offered only as a stand-alone program for the 2003 version (not part of the office suite).
  • Microsoft Visio – diagram software.
  • Microsoft Office Picture Manager – basic photo management software (similar to a basic version of Google's Picasa or Adobe's Photoshop Elements).
  • Microsoft Photo Editor – photo editing/raster graphics software in older Office versions, and again in XP. It was temporarily supplemented by Microsoft PhotoDraw in Office 2000 Premium edition.
  • Microsoft Project – project manager.
  • Microsoft OneNote – note taking software for use with tablet PCs or regular PCs.
  • Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 - [1]
  • Developer Tools – (included only with developer editions)

Other programs included in the Mac versions

  • Microsoft Entourage – Personal information manager and communication software for Macintosh only (similar to Outlook).
  • Virtual PC – Emulates a standard PC and its hardware. Included with Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2004

Web services associated with Microsoft Office

  • Microsoft Update – Web site. Similar to Windows Update, but also encompasses other Microsoft applications.
  • Microsoft Office Live – Web service. An online Office suite as part of Microsoft's Windows Live initiative.
  • Microsoft Office Online – Web site. Included in all versions of Microsoft Office 2003.
  • Microsoft Office Update – Web site. Patch detection and installation service for Office 2000, XP, and 2003. - [2]

Older programs no longer included

  • Microsoft Binder – incorporates several documents into one file.
  • Microsoft Schedule Plus – released with Office 95. It featured a Planner, To do list, and Contact Information. Its functions were incorporated into Microsoft Outlook.
  • Microsoft Mail – mail client (in old versions of Office, later replaced by Microsoft Outlook).
  • Microsoft Outlook Express – mail client (in Office 98 Macintosh Edition, later replaced by Microsoft Entourage).
  • Microsoft Vizact 2000 – a program that "activated" documents using HTML, adding effects such as animation. The main reason for its unpopularity was because many people had no idea what it did by looking at its box alone, and therefore did not buy it.

Since 1997 Office has included Office Assistant, a system that uses animated characters to offer unrequested context-sensitive suggestions to users and access to relevant parts of the help system. Intended to make the software less intimidating to new users, it is typically disabled by experienced users. The Assistant is often dubbed "Clippy" or "Clippit," due to its default to a paperclip character, coded as CLIPPIT.ACS. The Assistant is the main use of Microsoft Agent technology.

Also, beginning with Macintosh Office 4.2, the Macintosh and Windows versions of Office share the same file format. Consequently, any Macintosh with Office 4.2 or later can read documents created with Windows Office 4.2 or later, and vice-versa.

Office 11.0/2003 introduced a new, optional file format for the entire suite, built on XML technology. Office X for Mac is also built to handle this file format.

Other related companion servers

  • Microsoft Office Live Communications Server - real time communications server
  • Microsoft Office Project Server - project management server
  • Microsoft Office SharePoint Portal Server collaboration server

Editions

The Windows version of Microsoft Office 11.0/2003 is available in six editions: (Please note that for the most part, pricing reflects installation on only a single computer.)

  • Microsoft Office Student and Teacher Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $149 US)
  • Microsoft Office Basic Edition 11.0/2003 (bundled with new computers only)
  • Microsoft Office Standard Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $399 US; Upgrade Price $239 US)
  • Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $449 US; Upgrade Price $279 US)
  • Microsoft Office Professional Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $499 US; Upgrade Price $329 US)
  • Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 11.0/2003 (volume licensing only)

The Macintosh version, Microsoft Office for Mac 2004, is available in three editions. All include Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Entourage. They are identical except for pricing and the inclusion of Virtual PC in the Professional Edition.

  • Office for Mac 2004 Standard Edition (MSRP New User Price $399 US; Upgrade Price $239 US)
  • Office for Mac 2004 Student and Teacher Edition (MSRP New User Price $149 US)
  • Office for Mac 2004 Professional Edition (MSRP New User Price $499 US; Upgrade Price $329 US)

Pricing as of April 9, 2005 [3] [4]

Cross-platform use

Microsoft develops Office primarily for Windows and secondarily for Macintosh. However, most versions of the suite can also be run on Unix-like operating systems through the use of a compatibility layer such as CrossOver Office or WINE.

The older, simpler versions tend to run considerably better on WINE than newer ones. However, all versions are known to work to some extent.

Versions

Major Microsoft Windows versions

  • Office 3.0 (CD-ROM version: Word 2.0c, Excel 4.0a, PowerPoint 3.0, Mail) - released August 30, 1992 (repackaged as Office 92)
  • Office 4.0 (Word 6.0, Excel 4.0, PowerPoint 3.0) - released January 17, 1994
  • Office for NT 4.2 (Word 6.0 [32-bit, i386 and Alpha], Excel 5.0 [32-bit, i386 and Alpha], PowerPoint 4.0 [16-bit], "Microsoft Office Manager") - released July 3, 1994
  • Office 4.3 (The last 16-bit version; Word 6.0, Excel 5.0, PowerPoint 4.0 and in the pro version: Access 2.0) - released June 2, 1994
  • Office 7.0/'95 (Word '95, etc.) - released August 30, 1995
  • Office 8.0/'97 (Word '97, etc.) - released December 30, 1996 (was published on CD-ROM as well as on a set of 45 3½-inch floppy disks)
  • Office 9.0/2000 (Word 2000, etc.) - released January 27, 1999
  • Office 10.0/2002/XP (Word 2002, etc.) - released May 31, 2001
  • Office 11.0/2003 (Word 2003, etc.) - released November 17, 2003
  • Office 12.0 - due to be released simultaneously, or near simultaneously with Windows Vista, Microsoft's next major consumer operating system.

There are variants of more recent versions such as Small Business Edition, Student and Teacher Edition, Professional Edition and Developer Edition with different collections of applications and pricing points.

Apple Macintosh versions

  • Office 1 (Word 3, etc.) - released 1990
  • Office 2 (Word 4, etc.) - released 1992
  • Office 3 (Word 5, etc.) - released 1993
  • Office 4.2 (The first Power Mac-aware version; Word 6.0, etc.) - released June 2, 1994
  • Office 98 (Word 98, etc.) - released March 15, 1998
  • Office 2001 (Word 2001, etc.) - released October 11, 2000
  • Office v.X (The first Mac OS X/Aqua edition; Word X, etc.) - released November 19, 2001
  • Office 2004 (Word 2004, etc.) - released May 11, 2004

Add ins

A major feature of applications in the Office suite is the ability for users and third party companies to write Office COM add-ins. Component Object Model (COM) add-ins are supplemental programs that extend the capabilities of an application by adding custom commands and specialized features that can accommodate specific tasks.

Trivia

Screenshot of Word 97 running on Windows NT 3.51

For some reason, most versions of Microsoft Office (including 97 and later, and possibly 4.3) use their own widget set, and as a result do not exactly match the native operating system.

Whereas Windows uses "Service Packs", Office used to release "Service Releases". However, after Office 2000 Service Release 1, Office releases only Service Packs. Service Releases are not cumulative (i.e. it is necessary to install each release in turn) whereas Service Packs are. This means that any copy of the original Office 2000 ("RTM" or "Gold" in Microsoft documentation) requires Service Release 1 to be installed before a Service Pack can be installed.

Alternatives

There are also several alternative office suites available, including:

  • OpenOffice.org, a completely free and open-source suite available for download to Windows, Linux, and Macintosh users. It includes practically full compatibility with Microsoft Office (with the exception of lack of full support for Microsoft Office Publisher (pub) files and a lack of a mail client à la Microsoft Office Outlook, however, there are many alternative mail clients to choose from.)
    • NeoOffice, an open-source OpenOffice.org port for Mac OS X that integrates into its Aqua interface.
    • StarOffice, based on the OpenOffice code.
  • Corel's WordPerfect Office.
  • iWork, Apple's Mac-only office suite. Includes Pages, for word-processing, and Keynote, for presentations.
  • KOffice, an open-source office suite which is part of the KDE Desktop Environment.
  • GNOME Office, a loosely coupled group of open-source applications including Abiword and Gnumeric, which is targetted for the GNOME desktop environment.
  • Lotus SmartSuite, provided by IBM contains a word-processing program called Word Pro, spreadsheet program called Lotus 1-2-3, a program similar to Microsoft's PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance Graphics and a database program called Lotus Approach. Lotus Notes provides the email/PIM portion of the Lotus offering.
  • ThinkFree Office, a free web-based alternative office suite. It is almost fully compatible with Microsoft Office files.

Microsoft Office Converters and Viewers, provided by Microsoft. It is not designed to replace MS Office, and has only compatibilities of reading Office files. It is for Windows, free-of-charge. [5]


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[5]. Articles about Sri Lanka`s current defence status. It is for Windows, free-of-charge. Statistics on Civilians Affected by War in Northeast 1974-2004 A Full Report in 11 pages. It is not designed to replace MS Office, and has only compatibilities of reading Office files. A cease-fire was declared in 2002, but renewed violence in late 2005 led to fears of a renewed civil war. Microsoft Office Converters and Viewers, provided by Microsoft. It is estimated that the war has left 65,000 people dead since 1983 and caused great harm to the population and economy of the country.

There are also several alternative office suites available, including:. Since 1983, there has been on-and-off civil war, mostly between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, or the LTTE, who want to create an independent Tamil Eelam state in the northeast of the island. This means that any copy of the original Office 2000 ("RTM" or "Gold" in Microsoft documentation) requires Service Release 1 to be installed before a Service Pack can be installed. The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is an ongoing conflict between the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamils on the island-nation of Sri Lanka. it is necessary to install each release in turn) whereas Service Packs are. See Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Service Releases are not cumulative (i.e. While Islam and Christianity (including 6% Catholics and 1% Protestants) represent 8% and 7% of the population respectively.

However, after Office 2000 Service Release 1, Office releases only Service Packs. Buddhism (69%) and Hinduism (15.5%) are the dominant religions. Whereas Windows uses "Service Packs", Office used to release "Service Releases". Smaller minorities include (mostly Sunni) Muslims (7%), mostly of mixed Arab, Persian, Tamil and Sinhalese origins and Malay descent, Burghers of mixed European descent (1%) and the Wanniyala-Aetto or Veddahs, the few remaining descendants of earlier cultures. For some reason, most versions of Microsoft Office (including 97 and later, and possibly 4.3) use their own widget set, and as a result do not exactly match the native operating system. All three languages are used in education and administration. Component Object Model (COM) add-ins are supplemental programs that extend the capabilities of an application by adding custom commands and specialized features that can accommodate specific tasks. English, the link language in the present constitution, is spoken competently by about 10% of the population, and is widely understood.

A major feature of applications in the Office suite is the ability for users and third party companies to write Office COM add-ins. Both Sinhala and Tamil are official languages. There are variants of more recent versions such as Small Business Edition, Student and Teacher Edition, Professional Edition and Developer Edition with different collections of applications and pricing points. Tamils comprise two communities: Native Tamils and more recent immigrants from India called as Indian Origin Tamils. However, all versions are known to work to some extent. Tamils constitute 18%, are predominantly Hindu, and live mostly in the north, east and central provinces. The older, simpler versions tend to run considerably better on WINE than newer ones. About 74% of Sri Lankans are Sinhalese, most of them Buddhist, mostly following the Theravada tradition.

However, most versions of the suite can also be run on Unix-like operating systems through the use of a compatibility layer such as CrossOver Office or WINE. Assimilation and intermixing has produced a group of people who are marginaly different from each other irrespective of current racial claims. Microsoft develops Office primarily for Windows and secondarily for Macintosh. Racial identities in Sri Lanka do not represent the genetic heritage. Pricing as of April 9, 2005 [3] [4]. In December 2005, Sri Lanka received its first international credit rating with Fitch Ratings assigning it a BB- (a rating held by Brazil and Indonesia among others). They are identical except for pricing and the inclusion of Virtual PC in the Professional Edition. A September 2005 IMF report called for an end to 'fiscal domination' of monetary policy and more independence for the Central Bank so that inflation could be contained.

All include Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Entourage. The tsunami helped stabilize the deterioration of macro-economic fundamentals as foreign debt relief and assistance from the International Monetary Fund strengthened both the external sector and fiscal operations. The Macintosh version, Microsoft Office for Mac 2004, is available in three editions. But GDP growth, which had climbed to 6.4% by the first quarter of 2004 had fallen to 4.8% by the first quarter of 2005. The Windows version of Microsoft Office 11.0/2003 is available in six editions: (Please note that for the most part, pricing reflects installation on only a single computer.). The December 26th Tsunami brought aidflows, and support from the IMF helped improve sentiment in the foreign exchange market. Office X for Mac is also built to handle this file format. By December 2004, the country was heading for a balance of payments crisis, as the currency depreciated and reserves dwindled.

Office 11.0/2003 introduced a new, optional file format for the entire suite, built on XML technology. The expansionary fiscal policy, coupled with loose monetary policy eventually drove inflation up to 18% by January 2005, as measured by the Sri Lanka Consumer Price Index. Consequently, any Macintosh with Office 4.2 or later can read documents created with Windows Office 4.2 or later, and vice-versa. To finance the expanded budget deficit arising from a range of subsidies and a public sector recruitment drive, the government eventually had to print Rs 65 bn (US$ 650 mn) or around 3% of GDP. Also, beginning with Macintosh Office 4.2, the Macintosh and Windows versions of Office share the same file format. In 2004 alone Sri Lanka spent approximately US$ 180 mn on a fuel subsidy, as fixing fuel prices was an election promise. The Assistant is the main use of Microsoft Agent technology. But this policy of subsidizing imported commodities like fuel, fertilizer and wheat, soon unravelled the fiscal sector.

The Assistant is often dubbed "Clippy" or "Clippit," due to its default to a paperclip character, coded as CLIPPIT.ACS. Its main theme to support the rural and suburban SMEs and protect the domestic economy from external influences, such as oil prices, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Intended to make the software less intimidating to new users, it is typically disabled by experienced users. The new government stopped the privatization of state enterprises, reforms of state utilities such as power and petroleum and embarked on an unprecedented subsidy program called the Rata Perata economic program. Since 1997 Office has included Office Assistant, a system that uses animated characters to offer unrequested context-sensitive suggestions to users and access to relevant parts of the help system. In April 2004, there was a sharp reversal in economic policy after the government headed by Ranil Wickremesinghe from the United National Party was defeated by a coalition made up of Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the left-nationalist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna called the United People's Freedom Alliance. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Impress, Corel WordPerfect and Apple Keynote. The Colombo stock exchange reported the highest growth in Asia for 2003, and today Sri Lanka has the highest per capita income in South Asia.

It possesses a dominant market share. Signs of recovery appeared after the government and the LTTE signed the 2002 ceasefire. Windows Mobile 2005 (Magneto) will have a version of this program. 2001 saw the first economic contraction in the country's history, due to a combination of power shortages, budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife. It is used to create slideshows, composed of text, graphics, movies and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and navigated through by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides. The economy rebounded in 1997-2000, with average growth of 5.3%. Microsoft PowerPoint is a popular presentation program for Windows and Macintosh. The GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5% during the early 1990s, until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996.

Its Macintosh equivalent is Microsoft Entourage. By 1996, plantation crops made up only 20% of exports (compared with 93% in 1970), while textiles and garments 63%. It is available for Windows; a version is also included with most Pocket PC handhelds. While tea and rubber are still important, the most dynamic sectors are now food processing, textiles and apparel, food and beverages, telecommunications, insurance, and banking. Its personal information manager's main competitors are Mozilla, Lotus Organizer, and Novell Evolution. From independence, till 1977, it was a strongly socialist economy but since then it has been increasingly pursuing privatization, market-oriented policies and export-oriented trade. Its e-mail program's main competitors are Mozilla Thunderbird/Mozilla, and Eudora. Sri Lanka is historically famous for its cinnamon and tea (introduced by the British in the 19th century).

The replacement for Microsoft Mail starting in the 1997 version of Office, it includes an e-mail client, calendar, task manager and address book. See Endemic Birds of the Indian Subcontinent for more information. Microsoft Outlook, not to be confused with Outlook Express, is a personal information manager and e-mail communication software. Sri Lanka is a centre of bird endemism. SPSS is often used for advanced statistical applications. The island has three biosphere reserves, Hurulu (established 1977), Sinharaja (established 1978), and Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya (KDN) (established 2004). Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Calc, StarOffice, Corel Quattro Pro and Gnumeric. Several preserves have been established to protect some of Sri Lanka's remaining natural areas.

It is available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. These forests have been largely cleared for agriculture, timber or grazing, and many of the dry evergreen forests have been degraded to thorn scrub, savanna, or thickets. It was originally a competitor to the dominant Lotus 1-2-3 but it eventually outsold it and became the de facto standard. The Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests are a tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregion, which, like the neighboring East Deccan dry evergreen forests of India's Coromandel Coast, is characterized by evergreen trees, rather than the dry-season deciduous trees that predominate in most other tropical dry broadleaf forests. Like Microsoft Word, it possesses a dominant market share. The north and east are considerably drier, lying in the rain shadow of the central highlands. Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program. Both these tropical moist forest ecoregions are very similar to those of India's Western Ghats.

Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Writer, StarOffice, Corel WordPerfect, Apple Pages and AbiWord. At higher elevations they transition to the Sri Lanka montane rain forests. It is available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. The southwest, where the influence of the moisture-bearing southwest monsoon is strongest, is home to the Sri Lanka lowland rain forests. Word is also available in some editions of Microsoft Works. Its forests are among the most floristically rich in Asia and for some faunal groups, it has the world's highest density of species diversity. Its proprietary DOC format is considered a de facto standard, although its most recent version, Word 11.0/2003, also supports an XML-based format. Sri Lanka is one of the world's bio-diversity hot-spots.

It possesses a dominant market share in the word processor market. Other major cities include Jaffna, Galle, and Kandy. It is considered to be the main program of Office. The commercial capital is Colombo, but the administrative and legislative capital is at nearby Sri Jayewardanapura (Kotte). Microsoft Word is a word processor. The lowest gravitational field on Earth lies just off the coast of Sri Lanka. Microsoft Office Basic Edition includes Word, Excel and Outlook only. The climate is tropical, characterized by monsoons: the northeast monsoon lasts from December to March, the southwest June to October.

These programs are included in all editions of Microsoft Office 2003, except Microsoft Office Basic Edition 2003. Amongst these are Sri Pada and the highest point Pidurutalagala (also known as Mt Pedro), at 2,524 m. . The pear-shaped island consists mostly of flat-to-rolling coastal plains, with mountains rising only in the south-central part.
. According to temple records, this natural causeway was formerly complete, but was breached by a violent storm (probably a cyclone) in 1480. The next version, 12.0, will have a radically different user interface from the older versions. Often referred to as Adam's Bridge, it is now mostly submerged, with only a chain of limestone shoals remaining above sea level.

It has certain features not present in other suites, and other programs have capabilities Office lacks. According to Hindu mythology, a land bridge to the Indian mainland, known as Rama's Bridge, was constructed during the time of Rama. Office is currently the most popular office suite in the world and considered to be the de facto standard for productivity programs, although its market share is currently decreasing with the rise of viable free and open source alternatives. It is separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. In recent years, Microsoft has attempted to position Office as a development platform in its own right, but has had mixed results with this. The island of Sri Lanka lies in the Indian Ocean, southwest of the Bay of Bengal. Over the years the Office applications have grown substantially closer together from a technical standpoint, sharing features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications scripting language.
.

Additionally, a "Pro" version of Office included Microsoft Access and Schedule Plus. Sri Lanka consists of 8 provinces:. The first version of Office contained Word, Excel and Powerpoint. See also: Sri Lankan parliamentary election, 2004. The main selling point was that buying the bundle was substantially cheaper than buying each of the individual applications on their own. At the close of 2005, deep political unease and suspicion remained between the two factions. Office made its first appearance in the early '90s, and was initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications that were previously marketed and sold separately. But these hopes were dashed by almost immediate accusations of bias and favouritism on the part of international aid agencies from both sides.

Recent versions of Office are now called the 'Office System' rather than the 'Office Suite' to reflect the fact that they include Servers as well. There were high hopes that the devastating Tsunami of December 2004 would force the government and Tamil rebels into a new, lasting dialogue to address the serious effects of the disaster on Sri Lanka as a whole. As well as the office applications, it includes associated servers and Web-based services. The LTTE boycotted the election, thereby preventing thousands of Tamils from voting, and so Wickremasinghe from taking power, whose election promises included a Federal state to the North and East. Microsoft Office is a suite of productivity programs created by Microsoft and developed for Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems. His narrow victory was engineered by the the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) who want Tamil Eelam to be an independent country. It is almost fully compatible with Microsoft Office files. Rajapaksa offers less autonomy than Wickremasinghe to the northeast, home to most of Sri Lanka's 3.2 million ethnic Tamils.

ThinkFree Office, a free web-based alternative office suite. He was previously Prime Minister in 2000. Lotus Notes provides the email/PIM portion of the Lotus offering. Ratnasiri Wickremanayake was appointed the 22nd Prime Minister on November 21, 2005, to fill the post vacated by Rajapaksa. Lotus SmartSuite, provided by IBM contains a word-processing program called Word Pro, spreadsheet program called Lotus 1-2-3, a program similar to Microsoft's PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance Graphics and a database program called Lotus Approach. Rajapaksa took oath as President on November 19, 2005. GNOME Office, a loosely coupled group of open-source applications including Abiword and Gnumeric, which is targetted for the GNOME desktop environment. The Election was held on November 17, 2005, and Mahinda Rajapaksa was elected the fifth Executive President of Sri Lanka with a 50.29% of valid votes, compared to Ranil Wickremesinghe's 48.43%.

KOffice, an open-source office suite which is part of the KDE Desktop Environment. Mahinda Rajapaksa was nominated the SLFP candidate and former Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe UNP candidate. Includes Pages, for word-processing, and Keynote, for presentations. In August 2005, the Supreme Court ruled that Presidential Elections would be held in November 2005, resolving a long-running dispute on the length of President Kumaratunga's term. iWork, Apple's Mac-only office suite. Elections were held on April 02 and the new Parliament convened on April 23 and elected Mahinda Rajapaksa as the Prime Minister. Corel's WordPerfect Office. Parliament was dissolved on February 07, 2004 by President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga.

StarOffice, based on the OpenOffice code. Since its independence in 1948, Sri Lanka has remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. NeoOffice, an open-source OpenOffice.org port for Mac OS X that integrates into its Aqua interface. Parliament reserves the power to make all laws. It includes practically full compatibility with Microsoft Office (with the exception of lack of full support for Microsoft Office Publisher (pub) files and a lack of a mail client à la Microsoft Office Outlook, however, there are many alternative mail clients to choose from.)

    . The president may summon, suspend, or end a legislative session and dissolve parliament any time after it has served for one year. OpenOffice.org, a completely free and open-source suite available for download to Windows, Linux, and Macintosh users. The primary modification is that the party that receives the largest number of valid votes in each constituency gains a unique "bonus seat" (see Hickman, 1999).

    Office 2004 (Word 2004, etc.) - released May 11, 2004. Members are elected by universal (adult) suffrage based on a modified proportional representation system by district to a six-year term. Office v.X (The first Mac OS X/Aqua edition; Word X, etc.) - released November 19, 2001. The Sri Lankan Parliament is a unicameral 225-member legislature. Office 2001 (Word 2001, etc.) - released October 11, 2000. The President's deputy is the Prime Minister, who leads the ruling party in Parliament. Office 98 (Word 98, etc.) - released March 15, 1998. The President appoints and heads a Cabinet of Ministers responsible to Parliament.

    Office 4.2 (The first Power Mac-aware version; Word 6.0, etc.) - released June 2, 1994. The incumbent may be removed from office by a two-thirds vote of Parliament, with the agreement by the Supreme Court. Office 3 (Word 5, etc.) - released 1993. The President is responsible to Parliament for the exercise of duties in accordance with the Constitution and laws. Office 2 (Word 4, etc.) - released 1992. The President of the Republic is directly elected for a six-year term and serves as Head of State, Head of Government and Commander in Chief of the armed forces. Office 1 (Word 3, etc.) - released 1990. It was rumored that the LTTE themselves did the killing.

    Office 12.0 - due to be released simultaneously, or near simultaneously with Windows Vista, Microsoft's next major consumer operating system. In December 2005, following a brutal gang rape and murder of a Tamil woman (Ilayathambi Tharsini)(such incidents have happened before, including Krishanti Kumaraswamy), restive civilian groups likely encouraged and controlled by the LTTE carried out a series of attacks against Government forces in the North and East, and some unknown forces assassinated a pro-LTTE Tamil politician on Christmas eve in a Catholic church. Office 11.0/2003 (Word 2003, etc.) - released November 17, 2003. It has been alleged that only 17% of the relief aid has been spent on what it was intended for. Office 10.0/2002/XP (Word 2002, etc.) - released May 31, 2001. Several Sinhala nationalist groups in the South challenged this pact and the Supreme Court declared that some articles of the pact were unconstitutional. Office 9.0/2000 (Word 2000, etc.) - released January 27, 1999. On June 24, 2005, the Government signed the Post Tsunami Operational Management Structure (P-TOMS), a legal instrument for the Government to share aid with the LTTE.

    Office 8.0/'97 (Word '97, etc.) - released December 30, 1996 (was published on CD-ROM as well as on a set of 45 3½-inch floppy disks). Over 40,000 people died on the island and many more are still missing. Office 7.0/'95 (Word '95, etc.) - released August 30, 1995. On December 26, 2004, an earthquake off the western coast of Sumatra created tsunamis that washed over the Eastern and Southern coasts of Sri Lanka. Office 4.3 (The last 16-bit version; Word 6.0, Excel 5.0, PowerPoint 4.0 and in the pro version: Access 2.0) - released June 2, 1994. In April 2004, the Government of Ranil Wickramasinghe was ousted from Parliament and a coalition including several Sinhala nationalist groups opposed to negotiations with LTTE came to power. Office for NT 4.2 (Word 6.0 [32-bit, i386 and Alpha], Excel 5.0 [32-bit, i386 and Alpha], PowerPoint 4.0 [16-bit], "Microsoft Office Manager") - released July 3, 1994. No significant progress has been made to date.

    Office 4.0 (Word 6.0, Excel 4.0, PowerPoint 3.0) - released January 17, 1994. LTTE negotiators proposed an Interim Self Governing Authority, but the Government's response did not satisfy LTTE, and the peace process paused in late 2003. Office 3.0 (CD-ROM version: Word 2.0c, Excel 4.0a, PowerPoint 3.0, Mail) - released August 30, 1992 (repackaged as Office 92). 6 rounds of direct talks were held in several locations around the world, but no substantial steps were taken towards a political settlement to the conflict. Office for Mac 2004 Professional Edition (MSRP New User Price $499 US; Upgrade Price $329 US). In early 2002 both the LTTE and the Government signed a Memorandum of Understanding and entered into a joint ceasefire. Office for Mac 2004 Student and Teacher Edition (MSRP New User Price $149 US). At the end of 2001 a new Parliament was elected and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremasinghe declared a ceasefire, responding to the LTTE which had declared a ceasefire in December 2001.

    Office for Mac 2004 Standard Edition (MSRP New User Price $399 US; Upgrade Price $239 US). During her re-election rally, a suicide bomber killed 10 people, missing Kumaratunge. Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 11.0/2003 (volume licensing only). In December 2000 President Kumaratunge was re-elected for her second term. Microsoft Office Professional Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $499 US; Upgrade Price $329 US). This was the first time the country's cricket team had won the Cricket World Cup tournament. Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $449 US; Upgrade Price $279 US). In 1996 Sri Lanka became world champions in Cricket.

    Microsoft Office Standard Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $399 US; Upgrade Price $239 US). Both the Sri Lanka Army and LTTE stood accused of gross human rights vioaltions including abduction, torture and extrajudicial executions during the conflict. Microsoft Office Basic Edition 11.0/2003 (bundled with new computers only). By the mid 1990s, LTTE controlled much of the North and had set up a de facto state. Microsoft Office Student and Teacher Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $149 US). Her initial attempts to negotiate with the LTTE failed and the war in the north and east continued with heavy casualties to sides. Microsoft Office SharePoint Portal Server collaboration server. In 1994 Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, daughter of two previous Prime Ministers, was elected President.

    Microsoft Office Project Server - project management server. In 1993 Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa was killed in a similar manner during a May Day celebration in Colombo. Microsoft Office Live Communications Server - real time communications server. In 1991 a LTTE suicide bomber killed former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in retaliation for the IPKF and the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord. The main reason for its unpopularity was because many people had no idea what it did by looking at its box alone, and therefore did not buy it. Thousands of Muslims who had lived there for generations started a mass exodus to southern parts of the island. Microsoft Vizact 2000 – a program that "activated" documents using HTML, adding effects such as animation. In 1990 the LTTE ordered all Muslims in the north to leave their homes.

    Microsoft Outlook Express – mail client (in Office 98 Macintosh Edition, later replaced by Microsoft Entourage). Many also believe that the Indian army lost support because of acts of rape and extreme misconduct by Indian soldiers. Microsoft Mail – mail client (in old versions of Office, later replaced by Microsoft Outlook). It is speculated that for this brief moment the LTTE was aided in a fight against the IPKF which drove out India. Its functions were incorporated into Microsoft Outlook. It is alleged that the IPKF attempted to setup a longterm base of operations in Sri Lanka's north which frightened the Sri Lankan Government. It featured a Planner, To do list, and Contact Information. They had lost over 1,500 men.

    Microsoft Schedule Plus – released with Office 95. The 60,000-strong Indian force soon lost the support of both sides of the conflict and began a phased withdrawal, ending in 1990. Microsoft Binder – incorporates several documents into one file. India, which had helped create and nurture the Tamil militant groups in the north had changed its stance, and in 1987 signed the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord and sent the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to the Jaffna peninsula. - [2]. While the Government dealt with the JVP rebellion, it enlisted the help of the Indian government to quell the Tamil separatist movement. Patch detection and installation service for Office 2000, XP, and 2003. 60,000 people vanished in the south during this period.

    Microsoft Office Update – Web site. His death ended the rebellion. Included in all versions of Microsoft Office 2003. At the end of 1989, JVP leader Rohana Wijeweera was arrested and days later shot while allegedly trying to escape. Microsoft Office Online – Web site. Both JVP and the Government engaged in the abduction, torture and murder of thousands of people. An online Office suite as part of Microsoft's Windows Live initiative. By 1988 it was a full-scale guerilla war.

    Microsoft Office Live – Web service. In 1986, the JVP (banned in 1983), started their second struggle in the south for state power. Similar to Windows Update, but also encompasses other Microsoft applications. One Tamil militant group, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), fought other groups, assassinated their leaders and assimilated their cadres into their ranks, and soon became the main group fighting the Army in the north and east. Microsoft Update – Web site. A 1985, round of peace talks in Thimphu, Bhutan failed, and the conflict intensified. Included with Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2004. Clashes between Tamil militants and the Government increased.

    Virtual PC – Emulates a standard PC and its hardware. Many thousands were forced to move from their homes in Colombo to the north and east. Microsoft Entourage – Personal information manager and communication software for Macintosh only (similar to Outlook). In July 1983, called Black July, in response to the killing of 13 army soldiers in Jaffna, the Government instigated a week-long pogrom against the Tamil community in the south, killing thousands. Developer Tools – (included only with developer editions). The Government sent the military to the Jaffna peninsula, increasing tensions. Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 - [1]. They called this homeland Tamil Eelam.

    Microsoft OneNote – note taking software for use with tablet PCs or regular PCs. By early 1980s, calls for a separate Tamil state had grown to the point where Tamil militants engaged in guerrilla attacks against the Government. Microsoft Project – project manager. Jayewardene came to power and released imprisoned JVP members. It was temporarily supplemented by Microsoft PhotoDraw in Office 2000 Premium edition. R. Microsoft Photo Editor – photo editing/raster graphics software in older Office versions, and again in XP. In 1977, J.

    Microsoft Office Picture Manager – basic photo management software (similar to a basic version of Google's Picasa or Adobe's Photoshop Elements). The insurrection was quelled by the government of Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike and JVP leaders were jailed for treason. Microsoft Visio – diagram software. In 1971, the Marxist group Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) launched an insurrection in the south to gain state power. Offered only as a stand-alone program for the 2003 version (not part of the office suite). Initially many of these were supported by the Indian Government which sought to appease Tamils in South India. Microsoft FrontPage – web design software (also requires its own server program). Calls for a separate Tamil state in the north and east grew, and eventually several Tamil militant groups formed, particularly in the northern Jaffna peninsula.

    For the 2003 version, included in Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 2003, Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003, and Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003. Decades of tension between Tamils living primarily in the north and east, and the Sinhala majority in the south, led to widespread communal riots in the 1950s to 1970s targeting Tamil communities and economic interests in many parts of the island. Microsoft Publisher – Desktop publishing software. This led to unrest among Tamils, whose cultural identity was threatened. Included in Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003. The 1956 Sinhala Only Act made Sinhala the sole official language, forcing Tamil-speakers to learn it. Microsoft InfoPath – application that enables users to design rich XML-based forms. Post-independence governments implemented a series of pro-Sinhala measures, supporting the Sinhala majority.

    For the 2003 version, included in Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003, and Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003. Independent Sri Lanka is famed for it's remarkable increase in human development, notably life expectency, infant mortality, and literacy, which lead the country to be seen as somewhat of a model for third world development. Microsoft Access – database manager. In 1982, the legislative and judicial capital was moved from Colombo to nearby Sri Jayewardanapura Kotte. In 1972, the country became a republic, free of the last vestiges of colonial domination; the name was changed to Sri Lanka. The flag of the last king of Kandy was proclaimed the National Flag with few minor changes (added orange and green vertical bars to represent the Tamils and Muslims).

    The first prime minister was Don Stephen Senanayake, while Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore became Governor-General, the Queen's nominal representative. As Ceylon [1], it became a dominion in the British Commonwealth in 1948. The British used Sri Lanka as a base for operations in the Pacific. A month later, a Sri Lankan garrison on the Cocos Islands mutinied, but the rebellion was put down.

    Extensive damage was caused to shipping and the Royal Navy lost two cruisers, an aircraft carrier and an Australian destroyer. Japan bombed Sri Lanka, but there were few casualties. During World War II pro-independence leaders were jailed. The struggle for independence started in the 1930s, when the Youth Leagues opposed the 'Ministers' Memorandum' which asked the colonial authority to increase the powers of the board of ministers, rather than seeking independence.

    After the fall of Kandy kingdom in 1815, the British unified it with the 'low country' Kingdoms on the island under one rule for administrative purposes in 1818. Great Britain replaced the Dutch in 1796, and the coastal areas became a crown colony in 1802. During Portuguese and Dutch rule of coastal areas, the interior, hilly region of the island remained independent, with its capital at Kandy city. The Dutch followed in the 17th century.

    They defeated both coastal kingdoms (Yarlpanam and Kotte) in the 16th century. In 1517, the Portuguese established the fort and trading post Colombo. When the Portuguese arrived, the island consisted of several autonomous kingdoms under the nominal suzerainty of the king at Kotte, such as those of Yarlpanam (Anglicised Jaffna) in the north and Kandy in the central hills. It was also invaded and ruled by Kings of Kalinga (present-day Indian state Orissa) and Malay Straights.

    South Indian kingdoms invaded Sri Lanka on a number of occasions and so the island was ruled for extended periods by Tamil dynasties such as the Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras and Pallavas. Parakramabahu IV, who ruled from Kotte, was the last Sri Lankan king to rule over the entire island, although the other kingdoms remained under the nominal suzerainty of the High King at Kotte. After the Polonnaruwa era, the capital moved often, and the island was rarely unified. 1070 to 1200).

    1000 AD) and Polonnaruwa (c. 200 BC to c. Buddhism and a sophisticated system of irrigation became the pillars of Sinhalese civilization (200 BC-1200 AD) that flourished in the north-central Sri Lanka, with capitals at Anuradhapura (from c. Buddhism arrived from the Indian subcontinent in the 3rd century BC thanks to Arahath Mahinda Thero, missionary of Indian Emperor Ashoka, and spread rapidly.

    Given the island's proximity to the Deccan Plateau, people of different ethnicities must have traveled to and from it throughout human history. Its origins are not dated, but must post-date the arrival of the Dravidian language group in South India sometime in prehistory. Tamil presence is noted throughout the country's written history. However, archaic Sinhalese langauge is closer to Prakrits used in northwest India, indicating an origin in the present western coastal Indian state Gujarat.

    Legend states that king Vijaya came to Sri Lanka from Orissa in northeast India. Archaeological excavations at Anuradhapura show a settlement from the 10th century BC. It also describes a minister of Vijaya, Anuradha, who established the village Anuradhagamma which later became Anuradhapura and became the capital of Sri Lanka centuries later. This may refer to a specific group of Prakrit-speaking people, and not necessarily the first such group to arrive.

    The Mahavansa describes the Sinhalese kingdom started by king Vijaya and his followers. The theory of Mahavamsa is a contraversial subject and a debate continues as to whether some aspects of it are factual. Archaeological evidence supplements the Mahavamsa as it places people (perhaps the indigenous Yakkas and Nagas of the chronicle) of indistinguishable racial origin living in the north-central Sri Lanka from the 10th century BC onwards with knowledge of agriculture, metallurgy, and livestock breeding. The Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa give a near-continuous written history of the island and is also the primary source for the early chronology of India, especially for the synchronity with Alexander the Great and the Greeks.

    Prior to 1972, Sri Lanka was known by a variety of names; the best known is Ceylon. In 1978 it was changed to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. In 1972, the official name of the nation that governs the island was changed to the Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්‍රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil). .

    The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / Sri Lanka in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent, about 30 km south of India. The chronology of early India depends upon that of the Mahawamsa. The Buddhist scriptures were first committed to writing at Aluvihare in Sri Lanka. Winner of the Cricket World Cup in 1996.

    First country to have a wildlife sanctuary [2]. World's leading exporter of cinnamon; exported to Egypt as early as 1400 BC. World's leading exporter of tea; Ceylon tea is of the finest quality in the world. Sri Lanka celebrated 80 years in Broadcasting on December 16th 2005.

    First country in South Asia to start radio broadcasting with Radio Ceylon. Longest period of continuous multi party democracy by a non western country (from 1931-present). First country in the World to have a female prime minister (Sirimavo Bandaranaike). Western.

    Uva. Southern. Sabaragamuwa. North Western.

    North Eastern. North Central. Central. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka.

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