Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office is a suite of productivity programs created by Microsoft and developed for Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems. As well as the office applications, it includes associated servers and Web-based services. Recent versions of Office are now called the 'Office System' rather than the 'Office Suite' to reflect the fact that they include Servers as well.

Office made its first appearance in the early '90s, and was initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications that were previously marketed and sold separately. The main selling point was that buying the bundle was substantially cheaper than buying each of the individual applications on their own. The first version of Office contained Word, Excel and Powerpoint. Additionally, a "Pro" version of Office included Microsoft Access and Schedule Plus. Over the years the Office applications have grown substantially closer together from a technical standpoint, sharing features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. In recent years, Microsoft has attempted to position Office as a development platform in its own right, but has had mixed results with this.

Office is currently the most popular office suite in the world and considered to be the de facto standard for productivity programs, although its market share is currently decreasing with the rise of viable free and open source alternatives. It has certain features not present in other suites, and other programs have capabilities Office lacks. The next version, 12.0, will have a radically different user interface from the older versions.


Office programs

These programs are included in all editions of Microsoft Office 2003, except Microsoft Office Basic Edition 2003. Microsoft Office Basic Edition includes Word, Excel and Outlook only.

Office Word

Microsoft Word is a word processor. It is considered to be the main program of Office. It possesses a dominant market share in the word processor market. Its proprietary DOC format is considered a de facto standard, although its most recent version, Word 11.0/2003, also supports an XML-based format. Word is also available in some editions of Microsoft Works. It is available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Writer, StarOffice, Corel WordPerfect, Apple Pages and AbiWord.

Office Excel

Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program. Like Microsoft Word, it possesses a dominant market share. It was originally a competitor to the dominant Lotus 1-2-3 but it eventually outsold it and became the de facto standard. It is available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Calc, StarOffice, Corel Quattro Pro and Gnumeric. SPSS is often used for advanced statistical applications.

Office Outlook

Microsoft Outlook, not to be confused with Outlook Express, is a personal information manager and e-mail communication software. The replacement for Microsoft Mail starting in the 1997 version of Office, it includes an e-mail client, calendar, task manager and address book. Its e-mail program's main competitors are Mozilla Thunderbird/Mozilla, and Eudora. Its personal information manager's main competitors are Mozilla, Lotus Organizer, and Novell Evolution. It is available for Windows; a version is also included with most Pocket PC handhelds. Its Macintosh equivalent is Microsoft Entourage.

Office PowerPoint

Microsoft PowerPoint is a popular presentation program for Windows and Macintosh. It is used to create slideshows, composed of text, graphics, movies and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and navigated through by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides. Windows Mobile 2005 (Magneto) will have a version of this program. It possesses a dominant market share. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Impress, Corel WordPerfect and Apple Keynote.

Other programs included in the Windows versions

An office dinosaur, as depicted in a Microsoft Office ad encouraging businesses to update.
  • Microsoft Access – database manager. For the 2003 version, included in Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003, and Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003.
  • Microsoft InfoPath – application that enables users to design rich XML-based forms. Included in Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003.
  • Microsoft Publisher – Desktop publishing software. For the 2003 version, included in Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 2003, Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003, and Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003.
  • Microsoft FrontPage – web design software (also requires its own server program). Offered only as a stand-alone program for the 2003 version (not part of the office suite).
  • Microsoft Visio – diagram software.
  • Microsoft Office Picture Manager – basic photo management software (similar to a basic version of Google's Picasa or Adobe's Photoshop Elements).
  • Microsoft Photo Editor – photo editing/raster graphics software in older Office versions, and again in XP. It was temporarily supplemented by Microsoft PhotoDraw in Office 2000 Premium edition.
  • Microsoft Project – project manager.
  • Microsoft OneNote – note taking software for use with tablet PCs or regular PCs.
  • Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 - [1]
  • Developer Tools – (included only with developer editions)

Other programs included in the Mac versions

  • Microsoft Entourage – Personal information manager and communication software for Macintosh only (similar to Outlook).
  • Virtual PC – Emulates a standard PC and its hardware. Included with Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2004

Web services associated with Microsoft Office

  • Microsoft Update – Web site. Similar to Windows Update, but also encompasses other Microsoft applications.
  • Microsoft Office Live – Web service. An online Office suite as part of Microsoft's Windows Live initiative.
  • Microsoft Office Online – Web site. Included in all versions of Microsoft Office 2003.
  • Microsoft Office Update – Web site. Patch detection and installation service for Office 2000, XP, and 2003. - [2]

Older programs no longer included

  • Microsoft Binder – incorporates several documents into one file.
  • Microsoft Schedule Plus – released with Office 95. It featured a Planner, To do list, and Contact Information. Its functions were incorporated into Microsoft Outlook.
  • Microsoft Mail – mail client (in old versions of Office, later replaced by Microsoft Outlook).
  • Microsoft Outlook Express – mail client (in Office 98 Macintosh Edition, later replaced by Microsoft Entourage).
  • Microsoft Vizact 2000 – a program that "activated" documents using HTML, adding effects such as animation. The main reason for its unpopularity was because many people had no idea what it did by looking at its box alone, and therefore did not buy it.

Since 1997 Office has included Office Assistant, a system that uses animated characters to offer unrequested context-sensitive suggestions to users and access to relevant parts of the help system. Intended to make the software less intimidating to new users, it is typically disabled by experienced users. The Assistant is often dubbed "Clippy" or "Clippit," due to its default to a paperclip character, coded as CLIPPIT.ACS. The Assistant is the main use of Microsoft Agent technology.

Also, beginning with Macintosh Office 4.2, the Macintosh and Windows versions of Office share the same file format. Consequently, any Macintosh with Office 4.2 or later can read documents created with Windows Office 4.2 or later, and vice-versa.

Office 11.0/2003 introduced a new, optional file format for the entire suite, built on XML technology. Office X for Mac is also built to handle this file format.

Other related companion servers

  • Microsoft Office Live Communications Server - real time communications server
  • Microsoft Office Project Server - project management server
  • Microsoft Office SharePoint Portal Server collaboration server

Editions

The Windows version of Microsoft Office 11.0/2003 is available in six editions: (Please note that for the most part, pricing reflects installation on only a single computer.)

  • Microsoft Office Student and Teacher Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $149 US)
  • Microsoft Office Basic Edition 11.0/2003 (bundled with new computers only)
  • Microsoft Office Standard Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $399 US; Upgrade Price $239 US)
  • Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $449 US; Upgrade Price $279 US)
  • Microsoft Office Professional Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $499 US; Upgrade Price $329 US)
  • Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 11.0/2003 (volume licensing only)

The Macintosh version, Microsoft Office for Mac 2004, is available in three editions. All include Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Entourage. They are identical except for pricing and the inclusion of Virtual PC in the Professional Edition.

  • Office for Mac 2004 Standard Edition (MSRP New User Price $399 US; Upgrade Price $239 US)
  • Office for Mac 2004 Student and Teacher Edition (MSRP New User Price $149 US)
  • Office for Mac 2004 Professional Edition (MSRP New User Price $499 US; Upgrade Price $329 US)

Pricing as of April 9, 2005 [3] [4]

Cross-platform use

Microsoft develops Office primarily for Windows and secondarily for Macintosh. However, most versions of the suite can also be run on Unix-like operating systems through the use of a compatibility layer such as CrossOver Office or WINE.

The older, simpler versions tend to run considerably better on WINE than newer ones. However, all versions are known to work to some extent.

Versions

Major Microsoft Windows versions

  • Office 3.0 (CD-ROM version: Word 2.0c, Excel 4.0a, PowerPoint 3.0, Mail) - released August 30, 1992 (repackaged as Office 92)
  • Office 4.0 (Word 6.0, Excel 4.0, PowerPoint 3.0) - released January 17, 1994
  • Office for NT 4.2 (Word 6.0 [32-bit, i386 and Alpha], Excel 5.0 [32-bit, i386 and Alpha], PowerPoint 4.0 [16-bit], "Microsoft Office Manager") - released July 3, 1994
  • Office 4.3 (The last 16-bit version; Word 6.0, Excel 5.0, PowerPoint 4.0 and in the pro version: Access 2.0) - released June 2, 1994
  • Office 7.0/'95 (Word '95, etc.) - released August 30, 1995
  • Office 8.0/'97 (Word '97, etc.) - released December 30, 1996 (was published on CD-ROM as well as on a set of 45 3½-inch floppy disks)
  • Office 9.0/2000 (Word 2000, etc.) - released January 27, 1999
  • Office 10.0/2002/XP (Word 2002, etc.) - released May 31, 2001
  • Office 11.0/2003 (Word 2003, etc.) - released November 17, 2003
  • Office 12.0 - due to be released simultaneously, or near simultaneously with Windows Vista, Microsoft's next major consumer operating system.

There are variants of more recent versions such as Small Business Edition, Student and Teacher Edition, Professional Edition and Developer Edition with different collections of applications and pricing points.

Apple Macintosh versions

  • Office 1 (Word 3, etc.) - released 1990
  • Office 2 (Word 4, etc.) - released 1992
  • Office 3 (Word 5, etc.) - released 1993
  • Office 4.2 (The first Power Mac-aware version; Word 6.0, etc.) - released June 2, 1994
  • Office 98 (Word 98, etc.) - released March 15, 1998
  • Office 2001 (Word 2001, etc.) - released October 11, 2000
  • Office v.X (The first Mac OS X/Aqua edition; Word X, etc.) - released November 19, 2001
  • Office 2004 (Word 2004, etc.) - released May 11, 2004

Add ins

A major feature of applications in the Office suite is the ability for users and third party companies to write Office COM add-ins. Component Object Model (COM) add-ins are supplemental programs that extend the capabilities of an application by adding custom commands and specialized features that can accommodate specific tasks.

Trivia

Screenshot of Word 97 running on Windows NT 3.51

For some reason, most versions of Microsoft Office (including 97 and later, and possibly 4.3) use their own widget set, and as a result do not exactly match the native operating system.

Whereas Windows uses "Service Packs", Office used to release "Service Releases". However, after Office 2000 Service Release 1, Office releases only Service Packs. Service Releases are not cumulative (i.e. it is necessary to install each release in turn) whereas Service Packs are. This means that any copy of the original Office 2000 ("RTM" or "Gold" in Microsoft documentation) requires Service Release 1 to be installed before a Service Pack can be installed.

Alternatives

There are also several alternative office suites available, including:

  • OpenOffice.org, a completely free and open-source suite available for download to Windows, Linux, and Macintosh users. It includes practically full compatibility with Microsoft Office (with the exception of lack of full support for Microsoft Office Publisher (pub) files and a lack of a mail client à la Microsoft Office Outlook, however, there are many alternative mail clients to choose from.)
    • NeoOffice, an open-source OpenOffice.org port for Mac OS X that integrates into its Aqua interface.
    • StarOffice, based on the OpenOffice code.
  • Corel's WordPerfect Office.
  • iWork, Apple's Mac-only office suite. Includes Pages, for word-processing, and Keynote, for presentations.
  • KOffice, an open-source office suite which is part of the KDE Desktop Environment.
  • GNOME Office, a loosely coupled group of open-source applications including Abiword and Gnumeric, which is targetted for the GNOME desktop environment.
  • Lotus SmartSuite, provided by IBM contains a word-processing program called Word Pro, spreadsheet program called Lotus 1-2-3, a program similar to Microsoft's PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance Graphics and a database program called Lotus Approach. Lotus Notes provides the email/PIM portion of the Lotus offering.
  • ThinkFree Office, a free web-based alternative office suite. It is almost fully compatible with Microsoft Office files.

Microsoft Office Converters and Viewers, provided by Microsoft. It is not designed to replace MS Office, and has only compatibilities of reading Office files. It is for Windows, free-of-charge. [5]


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[5]. See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches. It is for Windows, free-of-charge. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations. It is not designed to replace MS Office, and has only compatibilities of reading Office files. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. Microsoft Office Converters and Viewers, provided by Microsoft. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches.

There are also several alternative office suites available, including:. At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. This means that any copy of the original Office 2000 ("RTM" or "Gold" in Microsoft documentation) requires Service Release 1 to be installed before a Service Pack can be installed. Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. it is necessary to install each release in turn) whereas Service Packs are. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. Service Releases are not cumulative (i.e. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country.

However, after Office 2000 Service Release 1, Office releases only Service Packs. It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations. Whereas Windows uses "Service Packs", Office used to release "Service Releases". The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. For some reason, most versions of Microsoft Office (including 97 and later, and possibly 4.3) use their own widget set, and as a result do not exactly match the native operating system. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena. Component Object Model (COM) add-ins are supplemental programs that extend the capabilities of an application by adding custom commands and specialized features that can accommodate specific tasks. Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons.

A major feature of applications in the Office suite is the ability for users and third party companies to write Office COM add-ins. Some popular rule variations are:. There are variants of more recent versions such as Small Business Edition, Student and Teacher Edition, Professional Edition and Developer Edition with different collections of applications and pricing points. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. However, all versions are known to work to some extent. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. The older, simpler versions tend to run considerably better on WINE than newer ones. Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice.

However, most versions of the suite can also be run on Unix-like operating systems through the use of a compatibility layer such as CrossOver Office or WINE. These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches. Microsoft develops Office primarily for Windows and secondarily for Macintosh. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. Pricing as of April 9, 2005 [3] [4]. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. They are identical except for pricing and the inclusion of Virtual PC in the Professional Edition. At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match.

All include Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Entourage. The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article. The Macintosh version, Microsoft Office for Mac 2004, is available in three editions. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule. The Windows version of Microsoft Office 11.0/2003 is available in six editions: (Please note that for the most part, pricing reflects installation on only a single computer.). Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. Office X for Mac is also built to handle this file format. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status.

Office 11.0/2003 introduced a new, optional file format for the entire suite, built on XML technology. Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. Consequently, any Macintosh with Office 4.2 or later can read documents created with Windows Office 4.2 or later, and vice-versa. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Also, beginning with Macintosh Office 4.2, the Macintosh and Windows versions of Office share the same file format. The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. The Assistant is the main use of Microsoft Agent technology. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class).

The Assistant is often dubbed "Clippy" or "Clippit," due to its default to a paperclip character, coded as CLIPPIT.ACS. A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. Intended to make the software less intimidating to new users, it is typically disabled by experienced users. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches. Since 1997 Office has included Office Assistant, a system that uses animated characters to offer unrequested context-sensitive suggestions to users and access to relevant parts of the help system. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Impress, Corel WordPerfect and Apple Keynote. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night.

It possesses a dominant market share. Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Windows Mobile 2005 (Magneto) will have a version of this program. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. It is used to create slideshows, composed of text, graphics, movies and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and navigated through by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. Microsoft PowerPoint is a popular presentation program for Windows and Macintosh. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this.

Its Macintosh equivalent is Microsoft Entourage. The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. It is available for Windows; a version is also included with most Pocket PC handhelds. One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. Its personal information manager's main competitors are Mozilla, Lotus Organizer, and Novell Evolution. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win. Its e-mail program's main competitors are Mozilla Thunderbird/Mozilla, and Eudora. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period.

The replacement for Microsoft Mail starting in the 1997 version of Office, it includes an e-mail client, calendar, task manager and address book. Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Microsoft Outlook, not to be confused with Outlook Express, is a personal information manager and e-mail communication software. The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83. SPSS is often used for advanced statistical applications. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Calc, StarOffice, Corel Quattro Pro and Gnumeric. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over.

It is available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. It was originally a competitor to the dominant Lotus 1-2-3 but it eventually outsold it and became the de facto standard. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity. Like Microsoft Word, it possesses a dominant market share. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975.

Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Writer, StarOffice, Corel WordPerfect, Apple Pages and AbiWord. This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. It is available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. Word is also available in some editions of Microsoft Works. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion. Its proprietary DOC format is considered a de facto standard, although its most recent version, Word 11.0/2003, also supports an XML-based format. Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900.

It possesses a dominant market share in the word processor market. In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. It is considered to be the main program of Office. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. Microsoft Word is a word processor. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. Microsoft Office Basic Edition includes Word, Excel and Outlook only. The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling.

These programs are included in all editions of Microsoft Office 2003, except Microsoft Office Basic Edition 2003. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. . For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point.
. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. The next version, 12.0, will have a radically different user interface from the older versions. Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury.

It has certain features not present in other suites, and other programs have capabilities Office lacks. Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Office is currently the most popular office suite in the world and considered to be the de facto standard for productivity programs, although its market share is currently decreasing with the rise of viable free and open source alternatives. The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. In recent years, Microsoft has attempted to position Office as a development platform in its own right, but has had mixed results with this. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance. Over the years the Office applications have grown substantially closer together from a technical standpoint, sharing features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time.

Additionally, a "Pro" version of Office included Microsoft Access and Schedule Plus. During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. The first version of Office contained Word, Excel and Powerpoint. (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. The main selling point was that buying the bundle was substantially cheaper than buying each of the individual applications on their own. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). Office made its first appearance in the early '90s, and was initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications that were previously marketed and sold separately. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket.

Recent versions of Office are now called the 'Office System' rather than the 'Office Suite' to reflect the fact that they include Servers as well. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language. As well as the office applications, it includes associated servers and Web-based services. In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. Microsoft Office is a suite of productivity programs created by Microsoft and developed for Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300. It is almost fully compatible with Microsoft Office files. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex.

ThinkFree Office, a free web-based alternative office suite. A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. Lotus Notes provides the email/PIM portion of the Lotus offering. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return. Lotus SmartSuite, provided by IBM contains a word-processing program called Word Pro, spreadsheet program called Lotus 1-2-3, a program similar to Microsoft's PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance Graphics and a database program called Lotus Approach. In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. GNOME Office, a loosely coupled group of open-source applications including Abiword and Gnumeric, which is targetted for the GNOME desktop environment. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005.

KOffice, an open-source office suite which is part of the KDE Desktop Environment. A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. Includes Pages, for word-processing, and Keynote, for presentations. In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. iWork, Apple's Mac-only office suite. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman. Corel's WordPerfect Office. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out.

StarOffice, based on the OpenOffice code. In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. NeoOffice, an open-source OpenOffice.org port for Mac OS X that integrates into its Aqua interface. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position. It includes practically full compatibility with Microsoft Office (with the exception of lack of full support for Microsoft Office Publisher (pub) files and a lack of a mail client à la Microsoft Office Outlook, however, there are many alternative mail clients to choose from.)

    . However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. OpenOffice.org, a completely free and open-source suite available for download to Windows, Linux, and Macintosh users. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses.

    Office 2004 (Word 2004, etc.) - released May 11, 2004. The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Office v.X (The first Mac OS X/Aqua edition; Word X, etc.) - released November 19, 2001. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. Office 2001 (Word 2001, etc.) - released October 11, 2000. The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. Office 98 (Word 98, etc.) - released March 15, 1998. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped.

    Office 4.2 (The first Power Mac-aware version; Word 6.0, etc.) - released June 2, 1994. Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. Office 3 (Word 5, etc.) - released 1993. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Office 2 (Word 4, etc.) - released 1992. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. Office 1 (Word 3, etc.) - released 1990. The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game.

    Office 12.0 - due to be released simultaneously, or near simultaneously with Windows Vista, Microsoft's next major consumer operating system. They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs. Office 11.0/2003 (Word 2003, etc.) - released November 17, 2003. Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. Office 10.0/2002/XP (Word 2002, etc.) - released May 31, 2001. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare. Office 9.0/2000 (Word 2000, etc.) - released January 27, 1999. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled.

    Office 8.0/'97 (Word '97, etc.) - released December 30, 1996 (was published on CD-ROM as well as on a set of 45 3½-inch floppy disks). Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. Office 7.0/'95 (Word '95, etc.) - released August 30, 1995. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Office 4.3 (The last 16-bit version; Word 6.0, Excel 5.0, PowerPoint 4.0 and in the pro version: Access 2.0) - released June 2, 1994. Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. Office for NT 4.2 (Word 6.0 [32-bit, i386 and Alpha], Excel 5.0 [32-bit, i386 and Alpha], PowerPoint 4.0 [16-bit], "Microsoft Office Manager") - released July 3, 1994. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide.

    Office 4.0 (Word 6.0, Excel 4.0, PowerPoint 3.0) - released January 17, 1994. An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. Office 3.0 (CD-ROM version: Word 2.0c, Excel 4.0a, PowerPoint 3.0, Mail) - released August 30, 1992 (repackaged as Office 92). Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. Office for Mac 2004 Professional Edition (MSRP New User Price $499 US; Upgrade Price $329 US). The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Office for Mac 2004 Student and Teacher Edition (MSRP New User Price $149 US). For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill.

    Office for Mac 2004 Standard Edition (MSRP New User Price $399 US; Upgrade Price $239 US). Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 11.0/2003 (volume licensing only). Briefly, the ten modes are:. Microsoft Office Professional Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $499 US; Upgrade Price $329 US). Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $449 US; Upgrade Price $279 US). The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand.

    Microsoft Office Standard Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $399 US; Upgrade Price $239 US). Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". Microsoft Office Basic Edition 11.0/2003 (bundled with new computers only). If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over. Microsoft Office Student and Teacher Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $149 US). There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. Microsoft Office SharePoint Portal Server collaboration server. A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed).

    Microsoft Office Project Server - project management server. There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers. Microsoft Office Live Communications Server - real time communications server. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. The main reason for its unpopularity was because many people had no idea what it did by looking at its box alone, and therefore did not buy it. This is known as the Economy rate. Microsoft Vizact 2000 – a program that "activated" documents using HTML, adding effects such as animation. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl.

    Microsoft Outlook Express – mail client (in Office 98 Macintosh Edition, later replaced by Microsoft Entourage). If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Microsoft Mail – mail client (in old versions of Office, later replaced by Microsoft Outlook). The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. Its functions were incorporated into Microsoft Outlook. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled. It featured a Planner, To do list, and Contact Information. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball.

    Microsoft Schedule Plus – released with Office 95. The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. Microsoft Binder – incorporates several documents into one file. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). - [2]. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Patch detection and installation service for Office 2000, XP, and 2003. This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers.

    Microsoft Office Update – Web site. Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". Included in all versions of Microsoft Office 2003. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. Microsoft Office Online – Web site. A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. An online Office suite as part of Microsoft's Windows Live initiative. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras.

    Microsoft Office Live – Web service. Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. Similar to Windows Update, but also encompasses other Microsoft applications. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Microsoft Update – Web site. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. Included with Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2004. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs.

    Virtual PC – Emulates a standard PC and its hardware. These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Microsoft Entourage – Personal information manager and communication software for Macintosh only (similar to Outlook). A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. Developer Tools – (included only with developer editions). Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 - [1]. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced.

    Microsoft OneNote – note taking software for use with tablet PCs or regular PCs. If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. Microsoft Project – project manager. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over. It was temporarily supplemented by Microsoft PhotoDraw in Office 2000 Premium edition. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. Microsoft Photo Editor – photo editing/raster graphics software in older Office versions, and again in XP. This is known as running between wickets.

    Microsoft Office Picture Manager – basic photo management software (similar to a basic version of Google's Picasa or Adobe's Photoshop Elements). If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. Microsoft Visio – diagram software. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. Offered only as a stand-alone program for the 2003 version (not part of the office suite). To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Microsoft FrontPage – web design software (also requires its own server program). This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons.

    For the 2003 version, included in Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 2003, Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003, and Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003. After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). Microsoft Publisher – Desktop publishing software. After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. Included in Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). Microsoft InfoPath – application that enables users to design rich XML-based forms. Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain.

    For the 2003 version, included in Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003, and Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003. Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly. Microsoft Access – database manager. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke).

    The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. See also: Scoring. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers.

    In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games.

    Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. The game is only played in dry weather. There is also a short interval between innings.

    There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. An innings is completed if:.

    The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end. After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs.

    Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. Each innings is subdivided into overs. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first. The two opposing captains then toss a coin.

    On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. Each position on the field has a unique label. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area.

    The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

    One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield.

    This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

    Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket.

    Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m). Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch.

    On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

    In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled.

    Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view.

    One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. Two on-field umpires preside over a match. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position.

    A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. Each team consists of eleven players. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

    Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

    If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams.

    A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. Cricket is a bat and ball sport. .

    It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

    Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries.

    This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed.

    As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out.

    The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. This scores a run. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

    A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

    Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard. "Six and out". This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.

    If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. "Can not get out first ball". (Law 31). (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal.

    Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (Law 37). No player is credited with the dismissal. Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball.

    (Law 34). No player is credited with the dismissal. Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. (Law 33).

    No player is credited with the dismissal. Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. (Law 35). The bowler is credited with the dismissal.

    Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. (Law 39). This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited.

    Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends.

    The bowler is credited with the dismissal. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. (Law 30).

    The bowler is credited with the dismissal. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. (Law 32).

    The bowler and catcher are both credited. Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches). The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).

    A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).

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