National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. In the Marillion song Bitter Suite from "Misplaced Childhood" there is a reference to Lyon. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. Lyon is twinned with:. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The long list of notable Lyonnais includes:. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Despite occasional problems with the technology infrastructure or lack of cards in vending machines, it seems to have been adopted as a viable means of public transport.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. The system was introduced in May 2005 and was a huge success in its first few months of operation. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. Known as Vélo'v, it is owned and operated by the advertising company JCDecaux, which refers to it as Cyclocity. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. Lyon has a public bicycle network of 2000 bikes which can be picked up and dropped off at points around the city. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. In addition to the extensive metro and bus system, Lyon has a tramway system.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. The TCL (Transport en Commun Lyonnais : Lyon's Public transport) serves 62 communes of the Lyons agglomeration and constitutes the second grid system jointly French. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. Metro: see Lyon Metro. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. 1982. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. It was the first city to be connected by the TGV c.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. Lyon is connected to the North (Lille, Paris) and the South (Marseille, Montpellier) by the TGV. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. Airport: Saint-Exupéry International Airport. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. The red vestments of the canons of Lyon are said to have given rise to red becoming the signature color of the cardinals, in a decree promulgated under Pope Innocent IV at the First Council of Lyons, 1245. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. The archdiocese dates to Roman times before Franks entered modern France (see history above).

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. The Roman Catholic Archbishop of the city holds the title "Primate of the Gauls" (Primat des Gaules) and is the leading Archbishop of France. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. Two of France's best known wine-growing regions are located near Lyon: the Beaujolais to the North, and the Côtes du Rhône to the South. A referee makes all penalty calls. During the event, the local population places candles in their windows and the city of Lyon organizes and projects impressive large-scale light shows onto the sides of important Lyonais monuments, such as the mediaeval Cathédral St-Jean. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. December 8 each year is marked by "la Fête de la Lumière" (the Festival of Lights), a celebration of thanks to the Virgin Mary, who purportedly saved the city from a deadly plague in the Middle Ages.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. The Lumière brothers invented cinema in the town in 1898. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. For several centuries Lyon has been known as the capital of gastronomy, fine handweaving, and the silk trade. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. Lyon was an early center for printing books, and nurtured a circle of 16th century poets. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. Interpol headquarters is located in this neighborhood.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. This area also contains the Parc de la tête d'or, one of Europe's largest urban parks. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. Across the Rhône from the presqu'ile sits modern Lyon, home to the urban center Lyon Part-Dieu; central France's only skyscraper; and most of the city's population. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. Specifically, it is the largest clear square (i.e., without any patches of greenery, trees or any other kind of obstacles) in Europe. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. On the peninsula (presqu'ile) between the rivers Rhône and Saône, is the third largest public square in France, and one of the largest in Europe, the Place Bellecour.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. The Saint-Jean and the Croix-Rousse areas, which are noted for their narrow passageways (traboules) that pass through buildings and link the streets either side, were designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1998. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. Croix-Rousse the hill that works was traditionally home to the many small silk workshops, an industry for which the city was renowned. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. Fourvière, known as the hill that prays is the location for the highly decorated Notre-Dame de Fourvière basilica, several convents, the palace of the Archbishop, the Tour métallique (a highly visible TV tower) and a funicular. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The Rhône and Saône rivers meet at the south end of the city, which is dominated by the two hills Fourvière and the Croix-Rousse.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. (See also Klaus Barbie.) The traboules, or secret passages, through the houses enabled the local people to escape Gestapo raids. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. Lyon was a centre for the occupying German forces and also a stronghold of resistance during World War II, and the town is now home to a resistance museum. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. The 1831 uprising saw one of the first recorded uses of the black flag as an emblem of protest. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The silk workers of Lyon, known as canuts, staged two major uprisings: in 1831 and 1834.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. Bartholomew's Day Massacres in 1572. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. Lyon was a scene of mass violence against Huguenots in the St. They divide the ice into zones. Thanks to the silk trade, Lyon became an important industrial town during the 19th century. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. During the Renaissance, the city developed with the silk trade, especially with Italy; the Italian influence on Lyon's architecture can still be seen.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. When international banking moved to Genoa, then Amsterdam, Lyon simply became the banking center of France; its new Bourse (treasury), built in 1749, still resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The fairs in Lyon, the invention of Italian merchants, made it the economic countinghouse of France in the late 15th century. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . 327). Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, which is a constant structure in French development" from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution (Braudel 1984 p.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon, with the country beyond the Saône, went to Lothair I. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Burgundian refugees from the destruction of Worms by Huns in 437 were resettled by the military commander of the west, Aëtius, at Lugdunum, which was formally the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom by 461. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. The great Christian bishop of Lyon in the 2nd century was the Easterner Irenaeus. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. The Christians in Lyon were persecuted for their religious views under the reigns of the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. Two emperors were born in this city: Claudius and Caracalla. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. It then became the capital of Gaul, partly thanks to its fortunate site at the convergence of two navigable rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Agrippa recognized that Lugdunum's position on the natural highway from northern to south-eastern France made it a natural communications hub, and he made Lyon the starting point of the principal Roman roads throughout Gaul. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. The three parts of Gaul mentioned by Caesar met at Lyon.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. Lug's 'totem' was a cock (rooster), hence the Modern French association with 'le coq'. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. The name was latinised as Lugdunum; Lug was equated by the Romans to Mercurius. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. Lyon was founded as a Roman colony in 43 BC by Munatius Plancus, a lieutenant of Caesar, on the site of a Gaulish hill-fort settlement called Lug[o]dunon—from the Celtic sun god Lugus ('Light', cognate to Old Irish Lugh, Modern Irish ) and dúnon (hill-fort). In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. Lyon, similarly to Marseille and Paris is divided into 9 municipal arrondissements, referred to by number.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. Lyon is the capital of the Rhône-Alpes région, the préfecture of the Rhône département, and the capital of 14 cantons, covering 1 commune, and with a total population of 445,452 (1999). The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. . The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. Lyon is also the international headquarters of Interpol. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. Lyonnaise Region is an unofficial, popular name, not to be confused with the administrative région of Rhône-Alpes, which is much larger than the Lyonnaise Region.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. Today the region around Lyon is still known as Lyonnais (French: le Lyonnais), or sometimes even as the Lyonnaise Region (French: Région Lyonnaise). Points are awarded for each game as follows:. The city gave its name to the Lyonnais province, of which it was the capital. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. Lyon is the capital of the Rhône-Alpes région, and the préfecture (capital) of the Rhône département. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Lyon forms the second largest metropolitan area in France after Paris, with 1,648,216 inhabitants at the 1999 census, and approximately the 20th to 25th largest metropolitan area of Western Europe.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Location: 45°46′1″N, 4°50′3″E. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. Lyon (often Lyons in English) (French pronunciation: /ljɔ̃/) is a city in east central France. Over the years many different organizations have existed. A historical article about a 19th century flood inspired the 1979 song The Flood at Lyons by Renaissance. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Yokohama, Japan, 1959 Yokohama's Sister City page.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. Frankfurt, Germany, 1960. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. Saint Louis, United States, 1975. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Milan, Italy, 1966. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. Guangzhou, China, 1988.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. Birmingham, Great Britain, 1951 Birmingham's Partner City page. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. Hector Guimard, Art Nouveau architect. Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. Bernard Pivot, journalist. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. Caracalla, IIInd century roman emperor.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. Bertrand Tavernier, movies director. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. Raymond Domenech, trainer French football team. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. Youri Djorkaeff, football player. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. Henri Cochet, tennis player.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Bishop Mathias Loras, the first Bishop of the Dubuque, Iowa Diocese. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. Jean-Michel Jarre, musician. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. Maurice Jarre, composer. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. Marie-France Gaîté (la Gribouille), singer.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, aviation pioneer and writer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Tony Garnier, architect and utopian planner. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. Jules Favre, republican statesman. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, painter.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. Shlomo Aviner, renowned Religious Zionist rabbi. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. François Rabelais, 16th century writer. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. Louise Labé, 16th century poet. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Cathédrale Saint-Jean.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Cité Internationale, 1998, Renzo Piano, architect. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. Lyon Airport Railway Station, 1994, Santiago Calatrava, architect. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Opéra National de Lyon, renovation and expansion 1993, Jean Nouvel, architect. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. Guillaume Gilbert, architect.

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. Satolas Airport, 1975. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. Sainte Marie de La Tourette monastery, 1960, Le Corbusier, architect. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. La Mouche Cattle Market and Abbatoir, 1914, 1928, Tony Garnier, architect. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Tour métallique de Fourvière, 1894.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. La Martiniere Lyons. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. ESDES Business School. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. Université Catholique de Lyon.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. Université Louis Lumière (Lyon II). On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. Université Claude Bernard (Lyon I). The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. Université Jean Moulin (Lyon III). Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. Institution des Chartreux http://www.leschartreux.com.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Institut d'études politiques de Lyon. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. École nationale des beaux-arts de Lyon. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. École Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines.

. École Normale Supérieure de Lyon. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. EM Lyon (École de Management de Lyon). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. École Centrale de Lyon. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). CPE Lyon.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. William M. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers.

Lester B. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. Frank J.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.

Clarence S. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. One point for losing in overtime or a shootout.

Two points are awarded for a win.

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