National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


This page about nhl includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about nhl
News stories about nhl
External links for nhl
Videos for nhl
Wikis about nhl
Discussion Groups about nhl
Blogs about nhl
Images of nhl

While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. Bush nominated the following individuals to sit on the Supreme Court of the United States:. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country.
. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. Of those 16, only seven were convicted by the Senate.[52] There are currently no impeachment hearings scheduled, nor are there any known plans by leaders in the House of Representatives to begin hearings. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. However, since 1797, the House of Representatives has only impeached 16 Federal officials.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. A poll, commissioned by Afterdowningstreet.org and performed by Zogby, was released in January 2006 showing that a majority of United States of America citizens (52 percent to 43 percent) believe Congress should consider impeaching the president if it is shown that he wiretapped US citizens without approval from the courts.[51] In 2005 and 2006 there have been calls for impeachment from Representative John Conyers and former Representative Elizabeth Holtzman, and from convicted Watergate participant and former Nixon Administration official John Dean. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. In what may be seen as an unofficial international take on opinion, a multitude of website editors have participated in a so-called "Google bomb", which returns the official biography of Bush on the White House website, when the phrase "Miserable failure" is typed into the Google search engine.[50]. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. Polls find that majorities in most nations view Bush negatively, with the exception of Israel and India. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. Internationally, Bush finds more criticism than support.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. More recently, criticism has focused on issues of rights and freedoms, such as the CIA Secret Prison controversy and the NSA domestic monitoring of communications without obtaining warrants from the court established to issue them. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. Bush has also been criticized for his handling of the leak of the name of CIA agent Valerie Plame from a source within his administration. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. Along with the criticism on issues of foreign policy, President Bush has also taken criticism for his administration's response to Hurricane Katrina, which many considered slow. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. A poll by Rasmussen reports show that Bush's approval rating is at 45% as of 23 January 2006, up from previous ratings, which has dipped as low as 36% approval.[49].

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. Since then, his approval ratings and approval of handling of domestic, economic, and foreign policy issues have steadily dropped for many reasons. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. In the time of national crisis following the September 11 attacks, Bush enjoyed approval ratings of greater than 85%. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Notable spikes in his approval rating followed the 11 September attacks, and the beginning of the 2003 Iraq conflict. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. The magazine TIME named Bush as its Person of the Year for 2000 and for 2004.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. His opponents have disagreed on those very subjects and have also criticized the passage of the USA PATRIOT Act, the controversial 2000 election, and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. His supporters believe he has done well with the economy and homeland security, and shown exemplary leadership after the September 11 attacks. A referee makes all penalty calls. Bush has drawn both popular praise and scathing criticism. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. The Bush administration has threatened presidential veto of legislation on several occasions, usually resulting in a compromise report from conference committee; Bush has never yet vetoed a bill.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. As President of the United States, he has continued in his support for capital punishment, including presiding over the first federal execution in decades, that of convicted terrorist Timothy McVeigh. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. During his tenure as Governor of Texas, 152 people were executed in that state, maintaining its record as the leading state in executions. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. Bush is a strong supporter of capital punishment. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. President.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. In total, Bush has appointed more women and minorities to high-level positions within his administration than any other U.S. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. He has drawn criticism from some minority groups on his policies. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. In regards to what is commonly called Affirmative Action, Bush does not support enforced quotas, but has asked the public and private sector to reach out to minorities. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. Bush is the first Republican President to appoint an openly gay man to his administration.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. He endorsed the Federal Marriage Amendment. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. Bush opposes same-sex marriage but supports civil unions. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. Bush has signed legislation supporting faith-based initiatives, and created the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives to assist such organizations. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. On 2005-08-01, Bush took a controversial stance favoring the teaching of Intelligent Design alongside evolution in science classes, saying, "I think that part of education is to expose people to different schools of thought, and I'm not suggesting — you're asking me whether or not people ought to be exposed to different ideas, and the answer is yes.".

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. The White House has come under criticism for downplaying reports that link human activity and greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. The CEV would be used to return American astronauts to the Moon by 2018. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. Known as the Vision for Space Exploration, it calls for the completion of the International Space Station by 2010 and the retirement of the space shuttle while developing a new spacecraft called the Crew Exploration Vehicle under the title Project Constellation. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. On 2004-01-14, Bush announced a major re-direction for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. 4664, far-reaching legislation to put the National Science Foundation on a track to double its budget over five years and to create new mathematics and science education initiatives at both the pre-college and undergraduate level. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. R. They divide the ice into zones. On 2002-12-19, Bush signed into law H. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. [48].

The red line is used to judge icing violations. In January 2006, six former EPA directors, five of them Republican, warned of the consequence of continued inaction on global warming. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The United States has signed the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, a pact that allows signatory countries to set goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions individually, but with no enforcement mechanism. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . economy; the protocol has more than 100 signatory nations. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. Bush has opposed the Kyoto Protocol to reduce the effect of global warming, saying it would harm the U.S.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. Partially due to gas price hikes, Bush proposed tapping the oil reserves in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Another subject of controversy is Bush's Clear Skies Initiative, which seeks to reduce air pollution through expansion of emissions trading. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. In December 2003, Bush signed legislation implementing key provisions of his Healthy Forests Initiative; environmental groups have charged that the plan is simply a giveaway to timber companies. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. Bush signed the Great Lakes Legacy Act of 2002, authorizing the federal government to begin cleaning up pollution and contaminated sediment in the Great Lakes, as well as the Brownfields Legislation in 2002, accelerating the cleanup of abandoned industrial or brownfield sites.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. Bush's environmental record has been attacked by most environmentalists, who charge that his policies cater to industry demands to weaken environmental protections. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. Critics say schools were not given the resources to help meet new standards, although their argument is based on premise that authorization levels are spending promises instead of spending caps. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. In January of 2002, Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act, with Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy as chief sponsor, which aims to close the achievement gap, measures student performance, provides options to parents with students in low-performing schools, and targets more federal funding to low-income schools. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. 2005-01-24/MNGCTAV6E71.DTL sfgate Adult stem cell funding has not been restricted, and is supported by President Bush as a more viable means of research.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. In January of 2005 it was determined that all embryonic stem cell lines approved for use in research were contaminated by mouse virus particles derived from the substrates on which the cells were cultured and were consequently probably unusable in therapies for human patients. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. The number of viable lines has since been determined to be around 20. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. Initially Bush and his supporters claimed around 70 lines existed on that day. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. There was a controversy as to implication of the restriction.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. Bush opposes any new embryonic stem cell research, and has limited federal funding for research to studies that use embryonic stem cell lines that were in existence on 2001-08-09 (the day of the announcement). The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. Perhaps most significantly, individuals who develop chronic illnesses relatively early (before age 55) are unlikely to have set aside sufficient money to even minimally meet the costs of their own care. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. Individual employees are also weakly positioned to negotiate for better, or less expensive care. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. Critics point out that most families do not have significant funds to put aside for additional retirement savings, most individual investors are not skilled at the management of complex financial instruments, and that both the Social Security and health care funding changes simply permit employers to spend less on benefits for employees, whether employees are able to replace the benefits or not.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. Additionally, consumer choice would use the market to drive efficiencies in the behaviors of providers. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. The rationale for such accounts is that individuals would theoretically seek better value for their "own" money than if costs were covered by employer-funded insurance or by federal programs. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. The main advantage of personal accounts within Social Security is that it permits workers to own the money they save against the cost of retirement such that cannot be taken away from them by fiat or political whim. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. President Bush emphasized his proposal for personalized accounts would allow individual workers to invest a portion of their Social Security Tax (FICA) into secured investments.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Bush called for major changes in Social Security, identifying the system's projected insolvency as a priority early in his second term. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. It is pending Supreme Court review. Over the years many different organizations have existed. The law has not yet been enforced, having been ruled unconstitutional by three District Courts. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Bush signed the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in 2003, having declared his aim to "promote a culture of life".

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. Bush said the law, estimated to cost 400,000,000,000 (USD) over the first 10 years, would give the elderly "better choices and more control over their health care". Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. Bush signed the Medicare Act of 2003, which added prescription drug coverage to Medicare (United States), subsidized pharmaceutical corporations, and prohibited the Federal government from negotiating discounts with drug companies. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Most recently, in the fourth quarter of 2005, the economy under Bush grew at a 1.1 percent pace, the worst showing in more than three years.[47] Just prior to that in the third quarter, pace of growth was 4.3 percent, the best showing in more than a year. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. Under Bush, the seasonally adjusted Unemployment Rate based on the Household Survey started at 4.7% in January 2001, peaked at 6.2% in June 2003, and retreated to 4.9% in August 2005.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. In January 2006, the government reported that first-time jobless claims fell to their lowest level in more than five years to 291,000, a sign that the national labor market continues to shake off the effects of Hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Wilma.[46]. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. Considering population growth, that still represents a 4.6% decrease in employment since Bush took office. Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The economy then added private jobs for 25 consecutive months from (July 2003 to August 2005), and the private employment seasonally adjusted numbers increased as of June 2005 when it reached 111,828,000. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. Private employment (seasonally adjusted) originally decreased under Bush from 111,680,000 in December 2000 to 108,250,000 in mid-2003.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. Inflation under Bush has remained near historic lows at about 2-3% per year. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. As a percentage of GDP, however, the deficits are lower than those experienced during the Reagan Administration. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. The tax cuts, a recession, and increases in outlays all contributed to record budget deficits during the Bush administration. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. Federal spending in constant dollars increased under Bush by 26% in his first 4 and a half years.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. During his first term, Bush sought and obtained Congressional approval for three major tax cuts, and has asked congress to make the cuts permanent. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. foreign policy which means the USAID would support those "countries that are committed to democratic governance, open economies, and wise investment in their people’s education, health, and potential." [45]. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. President Bush's new policy would increase assistance by 50 percent for countries that take responsibility for their own development "by ruling justly, investing wisely in their people, and encouraging economic freedom." Development assistance must also be aligned with U.S. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. The principal aims are established in President Bush's National Security Strategy: diplomacy, development and defense.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. State Department and Agency for International Development (USAID) published a strategic plan for the 2004-2009 period. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. The U.S. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The steel tariff was later rescinded under pressure from the World Trade Organization, although the lumber dispute is ongoing. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. Bush's imposition of a tariff on imported steel and on Canadian softwood lumber was controversial in light of his advocacy of free market policies in other areas, and attracted criticism both from his fellow conservatives and from nations affected.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. This budget represents more money contributed to fight AIDS globally than all other donor countries combined. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. An additional $1 billion will go to support the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. already has bilateral programs established. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Another $5 billion will go to continuing support of AIDS relief in 100 countries where the U.S.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. $9 billion is allocated for new programs in AIDS relief for 15 countries most affected by HIV/AIDS. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. Tobias, the Global AIDS Coordinator at the Department of State. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Ambassador Randall L. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. The emergency relief effort is led by U.S.

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. Bush requested $15 billion for this effort, and Congress supported the president's proposal. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. In the State of the Union message in January, 2003, Bush outlined a five-year strategy for global emergency AIDS relief. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. [44]. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. He does agree with "increasing the number of annual green cards that can lead to citizenship" but does not support giving amnesty to those who are already in the country illegally, ceding that it would only serve as incentive for increased illegal immigration.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. Bush has also publicly stated he would like to tighten security at the U.S.-Mexico border, which includes speeding up the deportation process, building more jail cells to hold illegal immigrants, and installing more equipment and immigration officers at the border. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). Kennedy. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. The bill is opposed by some Democratic Senators, including Barbara Boxer and Edward M. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. His proposal would match employers with foreign workers for a period up to six years; however, workers would not be eligible for permanent residency ("green cards") or citizenship.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. Bush proposed an immigration bill that would have greatly expanded the use of guest worker visas. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. [43]. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. [42] Osama Bin Laden also openly announced that al-Qaeda will attack any country which supports the war in Iraq. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. Three days later, a new Spanish government was elected which soon thereafter withdrew all Spanish forces from Iraq.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. It is speculated that it is the organization which launched a coordinated string of attacks in Madrid, Spain. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. However, after the invasion, al-Qaeda has used the war to great effect in its campaign. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. [41]. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. [40] In addition, the 9/11 commission found that despite contacts between Iraq and al-Qaeda in 1996, "no collaborative relationship" emerged in regards to the attacks on 9/11.

. sanctions were lifted. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. Iraq Survey Group Final Report concluded, "ISG has not found evidence that Saddam Husayn (sic) possessed WMD stocks in 2003, but the available evidence from its investigation — including detainee interviews and document exploitation — leaves open the possibility that some weapons existed in Iraq although not of a militarily significant capability." [39] The 9/11 Commission report found no credible evidence that Saddam Hussein possessed WMD, although the report did conclude that Hussein's government was actively attempting to acquire technology that would allow Iraq to produce WMD as soon as U.N. It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. On September 30, 2004, the U.S. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH).
.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. 2005-12-14 Bush stated that, It is true that much of the intelligence turned out to be wrong, [38] when he discussed the issue of WMD's. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. deployment and casualties (both military and civilian) have continued through early 2006 despite the capture of Hussein, because of ongoing Iraqi insurgencies. William M. U.S. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. Bush declared, "Major combat operations in Iraq have ended" [36], under a "Mission Accomplished" banner [37] on 2003-05-01.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. Secretary General of the United Nations Kofi Annan and other world leaders questioned the war's legality. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. Bush, breach of a 1991 ceasefire, and violation of numerous Security Council resolutions. Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. W. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. Casus belli included Hussein's hindering weapons inspections, an alleged 1991 assassination attempt on Bush's father George H.

Lester B. Military hostilities commenced on March 20, 2003 to preempt Iraqi WMD deployment and remove Hussein from power. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. [35]. King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. The Bush administration initially sought a UN Security Council resolution authorizing the military force pursuant to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter but, facing vigorous opposition from several nations, (primarily France and Germany), dropped the bid for UN approval and, with over 20 other nations (including the United Kingdom) designated the "coalition of the willing", prepared for war. James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. Secretary of State Colin Powell urged his colleagues in the Bush administration to avoid a war without clear UN approval.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. 2003-03-17-inspectors-iraq_x.htm. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. advisement given four days prior to full-scale hostilities. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. UN inspection teams departed Iraq upon U.S. Frank J. Lapses in Iraqi cooperation triggered intense debate over the efficacy of inspections.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. On November 13, 2002, under UN Security Council Resolution 1441, Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei led UN weapons inspectors in Iraq. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. Asserting that Saddam Hussein could provide terrorists with WMD, Bush urged the United Nations to enforce Iraqi disarmament mandates, precipitating a diplomatic crisis. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. [33] [34]. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. policy for the President to support efforts to remove Saddam Hussein from power by a law (the Iraq Liberation Act) passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate and later signed by President Bill Clinton.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. It had been, since 1998, U.S. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. sanctions, and that some Iraqi missiles had a range greater than allowed by the UN sanctions. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. CIA reports asserted that Saddam Hussein had tried to acquire nuclear material, had not properly accounted for Iraqi biological weapons and chemical weapons material in violation of U.N. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. security, destabilized the Middle East, inflamed the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and financed terrorists.

Clarence S. [32] Bush also said that Hussein was a threat to U.S. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. The theory Saddam had destroyed his WMD capability was asserted by former weapons inspector Scott Ritter [31] and the UN's former chief weapons inspector Hans Blix. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. Shortly after the 9/11 attacks, the Bush administration promoted urgent action in Iraq, stating that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein once again had weapons of mass destruction (WMD), even though Hussein claimed to have destroyed all the chemical and biological weapons he had before 1991 (he had used WMD in the Halabja poison gas attack against the Kurds in northern Iraq in 1988, when his chemical and biological weapons program was being covertly funded and supported, in part, by America and Britain [30]). One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. Terrorism was Bush´s main topic at the 2002 NATO Summit in Prague too, calling for restructuring the organization from a Cold War focus and prepare it for new threats.

Two points are awarded for a win. [29]. While there is past precedent for a President to cancel a treaty, most past cases have involved Congressional authorization. The official notification of withdrawal from the treaty was announced on December 13, 2001, citing the need to protect against terrorism. [28] Bush argued this was justified as the treaty's Cold War benefits were no longer relevant.

[27] The American Physical Society criticized this policy change, citing doubts about the system's effectiveness. plans for a missile defense system."[26] To accomplish this deployment, Bush announced on May 1, 2001 his desire to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and deploy a missile defense system with the ability to shield against a limited attack by a rogue state. Days after taking office, Bush stated "I am going to go forward with.. [25].

Even though international observers called the elections "fairly democratic" at the "overall majority" of polling centers, 15 of the 18 presidential candidates nevertheless threatened to withdraw, alleging flawed registration and validation. Democratic elections were held on October 9, 2004. Subsequent nation-building efforts with the United Nations and Afghan president Hamid Karzai have had mixed results. The regime was quickly defeated.

In response to the al-Qaeda terrorist attacks, on October 7, 2001, the United States, with international support, launched a war against the Afghan Taliban regime, charged with harboring bin Laden. The September 11, 2001 attacks were carried out by a terrorist organization known as al-Qaeda, which is led by Osama bin Laden, who had issued a Fatwah against the United States in 1997. However, after the September 11, 2001 attacks, the State Department focused primarily on the Middle East. interests.

Bush's foreign policy campaign platform supported a stronger economic and political relationship with Latin America, especially Mexico, and reduced involvement in "nation-building" and other minor military engagements indirectly related to U.S. It's a body based in Hague where unaccountable judges and prosecution can pull our troops or diplomats for trial.". Bush made the following comment: "I wouldn't join the International Criminal Court. International leaders also criticized Bush for withdrawing support for the International Criminal Court soon after he assumed the presidency.

[24] In November 2004, Russia ratified the treaty, meeting the quota of nations required to enforce it without ratification by the United States. In 2002, Bush rejected the treaty as harmful to economic growth in the United States, stating: "My approach recognizes that economic growth is the solution, not the problem." [23] The administration also disputed the scientific basis of the treaty. During his first presidential visit to Europe in June 2001, European leaders criticized Bush for his rejection of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce global warming. A list of Bush's cabinet appointees is included on the main administration page.

The administration has supported this trend, saying it helps the president get a different perspective from Beltway thinking and that he is still working (The administration noted that Bush's longest visit to Crawford, in August 2005, included only one week of actual respite in the five-week visit.). As of 2005-08-02, Bush had visited the ranch 49 times during his time as President, accruing 319 days away from the White House and nearly reaching Reagan's eight-year record of 335 days in 5.5 years. Bush also has performed many of his presidential duties from his ranch in Crawford, Texas, dubbed "The Western White House". Bolton to the United Nations.

Many commentators have claimed that deference to executive privilege was one of the principal considerations Bush's administration considered when he proposed his three nominations for the Supreme Court, and appointed John R. Bush's presidency has been characterized by a vigorous defense of executive privilege. Critics allege that Bush is willing to overlook mistakes and that Bush has surrounded himself with "yes men". Bush places a high value on personal loyalty and, as a result, his administration has high message discipline.

Bush's supporters respond that broad powers in the War on Terrorism are necessary to prevent major attacks against the United States[21] and that the president has not abused these powers.[22]. The administration has classified previously public information about the executive and written executive orders to block Freedom of Information Act requests and to keep old documents classified beyond their normal expiration date.[18] Bush's critics argue that unreviewable executive power risks abuse for political purposes, undermines civil liberties,[19] and that they are anti-democratic, immoral, and likely to cause resentment, as in the world's response to prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib [20]. Rumsfeld, he wrote that Common Article III of the Geneva Conventions did not apply to people detained in the War on Terrorism, thus authorizing secret military tribunals for suspected terrorists if Bush chose to use them. Roberts, considers the executive's power to be quite broad as well; in his decision in Hamdan v.

[17] Bush's Chief Justice of the United States appointee, John G. The Bush administration threatened to veto two defense bills that included amendments by Senator John McCain that would limit the ability of the executive to authorize cruel inhuman and degrading treatment; Bush and his supporters argued that harsh treatment of detainees believed to be terrorists can be necessary to obtain information that would prevent terrorist attacks.[16] Administration lawyers like John Yoo have argued that the president has inherent authority to wage war as he sees fit, regardless of laws and treaties that may restrict that power. For example, Bush repeatedly argued that the limits imposed by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act over-restrict its ability to monitor terrorists electronically, and has pushed for statutory exemptions to those restrictions, including certain parts of the USA PATRIOT Act. According to Bush and his supporters, the War on Terrorism requires a very strong executive with the ability to take various kinds of otherwise illegal covert actions against terrorists.

An important element of Bush's presidency is its emphasis on the importance of executive powers and privileges. [15]. In his 2005 inaugural address he outlined his vision of foreign policy and plan for democracy promotion. Democrats and liberals have claimed that the prefixing of the word "conservative" with the adjective "compassionate" was less a new ideology and more a way of making conservatism seem palatable to independent and swing voters.

Some conservatives have questioned Bush's commitment to traditional conservative ideals because of his willingness to incur large budget deficits by permitting substantial spending increases. During the 2000 election campaign Bush started to use the phrase compassionate conservatism to describe his beliefs. Less than three months later, however, the administration released budget projections that showed the projected budget surplus decreasing to nothing over the next years. Republicans lost control of the Senate in June, when Vermont's James Jeffords quit the Republican party to become an independent, but not before five Senate Democrats crossed party lines to approve Bush's $1.35 billion tax cut.

Days later, he announced his commitment to channeling more federal aid to faith-based service organizations that critics feared would dissolve the traditional separation of church and state. On his first day in office, Bush moved to block federal aid to foreign groups that offered counseling or any other assistance to women in obtaining abortions. Democrats vigorously opposed Ashcroft for his strong, socially conservative positions on issues like abortion and capital punishment, though they eventually confirmed him. His most controversial appointment was John Ashcroft as Attorney General.

Bush's first 100 days were considered less bipartisan than he pledged during the campaign. Karl Rove has had perhaps the greatest influence on Bush's professional life. His most trusted advisers have included many women, including Condoleezza Rice, Karen Hughes, and Harriet Miers. His wife Laura and his mother Barbara Bush are also considered important to his life.

President, his younger brother, Jeb Bush is the current Governor of Florida, and his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a United States Senator. Bush, served as U.S. W. His father, George H.

Bush's family and advisers are considered important to him in his life and career. Official records do show that there was no waiting list for the Texas Air National Guard when Bush joined. Bush opponents contend that many of the official records can no longer be found, and that the matter is at best ambiguous. Bush supporters claim that the surviving documentary evidence regarding Bush's service in the Texas Air National Guard, including pay records and the official honorable discharge papers, indicate that Bush served honorably.

These specific issues came to light during the 2004 presidential campaign as a result of endeavors by the group Texans for Truth. Though no official copies of his records have been found, his critics have alleged that he skipped over a waiting list to receive a National Guard slot, was absent from duty from 1972 to 1973, and was suspended from flying after missing a required physical examination and drug screening. Bush's military service record has been a point of controversy, especially during the 2004 presidential election. Bush's inaugural address centered mainly on a theme of spreading freedom and democracy around the world.

The oath of office was administered by Chief Justice William Rehnquist. Bush was inaugurated for his second term on 2005-01-20. An Official challenge to the Ohio election was rejected by a vote of 1-74 by the Senate and 31-267 in the House. Congress debated potential election irregularities, including allegations of voting irregularities in Ohio and electronic voting machine fraud.

Notable third-party candidates included Independent Ralph Nader (463,653 votes / 0.4%), and Libertarian Michael Badnarik (397,265 votes/0.3%). No other candidate won College votes. A faithless elector, pledged to Kerry, voted for Democratic Vice Presidential running mate, John Edwards, giving him one Electoral College vote. Senator John Kerry carried 19 states and the District of Columbia, earning him 251 Electoral College votes (59,028,111 votes/48.3%).

Also, Bush's win was, percentage-wise, the closest popular margin ever for a sitting president. Truman in 1948. However, Bush's victory margin, in terms of absolute number of popular votes, was the smallest of any sitting president since Harry S. This was the first time since 1988 that a President received a popular majority.

The highest voter turnout since 1968 gave him more popular votes than any previous presidential candidate (62,040,610 votes/50.7%). Bush carried 31 of 50 states for 286 Electoral College votes. Despite the fact that Kerry was a thrice-decorated hero in the Vietnam War, polls showed that Bush had convinced the people he and his administration would be better able to protect the nation from another terrorist attack. In the 2004 election, Bush was able to win re-election against John Kerry, the Democratic candidate and senator from Massachusetts.

An aide clarified this as being 1974, and the correction was first broadcasted on CNN. Bush has stated he did not use illegal drugs at any time since 1979. He attributed the change partly to a 1985 meeting with the Reverend Billy Graham, though by his own admission, he did still drink as recently as July 1986 [14]. He says he changed to a sober lifestyle shortly after waking up with a hangover after his 40th birthday celebration.

Bush has described his days before his religious conversion in his 40s as his "nomadic" period of "irresponsible youth" and admitted to drinking "too much" in those years. News of the arrest was published five days before the 2000 presidential election. He pleaded guilty, was fined $150, and had his driver's license suspended for 30 days within Maine [12] [13]. On 1976-09-04, near his family's summer home in Kennebunkport, Maine, police arrested Bush for driving under the influence of alcohol.

It was the first since the 1876 election in which the Supreme Court affected the decision. Not since the 1888 election had a winner failed to receive a plurality of the popular vote. Bush was inaugurated 2001-01-20. In the final official count, Bush had won Florida by only 537 votes (2,912,790 for Bush to 2,912,253 for Gore) [11], earning the needed 25 electoral votes and the presidency.

Since the Supreme Court did not allow the recount to continue, no one knows what standard might have been prescribed by it, or by a lower court at its direction, had the recount been reinstated. However, other reasonable counting methods would have given the victory to Bush in four cases and Gore in four others [9][10]. The researchers conducting the study concluded that, under the standard for assessing ballots in use during the actual count, Bush still would have won. Several months later, a group of newspapers commissioned a study of what would have happened had the hand recount continued.

The machine recount showed that Bush had won the Florida vote, giving him 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266; Bush carried 30 of the 50 states. Gore Supreme Court case, the Court stopped the statewide hand recount and upheld the machine recount due to time constraints. On December 9, in the Bush v. On December 8, the Florida Supreme Court ruled that every county with a large number of undervotes would perform a hand recount.

A legal battle ensued between the Bush and Gore campaigns over these recounts. Eventually four counties in Florida which had large numbers of Presidential undervotes began a manual hand recount of ballots. Although it narrowed the gap, the recount still left Bush in the lead. Because of Florida state law, a statewide machine recount was triggered and completed.

Allegations included confusing ballots, defective voting machines, faulty absentee ballots from the military, and the illegal barring of some voters. The Florida vote count, which favored Bush in preliminary tallies, was contested over allegations of irregularities in the voting and tabulation processes. Though Bush had 47.9% of the popular vote and Gore had 48.4%, the electoral votes were less clear. Gore conceded the election and then rescinded that concession less than one hour later.

On 2000-11-07, television networks called the close race first for his opponent, Vice President Al Gore, then for Bush, and finally declared that it was too close to call. Representative and Secretary of Defense for Bush's father, as his running mate. Bush then chose Dick Cheney, a former U.S. Bush lost the New Hampshire primary to Senator John McCain of Arizona, but rebounded to capture 9 of 13 Super Tuesday states, effectively clinching the nomination.

Bush declared himself a "compassionate conservative", a term coined by University of Texas professor Marvin Olasky, and his political campaign promised to "restore honor and dignity to the White House." Bush proposed lowering taxes in response to a projected surplus, supported participation of religious charities in federally funded programs, and promoted education vouchers, oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a balanced budget, and structural changes to the United States armed forces. Before Bush had even committed to the race, he was the clear favorite in the polls, and contributions abounded from political donors. He had more than enough money, and the Republicans lacked any single strong candidate. Bush that 2000 would be the right time to run for president.

Advisors convinced George W. During his Presidency, Bush has also hosted celebrations at the White House for non-Christian holidays such as Ramadan[8]. In the televised Republican presidential debate held in Des Moines, Iowa on 1999-12-13, all of the participating candidates were asked: “What political philosopher or thinker do you most identify with and why?” Unlike the other candidates, who cited former presidents and other political figures, Bush responded "Christ, because he changed my heart." His decision to name a religious figure generated some criticism - even among religious conservatives such as Alan Keyes [7] and Bill Kristol. [6].

Every president since Madison has attended services there. This is apparently a matter of convenience for chief executives, as the church is situated immediately across from the White House, off Lafayette square. John's Church (Episcopal) on a semi-regular basis. Bush attends services at St.

[5] During this period, he left the Bush family's Episcopalian faith to join his wife's United Methodist Church, a denomination that in part represents a more socially conservative worldview (see United Methodist Church "Diversity Within Methodist Beliefs"). A 1985 meeting with evangelist Billy Graham ultimately led Bush to give up alcohol and devote himself to a more serious practice of Christianity. [4] During Bush's governorship, he undertook significant legislative changes in criminal justice, tort law, and school financing. That same year, he and his partners sold the Texas Rangers with the governor realizing a profit of nearly $15 million [3] In 1998 Bush went on to win re-election in a landslide victory with nearly 69% of the vote, becoming the first Texas governor to be elected for two consecutive four-year terms (before 1975, the gubernatorial term of office was two years).

On 1994-11-08, Bush defeated popular incumbent Ann Richards to become Governor of Texas. After working on his father's successful 1988 presidential campaign, Bush purchased a share in the Texas Rangers baseball franchise, in April 1989, where he became managing general partner. House of Representatives. In 1978, Bush ran unsuccessfully for the U.S.

He then served as political director for an Alabama senate campaign. Bush started his political career assisting his father's 1964 and 1970 campaigns for the U.S Senate, neither of which were successful. Early in his professional life, Bush ran, or was a partner in, a number of oil companies, including Arbusto Energy, Spectrum 7, and the Harken Energy Corporation. President to be the father of twins.

Bush is the only U.S. Their twin daughters Barbara and Jenna Bush were born in 1981. Two years later, he married Laura Welch, a school librarian originally from Midland, Texas. After graduation, Bush returned to Texas to enter the oil business.

President to hold an MBA. In 1974, he obtained permission to end his six-year service obligation six months early in order to attend Harvard Business School, from which he earned his Masters of Business Administration (MBA) in 1975; he is the first U.S. He served as an F-102 pilot until 1972. Killian.

Jerry B. Col. Bush was promoted to First Lieutenant in November 1970 on the recommendation of his commander Lt. He trained in the guard for two years, where he learned to fly.

In May 1968, at the height of the Vietnam War, he entered the Texas Air National Guard. As a senior, Bush was a member of the secretive Skull and Bones society, as was his father. Bush then enrolled at Yale University, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in History in 1968. Following family tradition, he attended prep school in New England, at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, the same school his father attended.

[2]. Another younger sister, Robin, died in 1953 at age three from leukemia. He was raised in Midland, and Houston, Texas with his siblings Jeb, Neil, Marvin, and Dorothy. He moved to Texas with his family at the age of two and he identifies himself as a native Texan.

Bush and his wife Barbara Bush (née Pierce), George Walker Bush was born in New Haven, Connecticut. W. The eldest son of former President George H. .

Among his family, he acquired the nickname "W" (for his middle initial; later Dubya, a literal spelling of a colloquial pronunciation of the letter), which has become a common public nickname, used both affectionately and pejoratively. President for four years and as Vice President for eight, his brother Jeb Bush is the current Governor of Florida, and his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a Republican United States Senator from Connecticut. Bush, served as U.S. W.

Bush is a member of a prominent political family: his father, George H. This term will expire January 20, 2009. In 2004, Bush was elected to a second term, defeating Democratic Senator John Kerry. From there, he moved on to win the nomination of the Republican Party for the 2000 presidential race and ultimately defeated Democratic Vice President Al Gore in a particularly close and controversial [1] general election.

Bush, a Republican, was elected 46th Governor of Texas in 1994 and was re-elected in 1998. Prior to his political career, he was a businessman in the oil industry and served as the managing general partner of the Texas Rangers baseball team. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States.
.

Nominated 2005-10-31; confirmed by the Senate on 2006-01-31. Alito — Associate Justice. Samuel A. Nominated 2005-10-03; nomination withdrawn in accordance with Miers' request on 2005-10-27.

Miers — Associate Justice. Harriet E. Nominated 2005-09-05; confirmed by the Senate on 2005-09-29. Chief Justice.

Nominated 2005-07-19; nomination withdrawn in order to nominate him to Chief Justice on 2005-09-05. Associate Justice. Roberts, Jr.

    . John G.

04-24-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory