National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. House and Electronica Sounds from the Show's Soundtrack. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. Irma at Sex and the City - Part 2 - Nightlife Session
April 19, 2004
Irma Records
2 Disc Set - Part of a 2 Part Collection. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. Ambient and Chilled Sounds from the Show's Soundtrack. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Irma at Sex and the City - Part 1 - Daylight Session
April 19, 2004
Irma Records
2 Disc Set - Part of a 2 Part Collection.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. Sex and the City - Official Soundtrack
March 1, 2004
Sony TV
2 Disc Set - 36 Hits. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. Sex and the City - Soundtrack [Import]
2001/2002
Sire Records
13 Chart Hits - Including the Main Theme from the Show. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. Cuomo. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. The title theme song was written by Douglas J.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. The other two releases have little or no tracks that appear on the programme's actual soundtrack. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. The two albums from Irma Records are seen to be the best because they contain tracks used in the show's actual soundtrack that are difficult to find elsewhere. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. These releases span various record labels and some are even unofficial. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. There have been several CD Albums released to accompany the series Sex and the City.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. American and Canadian DVD's were released through the programme's original broadcasters, HBO. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. In Europe, "Sex and the City" boxsets were released through Paramount Pictures - who own certain rights to the programme's broadcast as well. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Thankfully, the Season 1 boxset is the only one to suffer from this problem, and all subsequent Region 2 DVD releases of the programme were appropriately transferred to PAL Video. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. This caused some compatibility problems with some European television sets and DVD Players.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. Unfortunately, the show was not converted into a PAL video signal, and remained in its original American NTSC format. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. As well as missing out on some Special Features, many fans in Europe had trouble with the Region 2 edition of the Season 1 DVD. A referee makes all penalty calls. Oceania's edition came packaged in a Beauty Case. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. While Europe got a complete set that came with special "Shoebox" packaging (A reference to Sarah Jessica Parker's character's love for shoes in the show), the USA and Canada version came packaged in a more traditional fold-out suede case and with an additional Bonus DVD including many Special Features.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. Even these vary between Region 1 2 and 4. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. In addition to standard single season DVD Boxsets of the show, Limited Edition Collectors Editions have also been released that include all 6 seasons in one complete set. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. Region 2 DVD's of "Sex and the City" have been criticised by some fans for having little or no special features, but Region 1 editions have included Director Commentary, Cast Interviews and more. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. In addition to their region encoding, releases vary depending on which region they were released in.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. They have been released officially on Region 1 (Americas), Region 2 (Europe) and Region 4 (Oceania) formats, but illegal bootleg editions have also surfaced for Region 3 (Korea, Thailand) as well as Region 0 (Universal) and can even be found on eBay. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. All six seasons of "Sex and the City" have been released commercially on DVD. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. Others have charged that the ridiculing of men with small penises is wrong, contributing to body issues for men similar to that of young women over their weight or breast size. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. The frequent obsession with penis size by one character is taken to be atypical of women and more typical of a phallocentric male focus.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. Some commentators criticized Sex and the City's distorted presentation of female sexuality, claiming the sexuality is more akin to that of the allegedly gay, male writers of the show. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. When Sex and the City was run in syndication on TBS, some viewers organized boycotts of the station, arguing that this would put the program within access of young children. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. Still others take issue with the show's depiction of New York City, pointing out that though New York is one of the most culturally diverse cities on the planet, the show rarely features any minority characters.[1]. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. Others have noted that the show tends to portray its main characters as shallow and superficial.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Others claim in response that Sex and the City is an attempt to realistically – yet artistically – portray sexual behavior in the urban United States. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. The characters are also wealthy and unabashedly elitist, which raises further questions about the morality of the show. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. Additionally, they argued that it is at times mere pornography with a superficial plot. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. Some commentators have criticized the television show as promoting immorality by encouraging a hedonistic lifestyle and treating women as sexual objects.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. HBO Romania also aired all seasons. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. In Romania the show was aired by ProTv and later by the sister channels Acasa TV and Pro Cinema. They divide the ice into zones. In Turkey it is broadcast by ComedyMax channel. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. In the Philippines, its reruns are being aired by RPN 9.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. In Denmark it is currently shown on TV3 as well. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. In Latvia this serial can be seen on TV3. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . Sex and the City was banned in Singapore until July 2004, when the government allowed the television series to be aired on cable after being censored. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. Hong Kong's TVB Pearl also aired the show at midnight before.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. In Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong, India, and Pakistan the show airs on HBO Asia (season 1-6). Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. In Japan, the show is aired by Lala.tv. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Australian Cable and Digital channel W airs 2 episodes each weeknight. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. It has now returned to Network Ten on Friday nights.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. Rerun rights were sold to Network Ten, where it was briefly shown on Monday nights before low ratings forced it off the air. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. In Australia it was broadcast on the Nine Network. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. In Italy the show airs on La7. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. In the Netherlands, the show is aired by NET 5, and in Sweden it is aired by TV3 and ZTV.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. In Canada, the show airs on Bravo! Canada and Citytv Toronto, and in Germany it is shown on Pro7. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. In the United Kingdom, Channel 4 and its digital sister channel E4 broadcast episodes of "Sex and the City", while older episodes are rerun on Paramount Comedy 1. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. and who you want to spend it with.". In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. Kim Cattrall: "Being single used to mean that nobody wanted you, now it means you're pretty sexy and you're taking your time deciding how you want your life to be ..

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. David Eigenberg: "They were honest about sex, they were honest about the humor of sex.". The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. Kim Cattrall: "The show is a valentine to being single.". The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. Sarah Jessica Parker: "What the show has to have, and has had to have in order to survive six years, is a soul.". At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. and basically the battlefield of trying to be in love – whether it be with another person or with yourself.".

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. and sex .. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. and relationships .. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. And then slowly over the years people start to see it's really about love .. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. Michael Patrick King, Executive Producer: "People thought, oh it's just about sex or it's just about fashion.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. The following are quotations from the TV special, Sex And The City: A Farewell, that aired introducing the final episode:. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. These include the following:. Over the years many different organizations have existed. As Sex and the City gained popularity, a number of celebrities had cameos on the show, some playing themselves and some playing characters. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. In most cases, these characters have played large roles in as many as two story arcs.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. The main characters all went on dates or had sex with characters who appeared in only one episode, or small story arcs spanning two or three episodes, but the characters listed below are the focus of multiple episodes that form story arcs significant to the show's continuity. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The twenty episodes of the final season, season six, aired in two parts: from June until September 2003 and during January and February 2004. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Season five, truncated due to Parker's pregnancy, aired on HBO during the summer of 2002. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. Season four was broadcast in two parts: from June until August 2001 and then in January and February 2002.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. Season three aired from June until October 2000. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. Season two was broadcast from June until October 1999. Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. Season one of Sex and the City aired on HBO from June to August 1998. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. These continued through season two; then they were phased out.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. Each episode in season one featured a short montage of interviews that Carrie supposedly conducted while researching for her column. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. The first season of the show is a free adaptation of its source material, but from the second season on, it took on a life of its own and went further than the book ever could. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. Receiving consistent critical and popular acclaim, it was based on the book that was compiled from the New York Observer column "Sex and the City" by Candace Bushnell. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. The show became famous for shooting scenes on the streets and in the bars, in restaurants and clubs of New York City while pushing the envelope of fashion and shattering sexual taboos.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Carrie Bradshaw and her three best girlfriends navigate the rocky terrain of being single, sexually active women in the new millennium. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. . In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. Sex and the City premiered on June 6, 1998, and the last original episode aired on February 22, 2004. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. A sitcom with soap opera elements, the show often tackled socially relevant issues, such as the status of women in society.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. Set in New York City, the show focuses on the sex lives of four female best friends, three of whom are in their mid-to-late thirties, and one of whom, Samantha, is in her forties. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. It was originally broadcast on the HBO network from 1998 until 2004. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. Sex and the City was an American cable television program based on the book of the same name. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. Will Arnett as Jack, "La Douleur Exquise!".

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. Tony Hale as Tiger, "The Real Me". In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Valerie Harper as Wallis, "Shortcomings". Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. Carole Bouquet as Juliette, "American Girl In Paris; Part Deux". Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Geri Halliwell as Phoebe, "Boy, Interrupted".

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. David Duchovny as Jeremy, "Boy, Interrupted". Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. Tatum O'Neal as Kyra, "A Woman's Right to Shoes". The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Jennifer Coolidge as Victoria, "The Perfect Present". With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. Heather Graham as herself, "Critical Condition".

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. Candice Bergen as Enid Mead, "A 'Vogue' Idea". By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. Lucy Liu as herself, "Coulda, Woulda, Shoulda". Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. Molly Shannon as Lily Martin, "Cover Girl" etc. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Ed Koch as himself, "The Real Me".

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. Heidi Klum as herself, "The Real Me". (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). Alan Cumming as O, "The Real Me". Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. Margaret Cho as Lynn Cameron, "The Real Me". With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. Sarah Clarke as Melinda, "Politically Erect" (as Sarah Lively).

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. Hugh Hefner as himself, "Sex and Another City". On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. Carrie Fisher as herself, "Sex and Another City". The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. Sarah Michelle Gellar as Debbie, "Escape from New York". Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. Vince Vaughn as Keith Travers, "Sex and Another City".

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Matthew McConaughey as himself, "Escape from New York". The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Alanis Morissette as Dawn, "Boy, Girl, Boy, Girl...". Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. Jon Bon Jovi as Seth, "Games People Play". The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Donald Trump as himself, "The Man, The Myth, The Viagra".

. Amy Sedaris as Courteney Masterson, "Cover Girl" etc. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. Nathan Lane as Bobby Fine, "I Love A Charade". It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. In the final episode, Jerry tells her that he loves her, which she counters with "You mean more to me than any man I've ever known", which, for Samantha is a far greater statement. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). Just when she thinks Jerry's age and experiences aren't enough for her, he gives her unconditional support during her fight with breast cancer.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. He is a wannabe actor whose career Samantha jump starts using her PR connections, getting him a modelling job that turns into a film role. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. She tries to maintain her usual sex-only relationship with him, but he slowly pushes for something more. William M. Jerry Jerrod (Jason Lewis) is a young waiter Samantha seduces in a trendy restaurant. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. Towards the end of the series, Richard re-surfaces, admitting that Samantha was the best thing that ever happened to him.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. In the end, Samantha still has her doubts about Richard, and breaks up with him. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. When she does catch him cheating, she breaks up with him, but eventually takes him back after he begs for her forgiveness. Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. Eventually, they give in and attempt exclusivity, but, being a stranger to monogamy, Samantha is plagued by suspicion at every turn. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. He seduces her, and when their no-strings-attached sexual relationship begins to escalate, both parties struggle to keep their emotional distance.

Lester B. Richard Wright (James Remar) is a successful hotel magnate who doesn't believe in monogamy until he meets Samantha. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. The two separate, after they have sex with a strap-on. King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. Unfortunately, Samantha begins to grow uncomfortable when the relationship talk starts to replace the sexual activity and Maria is equally uncomfortable with Samantha's sexual history. James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. At first, Samantha has a great time "getting an education" as Maria teaches her about lesbian sex and how to make an emotional connection while making love.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. Maria is immediately attracted to her, but since Samantha doesn't believe in relationships they try to maintain a friendship, the chemistry proves to be too strong and it isn't too long before Samantha is introducing her lesbian lover to her stunned friends. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. Maria Diego Raez (Sonia Braga) is a sensual lesbian artist that Samantha meets at a solo exhibit while admiring her work. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. She begins pulling away physically and cannot bring herself to tell him--until she is faced with the prospect of couples counseling. Frank J. When they finally do have sex, she discovers that he is under-endowed to the point that she cannot enjoy herself.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. James (James Goodwin) is a man Samantha meets while out by herself at a jazz club, she makes a conscious effort to not sleep with him until she gets to know him first. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. Robert and Miranda have lots of fun and great chemistry, but when the time comes, she is unable to declare her love for him. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. He is the seemingly perfect man: successful, sexy, and utterly devoted to her. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. Robert Leeds (Blair Underwood) is a sports medicine doctor who moves into her building during season six.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. They decide to raise the child (Brady Hobbes) together, separately, but are back together towards the end of Season Six, they have a small intimate wedding ceremony and he convinces her to move to a house in Brooklyn. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. In season four, he opens his own bar, called Scout (alongside Aidan) and gets Miranda pregnant (despite losing a testicle to cancer and Miranda having only one functioning ovary). Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. Over the course of the show, Miranda puts Steve through the wringer quite a bit, but he looks beneath her cynical exterior and finds her softer side, while at the same time, choosing his battles carefully. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. Their differences in income, aspirations and status, as well as their attitudes about living together and having kids are the catalysts for their break ups.

Clarence S. Having been stood up by Carrie, she meets him unexpectedly at the bar at which he works, what she thinks is a one night stand but turns into dating. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. Steve Brady (David Eigenberg) is a bartender who has an unconventional on-again, off-again relationship with Miranda. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. They date for a short time, before Miranda breaks up with him due to "being in different places". One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. From the moment they meet, Skipper is enamored with her, but Miranda is unimpressed and irritated by him.

Two points are awarded for a win. Skipper Johnson (Ben Weber) is a geeky, sensitive twenty-something web designer whom Carrie introduces to Miranda. In the end, they are approved for a Chinese adoption. After her conversion to Judaism and one big argument that sends them in separate directions for a few weeks, the two marry and begin trying to have/adopt a child. She is not attracted to him, but tries to pursue a sex-only relationship with him, which leads to one of exclusivity and love.

Harry Goldenblatt (Evan Handler) is Charlotte's divorce lawyer who is incredibly attracted to her from the beginning. Eventually, their disagreements on whether or not to pursue in vitro fertilization leads to divorce. After a brief separation, they reunite with a healthy sex life only to discover that Charlotte will have difficulty getting pregnant. Trey MacDougal (Kyle MacLachlan) fits Charlotte's knight in shining armor archetype to a tee; a Scottish American heart surgeon from family money, their whirlwind engagement and a fairy tale wedding stop cold with a sexless honeymoon, brought on by Trey's impotence.

After spending some time there, she realizes that he will never reciprocate the level of emotional involvement that she offers because his life and career will always come first. When he's preparing to return to Paris for a solo exhibit he invites Carrie to come live with him, which she does, after several deliberations (and one fight) with her friends. Her relationship with him brings up all sorts of questions in Carrie's mind about finding love past "a certain age" and whether or not she wants children. He sweeps her off her feet with huge romantic gestures and shows her the foreign pockets of New York that she has never seen before.

Aleksandr Petrovsky (Mikhail Baryshnikov) is a famous Russian artist who becomes Carrie's lover in season six. Carrie learns, when it comes to relationships, Berger's talk is just that; after they agree to try and make things work, he breaks up with her through a post-it note. Theirs was a relationship of witty banter and common thoughts, but everything falls apart when his defeated attitude clashes with her contented state. Jack Berger (Ron Livingston) was Carrie's intellectual counterpart, a sardonic humorist writer whose career is cooling down just as Carrie's is heating up.

It is revealed that Aidan married another furniture designer named Cathy. Carrie and Aidan unexpectedly see each other on the street; Aidan holding his baby son Tate. In season three, Aidan ends "it" when she comes clean about the affair, they get back together a year later, eventually move in together and she accepts his marriage proposal before the break up for the second and final time. At first, Carrie is put-off by their seemingly perfect relationship and over time works through her issues of emotional unavailability, but ultimately, she cannot meet his needs and they break up for good.

Big's emotional opposite. He is a sweet, good natured furniture designer and Mr. Aidan Shaw (John Corbett) is Carrie's other long-term boyfriend. At the conclusion, we discover that Big's name is actually John.

In the end, the two prepare for an open, honest relationship in New York. He doesn't give up, and, after the blessing of Charlotte, Samantha and Miranda, tries to re-claim her love one last time in Paris. In the end of the series, he returns to tell Carrie he is ready to commit to her, but is brutally rebuffed. He eventually moves to the Napa Valley in California, but is visited once by Carrie, while on her book tour and he returns to New York a year after that for an angioplasty.

After divorcing Natasha, Big and Carrie become friends, with their sexual history always lying just beneath the surface. Within seven months of his marriage he begins to pine after Carrie and starts to have an affair with her, until Carrie breaks it off. Big marries a twenty-something socialite Ralph Lauren executive named Natasha (Bridget Moynahan). After two years of commitment issues and emotional unavailibility, Mr.

Carrie and Big's on again, off again relationship begins and ends in season one and then a second time in season two. A wealthy financier (Samantha calls him "the next Donald Trump" in the pilot), who is based on New York publisher, Ron Galotti. Big (Chris Noth), referred to by Carrie and her friends simply as "Big", both excites and eludes Carrie throughout the run of the show, as she always believes he is the man for her, but many times, he's not able to fulfill her emotional needs. Mr.

It's good for a woman to make pies.") and intrusive (replacing her vibrator with a statuette of The Virgin Mary). Her attempts to push traditional marriage/motherhood attitudes on Miranda are both subtle (buying her a rolling pin "To make pies. Magda (Lynn Cohen), the Ukrainian housekeeper-cum-nanny who was introduced in the third season becomes an ersatz mother figure and a thorn in Miranda's side. (Upon hearing that she hadn't had sex since her divorce, he exclaims; "if you don't put something 'in there' soon it'll grow over!").

He is not self-effacing like Stanford and freely presents no-nonsense (often bawdy) advice to Charlotte. Anthony Marentino (Mario Cantone) is an event planner who becomes close to Charlotte after styling her first wedding - he goes on to style Charlotte's H&G photo shoot, her second wedding and Carrie's book release party. In the last two seasons of the show, he is partnered with Broadway dancer, Marcus Adente. The only supporting character to receive his own storylines (occasionally), he represents the show's most constant gay point of view to sex on the show; generally based around the physical insecurities and inadequacies of someone who doesn't "have that gay look".

A gay talent agent with a sense of style parallel only to Carrie's, you get the impression that they have a long standing relationship built within their younger, wilder days on the New York City club and bar scene. Stanford Blatch (Willie Garson), often referred to as the show's "Fifth Lady", is Carrie's best friend outside of the three women. Fuck me badly twice, shame on me.". Defining statement: "Fuck me badly once, shame on you.

Over the course of the show, she does have a handful of real relationships, including one with a woman. In Season 3, she moves from her full-service Upper East Side apartment to an expensive loft in the then-burgeoning Meatpacking District. She believes that she has had "hundreds" of soulmates and insists that her sexual partners leave "an hour after I climax". A seductress who avoids emotional involvement at all costs while satisfying every possible carnal desire imagineable.

Samantha Jones (Kim Cattrall), the oldest and most promiscuous of the group, she is an independent publicist whose relationship pattern could be considered stereotypically masculine. I could barely find time to schedule this abortion.". Defining statement: "I can't have a baby. In the final season, Miranda and Steve marry and relocate to Brooklyn in order to make room for their growing family.

Of the four women, she is the first to purchase an apartment (an indicator of her success). In the early seasons, she is portrayed as masculine and borderline misandric, but this image softens over the years, particularly after becoming pregnant by her on again-off again boyfriend, Steve Brady. A Harvard University graduate from Philadelphia, she is Carrie's best friend, confidante, and voice of reason. Miranda Hobbes (Cynthia Nixon) is a career-minded lawyer with extremely cynical views on relationships and men.

Where is he!?". Defining statement: "I've been dating since I was fifteen, I'm exhausted. She is a graduate of Smith College. She eventually remarries to her less than perfect, but good hearted, divorce lawyer, Harry Goldenblatt (after converting to Judaism).

She gives up her career shortly after her first marriage, divorces upon irreconcilable differences around in vitro fertilization and receives a Park Avenue apartment in the divorce settlement. Despite her conservative outlook, she has been known to make concessions (while married) that even surprise her sexually freer girlfriends (such as her level of dirty talk, oral sex in public and "tookus-lingus"). Often scoffing at the lewder, more libertine antics that the show presents (primarily in Samantha), in her own way, she presents a more straight forward attitude about relationships, usually based around "the rules" of love and dating. She is the most conservative and traditional of the group, the one who places the most emphasis on emotional love as opposed to lust, and is always searching for her "knight in shining armor".

Charlotte York (Kristin Davis) is an art dealer with a Connecticut blue-blooded upbringing. Defining statement: "I like my money right where I can see it - hanging in my closet.". Big during her relationship with Aidan. Her blemishes include having had an abortion after a one-night stand (ten years prior to the show's continuity) and an affair with a married Mr.

Another source of her New York pride is her apartment, a one-bedroom place in an Upper East Side brownstone, it is her home for the entire run of the series, which she purchases in the fourth season. (Though she has been known to wear Christian Louboutin and Jimmy Choo as well.) Often meeting "her credit card limit" in one shopping trip, it is unclear how the modest income of a newspaper columnist could support such an addiction, but in later seasons, her essays are collected as a book and she begins taking assignments from Vogue and New York Magazine. A self proclaimed shoe fetishist, she focuses most of her attention, and bank account, on designer footwear, primarily Manolo Blahniks. A member of the New York glitterati, she is a club/bar/restaurant staple who is known for her unique fashion sense; violently yoking together various styles into one outfit (it is not uncommon for her to pair inexpensive vintage pieces with high-end couture).

Carrie Bradshaw (Sarah Jessica Parker) is the literal voice of the show as each episode is structured around her train of thought while writing her weekly column, "Sex and the City" for the fictitious newspaper, The New York Star.

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