New Orleans, Louisiana

Nickname: "The Big Easy"
Motto: "'"
Official website: http://www.cityofno.com/
Location


Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States

Government
Country
State
Parish
United States
Louisiana
Orleans Parish, Louisiana
Mayor C. Ray Nagin (D)
Geographical characteristics
Area
Total 350.2 km²
Land 180.6 km²
Water 169.7 km²
Population
Total (2000) 484,674
Metro area 1,337,726
Density 534.4/km²
Latitude {{{latitude}}}
Longitude {{{longitude}}}
Coordinates 29°57′53″ N
90°4′14″ W
Elevation 3.3 m
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)

New Orleans (local pronunciations: /nuːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /la nuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is a major U.S. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. New Orleans is named after the historical Duke of Orléans, Regent of France and is one of the oldest and most historic cities in the United States.

New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French, Spanish and African American influences) as well as its music and cuisine. It is a world-famous tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most noteworthy annual events are Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Jazz Fest, Essence Festival (moved to Houston, TX for 2006), Voodoo Fest, Southern Decadence, and college football's Sugar Bowl (although the bowl game has been moved to Atlanta for the 2006 game).

The most recent U.S. census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the population of Greater New Orleans at 1,337,726. Since the devastation of the city in conjunction with Hurricane Katrina, the population has been significantly less, due to the majority of surviving residents either taking temporary shelter elsewhere or relocating indefinitely. Estimates as of late 2005 cite fewer than 150,000 residing in the city, and projections of the city's eventual population following reconstruction are highly speculative.

As of mid-December 2005, efforts continue to aid survivors, clean up debris, and restore infrastructure. While most of the city has reopened to residents, and areas which suffered moderate damage have substantially resumed functioning, the parts of town most severely damaged - such as some neighborhoods of the lower 9th Ward - are open only during daylight hours for residents to salvage items from their formerly flooded homes.

New Orleans remains a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf. The Port of New Orleans is the largest U.S. port for several major commodities including rubber, cement and coffee. The Port of South Louisiana is based in the New Orleans metropolitan area and has been ranked the fifth largest port in the world in terms of raw tonnage, and among the largest U.S. ports for exporting grain. The two ports together would be the fourth largest port in the world.

New Orleans was founded by the French in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States. The city was named in honor of Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded (much as New York was named in honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England).

The city's several nicknames describe various characteristics of the city, including the "Crescent City" (describing its shape around the Mississippi River), "The Big Easy" (a reference by musicians to the relative ease of finding work in the city) and "The City that Care Forgot" (associated with the easy going, carefree nature of many of the local residents). The city's unofficial motto, "Laissez les bons temps rouler" ("Let the good times roll") describes the party-like attitude of many residents.

The city's name is often abbreviated NOLA. Residents of the city are referred to as New Orleanians.

History

Main article: History of New Orleans

Colonial era

New Orleans is a historic city. Sign at Jackson Square in the French Quarter

New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. John (known to natives as Bayou Choupique). A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for more than a decade before the official founding of the city. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi.

In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire and remained under Spanish control for 40 years.

The Great Fire of 1788 destroyed many of the existing structures in the city (800 houses were destroyed), which were made of wood. As a result of this, and a subsequent fire in 1795 (another 200 houses destroyed), much of 18th century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built under Spanish rule and demonstrates Spanish colonial characteristics, wood was replaced with bricks.

The three most impressive buildings of New Orleans come from the Spanish times: St. Louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere.

In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon re-acquired the territory from Spain by treaty. But in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000.

19th century

In its early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans).

1888 German map of New Orleans.

The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 the city's population was around 102,000, fourth-largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South after Baltimore. However, population growth was at times plagued by yellow fever epidemics, such as the great scourge of 1853 that killed nearly 10,000 people in New Orleans.

New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union (by David Farragut -son of Spanish emigrants- later named the first US Navy Vice-Admiral) without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. It was the first captured city in the American South. It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville.

20th century

New Orleans panorama from 1919. Canal Street, looking away from the river, 1920s A view across Uptown New Orleans, with the Central Business District in the background, 1990s

Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area. However, pumping of groundwater from underneath the city has resulted in subsidence. The subsidence greatly increased the flood risk, should the levees be breached or precipitation be in excess of pumping capacity (as was the case in 2005 in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina). There were many warnings in the late 20th century that a major hurricane or a Mississippi flood could create a lake in the central city as much as 9 m (30 ft) deep, which could take months to pump dry. This warning was augmented by vestigial fears from Hurricane Betsy, and the lasting stories of the Army Corps of Engineers blasting the flooding levees, drowning the poorer neighborhoods of the lower ninth Ward. The Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, (HCNA) respresenting a substantial group of the aforementioned lower ninth ward, created a lobby against the Army Corps of Engineers furthering work on the levees which might endanger the neighborhoods. The HCNA sent Jamal Morelli, activist and New Orleans artist, to respresent them in Washington, D.C. Jamal Morelli's struggle for the neighborhood was successful in protecting the lower ninth ward. (2000-2004)

In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since.

New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season.

In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April 2004.

The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish.

Much of the city flooded in September of 1947 due to the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane.

In 1965 the city was damaged by Hurricane Betsy, with catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward.

In 1969 the city was brushed by Hurricane Camille but was spared from the catastrophic flooding it had seen in Hurricane Betsy and later in Hurricane Katrina. Because of Camille's tightly wound rings, the storm actually pulled water from the then impending fate they believed was imminent from Lake Ponchartrain and Lake Borgne, and veered toward her landfall point, approximately 50 miles away at Pass Christian, Mississippi, which is believed to have received a 28 foot storm surge.

While long one of the USA's most-visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy. Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the domestic and international tourist industry.

A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition.

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water.

21st Century (Hurricane Katrina)

An aerial view of the flooded areas in part of the New Orleans Central Business District

The city suffered from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005 on the gulf coast near the city. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. Many residents chose to stay or were stranded in the city by a lack of available transportation. The eye of the storm passed within 10 to 15 miles of New Orleans, bringing strong winds that downed trees, shattered windows, and hurled debris around the area. Heavy rains and flooding immediately affected the eastern areas of the city.

The situation worsened when levees along three canals were breached. These canals were the 17th Street Canal, the Industrial Canal, and the London Avenue Canal. As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. As of November 2005, the Times Picayune article states that, in addition to 1,050 confirmed deaths, there are 5,000 missing residents of the city. Early estimates of the cost of physical damage from the storm have exceeded 100 billion USD. Subsequent investigations showed that the levee failures which flooded the majority of the city were the result of what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1]

The city government declared the city off-limits to residents while clean-up efforts began and warned that those remaining could be removed by force, for their health and safety. On September 15, several of the suburban towns started allowing residents to return. The mayor announced a "phased repopulation" plan to start bringing residents of the city back in the next two weeks. Concern about the fragility of the city's flood defences and transportation caused repopulation efforts to be postponed due to Hurricane Rita. [2]. New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded when a storm surge from Rita overcame one of the repaired levees on the Industrial Canal [3]. By October 1, parts of the city accounting for about one-third of the population of New Orleans had been reopened, including the French Quarter.[4] As of October 1, only 5% of the city remained underwater.

Geography and climate

Vertical cross-section of New Orleans, showing maximum levee height of 23 feet (7 m).

New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N, 90°4′14″W (29.964722, -90.070556)GR1 on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 48.45% water.

The city is located in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, between the Mississippi River in the south and Lake Pontchartrain in the north. The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. Fields atop the ridges along the river are referred to as the "frontlands." The land contour slopes away from the frontlands to the "backlands", comprised of clay and silt. The Mississippi Delta, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, covers about 13,000 square miles (about 1/4 of Louisiana) and consists of silt deposited by the river, and is the most fertile area of Louisiana.

The city of New Orleans actually contains the lowest point in the state of Louisiana, and one of the lowest points in the United States, after Death Valley and the Salton Sea. Much of the city is actually located between 1 and 10 feet (0.3 to 3 m) below sea level, and as such, is very prone to flooding. Some 45% of the city is above sea level; these higher areas were developed before 1900; the lowest areas only being developed more recently. Rainwater is continually pumped out of the city and into Lake Pontchartrain across a series of canals lined by levees and dikes. Before the 20th century pumping system, if it rains more than 1 inch, or more recently if there is a major storm surge, such as that caused by a hurricane, greater flooding can occur. Because of the city's high water table most of the cemeteries in the city use above ground crypts as opposed to underground burial.

The New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 37th largest in the United States, includes the Louisiana parishes of Orleans (contiguous with the city of New Orleans), Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, and St. Tammany.

Cityscape

New Orleans contains many distinctive neighborhoods.

The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and is historically called the "American Quarter." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. Major streets of the area include Canal Street and Poydras St. The term "downtown" refers to those parts of town that are downriver from the central business district. "Uptown" refers to those parts of town that are upriver from the central business district. Parts of the city that are located downtown include the world famous French Quarter (most noted as the central tourist district, with its array of shops, bars, and nightclubs along Bourbon Street), Storyville (now defunct), Treme, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater, the 7th Ward, and the Lower 9th Ward. Parts of the city that are located uptown include the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. Its tallest building is the 50-story One Shell Square.

Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. John, Mid City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, The upper 9th Ward and Algiers.

Parishes located adjacent to the city of New Orleans include St. Tammany Parish to the northeast, St. Bernard Parish to the south, Plaquemines Parish to the southwest, and Jefferson Parish to the west.

A true-color satellite image of New Orleans taken on NASA's Landsat 7

Tallest Buildings

Climate

The climate of New Orleans is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6°C), and daily highs around 62°F (17°C). In July, lows average 74°F (23°C), and highs average 91°F (33°C). The lowest recorded temperature was 11.0°F (-11.6°C) on December 23, 1989. The highest recorded temperature was 102.0°F (38.9°C) on August 22, 1980. The average precipitation is 59.74 inches (1520 mm) annually.

On rare occasions, snow will fall. Most recently, a trace of snow fell on Christmas in 2004, during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954, and brought 4.5 inches (110 mm). The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1 or 2 inches of snow.

People and culture

Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was:

The population of Greater New Orleans stood at 1,337,726 in 2000, making it the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States. These population statistics are based on legal residents of the city. But due to the enormous annual tourist flow, the amount of people inside the city at a given time, such as Mardi Gras season, tends to exceed these numbers sometimes by the hundreds of thousands.

There were 188,251 households out of which:

The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.23.

In the city the population was spread out with:

The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,133, and the median income for a family was $32,338. Males had a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,258. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

The population of New Orleans reached its highest point in the summer of 1965, when its population reached 702,108. The population was stunted in the late sixties, a decade which saw storm surge from Hurricane Betsy flooded much of the Lower 9th Ward Since the late sixties, the population of New Orleans/Orleans Parish has experienced a steady decline while surrounding parishes such as Jefferson and St. Tammany registered strong increases in population.

An analysis by Brown University sociologist John R. Logan in January of 2005 suggests that as many as 50% of whites and 80% of blacks relocated from New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath may relocate permanently.

New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo practice by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and spirit of celebration.

Pronunciation

New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals as "Noo Or-lins," "Noo Awlee-enz," or "Noo Aw-lins." The pronunciation "N'Awlins" is not generally used by locals but has been popularized by the tourist trade. The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with it. There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups. The prestige associated with being from New Orleans by many residents is likely a factor in the linguistic assimilation of the ethnically divergent population. This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city (but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes). As with many sociolinguistic artifacts, it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population. One subtype of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat (from "Where y'at). This word is not used as a generalized term for the New Orleans accent, and is generally reserved for the strongest varieties. Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," "makin' groceries" for grocery shopping, or "neutral ground" for a street median.

Media

The major daily newspaper is the New Orleans Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. Other alternative weekly publications include the Louisiana Weekly and the Gambit Weekly.

Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. The market is the 43rd largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 672,150 homes and 0.610% of the U.S. Major television network affiliates serving the area include WWL 4 (CBS), WGNO 26 (ABC), WDSU 6 (NBC), WVUE 8 (FOX), WNOL 38 (WB), WUPL 54 (UPN), and WPXL 49 (PAX). PBS stations include WYES 12 and WLAE 32. WHNO 20 also operates as an independent station in the area, providing mainly religious programming.

Radio stations serving Greater New Orleans include:

Television References

Several episodes of television series have referenced the city:

Museums and other attractions

Bourbon Street, New Orleans, in 2003, looking towards Canal Street.

Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife, St. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), and many stately 19th century mansions.

Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street. Other notable tourist attractions in the quarter include Jackson Square, St. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and Preservation Hall.

Also located near the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, now operates as a museum. The National D-Day Museum is a relatively new museum (opened on June 6, 2000) dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France. The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily.

Art museums in the city include the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. The Audubon Park and the Audubon Zoo are also located in the city of New Orleans. New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery.

The city is also world-famous for its food. Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours.")

Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden.

Annual cultural events and fairs

See also: New Orleans Mardi Gras

Mounted Krewe Officers in the Thoth Parade during Mardi Gras.

Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations, including Mardi Gras, New Year's Eve celebrations, and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), held just before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carré, translated Old Square), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux.

The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. Commonly referred to simply as, "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists.

Music

Louis Armstrong, famous New Orleans Jazz musician.

New Orleans has always been a significant center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. Its general atmosphere of Dionysian art has also resulted in both breeding and being a home to chaotic artists such as Crash Worship, Liquiddrone, and Jamal Morelli. In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues.

The city also created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music," but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music.

Sports & Recreation

The Louisiana Superdome, home to the New Orleans Saints.

The city is the home to several professional, major league sports teams, including the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League and the New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association which relocated from Charlotte, North Carolina, at the start of the 2002–2003 season. The Saints play in the Louisiana Superdome, and the Hornets play in the adjacent New Orleans Arena.

Due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, including damage both to the exterior and the interior of the Louisiana Superdome, the New Orleans Saints have played their "home" games in Baton Rouge and San Antonio, Texas. The football season began just a week after the storm hit, and the Saints played their first "home" game against the Giants at Giants Stadium. The Hornets will play 36 "home" games at the Ford Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the remaining 5 to be split between Norman (University of Oklahoma campus), Baton Rouge (LSU campus) and a March 2006 return to New Orleans for three home games.

The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner, Tom Benson. The New Orleans Zephyrs, AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie. They are currently affiliated with the Washington Nationals.

The city also hosts two college football bowl games annually: the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. Nine Super Bowls have been contested in New Orleans.

Historically, many teams have been formerly located in the city, including the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Breakers of the United States Football League, the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz.

New Orleans is also home to Southern Yacht Club, located at West End on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain. Established in 1849, it is the second oldest yacht club in the United States. The building was severely damaged, first by storm surge and then by fire, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

Economy

A tanker on the Mississippi River in New Orleans.

New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. seaport. It is one of the busiest seaports in not only the United States, but also the world. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid 20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic.

Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. There are a substantial number of energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil Company. The city is also home to one Fortune 500 company, Entergy Corporation, an electric power provider.

The federal government has a significant presence in the area. The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. The facility is operated by Lockheed-Martin and is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced. The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses the National Finance Center operated by the USDA.

Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include BellSouth, Hibernia Corp., IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, and Zatarain's.

The Port of New Orleans handles about 84 million short tons of cargo a year. The Port of South Louisiana, located in the Metropolitan New Orleans Area, handles 199 million short tons. The two combined would be the 4th largest port in the world.

About 5,000 ships from nearly 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. gateway, including Miami.

New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly.

There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them.

New Orleans is also one of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. Other major tourist events and attractions in the city include Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Southern Decadence (one of the largest annual Gay/Lesbian celebrations in the nation), and the Essence Festival.

Infrastructure

Government

New Orleans has a mayor-council government. The city council consists of five councilmembers who are elected by district and two at large councilmembers. Mayor C. Ray Nagin, Jr. was elected in May 2002.

The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system.

The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-county government.GR6 Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou and Carrollton. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans.

Schools

New Orleans Public Schools, the city's school district, is one of the area's largest school districts. NOPS contains approximately 100 individual schools. The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools.

Several institutions of higher education also exist within the city, including University of New Orleans, Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Medical School, and Our Lady of Holy Cross College. Other schools include Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College, Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, Commonwealth University, and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.

Libraries

There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University[7] and Earl K. Long Library at the University of New Orleans.[8]

The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina.[9] The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections.[10]

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection[11] and the Old U.S. Mint.[12]

Transportation

The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), located approximately nine miles west of the city in the city of Kenner. It serves millions of passengers on approximately 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe. The airport also serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express.

Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport, a small, general aviation airport, as well as the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area.

The city is also served by rail via Amtrak. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and it is served by three trains: the Crescent to New York City, the City of New Orleans to Chicago, Illinois, and the Sunset Limited from Orlando to Los Angeles.

In addition, the city is served by six Class I freight railroads. Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway approach the city from the west, Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX from the east, and the Canadian National Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway from the north.

Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). In addition to the many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by DC wires overhead. The St. Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark. The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art.

The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. There are proposals to revive a Desire light rail streetcar line.

Roads in the city are arranged in a radial grid pattern, emanating out to various parts of town from a central point north of the Central Business District. I-10 loops east-west through the city, and traverses the northern edge of the Central Business District, taking traffic west towards Baton Rouge, Louisiana and east-northeast to Slidell, Louisiana. The "Highrise" carries I-10 across the Industrial Canal.

Farther east, the I-10 connects New Orleans East with Slidell, bridging an arm of Lake Pontchartrain. This crossing, a dual causeway known as the "Twin Spans," was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. By October 2005 single lanes in each direction had been reopened on the eastbound span. The westbound span was reopened in early January 2006. The Twin Spans is to be replaced with a new six-lane bridge, expected to be completed in 2009.[13] As I-10 heads south from Metairie towards the Central Business District, it is called the Pontchartrain Expressway.

I-610 provides a direct shortcut across the northern central part of the city, allowing through traffic to bypass I-10's L-shaped route which traverses the more congested areas.

US 90 leaves the Central Business District and goes west through the city's Uptown neighborhood and crosses the Missisisppi River at the Huey P. Long Bridge near the suburb of Jefferson. I-10 is also connected to I-12, north of Lake Pontchartrain, via the tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, which are also the longest in the world.

The interstate highways serving New Orleans were laid out in the middle of the 20th century, a time when a larger proportion of Gulf of Mexico freight traffic passed through New Orleans. I-10 goes west to Houston and beyond and east to Mobile and Florida, with I-59 and I-55 heading northward to Birmingham and Jackson, respectively. Later, I-12 created a shortcut that avoided crossing Lake Pontchartrain. In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns southward toward New Orleans while I-12 continues straight to rejoin I-10 in Baton Rouge. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. The route would follow U.S. Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans, and US 51 terminates just west of the city, Laplace.

The Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal.

Roads along the Mississippi River were the first to carry overland traffic into New Orleans. US 51 (the "Old Hammond Highway"), US 90, and US 11 followed old Indian routes along slight ridges to become the first automotive highways. Louisiana governor Huey P. Long championed Airline Highway (US 61) to bypass the circuitous river road between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. The route of today's US 90 east of New Orleans once included a ferry crossing at Fort Pike. Governor Long built public draw bridges at the Rigolets as political retaliation against the operators of a then-private toll bridge across Lake Pontchartrain. Long achieved his objective: the US 11 toll bridge failed commercially and is owned by the State. US 11 was the escape route for Ignatius J. Reilly at the end of John Kennedy Toole's novel, A Confederacy of Dunces.

West of New Orleans, the Ruddock exit at milepost 6 of I-55 is the only trace left of a thriving community that was literally washed away by the hurricane of September 1915. Frenier Beach Hurricane Storm Surge Revisited In the 1960s, a controversial "Dixie Freeway" that would have been designated I-410 would have created an "outer loop" encompassing St. Bernard Parish, the westbank areas of New Orleans and Jefferson, and back across the river in St. Charles Parish where I-310 now runs. Environmental concern for the wetlands south of New Orleans and economic considerations derailed those plans.

Sister cities

New Orleans has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI): Juan-les-Pins (France), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Matsue (Japan), Mérida (Mexico), Innsbruck (Austria), Pointe Noire (Republic of Congo), San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Caracas (Venezuela), and Holdfast Bay (Australia).


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(SCI): Juan-les-Pins (France), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Matsue (Japan), Mérida (Mexico), Innsbruck (Austria), Pointe Noire (Republic of Congo), San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Caracas (Venezuela), and Holdfast Bay (Australia). Articles about Sri Lanka`s current defence status. New Orleans has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. Statistics on Civilians Affected by War in Northeast 1974-2004 A Full Report in 11 pages. Environmental concern for the wetlands south of New Orleans and economic considerations derailed those plans. A cease-fire was declared in 2002, but renewed violence in late 2005 led to fears of a renewed civil war. Charles Parish where I-310 now runs. It is estimated that the war has left 65,000 people dead since 1983 and caused great harm to the population and economy of the country.

Bernard Parish, the westbank areas of New Orleans and Jefferson, and back across the river in St. Since 1983, there has been on-and-off civil war, mostly between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, or the LTTE, who want to create an independent Tamil Eelam state in the northeast of the island. Frenier Beach Hurricane Storm Surge Revisited In the 1960s, a controversial "Dixie Freeway" that would have been designated I-410 would have created an "outer loop" encompassing St. The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is an ongoing conflict between the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamils on the island-nation of Sri Lanka. West of New Orleans, the Ruddock exit at milepost 6 of I-55 is the only trace left of a thriving community that was literally washed away by the hurricane of September 1915. See Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Reilly at the end of John Kennedy Toole's novel, A Confederacy of Dunces. While Islam and Christianity (including 6% Catholics and 1% Protestants) represent 8% and 7% of the population respectively.

US 11 was the escape route for Ignatius J. Buddhism (69%) and Hinduism (15.5%) are the dominant religions. Long achieved his objective: the US 11 toll bridge failed commercially and is owned by the State. Smaller minorities include (mostly Sunni) Muslims (7%), mostly of mixed Arab, Persian, Tamil and Sinhalese origins and Malay descent, Burghers of mixed European descent (1%) and the Wanniyala-Aetto or Veddahs, the few remaining descendants of earlier cultures. Governor Long built public draw bridges at the Rigolets as political retaliation against the operators of a then-private toll bridge across Lake Pontchartrain. All three languages are used in education and administration. The route of today's US 90 east of New Orleans once included a ferry crossing at Fort Pike. English, the link language in the present constitution, is spoken competently by about 10% of the population, and is widely understood.

Long championed Airline Highway (US 61) to bypass the circuitous river road between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. Both Sinhala and Tamil are official languages. Louisiana governor Huey P. Tamils comprise two communities: Native Tamils and more recent immigrants from India called as Indian Origin Tamils. US 51 (the "Old Hammond Highway"), US 90, and US 11 followed old Indian routes along slight ridges to become the first automotive highways. Tamils constitute 18%, are predominantly Hindu, and live mostly in the north, east and central provinces. Roads along the Mississippi River were the first to carry overland traffic into New Orleans. About 74% of Sri Lankans are Sinhalese, most of them Buddhist, mostly following the Theravada tradition.

Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal. Assimilation and intermixing has produced a group of people who are marginaly different from each other irrespective of current racial claims. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. Racial identities in Sri Lanka do not represent the genetic heritage. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. In December 2005, Sri Lanka received its first international credit rating with Fitch Ratings assigning it a BB- (a rating held by Brazil and Indonesia among others). The Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. A September 2005 IMF report called for an end to 'fiscal domination' of monetary policy and more independence for the Central Bank so that inflation could be contained.

The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans, and US 51 terminates just west of the city, Laplace. The tsunami helped stabilize the deterioration of macro-economic fundamentals as foreign debt relief and assistance from the International Monetary Fund strengthened both the external sector and fiscal operations. Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. But GDP growth, which had climbed to 6.4% by the first quarter of 2004 had fallen to 4.8% by the first quarter of 2005. The route would follow U.S. The December 26th Tsunami brought aidflows, and support from the IMF helped improve sentiment in the foreign exchange market. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. By December 2004, the country was heading for a balance of payments crisis, as the currency depreciated and reserves dwindled.

In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns southward toward New Orleans while I-12 continues straight to rejoin I-10 in Baton Rouge. The expansionary fiscal policy, coupled with loose monetary policy eventually drove inflation up to 18% by January 2005, as measured by the Sri Lanka Consumer Price Index. Later, I-12 created a shortcut that avoided crossing Lake Pontchartrain. To finance the expanded budget deficit arising from a range of subsidies and a public sector recruitment drive, the government eventually had to print Rs 65 bn (US$ 650 mn) or around 3% of GDP. I-10 goes west to Houston and beyond and east to Mobile and Florida, with I-59 and I-55 heading northward to Birmingham and Jackson, respectively. In 2004 alone Sri Lanka spent approximately US$ 180 mn on a fuel subsidy, as fixing fuel prices was an election promise. The interstate highways serving New Orleans were laid out in the middle of the 20th century, a time when a larger proportion of Gulf of Mexico freight traffic passed through New Orleans. But this policy of subsidizing imported commodities like fuel, fertilizer and wheat, soon unravelled the fiscal sector.

I-10 is also connected to I-12, north of Lake Pontchartrain, via the tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, which are also the longest in the world. Its main theme to support the rural and suburban SMEs and protect the domestic economy from external influences, such as oil prices, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Long Bridge near the suburb of Jefferson. The new government stopped the privatization of state enterprises, reforms of state utilities such as power and petroleum and embarked on an unprecedented subsidy program called the Rata Perata economic program. US 90 leaves the Central Business District and goes west through the city's Uptown neighborhood and crosses the Missisisppi River at the Huey P. In April 2004, there was a sharp reversal in economic policy after the government headed by Ranil Wickremesinghe from the United National Party was defeated by a coalition made up of Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the left-nationalist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna called the United People's Freedom Alliance. I-610 provides a direct shortcut across the northern central part of the city, allowing through traffic to bypass I-10's L-shaped route which traverses the more congested areas. The Colombo stock exchange reported the highest growth in Asia for 2003, and today Sri Lanka has the highest per capita income in South Asia.

The Twin Spans is to be replaced with a new six-lane bridge, expected to be completed in 2009.[13] As I-10 heads south from Metairie towards the Central Business District, it is called the Pontchartrain Expressway. Signs of recovery appeared after the government and the LTTE signed the 2002 ceasefire. The westbound span was reopened in early January 2006. 2001 saw the first economic contraction in the country's history, due to a combination of power shortages, budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife. By October 2005 single lanes in each direction had been reopened on the eastbound span. The economy rebounded in 1997-2000, with average growth of 5.3%. This crossing, a dual causeway known as the "Twin Spans," was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. The GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5% during the early 1990s, until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996.

Farther east, the I-10 connects New Orleans East with Slidell, bridging an arm of Lake Pontchartrain. By 1996, plantation crops made up only 20% of exports (compared with 93% in 1970), while textiles and garments 63%. The "Highrise" carries I-10 across the Industrial Canal. While tea and rubber are still important, the most dynamic sectors are now food processing, textiles and apparel, food and beverages, telecommunications, insurance, and banking. I-10 loops east-west through the city, and traverses the northern edge of the Central Business District, taking traffic west towards Baton Rouge, Louisiana and east-northeast to Slidell, Louisiana. From independence, till 1977, it was a strongly socialist economy but since then it has been increasingly pursuing privatization, market-oriented policies and export-oriented trade. Roads in the city are arranged in a radial grid pattern, emanating out to various parts of town from a central point north of the Central Business District. Sri Lanka is historically famous for its cinnamon and tea (introduced by the British in the 19th century).

There are proposals to revive a Desire light rail streetcar line. See Endemic Birds of the Indian Subcontinent for more information. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. Sri Lanka is a centre of bird endemism. The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. The island has three biosphere reserves, Hurulu (established 1977), Sinharaja (established 1978), and Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya (KDN) (established 2004). The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art. Several preserves have been established to protect some of Sri Lanka's remaining natural areas.

The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. These forests have been largely cleared for agriculture, timber or grazing, and many of the dry evergreen forests have been degraded to thorn scrub, savanna, or thickets. Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark. The Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests are a tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregion, which, like the neighboring East Deccan dry evergreen forests of India's Coromandel Coast, is characterized by evergreen trees, rather than the dry-season deciduous trees that predominate in most other tropical dry broadleaf forests. The St. The north and east are considerably drier, lying in the rain shadow of the central highlands. In addition to the many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by DC wires overhead. Both these tropical moist forest ecoregions are very similar to those of India's Western Ghats.

Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). At higher elevations they transition to the Sri Lanka montane rain forests. Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway approach the city from the west, Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX from the east, and the Canadian National Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway from the north. The southwest, where the influence of the moisture-bearing southwest monsoon is strongest, is home to the Sri Lanka lowland rain forests. In addition, the city is served by six Class I freight railroads. Its forests are among the most floristically rich in Asia and for some faunal groups, it has the world's highest density of species diversity. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and it is served by three trains: the Crescent to New York City, the City of New Orleans to Chicago, Illinois, and the Sunset Limited from Orlando to Los Angeles. Sri Lanka is one of the world's bio-diversity hot-spots.

The city is also served by rail via Amtrak. Other major cities include Jaffna, Galle, and Kandy. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area. The commercial capital is Colombo, but the administrative and legislative capital is at nearby Sri Jayewardanapura (Kotte). Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport, a small, general aviation airport, as well as the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. The lowest gravitational field on Earth lies just off the coast of Sri Lanka. The airport also serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express. The climate is tropical, characterized by monsoons: the northeast monsoon lasts from December to March, the southwest June to October.

The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe. Amongst these are Sri Pada and the highest point Pidurutalagala (also known as Mt Pedro), at 2,524 m. It serves millions of passengers on approximately 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The pear-shaped island consists mostly of flat-to-rolling coastal plains, with mountains rising only in the south-central part. The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), located approximately nine miles west of the city in the city of Kenner. According to temple records, this natural causeway was formerly complete, but was breached by a violent storm (probably a cyclone) in 1480. Mint.[12]. Often referred to as Adam's Bridge, it is now mostly submerged, with only a chain of limestone shoals remaining above sea level.

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection[11] and the Old U.S. According to Hindu mythology, a land bridge to the Indian mainland, known as Rama's Bridge, was constructed during the time of Rama. The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina.[9] The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections.[10]. It is separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. Long Library at the University of New Orleans.[8]. The island of Sri Lanka lies in the Indian Ocean, southwest of the Bay of Bengal. There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University[7] and Earl K.
.

Other schools include Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College, Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, Commonwealth University, and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary. Sri Lanka consists of 8 provinces:. Several institutions of higher education also exist within the city, including University of New Orleans, Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Medical School, and Our Lady of Holy Cross College. See also: Sri Lankan parliamentary election, 2004. The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools. At the close of 2005, deep political unease and suspicion remained between the two factions. NOPS contains approximately 100 individual schools. But these hopes were dashed by almost immediate accusations of bias and favouritism on the part of international aid agencies from both sides.

New Orleans Public Schools, the city's school district, is one of the area's largest school districts. There were high hopes that the devastating Tsunami of December 2004 would force the government and Tamil rebels into a new, lasting dialogue to address the serious effects of the disaster on Sri Lanka as a whole. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans. The LTTE boycotted the election, thereby preventing thousands of Tamils from voting, and so Wickremasinghe from taking power, whose election promises included a Federal state to the North and East. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. His narrow victory was engineered by the the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) who want Tamil Eelam to be an independent country. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou and Carrollton. Rajapaksa offers less autonomy than Wickremasinghe to the northeast, home to most of Sri Lanka's 3.2 million ethnic Tamils.

The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-county government.GR6 Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. He was previously Prime Minister in 2000. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system. Ratnasiri Wickremanayake was appointed the 22nd Prime Minister on November 21, 2005, to fill the post vacated by Rajapaksa. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. Rajapaksa took oath as President on November 19, 2005. The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. The Election was held on November 17, 2005, and Mahinda Rajapaksa was elected the fifth Executive President of Sri Lanka with a 50.29% of valid votes, compared to Ranil Wickremesinghe's 48.43%.

was elected in May 2002. Mahinda Rajapaksa was nominated the SLFP candidate and former Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe UNP candidate. Ray Nagin, Jr. In August 2005, the Supreme Court ruled that Presidential Elections would be held in November 2005, resolving a long-running dispute on the length of President Kumaratunga's term. Mayor C. Elections were held on April 02 and the new Parliament convened on April 23 and elected Mahinda Rajapaksa as the Prime Minister. The city council consists of five councilmembers who are elected by district and two at large councilmembers. Parliament was dissolved on February 07, 2004 by President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga.

New Orleans has a mayor-council government. Since its independence in 1948, Sri Lanka has remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Other major tourist events and attractions in the city include Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Southern Decadence (one of the largest annual Gay/Lesbian celebrations in the nation), and the Essence Festival. Parliament reserves the power to make all laws. The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. The president may summon, suspend, or end a legislative session and dissolve parliament any time after it has served for one year. New Orleans is also one of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. The primary modification is that the party that receives the largest number of valid votes in each constituency gains a unique "bonus seat" (see Hickman, 1999).

These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them. Members are elected by universal (adult) suffrage based on a modified proportional representation system by district to a six-year term. There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. The Sri Lankan Parliament is a unicameral 225-member legislature. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly. The President's deputy is the Prime Minister, who leads the ruling party in Parliament. The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. The President appoints and heads a Cabinet of Ministers responsible to Parliament.

New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. The incumbent may be removed from office by a two-thirds vote of Parliament, with the agreement by the Supreme Court. gateway, including Miami. The President is responsible to Parliament for the exercise of duties in accordance with the Constitution and laws. The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. The President of the Republic is directly elected for a six-year term and serves as Head of State, Head of Government and Commander in Chief of the armed forces. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. It was rumored that the LTTE themselves did the killing.

The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. In December 2005, following a brutal gang rape and murder of a Tamil woman (Ilayathambi Tharsini)(such incidents have happened before, including Krishanti Kumaraswamy), restive civilian groups likely encouraged and controlled by the LTTE carried out a series of attacks against Government forces in the North and East, and some unknown forces assassinated a pro-LTTE Tamil politician on Christmas eve in a Catholic church. About 5,000 ships from nearly 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. It has been alleged that only 17% of the relief aid has been spent on what it was intended for. The two combined would be the 4th largest port in the world. Several Sinhala nationalist groups in the South challenged this pact and the Supreme Court declared that some articles of the pact were unconstitutional. The Port of South Louisiana, located in the Metropolitan New Orleans Area, handles 199 million short tons. On June 24, 2005, the Government signed the Post Tsunami Operational Management Structure (P-TOMS), a legal instrument for the Government to share aid with the LTTE.

The Port of New Orleans handles about 84 million short tons of cargo a year. Over 40,000 people died on the island and many more are still missing. Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include BellSouth, Hibernia Corp., IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, and Zatarain's. On December 26, 2004, an earthquake off the western coast of Sumatra created tsunamis that washed over the Eastern and Southern coasts of Sri Lanka. The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses the National Finance Center operated by the USDA. In April 2004, the Government of Ranil Wickramasinghe was ousted from Parliament and a coalition including several Sinhala nationalist groups opposed to negotiations with LTTE came to power. The facility is operated by Lockheed-Martin and is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced. No significant progress has been made to date.

The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. LTTE negotiators proposed an Interim Self Governing Authority, but the Government's response did not satisfy LTTE, and the peace process paused in late 2003. The federal government has a significant presence in the area. 6 rounds of direct talks were held in several locations around the world, but no substantial steps were taken towards a political settlement to the conflict. The city is also home to one Fortune 500 company, Entergy Corporation, an electric power provider. In early 2002 both the LTTE and the Government signed a Memorandum of Understanding and entered into a joint ceasefire. There are a substantial number of energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil Company. At the end of 2001 a new Parliament was elected and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremasinghe declared a ceasefire, responding to the LTTE which had declared a ceasefire in December 2001.

Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. During her re-election rally, a suicide bomber killed 10 people, missing Kumaratunge. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid 20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic. In December 2000 President Kumaratunge was re-elected for her second term. The U.S. This was the first time the country's cricket team had won the Cricket World Cup tournament. It is one of the busiest seaports in not only the United States, but also the world. In 1996 Sri Lanka became world champions in Cricket.

seaport. Both the Sri Lanka Army and LTTE stood accused of gross human rights vioaltions including abduction, torture and extrajudicial executions during the conflict. New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. By the mid 1990s, LTTE controlled much of the North and had set up a de facto state. The building was severely damaged, first by storm surge and then by fire, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Her initial attempts to negotiate with the LTTE failed and the war in the north and east continued with heavy casualties to sides. Established in 1849, it is the second oldest yacht club in the United States. In 1994 Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, daughter of two previous Prime Ministers, was elected President.

New Orleans is also home to Southern Yacht Club, located at West End on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain. In 1993 Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa was killed in a similar manner during a May Day celebration in Colombo. Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz. In 1991 a LTTE suicide bomber killed former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in retaliation for the IPKF and the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord. Historically, many teams have been formerly located in the city, including the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Breakers of the United States Football League, the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). Thousands of Muslims who had lived there for generations started a mass exodus to southern parts of the island. Nine Super Bowls have been contested in New Orleans. In 1990 the LTTE ordered all Muslims in the north to leave their homes.

The city also hosts two college football bowl games annually: the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. Many also believe that the Indian army lost support because of acts of rape and extreme misconduct by Indian soldiers. They are currently affiliated with the Washington Nationals. It is speculated that for this brief moment the LTTE was aided in a fight against the IPKF which drove out India. The New Orleans Zephyrs, AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie. It is alleged that the IPKF attempted to setup a longterm base of operations in Sri Lanka's north which frightened the Sri Lankan Government. The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner, Tom Benson. They had lost over 1,500 men.

The Hornets will play 36 "home" games at the Ford Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the remaining 5 to be split between Norman (University of Oklahoma campus), Baton Rouge (LSU campus) and a March 2006 return to New Orleans for three home games. The 60,000-strong Indian force soon lost the support of both sides of the conflict and began a phased withdrawal, ending in 1990. The football season began just a week after the storm hit, and the Saints played their first "home" game against the Giants at Giants Stadium. India, which had helped create and nurture the Tamil militant groups in the north had changed its stance, and in 1987 signed the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord and sent the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to the Jaffna peninsula. Due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, including damage both to the exterior and the interior of the Louisiana Superdome, the New Orleans Saints have played their "home" games in Baton Rouge and San Antonio, Texas. While the Government dealt with the JVP rebellion, it enlisted the help of the Indian government to quell the Tamil separatist movement. The Saints play in the Louisiana Superdome, and the Hornets play in the adjacent New Orleans Arena. 60,000 people vanished in the south during this period.

The city is the home to several professional, major league sports teams, including the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League and the New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association which relocated from Charlotte, North Carolina, at the start of the 2002–2003 season. His death ended the rebellion. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music," but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music. At the end of 1989, JVP leader Rohana Wijeweera was arrested and days later shot while allegedly trying to escape. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. Both JVP and the Government engaged in the abduction, torture and murder of thousands of people. The city also created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. By 1988 it was a full-scale guerilla war.

In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues. In 1986, the JVP (banned in 1983), started their second struggle in the south for state power. Its general atmosphere of Dionysian art has also resulted in both breeding and being a home to chaotic artists such as Crash Worship, Liquiddrone, and Jamal Morelli. One Tamil militant group, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), fought other groups, assassinated their leaders and assimilated their cadres into their ranks, and soon became the main group fighting the Army in the north and east. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. A 1985, round of peace talks in Thimphu, Bhutan failed, and the conflict intensified. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. Clashes between Tamil militants and the Government increased.

New Orleans has always been a significant center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. Many thousands were forced to move from their homes in Colombo to the north and east. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists. In July 1983, called Black July, in response to the killing of 13 army soldiers in Jaffna, the Government instigated a week-long pogrom against the Tamil community in the south, killing thousands. Commonly referred to simply as, "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. The Government sent the military to the Jaffna peninsula, increasing tensions. The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. They called this homeland Tamil Eelam.

The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carré, translated Old Square), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux. By early 1980s, calls for a separate Tamil state had grown to the point where Tamil militants engaged in guerrilla attacks against the Government. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. Jayewardene came to power and released imprisoned JVP members. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), held just before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent. R. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. In 1977, J.

Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations, including Mardi Gras, New Year's Eve celebrations, and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. The insurrection was quelled by the government of Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike and JVP leaders were jailed for treason. See also: New Orleans Mardi Gras. In 1971, the Marxist group Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) launched an insurrection in the south to gain state power. Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden. Initially many of these were supported by the Indian Government which sought to appease Tamils in South India. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours."). Calls for a separate Tamil state in the north and east grew, and eventually several Tamil militant groups formed, particularly in the northern Jaffna peninsula.

Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. Decades of tension between Tamils living primarily in the north and east, and the Sinhala majority in the south, led to widespread communal riots in the 1950s to 1970s targeting Tamil communities and economic interests in many parts of the island. The city is also world-famous for its food. This led to unrest among Tamils, whose cultural identity was threatened. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery. The 1956 Sinhala Only Act made Sinhala the sole official language, forcing Tamil-speakers to learn it. New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. Post-independence governments implemented a series of pro-Sinhala measures, supporting the Sinhala majority.

The Audubon Park and the Audubon Zoo are also located in the city of New Orleans. Independent Sri Lanka is famed for it's remarkable increase in human development, notably life expectency, infant mortality, and literacy, which lead the country to be seen as somewhat of a model for third world development. Art museums in the city include the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. In 1982, the legislative and judicial capital was moved from Colombo to nearby Sri Jayewardanapura Kotte. The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily. In 1972, the country became a republic, free of the last vestiges of colonial domination; the name was changed to Sri Lanka. The National D-Day Museum is a relatively new museum (opened on June 6, 2000) dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France. The flag of the last king of Kandy was proclaimed the National Flag with few minor changes (added orange and green vertical bars to represent the Tamils and Muslims).

Also located near the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, now operates as a museum. The first prime minister was Don Stephen Senanayake, while Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore became Governor-General, the Queen's nominal representative. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and Preservation Hall. As Ceylon [1], it became a dominion in the British Commonwealth in 1948. Other notable tourist attractions in the quarter include Jackson Square, St. The British used Sri Lanka as a base for operations in the Pacific. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street. A month later, a Sri Lankan garrison on the Cocos Islands mutinied, but the rebellion was put down.

Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. Extensive damage was caused to shipping and the Royal Navy lost two cruisers, an aircraft carrier and an Australian destroyer. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), and many stately 19th century mansions. Japan bombed Sri Lanka, but there were few casualties. Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife, St. During World War II pro-independence leaders were jailed. Several episodes of television series have referenced the city:. The struggle for independence started in the 1930s, when the Youth Leagues opposed the 'Ministers' Memorandum' which asked the colonial authority to increase the powers of the board of ministers, rather than seeking independence.

Radio stations serving Greater New Orleans include:. After the fall of Kandy kingdom in 1815, the British unified it with the 'low country' Kingdoms on the island under one rule for administrative purposes in 1818. WHNO 20 also operates as an independent station in the area, providing mainly religious programming. Great Britain replaced the Dutch in 1796, and the coastal areas became a crown colony in 1802. PBS stations include WYES 12 and WLAE 32. During Portuguese and Dutch rule of coastal areas, the interior, hilly region of the island remained independent, with its capital at Kandy city. Major television network affiliates serving the area include WWL 4 (CBS), WGNO 26 (ABC), WDSU 6 (NBC), WVUE 8 (FOX), WNOL 38 (WB), WUPL 54 (UPN), and WPXL 49 (PAX). The Dutch followed in the 17th century.

The market is the 43rd largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 672,150 homes and 0.610% of the U.S. They defeated both coastal kingdoms (Yarlpanam and Kotte) in the 16th century. Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. In 1517, the Portuguese established the fort and trading post Colombo. Other alternative weekly publications include the Louisiana Weekly and the Gambit Weekly. When the Portuguese arrived, the island consisted of several autonomous kingdoms under the nominal suzerainty of the king at Kotte, such as those of Yarlpanam (Anglicised Jaffna) in the north and Kandy in the central hills. The major daily newspaper is the New Orleans Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. It was also invaded and ruled by Kings of Kalinga (present-day Indian state Orissa) and Malay Straights.

Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," "makin' groceries" for grocery shopping, or "neutral ground" for a street median. South Indian kingdoms invaded Sri Lanka on a number of occasions and so the island was ruled for extended periods by Tamil dynasties such as the Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras and Pallavas. This word is not used as a generalized term for the New Orleans accent, and is generally reserved for the strongest varieties. Parakramabahu IV, who ruled from Kotte, was the last Sri Lankan king to rule over the entire island, although the other kingdoms remained under the nominal suzerainty of the High King at Kotte. One subtype of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat (from "Where y'at). After the Polonnaruwa era, the capital moved often, and the island was rarely unified. As with many sociolinguistic artifacts, it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population. 1070 to 1200).

This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city (but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes). 1000 AD) and Polonnaruwa (c. The prestige associated with being from New Orleans by many residents is likely a factor in the linguistic assimilation of the ethnically divergent population. 200 BC to c. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups. Buddhism and a sophisticated system of irrigation became the pillars of Sinhalese civilization (200 BC-1200 AD) that flourished in the north-central Sri Lanka, with capitals at Anuradhapura (from c. There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century. Buddhism arrived from the Indian subcontinent in the 3rd century BC thanks to Arahath Mahinda Thero, missionary of Indian Emperor Ashoka, and spread rapidly.

It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with it. Given the island's proximity to the Deccan Plateau, people of different ethnicities must have traveled to and from it throughout human history. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". Its origins are not dated, but must post-date the arrival of the Dravidian language group in South India sometime in prehistory. The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. Tamil presence is noted throughout the country's written history. New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals as "Noo Or-lins," "Noo Awlee-enz," or "Noo Aw-lins." The pronunciation "N'Awlins" is not generally used by locals but has been popularized by the tourist trade. However, archaic Sinhalese langauge is closer to Prakrits used in northwest India, indicating an origin in the present western coastal Indian state Gujarat.

New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo practice by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and spirit of celebration. Legend states that king Vijaya came to Sri Lanka from Orissa in northeast India. Logan in January of 2005 suggests that as many as 50% of whites and 80% of blacks relocated from New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath may relocate permanently. Archaeological excavations at Anuradhapura show a settlement from the 10th century BC. An analysis by Brown University sociologist John R. It also describes a minister of Vijaya, Anuradha, who established the village Anuradhagamma which later became Anuradhapura and became the capital of Sri Lanka centuries later. Tammany registered strong increases in population. This may refer to a specific group of Prakrit-speaking people, and not necessarily the first such group to arrive.

The population was stunted in the late sixties, a decade which saw storm surge from Hurricane Betsy flooded much of the Lower 9th Ward Since the late sixties, the population of New Orleans/Orleans Parish has experienced a steady decline while surrounding parishes such as Jefferson and St. The Mahavansa describes the Sinhalese kingdom started by king Vijaya and his followers. The population of New Orleans reached its highest point in the summer of 1965, when its population reached 702,108. The theory of Mahavamsa is a contraversial subject and a debate continues as to whether some aspects of it are factual. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Archaeological evidence supplements the Mahavamsa as it places people (perhaps the indigenous Yakkas and Nagas of the chronicle) of indistinguishable racial origin living in the north-central Sri Lanka from the 10th century BC onwards with knowledge of agriculture, metallurgy, and livestock breeding. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families were below the poverty line. The Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa give a near-continuous written history of the island and is also the primary source for the early chronology of India, especially for the synchronity with Alexander the Great and the Greeks.

The per capita income for the city was $17,258. Prior to 1972, Sri Lanka was known by a variety of names; the best known is Ceylon. Males had a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. In 1978 it was changed to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. The median income for a household in the city was $27,133, and the median income for a family was $32,338. In 1972, the official name of the nation that governs the island was changed to the Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්‍රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil). For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. .

For every 100 females there were 88.2 males. The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / Sri Lanka in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent, about 30 km south of India. The median age was 33 years. The chronology of early India depends upon that of the Mahawamsa. In the city the population was spread out with:. The Buddhist scriptures were first committed to writing at Aluvihare in Sri Lanka. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.23. Winner of the Cricket World Cup in 1996.

There were 188,251 households out of which:. First country to have a wildlife sanctuary [2]. But due to the enormous annual tourist flow, the amount of people inside the city at a given time, such as Mardi Gras season, tends to exceed these numbers sometimes by the hundreds of thousands. World's leading exporter of cinnamon; exported to Egypt as early as 1400 BC. These population statistics are based on legal residents of the city. World's leading exporter of tea; Ceylon tea is of the finest quality in the world. The population of Greater New Orleans stood at 1,337,726 in 2000, making it the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Sri Lanka celebrated 80 years in Broadcasting on December 16th 2005.

The racial makeup of the city was:. First country in South Asia to start radio broadcasting with Radio Ceylon. There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). Longest period of continuous multi party democracy by a non western country (from 1931-present). The population density was 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). First country in the World to have a female prime minister (Sirimavo Bandaranaike). As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. Western.

The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1 or 2 inches of snow. Uva. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954, and brought 4.5 inches (110 mm). Southern. On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. Sabaragamuwa. Most recently, a trace of snow fell on Christmas in 2004, during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. North Western.

On rare occasions, snow will fall. North Eastern. The average precipitation is 59.74 inches (1520 mm) annually. North Central. The highest recorded temperature was 102.0°F (38.9°C) on August 22, 1980. Central. The lowest recorded temperature was 11.0°F (-11.6°C) on December 23, 1989. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka.

In July, lows average 74°F (23°C), and highs average 91°F (33°C). In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6°C), and daily highs around 62°F (17°C). The climate of New Orleans is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. Bernard Parish to the south, Plaquemines Parish to the southwest, and Jefferson Parish to the west.

Tammany Parish to the northeast, St. Parishes located adjacent to the city of New Orleans include St. John, Mid City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, The upper 9th Ward and Algiers. Other major districts within the city include Bayou St.

Its tallest building is the 50-story One Shell Square. Parts of the city that are located uptown include the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. Parts of the city that are located downtown include the world famous French Quarter (most noted as the central tourist district, with its array of shops, bars, and nightclubs along Bourbon Street), Storyville (now defunct), Treme, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater, the 7th Ward, and the Lower 9th Ward. "Uptown" refers to those parts of town that are upriver from the central business district.

The term "downtown" refers to those parts of town that are downriver from the central business district. Major streets of the area include Canal Street and Poydras St. The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and is historically called the "American Quarter." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. Tammany.

John the Baptist, and St. Charles, St. Bernard, St. The New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 37th largest in the United States, includes the Louisiana parishes of Orleans (contiguous with the city of New Orleans), Jefferson, Plaquemines, St.

Because of the city's high water table most of the cemeteries in the city use above ground crypts as opposed to underground burial. Before the 20th century pumping system, if it rains more than 1 inch, or more recently if there is a major storm surge, such as that caused by a hurricane, greater flooding can occur. Rainwater is continually pumped out of the city and into Lake Pontchartrain across a series of canals lined by levees and dikes. Some 45% of the city is above sea level; these higher areas were developed before 1900; the lowest areas only being developed more recently.

Much of the city is actually located between 1 and 10 feet (0.3 to 3 m) below sea level, and as such, is very prone to flooding. The city of New Orleans actually contains the lowest point in the state of Louisiana, and one of the lowest points in the United States, after Death Valley and the Salton Sea. The Mississippi Delta, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, covers about 13,000 square miles (about 1/4 of Louisiana) and consists of silt deposited by the river, and is the most fertile area of Louisiana. Fields atop the ridges along the river are referred to as the "frontlands." The land contour slopes away from the frontlands to the "backlands", comprised of clay and silt.

The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. The city is located in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, between the Mississippi River in the south and Lake Pontchartrain in the north. The total area is 48.45% water. 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N, 90°4′14″W (29.964722, -90.070556)GR1 on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. By October 1, parts of the city accounting for about one-third of the population of New Orleans had been reopened, including the French Quarter.[4] As of October 1, only 5% of the city remained underwater. New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded when a storm surge from Rita overcame one of the repaired levees on the Industrial Canal [3].

[2]. Concern about the fragility of the city's flood defences and transportation caused repopulation efforts to be postponed due to Hurricane Rita. The mayor announced a "phased repopulation" plan to start bringing residents of the city back in the next two weeks. On September 15, several of the suburban towns started allowing residents to return.

The city government declared the city off-limits to residents while clean-up efforts began and warned that those remaining could be removed by force, for their health and safety. Subsequent investigations showed that the levee failures which flooded the majority of the city were the result of what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1]. Early estimates of the cost of physical damage from the storm have exceeded 100 billion USD. As of November 2005, the Times Picayune article states that, in addition to 1,050 confirmed deaths, there are 5,000 missing residents of the city.

As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. These canals were the 17th Street Canal, the Industrial Canal, and the London Avenue Canal. The situation worsened when levees along three canals were breached. Heavy rains and flooding immediately affected the eastern areas of the city.

The eye of the storm passed within 10 to 15 miles of New Orleans, bringing strong winds that downed trees, shattered windows, and hurled debris around the area. Many residents chose to stay or were stranded in the city by a lack of available transportation. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. The city suffered from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005 on the gulf coast near the city.

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water. A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition. Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the domestic and international tourist industry. While long one of the USA's most-visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy.

Because of Camille's tightly wound rings, the storm actually pulled water from the then impending fate they believed was imminent from Lake Ponchartrain and Lake Borgne, and veered toward her landfall point, approximately 50 miles away at Pass Christian, Mississippi, which is believed to have received a 28 foot storm surge. In 1969 the city was brushed by Hurricane Camille but was spared from the catastrophic flooding it had seen in Hurricane Betsy and later in Hurricane Katrina. In 1965 the city was damaged by Hurricane Betsy, with catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward. Much of the city flooded in September of 1947 due to the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane.

Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish. The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April 2004. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses.

In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans.

The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. (2000-2004).

Jamal Morelli's struggle for the neighborhood was successful in protecting the lower ninth ward. The HCNA sent Jamal Morelli, activist and New Orleans artist, to respresent them in Washington, D.C. The Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, (HCNA) respresenting a substantial group of the aforementioned lower ninth ward, created a lobby against the Army Corps of Engineers furthering work on the levees which might endanger the neighborhoods. This warning was augmented by vestigial fears from Hurricane Betsy, and the lasting stories of the Army Corps of Engineers blasting the flooding levees, drowning the poorer neighborhoods of the lower ninth Ward.

There were many warnings in the late 20th century that a major hurricane or a Mississippi flood could create a lake in the central city as much as 9 m (30 ft) deep, which could take months to pump dry. The subsidence greatly increased the flood risk, should the levees be breached or precipitation be in excess of pumping capacity (as was the case in 2005 in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina). However, pumping of groundwater from underneath the city has resulted in subsidence. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area.

All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City.

Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial.

It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. It was the first captured city in the American South. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union (by David Farragut -son of Spanish emigrants- later named the first US Navy Vice-Admiral) without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color.

New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. However, population growth was at times plagued by yellow fever epidemics, such as the great scourge of 1853 that killed nearly 10,000 people in New Orleans. The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 the city's population was around 102,000, fourth-largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South after Baltimore. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans).

The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. In its early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000. But in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase.

Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon re-acquired the territory from Spain by treaty. In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. Louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere. The three most impressive buildings of New Orleans come from the Spanish times: St.

As a result of this, and a subsequent fire in 1795 (another 200 houses destroyed), much of 18th century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built under Spanish rule and demonstrates Spanish colonial characteristics, wood was replaced with bricks. The Great Fire of 1788 destroyed many of the existing structures in the city (800 houses were destroyed), which were made of wood. In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire and remained under Spanish control for 40 years. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi.

A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for more than a decade before the official founding of the city. John (known to natives as Bayou Choupique). The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville.

Main article: History of New Orleans. . Residents of the city are referred to as New Orleanians. The city's name is often abbreviated NOLA.

The city's unofficial motto, "Laissez les bons temps rouler" ("Let the good times roll") describes the party-like attitude of many residents. The city's several nicknames describe various characteristics of the city, including the "Crescent City" (describing its shape around the Mississippi River), "The Big Easy" (a reference by musicians to the relative ease of finding work in the city) and "The City that Care Forgot" (associated with the easy going, carefree nature of many of the local residents). The city was named in honor of Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded (much as New York was named in honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England). New Orleans was founded by the French in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States.

The two ports together would be the fourth largest port in the world. ports for exporting grain. The Port of South Louisiana is based in the New Orleans metropolitan area and has been ranked the fifth largest port in the world in terms of raw tonnage, and among the largest U.S. port for several major commodities including rubber, cement and coffee.

The Port of New Orleans is the largest U.S. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf. New Orleans remains a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. While most of the city has reopened to residents, and areas which suffered moderate damage have substantially resumed functioning, the parts of town most severely damaged - such as some neighborhoods of the lower 9th Ward - are open only during daylight hours for residents to salvage items from their formerly flooded homes.

As of mid-December 2005, efforts continue to aid survivors, clean up debris, and restore infrastructure. Estimates as of late 2005 cite fewer than 150,000 residing in the city, and projections of the city's eventual population following reconstruction are highly speculative. Since the devastation of the city in conjunction with Hurricane Katrina, the population has been significantly less, due to the majority of surviving residents either taking temporary shelter elsewhere or relocating indefinitely. census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the population of Greater New Orleans at 1,337,726.

The most recent U.S. It is a world-famous tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most noteworthy annual events are Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Jazz Fest, Essence Festival (moved to Houston, TX for 2006), Voodoo Fest, Southern Decadence, and college football's Sugar Bowl (although the bowl game has been moved to Atlanta for the 2006 game). New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French, Spanish and African American influences) as well as its music and cuisine. New Orleans is named after the historical Duke of Orléans, Regent of France and is one of the oldest and most historic cities in the United States.

It is in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. state of Louisiana. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. New Orleans (local pronunciations: /nuːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /la nuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is a major U.S.


Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States. In a 2005 episode of Law and Order: Special Victims Unit, the detectives pursue a child molester who kidnapped three young sisters from New Orleans after their parents were killed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In 2005, American Idol held auditions in New Orleans. In a 2004 episode of Las Vegas called "New Orleans", Danny, Ed and Sam head to New Orleans in search of a big gambler who owes the casino money.

In a 2003 episode of The Drew Carey Show, Drew and his buddies set off on a road trip to New Orleans to find a girl he met after placing an ad on a beer bottle. In a 2001 episode of Seven Days, Parker goes to New Orleans to prove that his friend, who is scheduled to be executed, is innocent. Season 9 (2000) of The Real World was set in New Orleans. The short-lived 1997 CBS series Orleans was set in New Orleans.

In a 1992 episode of The Simpsons called "A Streetcar Named Marge", Marge is cast in a musical version of "A Streetcar Named Desire" that featured a controversial parody song about New Orleans. Urban/Urban Contemporary: KMEZ-FM (102.9), KNOU-FM (104.5), WQUE-FM (93.3), WYLD-FM (98.5). Talk: WSMB-AM (1350), WWL-AM (870), WTIX-AM (690). Sports: WODT-AM (1280).

Rock: KKND-FM (106.7), WRNO-FM (99.5), WEZB-FM (97.1), WKBU-FM (105.3). Public: WTUL-FM (91.5), WRBH-FM (88.3). Oldies: WTKL-FM (95.7), WJSH-FM (104.7). Latino: KGLA-AM (1540), WFNO-FM (830).

Gospel/Christian: KHEV-FM (104.1), WYLD-AM (940), WBSN-FM (89.1), WLNO-AM (1060), WSHO-FM (800), WOPR-FM (94.9), WVOG-AM (600). Contemporary: KLRZ-FM (100.3), WLMG-FM (101.9), WDVW-FM (92.3). Country: WNOE-FM (101.1). Jazz: WWNO-FM (88.9), WWOZ-FM (90.7).

11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. 20.9% from 45 to 64. 29.3% from 25 to 44. 11.4% from 18 to 24.

26.7% under the age of 18. 9.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals. 40.0% were non-families.

24.5% had a female householder with no husband present. 30.8% were married couples living together. 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 3.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

1.28% from two or more races. 0.93% from other races. 0.02% Pacific Islander. 2.26% Asian.

0.20% Native American. 28.05% White. 67.25% African American.

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