New Orleans, Louisiana

Nickname: "The Big Easy"
Motto: "'"
Official website: http://www.cityofno.com/
Location


Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States

Government
Country
State
Parish
United States
Louisiana
Orleans Parish, Louisiana
Mayor C. Ray Nagin (D)
Geographical characteristics
Area
Total 350.2 km²
Land 180.6 km²
Water 169.7 km²
Population
Total (2000) 484,674
Metro area 1,337,726
Density 534.4/km²
Latitude {{{latitude}}}
Longitude {{{longitude}}}
Coordinates 29°57′53″ N
90°4′14″ W
Elevation 3.3 m
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)

New Orleans (local pronunciations: /nuːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /la nuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is a major U.S. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. New Orleans is named after the historical Duke of Orléans, Regent of France and is one of the oldest and most historic cities in the United States.

New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French, Spanish and African American influences) as well as its music and cuisine. It is a world-famous tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most noteworthy annual events are Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Jazz Fest, Essence Festival (moved to Houston, TX for 2006), Voodoo Fest, Southern Decadence, and college football's Sugar Bowl (although the bowl game has been moved to Atlanta for the 2006 game).

The most recent U.S. census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the population of Greater New Orleans at 1,337,726. Since the devastation of the city in conjunction with Hurricane Katrina, the population has been significantly less, due to the majority of surviving residents either taking temporary shelter elsewhere or relocating indefinitely. Estimates as of late 2005 cite fewer than 150,000 residing in the city, and projections of the city's eventual population following reconstruction are highly speculative.

As of mid-December 2005, efforts continue to aid survivors, clean up debris, and restore infrastructure. While most of the city has reopened to residents, and areas which suffered moderate damage have substantially resumed functioning, the parts of town most severely damaged - such as some neighborhoods of the lower 9th Ward - are open only during daylight hours for residents to salvage items from their formerly flooded homes.

New Orleans remains a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf. The Port of New Orleans is the largest U.S. port for several major commodities including rubber, cement and coffee. The Port of South Louisiana is based in the New Orleans metropolitan area and has been ranked the fifth largest port in the world in terms of raw tonnage, and among the largest U.S. ports for exporting grain. The two ports together would be the fourth largest port in the world.

New Orleans was founded by the French in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States. The city was named in honor of Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded (much as New York was named in honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England).

The city's several nicknames describe various characteristics of the city, including the "Crescent City" (describing its shape around the Mississippi River), "The Big Easy" (a reference by musicians to the relative ease of finding work in the city) and "The City that Care Forgot" (associated with the easy going, carefree nature of many of the local residents). The city's unofficial motto, "Laissez les bons temps rouler" ("Let the good times roll") describes the party-like attitude of many residents.

The city's name is often abbreviated NOLA. Residents of the city are referred to as New Orleanians.

History

Main article: History of New Orleans

Colonial era

New Orleans is a historic city. Sign at Jackson Square in the French Quarter

New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. John (known to natives as Bayou Choupique). A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for more than a decade before the official founding of the city. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi.

In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire and remained under Spanish control for 40 years.

The Great Fire of 1788 destroyed many of the existing structures in the city (800 houses were destroyed), which were made of wood. As a result of this, and a subsequent fire in 1795 (another 200 houses destroyed), much of 18th century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built under Spanish rule and demonstrates Spanish colonial characteristics, wood was replaced with bricks.

The three most impressive buildings of New Orleans come from the Spanish times: St. Louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere.

In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon re-acquired the territory from Spain by treaty. But in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000.

19th century

In its early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans).

1888 German map of New Orleans.

The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 the city's population was around 102,000, fourth-largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South after Baltimore. However, population growth was at times plagued by yellow fever epidemics, such as the great scourge of 1853 that killed nearly 10,000 people in New Orleans.

New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union (by David Farragut -son of Spanish emigrants- later named the first US Navy Vice-Admiral) without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. It was the first captured city in the American South. It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville.

20th century

New Orleans panorama from 1919. Canal Street, looking away from the river, 1920s A view across Uptown New Orleans, with the Central Business District in the background, 1990s

Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area. However, pumping of groundwater from underneath the city has resulted in subsidence. The subsidence greatly increased the flood risk, should the levees be breached or precipitation be in excess of pumping capacity (as was the case in 2005 in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina). There were many warnings in the late 20th century that a major hurricane or a Mississippi flood could create a lake in the central city as much as 9 m (30 ft) deep, which could take months to pump dry. This warning was augmented by vestigial fears from Hurricane Betsy, and the lasting stories of the Army Corps of Engineers blasting the flooding levees, drowning the poorer neighborhoods of the lower ninth Ward. The Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, (HCNA) respresenting a substantial group of the aforementioned lower ninth ward, created a lobby against the Army Corps of Engineers furthering work on the levees which might endanger the neighborhoods. The HCNA sent Jamal Morelli, activist and New Orleans artist, to respresent them in Washington, D.C. Jamal Morelli's struggle for the neighborhood was successful in protecting the lower ninth ward. (2000-2004)

In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since.

New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season.

In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April 2004.

The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish.

Much of the city flooded in September of 1947 due to the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane.

In 1965 the city was damaged by Hurricane Betsy, with catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward.

In 1969 the city was brushed by Hurricane Camille but was spared from the catastrophic flooding it had seen in Hurricane Betsy and later in Hurricane Katrina. Because of Camille's tightly wound rings, the storm actually pulled water from the then impending fate they believed was imminent from Lake Ponchartrain and Lake Borgne, and veered toward her landfall point, approximately 50 miles away at Pass Christian, Mississippi, which is believed to have received a 28 foot storm surge.

While long one of the USA's most-visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy. Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the domestic and international tourist industry.

A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition.

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water.

21st Century (Hurricane Katrina)

An aerial view of the flooded areas in part of the New Orleans Central Business District

The city suffered from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005 on the gulf coast near the city. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. Many residents chose to stay or were stranded in the city by a lack of available transportation. The eye of the storm passed within 10 to 15 miles of New Orleans, bringing strong winds that downed trees, shattered windows, and hurled debris around the area. Heavy rains and flooding immediately affected the eastern areas of the city.

The situation worsened when levees along three canals were breached. These canals were the 17th Street Canal, the Industrial Canal, and the London Avenue Canal. As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. As of November 2005, the Times Picayune article states that, in addition to 1,050 confirmed deaths, there are 5,000 missing residents of the city. Early estimates of the cost of physical damage from the storm have exceeded 100 billion USD. Subsequent investigations showed that the levee failures which flooded the majority of the city were the result of what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1]

The city government declared the city off-limits to residents while clean-up efforts began and warned that those remaining could be removed by force, for their health and safety. On September 15, several of the suburban towns started allowing residents to return. The mayor announced a "phased repopulation" plan to start bringing residents of the city back in the next two weeks. Concern about the fragility of the city's flood defences and transportation caused repopulation efforts to be postponed due to Hurricane Rita. [2]. New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded when a storm surge from Rita overcame one of the repaired levees on the Industrial Canal [3]. By October 1, parts of the city accounting for about one-third of the population of New Orleans had been reopened, including the French Quarter.[4] As of October 1, only 5% of the city remained underwater.

Geography and climate

Vertical cross-section of New Orleans, showing maximum levee height of 23 feet (7 m).

New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N, 90°4′14″W (29.964722, -90.070556)GR1 on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 48.45% water.

The city is located in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, between the Mississippi River in the south and Lake Pontchartrain in the north. The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. Fields atop the ridges along the river are referred to as the "frontlands." The land contour slopes away from the frontlands to the "backlands", comprised of clay and silt. The Mississippi Delta, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, covers about 13,000 square miles (about 1/4 of Louisiana) and consists of silt deposited by the river, and is the most fertile area of Louisiana.

The city of New Orleans actually contains the lowest point in the state of Louisiana, and one of the lowest points in the United States, after Death Valley and the Salton Sea. Much of the city is actually located between 1 and 10 feet (0.3 to 3 m) below sea level, and as such, is very prone to flooding. Some 45% of the city is above sea level; these higher areas were developed before 1900; the lowest areas only being developed more recently. Rainwater is continually pumped out of the city and into Lake Pontchartrain across a series of canals lined by levees and dikes. Before the 20th century pumping system, if it rains more than 1 inch, or more recently if there is a major storm surge, such as that caused by a hurricane, greater flooding can occur. Because of the city's high water table most of the cemeteries in the city use above ground crypts as opposed to underground burial.

The New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 37th largest in the United States, includes the Louisiana parishes of Orleans (contiguous with the city of New Orleans), Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, and St. Tammany.

Cityscape

New Orleans contains many distinctive neighborhoods.

The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and is historically called the "American Quarter." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. Major streets of the area include Canal Street and Poydras St. The term "downtown" refers to those parts of town that are downriver from the central business district. "Uptown" refers to those parts of town that are upriver from the central business district. Parts of the city that are located downtown include the world famous French Quarter (most noted as the central tourist district, with its array of shops, bars, and nightclubs along Bourbon Street), Storyville (now defunct), Treme, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater, the 7th Ward, and the Lower 9th Ward. Parts of the city that are located uptown include the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. Its tallest building is the 50-story One Shell Square.

Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. John, Mid City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, The upper 9th Ward and Algiers.

Parishes located adjacent to the city of New Orleans include St. Tammany Parish to the northeast, St. Bernard Parish to the south, Plaquemines Parish to the southwest, and Jefferson Parish to the west.

A true-color satellite image of New Orleans taken on NASA's Landsat 7

Tallest Buildings

Climate

The climate of New Orleans is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6°C), and daily highs around 62°F (17°C). In July, lows average 74°F (23°C), and highs average 91°F (33°C). The lowest recorded temperature was 11.0°F (-11.6°C) on December 23, 1989. The highest recorded temperature was 102.0°F (38.9°C) on August 22, 1980. The average precipitation is 59.74 inches (1520 mm) annually.

On rare occasions, snow will fall. Most recently, a trace of snow fell on Christmas in 2004, during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954, and brought 4.5 inches (110 mm). The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1 or 2 inches of snow.

People and culture

Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was:

The population of Greater New Orleans stood at 1,337,726 in 2000, making it the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States. These population statistics are based on legal residents of the city. But due to the enormous annual tourist flow, the amount of people inside the city at a given time, such as Mardi Gras season, tends to exceed these numbers sometimes by the hundreds of thousands.

There were 188,251 households out of which:

The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.23.

In the city the population was spread out with:

The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,133, and the median income for a family was $32,338. Males had a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,258. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

The population of New Orleans reached its highest point in the summer of 1965, when its population reached 702,108. The population was stunted in the late sixties, a decade which saw storm surge from Hurricane Betsy flooded much of the Lower 9th Ward Since the late sixties, the population of New Orleans/Orleans Parish has experienced a steady decline while surrounding parishes such as Jefferson and St. Tammany registered strong increases in population.

An analysis by Brown University sociologist John R. Logan in January of 2005 suggests that as many as 50% of whites and 80% of blacks relocated from New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath may relocate permanently.

New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo practice by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and spirit of celebration.

Pronunciation

New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals as "Noo Or-lins," "Noo Awlee-enz," or "Noo Aw-lins." The pronunciation "N'Awlins" is not generally used by locals but has been popularized by the tourist trade. The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with it. There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups. The prestige associated with being from New Orleans by many residents is likely a factor in the linguistic assimilation of the ethnically divergent population. This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city (but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes). As with many sociolinguistic artifacts, it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population. One subtype of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat (from "Where y'at). This word is not used as a generalized term for the New Orleans accent, and is generally reserved for the strongest varieties. Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," "makin' groceries" for grocery shopping, or "neutral ground" for a street median.

Media

The major daily newspaper is the New Orleans Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. Other alternative weekly publications include the Louisiana Weekly and the Gambit Weekly.

Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. The market is the 43rd largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 672,150 homes and 0.610% of the U.S. Major television network affiliates serving the area include WWL 4 (CBS), WGNO 26 (ABC), WDSU 6 (NBC), WVUE 8 (FOX), WNOL 38 (WB), WUPL 54 (UPN), and WPXL 49 (PAX). PBS stations include WYES 12 and WLAE 32. WHNO 20 also operates as an independent station in the area, providing mainly religious programming.

Radio stations serving Greater New Orleans include:

Television References

Several episodes of television series have referenced the city:

Museums and other attractions

Bourbon Street, New Orleans, in 2003, looking towards Canal Street.

Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife, St. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), and many stately 19th century mansions.

Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street. Other notable tourist attractions in the quarter include Jackson Square, St. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and Preservation Hall.

Also located near the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, now operates as a museum. The National D-Day Museum is a relatively new museum (opened on June 6, 2000) dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France. The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily.

Art museums in the city include the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. The Audubon Park and the Audubon Zoo are also located in the city of New Orleans. New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery.

The city is also world-famous for its food. Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours.")

Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden.

Annual cultural events and fairs

See also: New Orleans Mardi Gras

Mounted Krewe Officers in the Thoth Parade during Mardi Gras.

Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations, including Mardi Gras, New Year's Eve celebrations, and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), held just before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carré, translated Old Square), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux.

The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. Commonly referred to simply as, "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists.

Music

Louis Armstrong, famous New Orleans Jazz musician.

New Orleans has always been a significant center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. Its general atmosphere of Dionysian art has also resulted in both breeding and being a home to chaotic artists such as Crash Worship, Liquiddrone, and Jamal Morelli. In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues.

The city also created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music," but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music.

Sports & Recreation

The Louisiana Superdome, home to the New Orleans Saints.

The city is the home to several professional, major league sports teams, including the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League and the New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association which relocated from Charlotte, North Carolina, at the start of the 2002–2003 season. The Saints play in the Louisiana Superdome, and the Hornets play in the adjacent New Orleans Arena.

Due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, including damage both to the exterior and the interior of the Louisiana Superdome, the New Orleans Saints have played their "home" games in Baton Rouge and San Antonio, Texas. The football season began just a week after the storm hit, and the Saints played their first "home" game against the Giants at Giants Stadium. The Hornets will play 36 "home" games at the Ford Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the remaining 5 to be split between Norman (University of Oklahoma campus), Baton Rouge (LSU campus) and a March 2006 return to New Orleans for three home games.

The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner, Tom Benson. The New Orleans Zephyrs, AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie. They are currently affiliated with the Washington Nationals.

The city also hosts two college football bowl games annually: the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. Nine Super Bowls have been contested in New Orleans.

Historically, many teams have been formerly located in the city, including the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Breakers of the United States Football League, the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz.

New Orleans is also home to Southern Yacht Club, located at West End on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain. Established in 1849, it is the second oldest yacht club in the United States. The building was severely damaged, first by storm surge and then by fire, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

Economy

A tanker on the Mississippi River in New Orleans.

New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. seaport. It is one of the busiest seaports in not only the United States, but also the world. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid 20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic.

Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. There are a substantial number of energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil Company. The city is also home to one Fortune 500 company, Entergy Corporation, an electric power provider.

The federal government has a significant presence in the area. The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. The facility is operated by Lockheed-Martin and is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced. The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses the National Finance Center operated by the USDA.

Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include BellSouth, Hibernia Corp., IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, and Zatarain's.

The Port of New Orleans handles about 84 million short tons of cargo a year. The Port of South Louisiana, located in the Metropolitan New Orleans Area, handles 199 million short tons. The two combined would be the 4th largest port in the world.

About 5,000 ships from nearly 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. gateway, including Miami.

New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly.

There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them.

New Orleans is also one of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. Other major tourist events and attractions in the city include Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Southern Decadence (one of the largest annual Gay/Lesbian celebrations in the nation), and the Essence Festival.

Infrastructure

Government

New Orleans has a mayor-council government. The city council consists of five councilmembers who are elected by district and two at large councilmembers. Mayor C. Ray Nagin, Jr. was elected in May 2002.

The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system.

The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-county government.GR6 Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou and Carrollton. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans.

Schools

New Orleans Public Schools, the city's school district, is one of the area's largest school districts. NOPS contains approximately 100 individual schools. The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools.

Several institutions of higher education also exist within the city, including University of New Orleans, Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Medical School, and Our Lady of Holy Cross College. Other schools include Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College, Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, Commonwealth University, and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.

Libraries

There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University[7] and Earl K. Long Library at the University of New Orleans.[8]

The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina.[9] The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections.[10]

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection[11] and the Old U.S. Mint.[12]

Transportation

The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), located approximately nine miles west of the city in the city of Kenner. It serves millions of passengers on approximately 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe. The airport also serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express.

Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport, a small, general aviation airport, as well as the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area.

The city is also served by rail via Amtrak. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and it is served by three trains: the Crescent to New York City, the City of New Orleans to Chicago, Illinois, and the Sunset Limited from Orlando to Los Angeles.

In addition, the city is served by six Class I freight railroads. Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway approach the city from the west, Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX from the east, and the Canadian National Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway from the north.

Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). In addition to the many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by DC wires overhead. The St. Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark. The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art.

The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. There are proposals to revive a Desire light rail streetcar line.

Roads in the city are arranged in a radial grid pattern, emanating out to various parts of town from a central point north of the Central Business District. I-10 loops east-west through the city, and traverses the northern edge of the Central Business District, taking traffic west towards Baton Rouge, Louisiana and east-northeast to Slidell, Louisiana. The "Highrise" carries I-10 across the Industrial Canal.

Farther east, the I-10 connects New Orleans East with Slidell, bridging an arm of Lake Pontchartrain. This crossing, a dual causeway known as the "Twin Spans," was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. By October 2005 single lanes in each direction had been reopened on the eastbound span. The westbound span was reopened in early January 2006. The Twin Spans is to be replaced with a new six-lane bridge, expected to be completed in 2009.[13] As I-10 heads south from Metairie towards the Central Business District, it is called the Pontchartrain Expressway.

I-610 provides a direct shortcut across the northern central part of the city, allowing through traffic to bypass I-10's L-shaped route which traverses the more congested areas.

US 90 leaves the Central Business District and goes west through the city's Uptown neighborhood and crosses the Missisisppi River at the Huey P. Long Bridge near the suburb of Jefferson. I-10 is also connected to I-12, north of Lake Pontchartrain, via the tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, which are also the longest in the world.

The interstate highways serving New Orleans were laid out in the middle of the 20th century, a time when a larger proportion of Gulf of Mexico freight traffic passed through New Orleans. I-10 goes west to Houston and beyond and east to Mobile and Florida, with I-59 and I-55 heading northward to Birmingham and Jackson, respectively. Later, I-12 created a shortcut that avoided crossing Lake Pontchartrain. In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns southward toward New Orleans while I-12 continues straight to rejoin I-10 in Baton Rouge. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. The route would follow U.S. Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans, and US 51 terminates just west of the city, Laplace.

The Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal.

Roads along the Mississippi River were the first to carry overland traffic into New Orleans. US 51 (the "Old Hammond Highway"), US 90, and US 11 followed old Indian routes along slight ridges to become the first automotive highways. Louisiana governor Huey P. Long championed Airline Highway (US 61) to bypass the circuitous river road between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. The route of today's US 90 east of New Orleans once included a ferry crossing at Fort Pike. Governor Long built public draw bridges at the Rigolets as political retaliation against the operators of a then-private toll bridge across Lake Pontchartrain. Long achieved his objective: the US 11 toll bridge failed commercially and is owned by the State. US 11 was the escape route for Ignatius J. Reilly at the end of John Kennedy Toole's novel, A Confederacy of Dunces.

West of New Orleans, the Ruddock exit at milepost 6 of I-55 is the only trace left of a thriving community that was literally washed away by the hurricane of September 1915. Frenier Beach Hurricane Storm Surge Revisited In the 1960s, a controversial "Dixie Freeway" that would have been designated I-410 would have created an "outer loop" encompassing St. Bernard Parish, the westbank areas of New Orleans and Jefferson, and back across the river in St. Charles Parish where I-310 now runs. Environmental concern for the wetlands south of New Orleans and economic considerations derailed those plans.

Sister cities

New Orleans has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI): Juan-les-Pins (France), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Matsue (Japan), Mérida (Mexico), Innsbruck (Austria), Pointe Noire (Republic of Congo), San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Caracas (Venezuela), and Holdfast Bay (Australia).


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(SCI): Juan-les-Pins (France), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Matsue (Japan), Mérida (Mexico), Innsbruck (Austria), Pointe Noire (Republic of Congo), San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Caracas (Venezuela), and Holdfast Bay (Australia). Go away.". New Orleans has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. On the top beam located on the south side of the bridge is a sign that says "There are no Easter Eggs up here. Environmental concern for the wetlands south of New Orleans and economic considerations derailed those plans. One of the biggest easter eggs in the game is located on top of the Gant Bridge in San Fierro which is based on the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. Charles Parish where I-310 now runs. The player can also hear about the Epsilon Group in the WCTR radio show Entertaining America with Lazlow in which the host interviews Epsilon's founder, Chris Fromage, who refers Kifflom as well.

Bernard Parish, the westbank areas of New Orleans and Jefferson, and back across the river in St. Epsilon has scientifically ridiculous beliefs, such as "The World is 157 years old", and hidden information that one can only read if one pays money to the Epsilon Group (despite the fact that the "Epsilon Tract" has not even been written yet), popular celebrity endorsements (Jezz Torrent claiming the Group aided him in giving up drugs), an openly shameless leader. Frenier Beach Hurricane Storm Surge Revisited In the 1960s, a controversial "Dixie Freeway" that would have been designated I-410 would have created an "outer loop" encompassing St. It has yet to be proven that these comments are intended for any purpose other than adding flavor to pedestrian dialogue but even one of your girlfriends from San Fierro, Katie, a nurse obsessed with death who practices martial arts, refers to the group on one the many random comments when you take her out for a ride/walk by saying: "Those Epsilon nut-jobs freak me out". West of New Orleans, the Ruddock exit at milepost 6 of I-55 is the only trace left of a thriving community that was literally washed away by the hurricane of September 1915. Players have found pedestrians who talk about Kifflom (the Epsilon Program's "deity") in San Andreas, such as a barber and backpackers. Reilly at the end of John Kennedy Toole's novel, A Confederacy of Dunces. Epsilon appears to be closely modeled on the Church of Scientology.

US 11 was the escape route for Ignatius J. Following the Epsilon Program website and related "clues", players have been looking over San Andreas for the Epsilon cult and its meeting locations. Long achieved his objective: the US 11 toll bridge failed commercially and is owned by the State. The magazine called the creature a Yeti instead of Bigfoot. Governor Long built public draw bridges at the Rigolets as political retaliation against the operators of a then-private toll bridge across Lake Pontchartrain. In the next issue of EGM, a subscriber sent in a photograph of such a mythical creature appearing on his game in the countryside. The route of today's US 90 east of New Orleans once included a ferry crossing at Fort Pike. The CEO of Rockstar, Terry Donovan, denied the existence of Bigfoot: "There is no Bigfoot, just like in real life." Rockstar also denied the existence of CJ's mother's ghost, as well as miscellaneous rumors.

Long championed Airline Highway (US 61) to bypass the circuitous river road between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. The January 2005 issue of Electronic Gaming Monthly included a story on the San Andreas rumors. Louisiana governor Huey P. Also in the cemetary, is a crypt containing a television, recliner & pizza boxes - in Buffy the Vampire Slayer Spike had a similar set-up. US 51 (the "Old Hammond Highway"), US 90, and US 11 followed old Indian routes along slight ridges to become the first automotive highways. There are also other gang's graffiti around the cemerery. Roads along the Mississippi River were the first to carry overland traffic into New Orleans. The graffiti ("Grove Street 4 Life") disappears once the sun comes up, this is mainly for those with sharp memories though, as at the start of the game, Sweet mentions that a lot of Grove Street gang members are buried there.

Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal. For example, the cemetery in Los Santos mysteriously becomes covered in graffiti at night. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. Though no ghosts have been proven to exist in the game, there are "ghostly" occurrences. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. Another popular but unconfirmed myth is that CJ's mother and other ghosts may appear in photos taken in graveyards. The Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. It is the building with the giant DNA strand model in the centre (this is one of San Fierro's "Photo Ops").

The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans, and US 51 terminates just west of the city, Laplace. If you want to find the building, it is in downtown, just up the road from the construction lot. Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. This has started unconfirmed rumors of zombies late at night in San Fierro. The route would follow U.S. A corporate building called "ZomboTech" (Sinister Zombie Virus Research Corporation) in San Fierro is a joking reference to the Umbrella Corporation from the Resident Evil franchise. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. In what some call a hint at DMA's Lemmings, pedestrians will sometimes appear on a ledge and walk off to their deaths.

In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns southward toward New Orleans while I-12 continues straight to rejoin I-10 in Baton Rouge. For example, photographer NPCs may take pictures and then drown themselves. Later, I-12 created a shortcut that avoided crossing Lake Pontchartrain. Many in-game pedestrians die in what seem to be bizarre suicides, although these may be due to oversights in the scripting of the pedestrians' movement rather than intentional Easter eggs. I-10 goes west to Houston and beyond and east to Mobile and Florida, with I-59 and I-55 heading northward to Birmingham and Jackson, respectively. Much like Liberty City, many cutscene and unused interiors have unsolid areas also. The interstate highways serving New Orleans were laid out in the middle of the 20th century, a time when a larger proportion of Gulf of Mexico freight traffic passed through New Orleans. The interiors for the girlfriend's houses can be found there also.

I-10 is also connected to I-12, north of Lake Pontchartrain, via the tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, which are also the longest in the world. Only a small portion is solid though. Long Bridge near the suburb of Jefferson. Mark's Bistro," where CJ flies back to Liberty City to do a hit for Salvatore Leone. US 90 leaves the Central Business District and goes west through the city's Uptown neighborhood and crosses the Missisisppi River at the Huey P. The partial Liberty City model is used in the mission "St. I-610 provides a direct shortcut across the northern central part of the city, allowing through traffic to bypass I-10's L-shaped route which traverses the more congested areas. Many unused and cutscene only interiors can be found here, such an incomplete model of Liberty City from Grand Theft Auto III, and secret interior spaces.

The Twin Spans is to be replaced with a new six-lane bridge, expected to be completed in 2009.[13] As I-10 heads south from Metairie towards the Central Business District, it is called the Pontchartrain Expressway. Aside from Blue Hell, there is the interior hell. The westbound span was reopened in early January 2006. The name Hell part is derived from the fact that if you go in unprepared, you will most likely find yourself falling for some time before you reappear above the city. By October 2005 single lanes in each direction had been reopened on the eastbound span. Like all 3D GTA games, San Andreas contains an "underworld", an in-game limbo popularly dubbed "Oblivion", or "Blue Hell", though it is not always blue. This crossing, a dual causeway known as the "Twin Spans," was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. Currently, many Easter egg-seeking search parties have websites with further information.

Farther east, the I-10 connects New Orleans East with Slidell, bridging an arm of Lake Pontchartrain. These and other myths in the game have brought a new level of depth to the GTA games. The "Highrise" carries I-10 across the Industrial Canal. Most easter eggs appear in San Fierro, mostly dealing with the Golden Gate-inspired bridge and the video game and movie series Resident Evil (ZomboTech). I-10 loops east-west through the city, and traverses the northern edge of the Central Business District, taking traffic west towards Baton Rouge, Louisiana and east-northeast to Slidell, Louisiana. Billboards in Los Santos are made to look like the cover for the True Crime: Streets of LA game and refer to the game as trash ("Get rid of old rubbish, fast! True Grime: Street Cleaners"). Roads in the city are arranged in a radial grid pattern, emanating out to various parts of town from a central point north of the Central Business District. There are also the commonplace Rockstar Easter eggs, such as hits at competitor games, or the classic signs.

There are proposals to revive a Desire light rail streetcar line. Oddly enough, with the disproof of Bigfoot, many of these people took back their claims, saying that they may have been mistaken. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. This would support one of the early claims that fans made in the very beginning of the game, of animals in the woods and an appearance of a dinosaur. The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. Some fans soon found objects within the game's textures, such as deer and what they claim to be dinosaur skin. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art. Rockstar has not said anything about the orbs, and its intentions with them are still unclear.

The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. This leads to mass-less 'airplanes', with active running lights, flying in the sky. Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark. Many fans claim these to be Rockstar's implementation of UFOs, while others point out a much more terrestrial explanation: Rockstar used the same style to animate commercial air traffic in Vice City (bright lights, contrails, etc) but forgot to modify the names of the aircraft. The St. There are also flying orbs that frequent the San Andreas skies. In addition to the many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by DC wires overhead. Though this is often thought to be plausible by fans, no reports or claims have been made.

Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). The letters also detailed the idea of UFO landings in the game's desert. Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway approach the city from the west, Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX from the east, and the Canadian National Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway from the north. The most popular picture of a masked man holding a chainsaw in one hand turned out to be nothing more than a picture of the main character wearing a gimp suit and an ice hockey mask. In addition, the city is served by six Class I freight railroads. Many of these claims were unsupported by video or picture evidence, and soon lost credibility with the community. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and it is served by three trains: the Crescent to New York City, the City of New Orleans to Chicago, Illinois, and the Sunset Limited from Orlando to Los Angeles. Many rumours of a "piggsy" (from Rockstar's Manhunt) or Leatherface-type character (from The Texas Chainsaw Massacre) soon sprung up.

The city is also served by rail via Amtrak. However, the letter mentioned that there was something in the woods. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area. Having been the shining light of the many search teams, many fans were dismayed. Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport, a small, general aviation airport, as well as the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. The most important claim of the letter was that Bigfoot was false, and is not present in the game. The airport also serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express. This pattern continued, and some speculate that it is just a plot of Rockstar to create more publicity among the fan community.

The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe. Shortly after these claims were made the address owner soon issued a new return letter that validated new claims, but denied some of the ones in previous letters. It serves millions of passengers on approximately 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The first automated return letters had a minor typo in it which led many fans to believe it was not an official Rockstar employee. The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), located approximately nine miles west of the city in the city of Kenner. After the initial letter, it is assumed that the address received many letters from fans, as it soon switched to an automated response system. Mint.[12]. Many questioned the authenticity of the letter, but upon further inspection, it did indeed seem to be from Rockstar Games.

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection[11] and the Old U.S. Weeks after the myths had begun, and search teams formed, an e-mail message (message currently suspended) was received from "Mouthoff@rockstargames.com" and posted on several fan forums. The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina.[9] The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections.[10]. This was programmed intentionally by Rockstar to add a feel of realism. Long Library at the University of New Orleans.[8]. Crashes also take place in other areas, including the lowland. There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University[7] and Earl K. Chilliad.

Other schools include Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College, Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, Commonwealth University, and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary. Those that occur most often are crashes into Mt. Several institutions of higher education also exist within the city, including University of New Orleans, Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Medical School, and Our Lady of Holy Cross College. Several WWII planes crash occasionally throughout San Andreas, and disappear seconds after doing so. The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools. They are also some in the trailer park opposite the Lil' Probe Inn, and one at the Angel Pine Junkyard in Whetstone. NOPS contains approximately 100 individual schools. There are several "Ghostly" Glendales scattered across the badlands, one is not too far from the actual ghost car, but parked in one location and reppears if taken away or destroyed.

New Orleans Public Schools, the city's school district, is one of the area's largest school districts. Also they cannot be taken to a mod garage. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans. They do not take damage like other cars, they stay intact until they are blown up, even then the front and back windscreens aren't destroyed. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. If you destroy it or take it somewhere else, another one will reappear and repeat the proccess. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou and Carrollton. You can get inside one and drive it, it is always set back to the radio station Playback FM.

The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-county government.GR6 Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. They are on a nearby hill and roll down it without any visible driver, then spawn to the side of the horseshoe hill and it stays there. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system. It is near the horseshoe shaped hills seen on the map. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. Only one exists in the remote forest region of Back O Beyond in Flint County, it is a beat up Glendale. The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. They are cars without visible drivers moving with damage that isn't repairable.

was elected in May 2002. The ghost cars were infamous, but brought hope to the fanbase. Ray Nagin, Jr. One spot on the map also is pointed in the forest areas of San Fierro, some fans thought the infamous Bigfoot was hiding here. Mayor C. Since Las Venturas is based on Las Vegas, and there are missions where you work for the Mafia, it is not strange that Rockstar included this. The city council consists of five councilmembers who are elected by district and two at large councilmembers. This easter egg is a simple reference to Casino, in which both Sam Rothstein (Robert DeNiro) and Nicky Santoro (Joe Pesci) mention the fact that the mobsters get rid of their "problems" by burying them in the desert.

New Orleans has a mayor-council government. A typical thing to do for Rockstar Games, since they like referring to the movies that inspired the games. Other major tourist events and attractions in the city include Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Southern Decadence (one of the largest annual Gay/Lesbian celebrations in the nation), and the Essence Festival. In The Introduction film (which can be seen when you purchase the soundtrack), there are two Mafia members who have just dumped the bodies in the hole, and even mention that they got rid of those "problems". The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. It has nothing to do with aliens or conspiracies. New Orleans is also one of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. However, even this is something that can be easily explained.

These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them. There is a hole between some rocks that has 6 bodybags inside it with a Bobcat parked near it. There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. Even though there seem to be no UFOs near the Area 69 besides the fake one in the "Lil Probe Inn", you can find an easter egg to the northwest near the El Castillo del Diablo. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly. Encountered onboard of a cargo plane, these black-suited characters (clearly based on a popular urban legend/UFO conspiracy "theory") proceed to attack the player and shout out numerous utterances signifying their contempt for the inferior human race ("Carbon-based buffoon", "You evolved from shrews!" and more). The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. The single obvious and confirmable presence of living extraterrestrials in the game comes during the mission "Stowaway", in the form of a group of "Men in Black".

New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. The number 69 is also found on all airport runways in the game (despite the fact that it is not a valid runway number), on various price tags, and is part of the name of the San Fierro 69ers, a football team in San Fierro, San Andreas, clearly based on the San Francisco 49ers. gateway, including Miami. Area 69 is a reference to the 69 sex position. The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. Fans initially thought the map was a key to the UFO appearances; however, Rockstar claims the map means nothing. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. A large map of San Andreas, found in Mike Toreno's home and in a diner called the "Lil Probe Inn" (a cameo to "The Little A'le'Inn" located in the tiny town Rachel, Nevada which is the nearest settlement to the real world Area 51 made famous for displaying a time capsule received from the production crew of Independence Day), has markers scattered randomly across the state.

The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. This led to more speculation in the fan community about UFOs and aliens. About 5,000 ships from nearly 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. There is a "restricted area" in the desert at the Area 69 military base, which is a parody of the real world Area 51. The two combined would be the 4th largest port in the world. Shortly after the release of the game, several message boards sprouted claims of alleged Bigfoot sightings, and several alleged photographs were released, all of which have been proven to be faked. The Port of South Louisiana, located in the Metropolitan New Orleans Area, handles 199 million short tons. San Andreas is distinct from the first two PlayStation 2 GTA games in its easter eggs and player-propagated myths.

The Port of New Orleans handles about 84 million short tons of cargo a year. It is also combined with another upcoming controversial game, 25 to Life, a cops and robbers simulator. Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include BellSouth, Hibernia Corp., IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, and Zatarain's. Also, the fake game is actually pre-rendered with models from Poser. The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses the National Finance Center operated by the USDA. The fictional game title was Murder One: San Fransisco and the box art looks similar to San Andreas and Vice City but with badly drawn art. The facility is operated by Lockheed-Martin and is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced. Other parts of it shows us that teenagers are playing it and the worst thing is unlocking sexually explicit scenes and mini-games (aka Hot Coffee Scandal) caused the detectives to find the creator of the game, get information and stop the murderer who's been playing the game for hours (a la Devin Moore).

The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. In November 11, 2005, FOX program Killer Instinct's latest episode focuses on a hit online video-game with explicit violence that can cause players to murder people. The federal government has a significant presence in the area. Consumers who had already purchased the game were allowed to keep it in certain areas, but with the patch installed, although many serious players refused to use it as it did little but block out an unused part of the game's code. The city is also home to one Fortune 500 company, Entergy Corporation, an electric power provider. On August 24, 2005, Rockstar announced a mandatory recall for all games still owned by the general public. There are a substantial number of energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil Company. However, the "Hot Coffee" mod dashed financial expectations for TakeTwo Games, which lost $28.8 million in its fiscal 3rd quarter of 2005 (May to July) partly because of the rerating; the company lost $14.4 million in the same quarter in 2004.

Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. The game has since been re-released with the "Hot Coffee" scenes removed (Grand Theft Auto:San Andreas 1.01), allowing the game to return to its "M" rating. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid 20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic. However, the most major addition was that the patch disabled the controversial "Hot Coffee" scenes, even if the "Hot Coffee" mod was reinstalled. The U.S. Nicknamed the "Cold Coffee Patch" by some, the patch fixed many performance issues and bugs. It is one of the busiest seaports in not only the United States, but also the world. On August 10, 2005, Rockstar Games officially released a patch for San Andreas.

seaport. The effect on San Andreas sales is as of yet unknown, but Take Two Interactive has revised its projected financial statement for the quarter to reflect a further anticipated loss. New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. As of July 23, 2005, however, the PEGI rating for the game has remained unchanged, although it is likely that the PEGI sexual content label will be added to the game cover. The building was severely damaged, first by storm surge and then by fire, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The patched version was given an "MA15+" classification on September 12, 2005. Established in 1849, it is the second oldest yacht club in the United States. On July 29, 2005, as a result of the newly-discovered scenes, the OFLC revoked the game's "MA15+" classification (the highest currently available for computer games in Australia), and changed the game's status to "RC" (Refused Classification) meaning that the original version could no longer be sold in Australia.

New Orleans is also home to Southern Yacht Club, located at West End on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain. Due to the new AO rating, many major retail outlets, including Sears, Hollywood Video, Best Buy, Wal-Mart, Blockbuster, Target and GameStop, have pulled the PC and console versions of the game from their shelves. Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz. Rockstar has halted production of all versions of San Andreas and plans to release a censored version of the game, which is intended to conform to the initial "M" rating, later this year. Historically, many teams have been formerly located in the city, including the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Breakers of the United States Football League, the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). On July 20, 2005, San Andreas was rerated as "AO" (Adults Only) by the ESRB. Nine Super Bowls have been contested in New Orleans. Confusing the issue is a recent version of the Hot Coffee mod which replaces the semi-nude girlfriends' textures with unclothed bitmaps that cannot be seen without the mod.

The city also hosts two college football bowl games annually: the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. However, this claim was undermined when codes were released on web forums for the PlayStation 2 Gameshark and AR Max cheating devices that demonstrated that the controversial content was, indeed, built into the console versions. They are currently affiliated with the Washington Nationals. Initially, Rockstar released a statement that strongly suggested that the Hot Coffee content was entirely created by "hackers". The New Orleans Zephyrs, AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie. In the middle of July 2005, the ESRB, as well as various politicians including Senator Hillary Clinton (D-NY), launched an investigation into the Hot Coffee mod. The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner, Tom Benson. In the unmodified game, the player takes his girlfriend to her front door and she asks him if he would like to come in for "some coffee." He agrees, and the camera stays outside, swaying back and forth a bit, while moaning sounds are heard.

The Hornets will play 36 "home" games at the Ford Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the remaining 5 to be split between Norman (University of Oklahoma campus), Baton Rouge (LSU campus) and a March 2006 return to New Orleans for three home games. The name "Hot Coffee" refers to the way the released game alludes to the unseen sex scenes. The football season began just a week after the storm hit, and the Saints played their first "home" game against the Giants at Giants Stadium. After installing the patch/mod, users can enter the main character's girlfriends' houses and engage in a crudely rendered, partially clothed sexual intercourse mini-game. Due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, including damage both to the exterior and the interior of the Louisiana Superdome, the New Orleans Saints have played their "home" games in Baton Rouge and San Antonio, Texas. In mid-June 2005, a file modifying the game dubbed "Hot Coffee" was released. The Saints play in the Louisiana Superdome, and the Hornets play in the adjacent New Orleans Arena. Similarly, around the time of release of the game in the UK, a leaked PAL version of the game was published.

The city is the home to several professional, major league sports teams, including the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League and the New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association which relocated from Charlotte, North Carolina, at the start of the 2002–2003 season. Six days before its release, a leaked edition of the game, along with its manual and its cover, were published illegally, DVD images of which are still available via a number of P2P networks. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music," but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music. Despite this, CJ is arguably the most successful African-American protagonist in video and computer game history. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. The city of Los Santos also goes up in smoke close to the end of the game much like Los Angeles did during the race riots of 1992, though in this game the main police antagonist is also black, and acquitted on drugs charges instead of racial motivation. The city also created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. However, proponents say it was a smart choice to make CJ a black protagonist, since all of the other main characters in the series so far had been white.

In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues. Some argued that it racially stereotyped black people as criminals, while some just simply discriminated CJ for not being a white character. Its general atmosphere of Dionysian art has also resulted in both breeding and being a home to chaotic artists such as Crash Worship, Liquiddrone, and Jamal Morelli. As well, when Rockstar announced that CJ would be a black character, there was some disagreement amongst forums. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. CJ, however, is a much more fleshed-out character in general than Tommy Vercetti or the various mutes of the other GTA games. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. In essence, when one is playing the game (and not doing missions), anything one does cannot be credited to CJ, but to the player.

New Orleans has always been a significant center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. Certainly, killing innocent people on the street isn't necessary. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists. However, Johnson is portrayed as a nice guy who's caught up with the wrong crowd; who only does what's necessary. Commonly referred to simply as, "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. Tommy Vercetti (the character) was portrayed as a brutal killer and made man in the Mafia, being released from prison shortly before the game's events. The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. In Vice City, the main character had dialogue and an established personality.

The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carré, translated Old Square), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux. As such, a person could kill random people in the game without compromising their own morals, stating that such actions would be done by the character anyway. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. In previous GTA games (except Vice City), the playable character was mute with little to no character development, with the development present portraying him as a petty thug and bank robber. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), held just before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent. Another criticized aspect of the game is Carl Johnson (the playable character) himself. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. Compared to what was possible at that time, the game looked slightly dated, but nevertheless better than the console versions.

Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations, including Mardi Gras, New Year's Eve celebrations, and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. When the game came out for PC in early June 2005, titles such as Half-Life 2 were already available. See also: New Orleans Mardi Gras. The engine used for the game is essentially the same as the engine used for Grand Theft Auto III. Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden. Although some gaming websites like GameSpot have praised the graphics in San Andreas, there is some criticism of the graphical aspect of the PC version of the game. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours."). However, others feel the freeform camera is a very powerful tool once the player is used to using it, and some find it difficult to go back to the fixed camera of Vice City and GTA3 afterwards.

Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. However, you can still fully complete the game. The city is also world-famous for its food. There is an in-game cheat that allows players to drive-by through using the mouse camera, but doing so will harm your record in the in-game statistics. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery. As such, a number of players have complained that this new 'feature' makes much of the controls more complex than is required. New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. In San Andreas, however, the camera is freeform.

The Audubon Park and the Audubon Zoo are also located in the city of New Orleans. Previous editions of GTA games had the camera 'slaved' to the player. Art museums in the city include the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. A new criticism of San Andreas lies in its camera. The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily. This mission is made more frustrating as you are being attacked at the time. The National D-Day Museum is a relatively new museum (opened on June 6, 2000) dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France. The most noticeable missions in which this is apparent are the mission where you have to rescue a girl from a burning building, and the final story mission of the game which takes place in a torched factory.

Also located near the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, now operates as a museum. As a result, the frame rate can drop dramatically when you are in a situation where fire is present. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and Preservation Hall. Another performance issue with San Andreas is that the game engine is not efficient at producing smoke effects. Other notable tourist attractions in the quarter include Jackson Square, St. Unless the resolution is set to minimum, the visual cues for when to move will be out of synch, so rendering success or failure a matter of luck. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street. A similar problem also exists in missions that require dancing or lowrider car bouncing.

Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. Even if the plane "jumps" up the runway. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), and many stately 19th century mansions. The mission can be completed without that: If you start your bike and thrust CJ back, so the bike can accelerate on the back wheel - you should have no problems getting on the plane. Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife, St. One mission, "Stowaway", is impossible on some PCs unless video quality is dropped to the lowest setting (640x480, 16-bit color), as the plane will otherwise always leave the runway well before you reach it. Several episodes of television series have referenced the city:. For the ships, one can switch to VTOL mode so as to hover while destroying them.

Radio stations serving Greater New Orleans include:. The aiming of your weapons is also automatic provided you press a certain key, which locks on to the target. WHNO 20 also operates as an independent station in the area, providing mainly religious programming. In addition, launching countermeasures is usually an unneeded feature, as missiles are easy to shake off. PBS stations include WYES 12 and WLAE 32. It is fairly simple to take on each of these targets individually - the difficulty occurs when one attempts to engage them all at once and in the wrong order. Major television network affiliates serving the area include WWL 4 (CBS), WGNO 26 (ABC), WDSU 6 (NBC), WVUE 8 (FOX), WNOL 38 (WB), WUPL 54 (UPN), and WPXL 49 (PAX). However, the difficulty of this mission is often overstated.

The market is the 43rd largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 672,150 homes and 0.610% of the U.S. While some have completed this mission by remapping the entire control scheme, some players have found that the effects of "key jam" - the inability of a keyboard to understand more than 3 simultaneous keys - preclude this as a viable option. Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. Some are finding that, without another person to control one or more aspects of the plane, the mission is essentially impossible. Other alternative weekly publications include the Louisiana Weekly and the Gambit Weekly. The player must fly an extremely fast plane, aim and fire missiles at 4 ships and 3 armed aircraft, launch countermeasures, and then land the plane safely. The major daily newspaper is the New Orleans Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. Another example is in the "Vertical Bird" mission, near the end of the game.

Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," "makin' groceries" for grocery shopping, or "neutral ground" for a street median. Some will require the joypad however and in any case, being able to control the camera effectively, as with a joypad, is likely to make the mission easier for many players. This word is not used as a generalized term for the New Orleans accent, and is generally reserved for the strongest varieties. However, most people should be able to effectively fly a plane with the default controls after some practice, as they will rarely need to control the camera in mid-flight. One subtype of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat (from "Where y'at). Because the mission was designed for a console game, some PC users believe that three hands are typically required to complete the mission under a mouse/keyboard setup: one to control the camera, one to control the plane, and one to control commands such as landing gears, weapons, and precise flying controls. As with many sociolinguistic artifacts, it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population. In one of the most infamous missions in the series, the player must circle an airfield.

This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city (but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes). The most salient example of this issue is in the mandatory flying-oriented missions. The prestige associated with being from New Orleans by many residents is likely a factor in the linguistic assimilation of the ethnically divergent population. The resulting gameplay is virtually identical to the PS2 version. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups. This way, the console-based controls can easily be mapped to joypad buttons. There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century. The best way to solve this problem is to use a PlayStation 2-style USB joypad.

It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with it. Many users have discovered that a mission requires the user to press three or more keys at the same time, something the typical keyboard is simply unable to do. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". Much like earlier Grand Theft Auto games, some PC users have strongly criticized Rockstar for not substantially reworking the console-based controls for the mouse/keyboard computer gaming. The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. The movie chronicles the events leading up the events in San Andreas, and provided insight on the development of the characters of the game, to the point when Carl learns of his mother's death in a phone call from Sweet and returns to Los Santos. New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals as "Noo Or-lins," "Noo Awlee-enz," or "Noo Aw-lins." The pronunciation "N'Awlins" is not generally used by locals but has been popularized by the tourist trade. The Introduction, a machinima video, was provided in a DVD along with San Andreas standalone soundtrack set.

New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo practice by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and spirit of celebration. NOTE: Due to a model error, the GLOCK looks like a M1911A1 except during the cinematic for the first Ryder mission . Logan in January of 2005 suggests that as many as 50% of whites and 80% of blacks relocated from New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath may relocate permanently. * denotes weapon can be dual-wielded. An analysis by Brown University sociologist John R. Just like in Vice City, weapons are categorized by type, and the player can carry only one weapon in each "slot" at a time. Tammany registered strong increases in population. The weapon selection in San Andreas is approximately the same as in Vice City, with a few additions or replacements.

The population was stunted in the late sixties, a decade which saw storm surge from Hurricane Betsy flooded much of the Lower 9th Ward Since the late sixties, the population of New Orleans/Orleans Parish has experienced a steady decline while surrounding parishes such as Jefferson and St. Both the players are required to remain on the same screen and within a reasonable proximity of one another. The population of New Orleans reached its highest point in the summer of 1965, when its population reached 702,108. Two human players will be able to go in a car or on foot. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Setting foot on one of these icons and pressing any button on a second controller starts up a series of special objectives similar to a "Rampage" in previous Grand Theft Auto games. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families were below the poverty line. Two-player icons are found in several key locations in the San Andreas world.

The per capita income for the city was $17,258. A two-player cooperative mode has also been added for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox. Males had a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. Rockstar claims that CJ has a total of about 4200 lines of spoken dialogue. The median income for a household in the city was $27,133, and the median income for a family was $32,338. CJ's level of respect among his fellow Grove Street gang members varies according to his actions, as do his relationships with his girlfriends. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. The player can also voluntarily enable CJ to conduct dialogue with a number of pedestrians in the game, including drug dealers, prospective girlfriends, and fellow gang members.

For every 100 females there were 88.2 males. This would make the previously mentioned home invasions more difficult than one would expect because the occupants will resist, and in some cases, draw weapons. The median age was 33 years. No longer can the player beat a pedestrian to death on a busy street in broad daylight and have bystanders not do anything: while most pedestrians will flee or duck for cover, some armed civilians and enemy gang members will attack CJ, and friendly gang members will shoot at and pursue his opponents. In the city the population was spread out with:. Another improvement to the game is the AI. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.23. Numerous minigames are also available for play in San Andreas, including basketball, pool, rhythm-based challenges involving dancing and hydraulic vehicles, and video game machines that pay homage to classic arcade games such as Gyruss, Defender and Gradius, in addition to the aforementioned methods of gambling.

There were 188,251 households out of which:. Under cover of night, CJ is able to sneak into a residence, and cart off valuables or shake down the occupants. But due to the enormous annual tourist flow, the amount of people inside the city at a given time, such as Mardi Gras season, tends to exceed these numbers sometimes by the hundreds of thousands. A new activity that continues the Grand Theft Auto series' tradition of controversy is home invasion [5]. These population statistics are based on legal residents of the city. CJ may also learn three different styles of unarmed combat at the gyms in each of the game's three cities. The population of Greater New Orleans stood at 1,337,726 in 2000, making it the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States. San Andreas also features skills, in areas such as driving, firearms handling, stamina, and lung capacity, which improve through use in the game.

The racial makeup of the city was:. If CJ eats too much in a short period, he will get sick and throw up; if he overeats periodically, he'll get fat and move more slowly while on foot; if he fails to eat, he will become less muscular and, eventually, will lose health. There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). The balance of food and exercise has an effect on his muscularity and appearance. The population density was 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). Players must also ensure CJ eats to stay healthy, obtaining food from fast food restaurants such as Cluckin' Bell, street vendors, diners, bars and nightclubs. As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. Clothing and accessories (which players can buy at some of the game's many clothing stores), haircuts and tattoos are now available for purchase by CJ, and have more effect on NPCs' reactions than the clothing in Vice City.

The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1 or 2 inches of snow. Rockstar has emphasized the personalization of the main character. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954, and brought 4.5 inches (110 mm). The camera, fighting, and targeting controls were reworked with concepts from another Rockstar game, Manhunt, including improved target crosshairs that change colors from green to red to black, depending on the target's health. On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. For greater firepower, players can also wield dual firearms or perform a drive-by shooting with several gang members. Most recently, a trace of snow fell on Christmas in 2004, during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. New to the player's character is the ability to swim and climb up and over short walls and fences.

On rare occasions, snow will fall. New vehicles include bicycles (which feature a new control scheme), trucks with detachable trailers, police motorcycles, operable tow trucks, combine harvesters, quad bikes, airplanes, VTOLs military jet fighters and trains. The average precipitation is 59.74 inches (1520 mm) annually. Many new features have been included in the game. The highest recorded temperature was 102.0°F (38.9°C) on August 22, 1980. Since characters from Vice City appear and the events of the game are hinted at having really happened, this might indicate that Tommy Vercetti's adventures in Vice City gained considerable notoriety in the following years. The lowest recorded temperature was 11.0°F (-11.6°C) on December 23, 1989. Interestingly, some real-world promotional material Rockstar created for Vice City can also be found in this game.

In July, lows average 74°F (23°C), and highs average 91°F (33°C). Many characters, locations and fictional elements of Vice City were kept, sometimes with minor modifications to account for changes that would have occurred in the 6 years that separate both games' fictional worlds. In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6°C), and daily highs around 62°F (17°C). One mission requires the player to visit a low-rider mod-shop and then to use the car in a hydraulics competition. The climate of New Orleans is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. Vehicles can be divided into four categories: Cars that can be modified but are not low-rider or "street racer" cars can only be modified at a TransFender, low-rider cars can only be modified at Loco Low Co., street racing types are modified at Wheel Arch Angels, and unmodifiable cars (most emergency vehicles and some off-road vehicles) cannot be modified at all. Bernard Parish to the south, Plaquemines Parish to the southwest, and Jefferson Parish to the west. Common modifications include nitrous tanks, hydraulics, and paintjobs.

Tammany Parish to the northeast, St. Many, but not all, vehicles can be modified in GTA:SA. Parishes located adjacent to the city of New Orleans include St. Most car mods are strictly visual because they only add aesthetic appeal, as opposed to those which improve the performance. John, Mid City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, The upper 9th Ward and Algiers. TransFender ranges in a wide variety of mods for a vehicle from nitro to hydraulics. Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. TransFender is a fictitious car modification shop in San Andreas.

Its tallest building is the 50-story One Shell Square. Many real Las Vegas Strip casinos are faithfully interpreted on Las Ventura's Strip, including the Excalibur Hotel and Casino ("Come-a-Lot"), the Sphinx and pyramid of the Luxor Hotel ("The Camel's Toe"), and the Pioneer Club ([4]), with Vegas Vic and Vicki replaced by Grand Theft Auto: Vice City characters Avery Carrington and Candy Suxxx, respectively. Parts of the city that are located uptown include the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. In addition to gambling, strip clubs are also prevalent in Las Venturas. Parts of the city that are located downtown include the world famous French Quarter (most noted as the central tourist district, with its array of shops, bars, and nightclubs along Bourbon Street), Storyville (now defunct), Treme, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater, the 7th Ward, and the Lower 9th Ward. Off-track betting parlors are also available in the game's other regions. "Uptown" refers to those parts of town that are upriver from the central business district. One is able to play various casino games such as poker, roulette, and slot machines.

The term "downtown" refers to those parts of town that are downriver from the central business district. In Las Venturas (one of the biggest cities in San Andreas), the player is able to visit and even take over casinos. Major streets of the area include Canal Street and Poydras St. There is a district known as "Garcia", an ode to Grateful Dead frontman and San Francisco native Jerry Garcia, and San Fierro's City Hall closely resembles San Francisco's ornate city hall. The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and is historically called the "American Quarter." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. Several other familiar landmarks have been recreated from the Embarcadero clock tower and the "Big Pointy" Transamerica Pyramid to Lombard Street, and Scottish landmarks such as the Forth Bridge and the Forth Road Bridge. Tammany. San Fierro features Rockstar's interpretations of the Haight-Ashbury district ("Hashbury"), the gay Castro district ("Queens"), Chinatown, and the Golden Gate Bridge, as well as the city's prominent cable cars and hilly terrain.

John the Baptist, and St. The city of Los Santos has several important areas, including the gang-ridden Ganton, Idlewood and East Los Santos – based on the N.W.A-era Compton, Inglewood; and East Los Angeles, busy downtown, wealthy Rodeo and Mulholland, and glitzy Vinewood (complete with giant VINEWOOD sign in the hills). Charles, St. Los Santos features landmarks reminiscent of the Watts Towers, the Los Angeles Convention Center, the Capitol Tower, and Grauman's Chinese Theater. Bernard, St. San Andreas is almost four times as large as Vice City, and five times as large as Liberty City. The New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 37th largest in the United States, includes the Louisiana parishes of Orleans (contiguous with the city of New Orleans), Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. Players can climb Mount Chiliad (based on Mount Diablo) , a half mile (800 m) tall mountain casting a vast shadow, parachute from various peaks and skyscrapers, and visit 12 rural towns and villages located in three counties: Red County, Flint County, and Bone County, a massive dam, a large secret military base, a microwave dish, and many other geographical features.

Because of the city's high water table most of the cemeteries in the city use above ground crypts as opposed to underground burial. Where Las Venturas and the surrounding desert correspond to Las Vegas and the Nevada desert; and Los Santos, San Fierro and the badlands correspond Los Angeles, San Francisco and the Californian badlands. Before the 20th century pumping system, if it rains more than 1 inch, or more recently if there is a major storm surge, such as that caused by a hurricane, greater flooding can occur. The state San Andreas is generally based on California and Nevada comprising three major cities. Rainwater is continually pumped out of the city and into Lake Pontchartrain across a series of canals lined by levees and dikes. CJ returns to find disarray in his family and in his old gang, the Grove Street Families (named for their home territory, Grove Street), which prompts him to stay. Some 45% of the city is above sea level; these higher areas were developed before 1900; the lowest areas only being developed more recently. The murder of his mother causes him to return for her funeral.

Much of the city is actually located between 1 and 10 feet (0.3 to 3 m) below sea level, and as such, is very prone to flooding. Carl left Los Santos after being blamed for the death of his younger brother, Brian, by his older brother, Sean (nicknamed "Sweet"). The city of New Orleans actually contains the lowest point in the state of Louisiana, and one of the lowest points in the United States, after Death Valley and the Salton Sea. Set in the early 1990s, the player controls main character Carl "CJ" Johnson, an African American man in his mid to late twenties returning to Los Santos after five years residing in Liberty City. The Mississippi Delta, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, covers about 13,000 square miles (about 1/4 of Louisiana) and consists of silt deposited by the river, and is the most fertile area of Louisiana. Many of the missions which take place in the game are fairly obvious imitations of California-based phenomena from the early 90s, such as the movie Terminator 2: Judgment Day and the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Fields atop the ridges along the river are referred to as the "frontlands." The land contour slopes away from the frontlands to the "backlands", comprised of clay and silt. This game has a soundtrack of period artists, as Vice City did, as well as "classic" rap and rock stations and a country station.

The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. The game is set in 1992. The city is located in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, between the Mississippi River in the south and Lake Pontchartrain in the north. In interviews, Rockstar's designers have reported that the map is between four and six times the size of the area in Vice City. The total area is 48.45% water. Intercity travel is facilitated not only by a huge freeway system but also by airports and a system of passenger trains, the Brown Streak Railroad, both of which have vehicles that can be operated by the player. 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water. Information about the game began circulating in magazines and on websites on May 11, 2004, including that the game world of San Andreas would be not just one city, but an entire state, encompassing three metropolises (Los Santos, San Fierro, and Las Venturas, based on Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Las Vegas, respectively), and the countryside in between.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). The PlayStation 2 and Xbox versions have also been re-released in a GTA Trilogy Pack for Xbox, and a Special Edition for PlayStation 2. New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N, 90°4′14″W (29.964722, -90.070556)GR1 on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. Rockstar North released a Cold Coffee patch for the PC version and re-released San Andreas with a Mature rating. By October 1, parts of the city accounting for about one-third of the population of New Orleans had been reopened, including the French Quarter.[4] As of October 1, only 5% of the city remained underwater. Many retailers pulled the game off their shelves in compliance with their own store regulations that kept them from selling AO games. New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded when a storm surge from Rita overcame one of the repaired levees on the Industrial Canal [3]. Rockstar has given distributors the option of applying an Adults Only ESRB rating sticker to copies of the game, or returning them to be replaced by versions without the Hot Coffee content.

[2]. This was the result of the release of a modification allowing access to the hidden "Hot Coffee" portion of the game. Concern about the fragility of the city's flood defences and transportation caused repopulation efforts to be postponed due to Hurricane Rita. On July 20, 2005 production of the game was suspended and the game received a revised ESRB Rating of Adults Only, making San Andreas the only mass-released AO console game in the U.S. The mayor announced a "phased repopulation" plan to start bringing residents of the city back in the next two weeks. Also, it turns out there is a retired pastor named Carl Johnson in the real San Andreas (Carl Johnson, the protagonist of GTA: San Andreas, shares the same name). On September 15, several of the suburban towns started allowing residents to return. The Calaveras Enterprise newspaper reported on November 3, 2004 that the Merchants' Association in the real-life town of San Andreas, California has become alarmed about the popularity of the video game, but has conceded that there is little it can do.

The city government declared the city off-limits to residents while clean-up efforts began and warned that those remaining could be removed by force, for their health and safety. Both the PS2 and Xbox versions also have a 2-player option for certain missions; however, this feature was removed from the PC version. Subsequent investigations showed that the levee failures which flooded the majority of the city were the result of what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1]. Similar to past iterations of the GTA games, both versions have higher-resolution textures, the ability to have custom soundtracks from MP3s, and a 30 second instant replay feature. Early estimates of the cost of physical damage from the storm have exceeded 100 billion USD. In Europe, the release date was June 10th, 2005. As of November 2005, the Times Picayune article states that, in addition to 1,050 confirmed deaths, there are 5,000 missing residents of the city. The Xbox and PC ports of San Andreas released on June 7, 2005 in the U.S.

As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. In the same release, Take-Two announced a PC and Xbox version would be released on June 7, 2005. These canals were the 17th Street Canal, the Industrial Canal, and the London Avenue Canal. Nonetheless, the Australian version has been on sale on October 29 and proved to be the multilanguage European PAL (UK) version. The situation worsened when levees along three canals were breached. However, on September 9, 2004 Take-two announced in its third quarter financial results for 2004 that the release date of the PlayStation 2 version of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas would be pushed back to October 26, 2004 in North America and October 29, 2004 for Europe and November 15, 2004 in Australia to allow Rockstar to remove questionable content that would have the game banned there. Heavy rains and flooding immediately affected the eastern areas of the city. On March 1, 2004, Take-Two announced in a press conference that Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas would be released Tuesday, October 19, 2004 in the US, and three days later, October 22, in Europe [3] and October 29 for Australia.

The eye of the storm passed within 10 to 15 miles of New Orleans, bringing strong winds that downed trees, shattered windows, and hurled debris around the area. After the information was divulged on January 12, 2004, it seemed likely that most of the titles were either red herrings or possible future incarnations of the franchise. Many residents chose to stay or were stranded in the city by a lack of available transportation. On December 17, and December 21, 2003, Take-Two had registered 10 GTA-related trademarks (GTA5, GTA6, GTA: San Andreas, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, GTA: Sin City, Grand Theft Auto: Sin City, GTA: Bogota, Grand Theft Auto: Bogota, GTA: Tokyo, and Grand Theft Auto: Tokyo) [2]. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. By this time, pundits online had two theories about the plot of the game; it would either be based in the city of San Andreas, California (based on San Francisco) in the modern day, or in Sin City, Nevada (based on Las Vegas) in the 1970s, as both would be ideal regarding new innovative ways to commit crimes, and new storylines that could grow. The city suffered from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005 on the gulf coast near the city. The first hint at there even being a new installment was on October 30, 2003, when Take-Two Interactive announced that an untitled "GTA5" game was set for release in the "latter half of the fiscal fourth quarter 2004" [1].

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water. Most theories were shot down when Rockstar had given no announcement of a new game by summer of that year. A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition. Following the success of Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, many gamers eagerly anticipated a new Grand Theft Auto game on the PlayStation 2 in late 2003. Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the domestic and international tourist industry. . While long one of the USA's most-visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy. Following a press release issued near the end of 2004, it was released for the PC and Xbox on June 7, 2005 in North America and June 10, 2005 in Europe.

Because of Camille's tightly wound rings, the storm actually pulled water from the then impending fate they believed was imminent from Lake Ponchartrain and Lake Borgne, and veered toward her landfall point, approximately 50 miles away at Pass Christian, Mississippi, which is believed to have received a 28 foot storm surge. It was released for the PlayStation 2 on October 26, 2004 in North America and on October 29, 2004 in Europe and Australia. In 1969 the city was brushed by Hurricane Camille but was spared from the catastrophic flooding it had seen in Hurricane Betsy and later in Hurricane Katrina. It is the third 3D game in the Grand Theft Auto franchise; including previously released 2D titles bearing the Grand Theft Auto name, it is the seventh to be released. In 1965 the city was damaged by Hurricane Betsy, with catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is a video game that was developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. Much of the city flooded in September of 1947 due to the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane. Slot 12: Special Items - Thermal goggles, Night vision goggles, parachute.

Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish. Slot 11: Gifts - flowers, a cane, dildos, and vibrators which can be given to CJ's girlfriends. The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. Slot 10: Handheld Items - Fire extinguisher, Spray paint, Camera. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April 2004. Slot 9: Explosives and Incendiaries - Hand grenade, Tear gas grenade, Molotov Cocktail, Remote satchel charge. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses. Slot 8: Heavy Weapons - Rocket launcher, Flame thrower, Heat-seeking rocket launcher, Minigun.

In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. Slot 7: Rifles - Hunting rifle, Sniper rifle. New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season. Slot 6: Assault Rifles - AK-47, M4 Carbine. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since. Slot 5: Sub-Machine Guns - TEC-9*, Micro-SMG (IMI Micro-Uzi)*, SMG (H&K MP5). President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans. Slot 4: Shotguns - Pump-action shotgun, Sawn-off shotgun*, Combat shotgun (SPAS-12).

The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. Slot 3: Handguns - GLOCK 17*, Silenced GLOCK 17, Desert Eagle. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. Slot 2: Melee Weapons - Baseball bat, shovel, cue stick, Katana, Golf club, Nightstick, knife, chainsaw. In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. Slot 1: Hand - bare fist, brass knuckles. (2000-2004). Lazlow says I'll cry when I'm done killing during an interview on WCTR.

Jamal Morelli's struggle for the neighborhood was successful in protecting the lower ninth ward. The tag line of the movie "Exploder", a popular movie that was advertised on radio stations and billboards across Vice City, is still popular. The HCNA sent Jamal Morelli, activist and New Orleans artist, to respresent them in Washington, D.C. Vice City characters featured as playing cards in the poker machines of Las Venturas include Lance Vance (Jack of Spades), Candy Suxxx (Queen of Hearts), Ricardo Diaz (King of Hearts) and Sonny Forelli (King of Spades). The Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, (HCNA) respresenting a substantial group of the aforementioned lower ninth ward, created a lobby against the Army Corps of Engineers furthering work on the levees which might endanger the neighborhoods. There is also a billboard in Los Santos promoting her new movie "Vinewood Callgirls". This warning was augmented by vestigial fears from Hurricane Betsy, and the lasting stories of the Army Corps of Engineers blasting the flooding levees, drowning the poorer neighborhoods of the lower ninth Ward. Also, pictures of her are found on the walls of some of CJ's safehouses and she is also placed as a neon sign on the Old Venturas Strip located in Las Venturas.

There were many warnings in the late 20th century that a major hurricane or a Mississippi flood could create a lake in the central city as much as 9 m (30 ft) deep, which could take months to pump dry. A picture of her can be seen on the box of "Return of the Anaconda", and she is mentioned by name on the box of "That Can't Be Legal!: 80's Pornstar's Finest Yo!". The subsidence greatly increased the flood risk, should the levees be breached or precipitation be in excess of pumping capacity (as was the case in 2005 in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina). Two of her movies can be found in the Las Venturas sex store. However, pumping of groundwater from underneath the city has resulted in subsidence. Candy Suxxx, the porn-star, is still making movies. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area. The Tiki statues that symbolised the hidden packages found all over Vice City is now the sign of a store in Los Santos.

All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. Maps of Vice City can be found in the trash cans outside the Clucking Bell of Angel Pine. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. "Juank Air" and "Wang Cars" are also a straightforward pun on a common UK insult. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. Notably, certain vans in Vice City which are signed "R S and L Bows" are referring to the crude UK phrase "to know one's arse from one's elbow", or to have a basic level of common sense. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City. Similarly, British slang is used as the inspiration for further puns in the GTA series.

Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. Specifically, Viz comic's "Profanisaurus" section describes the full meaning of phrases such as The Camel's Toe, and words such as "Jizz" which are referred to in the game. Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. This reflects the humour of the popular UK adult comic Viz, which provides the basis for many of the puns and colloquialisms used to humorous effect in the game. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville. Similarly, Jezz Torrent is a corruption of Jizz Torrent. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial. Love Fist is a reference to a sexual practice.

It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. Jezz Torrent can be heard in a radio ad for the Epsilon Tract sect, crediting the group for aiding him in giving up drugs. It was the first captured city in the American South. On the radio station K-DST, the host Tommy wonders "Whatever happend to Love Fist?", and CJ hides the specs of the Caligula Casino behind a Love Fist poster. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union (by David Farragut -son of Spanish emigrants- later named the first US Navy Vice-Admiral) without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. They are still remembered though. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color. Love Fist, the fictional hard-rock band, seems to have split and disappeared from the public eye.

New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. It is now the V-Rock Hotel in Las Venturas. However, population growth was at times plagued by yellow fever epidemics, such as the great scourge of 1853 that killed nearly 10,000 people in New Orleans. However, it's not a radio station anymore. The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 the city's population was around 102,000, fourth-largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South after Baltimore. A franchise of the Vice City radio station V-Rock is still around, and still uses the old V-Rock triangular logo and the vulture mascot. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans). One of them calls in on the Area 53 show.

The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. It seems they rebelled and escaped human oppression, and now live hidden in a remote camp. In its early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. The Domestibots sold in radio ads in Vice City, still exist. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000. This is almost certainly a reference to the Polybius urban legend of the 1980's. But in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. On the show Area 53, Marvin Trill accuses the console of implanting subliminal messages in the brains of people in the 80s.

Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon re-acquired the territory from Spain by treaty. The game console Degenatron', mentioned in commercials and interviews on Vice City radio stations, is still remembered. In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. Also, an unused restaurant that shares its name has been found in the game's code. Louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere. Some pedestrians mention Rusty Brown in their chatter. The three most impressive buildings of New Orleans come from the Spanish times: St. The doughnut shop Rusty Brown's Ring Donuts, mentioned in a radio ad on Flash FM, still exists.

As a result of this, and a subsequent fire in 1795 (another 200 houses destroyed), much of 18th century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built under Spanish rule and demonstrates Spanish colonial characteristics, wood was replaced with bricks. Another billboard in the game suggests that Sprunk also refers to spunk, which can be a synonym for ejaculate. The Great Fire of 1788 destroyed many of the existing structures in the city (800 houses were destroyed), which were made of wood. Or it could be that it resembles spunk, meaning that it is also an energy drink. In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire and remained under Spanish control for 40 years. Sprunk cans resemble grenades, owing to the marketing tagline given for the beverage, which says it has an "explosive, bursting" flavor. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi. The popular fictional drink Sprunk, a parody of the carbonated lemon-lime drink Sprite found all around Vice City, is still being sold in San Andreas.

A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for more than a decade before the official founding of the city. Jack Howitzer who appeared only as a movie trailer in Grand Theft Auto: Vice City for the Rambo/Vietnam war movie parody Exploder as Tim, also appears in WCTR promoting his film Special Needs Cop, a parody of Kindergarten Cop. John (known to natives as Bayou Choupique). At one point in the WCTR show "Area 53", Wave 103 DJ Adam First calls in reporting a strange incident involving a Domestabot he saw while hang-gliding over the San Andreas desert. The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. Besides, the caller, with whom Lazlow talked to on Chatterbox 2001, calls in in the "Gardening with Maurice Show". New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. The show also references GTA III, where a caller to the "Chatterbox" radio station was told by Lazlow "this isn't Gardening With Maurice, that's on later!", to which the caller replied "No, they took him off the air!".

Main article: History of New Orleans. During the WCTR show "Gardening with Maurice", someone calls in and asks why so many radio personalities are named Maurice, a reference to Maurice Chavez, a significantly different radio personality hosting the "Pressing Issues" show on VCPR. . This is a parody of the late eighties sitcom My Two Dads, about two brothers raising one brother's teenage daughter. Residents of the city are referred to as New Orleanians. Timmy's show was cancelled and replaced by a new sitcom called My Five Uncles, about five gay men who adopt an orphan girl. The city's name is often abbreviated NOLA. Whether this is real or Timmy can't break character after so many years is unknown.

The city's unofficial motto, "Laissez les bons temps rouler" ("Let the good times roll") describes the party-like attitude of many residents. In the interview on WCTR, we learn that he still looks like a child, although he claims to be 52 years old now, and that he still has the nasty temper his character had on the show. The city's several nicknames describe various characteristics of the city, including the "Crescent City" (describing its shape around the Mississippi River), "The Big Easy" (a reference by musicians to the relative ease of finding work in the city) and "The City that Care Forgot" (associated with the easy going, carefree nature of many of the local residents). In his sitcom ad in Vice City, he played a bad-tempered child who claimed to be a 42 year old investment banker with a rare disease that made him look 12. The city was named in honor of Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded (much as New York was named in honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England). He's attending a child-actor conference at the Four-Dragons Casino in Las Venturas. New Orleans was founded by the French in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States. Timmy, one of the characters of the popular sitcom Just the Five of us back in the 80s, can be heard in a radio interview on WCTR News.

The two ports together would be the fourth largest port in the world. He also says "I wish I could take phone in calls", a hint at the fact that he will eventually become the DJ for the radio phone-in show "Chatterbox" in Grand Theft Auto III and Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories. ports for exporting grain. He no longer enjoys the rock music he played in the 80s. The Port of South Louisiana is based in the New Orleans metropolitan area and has been ranked the fifth largest port in the world in terms of raw tonnage, and among the largest U.S. In between this and V-Rock, it is hinted that Lazlow spent years living on the streets, slept with his best friend's wife, signed up for the army, and did something to his grandmother that is illegal in most states. port for several major commodities including rubber, cement and coffee. Lazlow, the host of V-Rock in Vice City, started hosting a show called Entertaining America on WCTR after the former host was shot.

The Port of New Orleans is the largest U.S. Fernando, the host of the Vice City radio station Emotion 98.3, hijacks the Lonely Hearts Show from its host (and former lover, though their relationship seems to have ended very badly) on WCTR. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf. Maria Latore, Salvatore Leone's mistress in GTA III also makes an appearance as a waitress in Caligula's, who Leone takes a shine to. New Orleans remains a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. He provides Carl with a few jobs, until Carl and his crew rob Caligula's vault, which enrages Leone. While most of the city has reopened to residents, and areas which suffered moderate damage have substantially resumed functioning, the parts of town most severely damaged - such as some neighborhoods of the lower 9th Ward - are open only during daylight hours for residents to salvage items from their formerly flooded homes. Salvatore Leone, the big boss of the Liberty City Mafia (until Claude kills him in GTA III) makes an appearance as the Mafia-head of the Caligula's Palace Casino.

As of mid-December 2005, efforts continue to aid survivors, clean up debris, and restore infrastructure. After she tries to kill Claude in GTA III, he kills her as she tries to escape in a helicopter. Estimates as of late 2005 cite fewer than 150,000 residing in the city, and projections of the city's eventual population following reconstruction are highly speculative. She's a profit-driven lady, who hooks up with Claude just to spite CJ. Since the devastation of the city in conjunction with Hurricane Katrina, the population has been significantly less, due to the majority of surviving residents either taking temporary shelter elsewhere or relocating indefinitely. She is generally hostile towards all men, except to CJ (although she really doesn't show it much). census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the population of Greater New Orleans at 1,337,726. Catalina is Cesar Vialpando's cousin and CJ's girlfriend (for a brief time).

The most recent U.S. When CJ sees how run-down the garage is, he calls Claude a "mute asshole" and a "fucking snake without a tongue". It is a world-famous tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most noteworthy annual events are Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Jazz Fest, Essence Festival (moved to Houston, TX for 2006), Voodoo Fest, Southern Decadence, and college football's Sugar Bowl (although the bowl game has been moved to Atlanta for the 2006 game). CJ beats him in a cross-country race and receives his San Fierro garage as his winnings. New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French, Spanish and African American influences) as well as its music and cuisine. Claude shows up as Catalina's new boyfriend, after she "dumps" CJ. New Orleans is named after the historical Duke of Orléans, Regent of France and is one of the oldest and most historic cities in the United States. They now hold small-time mechanic jobs in San Fierro.

It is in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. Jethro and Dwaine owned the boat yard in Vice City, until Tommy bought it from them. state of Louisiana. He now handles the Gurning Chimps. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. Kent Paul is still a music group manager, though no longer for Love Fist. New Orleans (local pronunciations: /nuːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /la nuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is a major U.S. When he got out, he was picked as a neutral party to manage a mob casino shared by three families.


Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States. He became a big shot after the events in Vice City, then lost it all because of his cocaine addiction and went into rehab. In a 2005 episode of Law and Order: Special Victims Unit, the detectives pursue a child molester who kidnapped three young sisters from New Orleans after their parents were killed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Ken Rosenberg still works for the mafia. In 2005, American Idol held auditions in New Orleans. Posters featuring the game's box cover art can be seen on some walls, most notably in Denise's room (the Hot Coffee mod is required to get there). In a 2004 episode of Las Vegas called "New Orleans", Danny, Ed and Sam head to New Orleans in search of a big gambler who owes the casino money. Action figures of Tommy Vercetti and Lance Vance can be found on the shelves of Zero's shop in San Fierro.

In a 2003 episode of The Drew Carey Show, Drew and his buddies set off on a road trip to New Orleans to find a girl he met after placing an ad on a beer bottle. In a 2001 episode of Seven Days, Parker goes to New Orleans to prove that his friend, who is scheduled to be executed, is innocent. Season 9 (2000) of The Real World was set in New Orleans. The short-lived 1997 CBS series Orleans was set in New Orleans.

In a 1992 episode of The Simpsons called "A Streetcar Named Marge", Marge is cast in a musical version of "A Streetcar Named Desire" that featured a controversial parody song about New Orleans. Urban/Urban Contemporary: KMEZ-FM (102.9), KNOU-FM (104.5), WQUE-FM (93.3), WYLD-FM (98.5). Talk: WSMB-AM (1350), WWL-AM (870), WTIX-AM (690). Sports: WODT-AM (1280).

Rock: KKND-FM (106.7), WRNO-FM (99.5), WEZB-FM (97.1), WKBU-FM (105.3). Public: WTUL-FM (91.5), WRBH-FM (88.3). Oldies: WTKL-FM (95.7), WJSH-FM (104.7). Latino: KGLA-AM (1540), WFNO-FM (830).

Gospel/Christian: KHEV-FM (104.1), WYLD-AM (940), WBSN-FM (89.1), WLNO-AM (1060), WSHO-FM (800), WOPR-FM (94.9), WVOG-AM (600). Contemporary: KLRZ-FM (100.3), WLMG-FM (101.9), WDVW-FM (92.3). Country: WNOE-FM (101.1). Jazz: WWNO-FM (88.9), WWOZ-FM (90.7).

11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. 20.9% from 45 to 64. 29.3% from 25 to 44. 11.4% from 18 to 24.

26.7% under the age of 18. 9.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals. 40.0% were non-families.

24.5% had a female householder with no husband present. 30.8% were married couples living together. 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 3.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

1.28% from two or more races. 0.93% from other races. 0.02% Pacific Islander. 2.26% Asian.

0.20% Native American. 28.05% White. 67.25% African American.

07-28-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.