New Orleans, Louisiana

Nickname: "The Big Easy"
Motto: "'"
Official website: http://www.cityofno.com/
Location


Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States

Government
Country
State
Parish
United States
Louisiana
Orleans Parish, Louisiana
Mayor C. Ray Nagin (D)
Geographical characteristics
Area
Total 350.2 km²
Land 180.6 km²
Water 169.7 km²
Population
Total (2000) 484,674
Metro area 1,337,726
Density 534.4/km²
Latitude {{{latitude}}}
Longitude {{{longitude}}}
Coordinates 29°57′53″ N
90°4′14″ W
Elevation 3.3 m
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)

New Orleans (local pronunciations: /nuːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /la nuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is a major U.S. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. New Orleans is named after the historical Duke of Orléans, Regent of France and is one of the oldest and most historic cities in the United States.

New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French, Spanish and African American influences) as well as its music and cuisine. It is a world-famous tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most noteworthy annual events are Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Jazz Fest, Essence Festival (moved to Houston, TX for 2006), Voodoo Fest, Southern Decadence, and college football's Sugar Bowl (although the bowl game has been moved to Atlanta for the 2006 game).

The most recent U.S. census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the population of Greater New Orleans at 1,337,726. Since the devastation of the city in conjunction with Hurricane Katrina, the population has been significantly less, due to the majority of surviving residents either taking temporary shelter elsewhere or relocating indefinitely. Estimates as of late 2005 cite fewer than 150,000 residing in the city, and projections of the city's eventual population following reconstruction are highly speculative.

As of mid-December 2005, efforts continue to aid survivors, clean up debris, and restore infrastructure. While most of the city has reopened to residents, and areas which suffered moderate damage have substantially resumed functioning, the parts of town most severely damaged - such as some neighborhoods of the lower 9th Ward - are open only during daylight hours for residents to salvage items from their formerly flooded homes.

New Orleans remains a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf. The Port of New Orleans is the largest U.S. port for several major commodities including rubber, cement and coffee. The Port of South Louisiana is based in the New Orleans metropolitan area and has been ranked the fifth largest port in the world in terms of raw tonnage, and among the largest U.S. ports for exporting grain. The two ports together would be the fourth largest port in the world.

New Orleans was founded by the French in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States. The city was named in honor of Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded (much as New York was named in honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England).

The city's several nicknames describe various characteristics of the city, including the "Crescent City" (describing its shape around the Mississippi River), "The Big Easy" (a reference by musicians to the relative ease of finding work in the city) and "The City that Care Forgot" (associated with the easy going, carefree nature of many of the local residents). The city's unofficial motto, "Laissez les bons temps rouler" ("Let the good times roll") describes the party-like attitude of many residents.

The city's name is often abbreviated NOLA. Residents of the city are referred to as New Orleanians.

History

Main article: History of New Orleans

Colonial era

New Orleans is a historic city. Sign at Jackson Square in the French Quarter

New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. John (known to natives as Bayou Choupique). A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for more than a decade before the official founding of the city. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi.

In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire and remained under Spanish control for 40 years.

The Great Fire of 1788 destroyed many of the existing structures in the city (800 houses were destroyed), which were made of wood. As a result of this, and a subsequent fire in 1795 (another 200 houses destroyed), much of 18th century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built under Spanish rule and demonstrates Spanish colonial characteristics, wood was replaced with bricks.

The three most impressive buildings of New Orleans come from the Spanish times: St. Louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere.

In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon re-acquired the territory from Spain by treaty. But in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000.

19th century

In its early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans).

1888 German map of New Orleans.

The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 the city's population was around 102,000, fourth-largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South after Baltimore. However, population growth was at times plagued by yellow fever epidemics, such as the great scourge of 1853 that killed nearly 10,000 people in New Orleans.

New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union (by David Farragut -son of Spanish emigrants- later named the first US Navy Vice-Admiral) without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. It was the first captured city in the American South. It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville.

20th century

New Orleans panorama from 1919. Canal Street, looking away from the river, 1920s A view across Uptown New Orleans, with the Central Business District in the background, 1990s

Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area. However, pumping of groundwater from underneath the city has resulted in subsidence. The subsidence greatly increased the flood risk, should the levees be breached or precipitation be in excess of pumping capacity (as was the case in 2005 in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina). There were many warnings in the late 20th century that a major hurricane or a Mississippi flood could create a lake in the central city as much as 9 m (30 ft) deep, which could take months to pump dry. This warning was augmented by vestigial fears from Hurricane Betsy, and the lasting stories of the Army Corps of Engineers blasting the flooding levees, drowning the poorer neighborhoods of the lower ninth Ward. The Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, (HCNA) respresenting a substantial group of the aforementioned lower ninth ward, created a lobby against the Army Corps of Engineers furthering work on the levees which might endanger the neighborhoods. The HCNA sent Jamal Morelli, activist and New Orleans artist, to respresent them in Washington, D.C. Jamal Morelli's struggle for the neighborhood was successful in protecting the lower ninth ward. (2000-2004)

In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since.

New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season.

In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April 2004.

The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish.

Much of the city flooded in September of 1947 due to the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane.

In 1965 the city was damaged by Hurricane Betsy, with catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward.

In 1969 the city was brushed by Hurricane Camille but was spared from the catastrophic flooding it had seen in Hurricane Betsy and later in Hurricane Katrina. Because of Camille's tightly wound rings, the storm actually pulled water from the then impending fate they believed was imminent from Lake Ponchartrain and Lake Borgne, and veered toward her landfall point, approximately 50 miles away at Pass Christian, Mississippi, which is believed to have received a 28 foot storm surge.

While long one of the USA's most-visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy. Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the domestic and international tourist industry.

A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition.

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water.

21st Century (Hurricane Katrina)

An aerial view of the flooded areas in part of the New Orleans Central Business District

The city suffered from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005 on the gulf coast near the city. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. Many residents chose to stay or were stranded in the city by a lack of available transportation. The eye of the storm passed within 10 to 15 miles of New Orleans, bringing strong winds that downed trees, shattered windows, and hurled debris around the area. Heavy rains and flooding immediately affected the eastern areas of the city.

The situation worsened when levees along three canals were breached. These canals were the 17th Street Canal, the Industrial Canal, and the London Avenue Canal. As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. As of November 2005, the Times Picayune article states that, in addition to 1,050 confirmed deaths, there are 5,000 missing residents of the city. Early estimates of the cost of physical damage from the storm have exceeded 100 billion USD. Subsequent investigations showed that the levee failures which flooded the majority of the city were the result of what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1]

The city government declared the city off-limits to residents while clean-up efforts began and warned that those remaining could be removed by force, for their health and safety. On September 15, several of the suburban towns started allowing residents to return. The mayor announced a "phased repopulation" plan to start bringing residents of the city back in the next two weeks. Concern about the fragility of the city's flood defences and transportation caused repopulation efforts to be postponed due to Hurricane Rita. [2]. New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded when a storm surge from Rita overcame one of the repaired levees on the Industrial Canal [3]. By October 1, parts of the city accounting for about one-third of the population of New Orleans had been reopened, including the French Quarter.[4] As of October 1, only 5% of the city remained underwater.

Geography and climate

Vertical cross-section of New Orleans, showing maximum levee height of 23 feet (7 m).

New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N, 90°4′14″W (29.964722, -90.070556)GR1 on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 48.45% water.

The city is located in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, between the Mississippi River in the south and Lake Pontchartrain in the north. The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. Fields atop the ridges along the river are referred to as the "frontlands." The land contour slopes away from the frontlands to the "backlands", comprised of clay and silt. The Mississippi Delta, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, covers about 13,000 square miles (about 1/4 of Louisiana) and consists of silt deposited by the river, and is the most fertile area of Louisiana.

The city of New Orleans actually contains the lowest point in the state of Louisiana, and one of the lowest points in the United States, after Death Valley and the Salton Sea. Much of the city is actually located between 1 and 10 feet (0.3 to 3 m) below sea level, and as such, is very prone to flooding. Some 45% of the city is above sea level; these higher areas were developed before 1900; the lowest areas only being developed more recently. Rainwater is continually pumped out of the city and into Lake Pontchartrain across a series of canals lined by levees and dikes. Before the 20th century pumping system, if it rains more than 1 inch, or more recently if there is a major storm surge, such as that caused by a hurricane, greater flooding can occur. Because of the city's high water table most of the cemeteries in the city use above ground crypts as opposed to underground burial.

The New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 37th largest in the United States, includes the Louisiana parishes of Orleans (contiguous with the city of New Orleans), Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, and St. Tammany.

Cityscape

New Orleans contains many distinctive neighborhoods.

The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and is historically called the "American Quarter." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. Major streets of the area include Canal Street and Poydras St. The term "downtown" refers to those parts of town that are downriver from the central business district. "Uptown" refers to those parts of town that are upriver from the central business district. Parts of the city that are located downtown include the world famous French Quarter (most noted as the central tourist district, with its array of shops, bars, and nightclubs along Bourbon Street), Storyville (now defunct), Treme, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater, the 7th Ward, and the Lower 9th Ward. Parts of the city that are located uptown include the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. Its tallest building is the 50-story One Shell Square.

Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. John, Mid City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, The upper 9th Ward and Algiers.

Parishes located adjacent to the city of New Orleans include St. Tammany Parish to the northeast, St. Bernard Parish to the south, Plaquemines Parish to the southwest, and Jefferson Parish to the west.

A true-color satellite image of New Orleans taken on NASA's Landsat 7

Tallest Buildings

Climate

The climate of New Orleans is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6°C), and daily highs around 62°F (17°C). In July, lows average 74°F (23°C), and highs average 91°F (33°C). The lowest recorded temperature was 11.0°F (-11.6°C) on December 23, 1989. The highest recorded temperature was 102.0°F (38.9°C) on August 22, 1980. The average precipitation is 59.74 inches (1520 mm) annually.

On rare occasions, snow will fall. Most recently, a trace of snow fell on Christmas in 2004, during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954, and brought 4.5 inches (110 mm). The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1 or 2 inches of snow.

People and culture

Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was:

The population of Greater New Orleans stood at 1,337,726 in 2000, making it the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States. These population statistics are based on legal residents of the city. But due to the enormous annual tourist flow, the amount of people inside the city at a given time, such as Mardi Gras season, tends to exceed these numbers sometimes by the hundreds of thousands.

There were 188,251 households out of which:

The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.23.

In the city the population was spread out with:

The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,133, and the median income for a family was $32,338. Males had a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,258. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

The population of New Orleans reached its highest point in the summer of 1965, when its population reached 702,108. The population was stunted in the late sixties, a decade which saw storm surge from Hurricane Betsy flooded much of the Lower 9th Ward Since the late sixties, the population of New Orleans/Orleans Parish has experienced a steady decline while surrounding parishes such as Jefferson and St. Tammany registered strong increases in population.

An analysis by Brown University sociologist John R. Logan in January of 2005 suggests that as many as 50% of whites and 80% of blacks relocated from New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath may relocate permanently.

New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo practice by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and spirit of celebration.

Pronunciation

New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals as "Noo Or-lins," "Noo Awlee-enz," or "Noo Aw-lins." The pronunciation "N'Awlins" is not generally used by locals but has been popularized by the tourist trade. The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with it. There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups. The prestige associated with being from New Orleans by many residents is likely a factor in the linguistic assimilation of the ethnically divergent population. This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city (but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes). As with many sociolinguistic artifacts, it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population. One subtype of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat (from "Where y'at). This word is not used as a generalized term for the New Orleans accent, and is generally reserved for the strongest varieties. Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," "makin' groceries" for grocery shopping, or "neutral ground" for a street median.

Media

The major daily newspaper is the New Orleans Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. Other alternative weekly publications include the Louisiana Weekly and the Gambit Weekly.

Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. The market is the 43rd largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 672,150 homes and 0.610% of the U.S. Major television network affiliates serving the area include WWL 4 (CBS), WGNO 26 (ABC), WDSU 6 (NBC), WVUE 8 (FOX), WNOL 38 (WB), WUPL 54 (UPN), and WPXL 49 (PAX). PBS stations include WYES 12 and WLAE 32. WHNO 20 also operates as an independent station in the area, providing mainly religious programming.

Radio stations serving Greater New Orleans include:

Television References

Several episodes of television series have referenced the city:

Museums and other attractions

Bourbon Street, New Orleans, in 2003, looking towards Canal Street.

Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife, St. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), and many stately 19th century mansions.

Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street. Other notable tourist attractions in the quarter include Jackson Square, St. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and Preservation Hall.

Also located near the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, now operates as a museum. The National D-Day Museum is a relatively new museum (opened on June 6, 2000) dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France. The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily.

Art museums in the city include the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. The Audubon Park and the Audubon Zoo are also located in the city of New Orleans. New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery.

The city is also world-famous for its food. Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours.")

Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden.

Annual cultural events and fairs

See also: New Orleans Mardi Gras

Mounted Krewe Officers in the Thoth Parade during Mardi Gras.

Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations, including Mardi Gras, New Year's Eve celebrations, and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), held just before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carré, translated Old Square), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux.

The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. Commonly referred to simply as, "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists.

Music

Louis Armstrong, famous New Orleans Jazz musician.

New Orleans has always been a significant center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. Its general atmosphere of Dionysian art has also resulted in both breeding and being a home to chaotic artists such as Crash Worship, Liquiddrone, and Jamal Morelli. In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues.

The city also created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music," but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music.

Sports & Recreation

The Louisiana Superdome, home to the New Orleans Saints.

The city is the home to several professional, major league sports teams, including the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League and the New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association which relocated from Charlotte, North Carolina, at the start of the 2002–2003 season. The Saints play in the Louisiana Superdome, and the Hornets play in the adjacent New Orleans Arena.

Due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, including damage both to the exterior and the interior of the Louisiana Superdome, the New Orleans Saints have played their "home" games in Baton Rouge and San Antonio, Texas. The football season began just a week after the storm hit, and the Saints played their first "home" game against the Giants at Giants Stadium. The Hornets will play 36 "home" games at the Ford Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the remaining 5 to be split between Norman (University of Oklahoma campus), Baton Rouge (LSU campus) and a March 2006 return to New Orleans for three home games.

The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner, Tom Benson. The New Orleans Zephyrs, AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie. They are currently affiliated with the Washington Nationals.

The city also hosts two college football bowl games annually: the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. Nine Super Bowls have been contested in New Orleans.

Historically, many teams have been formerly located in the city, including the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Breakers of the United States Football League, the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz.

New Orleans is also home to Southern Yacht Club, located at West End on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain. Established in 1849, it is the second oldest yacht club in the United States. The building was severely damaged, first by storm surge and then by fire, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

Economy

A tanker on the Mississippi River in New Orleans.

New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. seaport. It is one of the busiest seaports in not only the United States, but also the world. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid 20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic.

Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. There are a substantial number of energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil Company. The city is also home to one Fortune 500 company, Entergy Corporation, an electric power provider.

The federal government has a significant presence in the area. The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. The facility is operated by Lockheed-Martin and is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced. The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses the National Finance Center operated by the USDA.

Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include BellSouth, Hibernia Corp., IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, and Zatarain's.

The Port of New Orleans handles about 84 million short tons of cargo a year. The Port of South Louisiana, located in the Metropolitan New Orleans Area, handles 199 million short tons. The two combined would be the 4th largest port in the world.

About 5,000 ships from nearly 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. gateway, including Miami.

New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly.

There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them.

New Orleans is also one of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. Other major tourist events and attractions in the city include Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Southern Decadence (one of the largest annual Gay/Lesbian celebrations in the nation), and the Essence Festival.

Infrastructure

Government

New Orleans has a mayor-council government. The city council consists of five councilmembers who are elected by district and two at large councilmembers. Mayor C. Ray Nagin, Jr. was elected in May 2002.

The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system.

The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-county government.GR6 Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou and Carrollton. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans.

Schools

New Orleans Public Schools, the city's school district, is one of the area's largest school districts. NOPS contains approximately 100 individual schools. The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools.

Several institutions of higher education also exist within the city, including University of New Orleans, Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Medical School, and Our Lady of Holy Cross College. Other schools include Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College, Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, Commonwealth University, and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.

Libraries

There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University[7] and Earl K. Long Library at the University of New Orleans.[8]

The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina.[9] The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections.[10]

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection[11] and the Old U.S. Mint.[12]

Transportation

The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), located approximately nine miles west of the city in the city of Kenner. It serves millions of passengers on approximately 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe. The airport also serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express.

Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport, a small, general aviation airport, as well as the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area.

The city is also served by rail via Amtrak. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and it is served by three trains: the Crescent to New York City, the City of New Orleans to Chicago, Illinois, and the Sunset Limited from Orlando to Los Angeles.

In addition, the city is served by six Class I freight railroads. Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway approach the city from the west, Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX from the east, and the Canadian National Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway from the north.

Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). In addition to the many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by DC wires overhead. The St. Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark. The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art.

The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. There are proposals to revive a Desire light rail streetcar line.

Roads in the city are arranged in a radial grid pattern, emanating out to various parts of town from a central point north of the Central Business District. I-10 loops east-west through the city, and traverses the northern edge of the Central Business District, taking traffic west towards Baton Rouge, Louisiana and east-northeast to Slidell, Louisiana. The "Highrise" carries I-10 across the Industrial Canal.

Farther east, the I-10 connects New Orleans East with Slidell, bridging an arm of Lake Pontchartrain. This crossing, a dual causeway known as the "Twin Spans," was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. By October 2005 single lanes in each direction had been reopened on the eastbound span. The westbound span was reopened in early January 2006. The Twin Spans is to be replaced with a new six-lane bridge, expected to be completed in 2009.[13] As I-10 heads south from Metairie towards the Central Business District, it is called the Pontchartrain Expressway.

I-610 provides a direct shortcut across the northern central part of the city, allowing through traffic to bypass I-10's L-shaped route which traverses the more congested areas.

US 90 leaves the Central Business District and goes west through the city's Uptown neighborhood and crosses the Missisisppi River at the Huey P. Long Bridge near the suburb of Jefferson. I-10 is also connected to I-12, north of Lake Pontchartrain, via the tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, which are also the longest in the world.

The interstate highways serving New Orleans were laid out in the middle of the 20th century, a time when a larger proportion of Gulf of Mexico freight traffic passed through New Orleans. I-10 goes west to Houston and beyond and east to Mobile and Florida, with I-59 and I-55 heading northward to Birmingham and Jackson, respectively. Later, I-12 created a shortcut that avoided crossing Lake Pontchartrain. In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns southward toward New Orleans while I-12 continues straight to rejoin I-10 in Baton Rouge. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. The route would follow U.S. Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans, and US 51 terminates just west of the city, Laplace.

The Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal.

Roads along the Mississippi River were the first to carry overland traffic into New Orleans. US 51 (the "Old Hammond Highway"), US 90, and US 11 followed old Indian routes along slight ridges to become the first automotive highways. Louisiana governor Huey P. Long championed Airline Highway (US 61) to bypass the circuitous river road between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. The route of today's US 90 east of New Orleans once included a ferry crossing at Fort Pike. Governor Long built public draw bridges at the Rigolets as political retaliation against the operators of a then-private toll bridge across Lake Pontchartrain. Long achieved his objective: the US 11 toll bridge failed commercially and is owned by the State. US 11 was the escape route for Ignatius J. Reilly at the end of John Kennedy Toole's novel, A Confederacy of Dunces.

West of New Orleans, the Ruddock exit at milepost 6 of I-55 is the only trace left of a thriving community that was literally washed away by the hurricane of September 1915. Frenier Beach Hurricane Storm Surge Revisited In the 1960s, a controversial "Dixie Freeway" that would have been designated I-410 would have created an "outer loop" encompassing St. Bernard Parish, the westbank areas of New Orleans and Jefferson, and back across the river in St. Charles Parish where I-310 now runs. Environmental concern for the wetlands south of New Orleans and economic considerations derailed those plans.

Sister cities

New Orleans has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI): Juan-les-Pins (France), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Matsue (Japan), Mérida (Mexico), Innsbruck (Austria), Pointe Noire (Republic of Congo), San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Caracas (Venezuela), and Holdfast Bay (Australia).


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(SCI): Juan-les-Pins (France), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Matsue (Japan), Mérida (Mexico), Innsbruck (Austria), Pointe Noire (Republic of Congo), San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Caracas (Venezuela), and Holdfast Bay (Australia). (*) Duration of central eclipse.. New Orleans has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. Selected past and upcoming eclipses are:. Environmental concern for the wetlands south of New Orleans and economic considerations derailed those plans. Eclipses where the path of totality crosses major population centres generate the most interest in the general public. Charles Parish where I-310 now runs. Although there is a total eclipse visible somewhere on Earth most years, some are more conveniently observed than others.

Bernard Parish, the westbank areas of New Orleans and Jefferson, and back across the river in St. [1]. Frenier Beach Hurricane Storm Surge Revisited In the 1960s, a controversial "Dixie Freeway" that would have been designated I-410 would have created an "outer loop" encompassing St. Like a transit of a planet it will not get dark. West of New Orleans, the Ruddock exit at milepost 6 of I-55 is the only trace left of a thriving community that was literally washed away by the hurricane of September 1915. The satellite passes over the face of the Sun in about a second, typically. Reilly at the end of John Kennedy Toole's novel, A Confederacy of Dunces. This means the best you can get is a satellite transit, but these events are difficult to watch, because the zone of visibility is very small.

US 11 was the escape route for Ignatius J. At the altitude of the International Space Station, for example, an object would need to be about 3.35 km across to blot the Sun out entirely. Long achieved his objective: the US 11 toll bridge failed commercially and is owned by the State. But none are large enough to cause an eclipse. Governor Long built public draw bridges at the Rigolets as political retaliation against the operators of a then-private toll bridge across Lake Pontchartrain. Artificial satellites can also get in the line between Earth and Sun. The route of today's US 90 east of New Orleans once included a ferry crossing at Fort Pike. When no such planet was found during such an eclipse, the possibility of its existence was ruled out.

Long championed Airline Highway (US 61) to bypass the circuitous river road between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. At one time, some scientists — including Albert Einstein — hypothesized that there may have been a planet even closer to the Sun than Mercury; the only way to confirm its existence would have been to observe it during a total solar eclipse. Louisiana governor Huey P. More common — but still quite rare — is a conjunction of any planet (not confined exclusively to Mercury or Venus) at the time a total solar eclipse, in which event the planet will be visible very near the eclipsed Sun, when without the eclipse it would have been lost in the Sun's glare. US 51 (the "Old Hammond Highway"), US 90, and US 11 followed old Indian routes along slight ridges to become the first automotive highways. This was the lowest time difference between a transit of a planet and a solar eclipse in the historical past. Roads along the Mississippi River were the first to carry overland traffic into New Orleans. Only 5 hours after the transit of Venus on June 4, 1769 there was a total solar eclipse, which was visible in Northern America, Europe and Northern Asia as partial solar eclipse.

Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal. The next anticipated simultaneous occurrence of a Solar eclipse and a transit of Mercury will be on July 5, 6757, and of a Solar eclipse and a transit of Venus is expected on April 5, 15232. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. But these events are extremely rare because of their short durations. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. In principle, the simultaneous occurrence of a Solar eclipse and a transit of a planet is possible. The Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. On these occasions, an object — especially a planet (often Mercury) — may be visible near the sunrise or sunset point of the horizon when it could not have been seen without the eclipse.

The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans, and US 51 terminates just west of the city, Laplace. When this occurs shortly before the former or after the latter, the sky will appear much darker than it would otherwise be immediately before sunrise or after sunset. Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. It is possible for a solar eclipse to attain totality (or in the event of a partial eclipse, near totality) before sunrise or after sunset from a particular location. The route would follow U.S. During a partial eclipse, the light spots will show the partial shape of the sun, as seen on the picture. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. These are images of the sun.

In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns southward toward New Orleans while I-12 continues straight to rejoin I-10 in Baton Rouge. Normally the spots of light which fall through the small openings between the leaves of a tree, have a circular shape. Later, I-12 created a shortcut that avoided crossing Lake Pontchartrain. During a solar eclipse special observations can be done with the unaided eye. I-10 goes west to Houston and beyond and east to Mobile and Florida, with I-59 and I-55 heading northward to Birmingham and Jackson, respectively. Note that the modern conventional dates are different by a year or two, and that these two eclipse records have been ignored so far. The interstate highways serving New Orleans were laid out in the middle of the 20th century, a time when a larger proportion of Gulf of Mexico freight traffic passed through New Orleans. The sky suddenly darkened in the middle of the sky, well after the battles of Thermopylae and Salamis, after the departure of Mardonius to Thessaly at the beginning of the spring of (477 BC) and his second attack on Athens, after the return of Cleombrotus to Sparta.

I-10 is also connected to I-12, north of Lake Pontchartrain, via the tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, which are also the longest in the world. Herodotus (book IX, 10, book VIII, 131, and book IX, 1) reports that another solar eclipse was observed in Sparta during the next year, on August 1, 477 BC. Long Bridge near the suburb of Jefferson. An annular eclipse of the Sun occurred at Sardis on February 17, 478 BC, while Xerxes was departing for his expedition against Greece, as Herodotus, VII, 37 recorded ([Hind and Chambers, 1889: 323] considered this absolute date more than a century ago). US 90 leaves the Central Business District and goes west through the city's Uptown neighborhood and crosses the Missisisppi River at the Huey P. One likely candidate took place on May 28, 585 BC, probably near the Halys river in the middle of modern Turkey. I-610 provides a direct shortcut across the northern central part of the city, allowing through traffic to bypass I-10's L-shaped route which traverses the more congested areas. Exactly which eclipse was involved has remained uncertain, although the issue has been studied by hundreds of ancient and modern authorities.

The Twin Spans is to be replaced with a new six-lane bridge, expected to be completed in 2009.[13] As I-10 heads south from Metairie towards the Central Business District, it is called the Pontchartrain Expressway. Soldiers on both sides put down their weapons and declared peace as a result of the eclipse. The westbound span was reopened in early January 2006. Herodotus wrote that Thales of Milete predicted an eclipse which occurred during a war between the Medians and the Lydians. By October 2005 single lanes in each direction had been reopened on the eastbound span. For a discussion, see the text by Stephenson. This crossing, a dual causeway known as the "Twin Spans," was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. There have been other claims to date earlier eclipses, in Babylon and also in China, but these are highly disputed and rely on much supposition.

Farther east, the I-10 connects New Orleans East with Slidell, bridging an arm of Lake Pontchartrain. This is the earliest solar eclipse that can be exactly dated. The "Highrise" carries I-10 across the Industrial Canal. A solar eclipse of 15 June 763 BC mentioned in an Assyrian text is important for the Chronology of the Ancient Orient. I-10 loops east-west through the city, and traverses the northern edge of the Central Business District, taking traffic west towards Baton Rouge, Louisiana and east-northeast to Slidell, Louisiana. After a Saros cycle finishes, a new Saros cycle begins 1 Inex later (hence its name: in-ex). Roads in the city are arranged in a radial grid pattern, emanating out to various parts of town from a central point north of the Central Business District. The Inex cycle is itself a poor cycle, but it is very convenient in the classification of eclipse cycles.

There are proposals to revive a Desire light rail streetcar line. The Saros cycle is probably the most well known, and one of the best, eclipse cycles. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. Two such cycles are the Saros and the Inex. The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. If the date and time of a solar eclipse is known, it is possible to predict other eclipses using eclipse cycles. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art. Normally this is not visible because the photosphere is much brighter than the corona.

The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. For astronomers, a total solar eclipse forms a rare opportunity to observe the corona (the outer layer of the Sun's atmosphere). Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark. (eclipse predictions by Fred Espenak, NASA/GSFC.). The St. The longest total solar eclipse during the 8,000-year period from 3000 BC to 5000 AD will occur on July 16, 2186, when totality will last 7 min 29 s. In addition to the many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by DC wires overhead. The next eclipse of comparable duration will not occur until June 25, 2150.

Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). Observers aboard a Concorde aircraft were able to stretch totality to about 74 minutes by flying along the path of the Moon's umbra. Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway approach the city from the west, Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX from the east, and the Canadian National Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway from the north. The last time this happened was June 30, 1973. In addition, the city is served by six Class I freight railroads. During each millennium there are typically fewer than 10 total solar eclipses exceeding 7 minutes. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and it is served by three trains: the Crescent to New York City, the City of New Orleans to Chicago, Illinois, and the Sunset Limited from Orlando to Los Angeles. Totality can never last more than 7 min 40 s, and is usually much shorter.

The city is also served by rail via Amtrak. Then, after waiting so long, the total eclipse only lasts for a few minutes, as the Moon's umbra moves eastward at over 1700 km/h. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area. Although they occur somewhere on Earth approximately every 18 months, it has been estimated that they recur at any given place only once every 370 years, on average (Stephenson, p.54). Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport, a small, general aviation airport, as well as the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. Total solar eclipses are rare events. The airport also serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express. Outside of the central track, a partial eclipse can usually be seen over a much larger area of the Earth.

The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe. In the most favourable circumstances, when a total eclipse occurs very close to perigee, the track can be over 250 km wide and the duration of totality may be over 7 minutes. It serves millions of passengers on approximately 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The width of the track of a central eclipse varies according to the relative apparent diameters of the Sun and Moon. The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), located approximately nine miles west of the city in the city of Kenner. The Earth is also rotating from west to east, but the umbra always moves faster than any given point on the Earth's surface, so it almost always appears to move in a roughly west-east direction across a map of the Earth (there are some rare exceptions to this which can occur during an eclipse of the midnight sun in arctic or antarctic regions). Mint.[12]. During a central eclipse, the Moon's umbra (or antumbra, in the case of an annular eclipse) moves rapidly from west to east across the Earth.

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection[11] and the Old U.S. However, some are visible only as partial eclipses, because the umbra passes either above or below the earth, and others are central only in remote regions of the arctic or antarctic. The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina.[9] The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections.[10]. This means that in any given year, there will always be at least two solar eclipses, and there can be as many as five. Long Library at the University of New Orleans.[8]. Sometimes the New Moon occurs close enough to a node during two consecutive months. There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University[7] and Earl K. Therefore, the New Moon occurs close to the nodes at two periods of the year approximately six months apart, and there will always be at least one solar eclipse during these periods.

Other schools include Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College, Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, Commonwealth University, and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary. The Moon's orbit intersects with the ecliptic at the two nodes that are 180 degrees apart. Several institutions of higher education also exist within the city, including University of New Orleans, Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Medical School, and Our Lady of Holy Cross College. The time between one perigee and the next is known as the anomalistic month. The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools. Finally, the Moon's perigee is moving forwards in its orbit, and makes a complete circuit in about 9 years. NOPS contains approximately 100 individual schools. This period is called the draconitic month.

New Orleans Public Schools, the city's school district, is one of the area's largest school districts. This means that the time between each passage of the Moon through the ascending node is slightly shorter than the sidereal month. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans. However, the nodes of the Moon's orbit are gradually moving in a retrograde motion, due the the action of the Sun's gravity on the Moon's motion, and they make a complete circuit every 18.5 years. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. The Moon crosses from south to north of the ecliptic at its ascending node. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou and Carrollton. This is known as the synodic month, and corresponds to what is commonly called the lunar month.

The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-county government.GR6 Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. This means that the average time between one New Moon and the next is longer, and is approximately 29.6 days. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system. However, during one sidereal month, the Earth has moved on in its orbit around the Sun. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. This is known as the sidereal month. The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. The Moon orbits the Earth in approximately 27.3 days, relative to a fixed frame of reference.

was elected in May 2002. It is only when the Moon is closer to the Earth than average (near its perigee) that a total eclipse occurs. Ray Nagin, Jr. On average, the Moon appears to be slightly smaller than the Sun, so the majority (about 60%) of central eclipses are annular. Mayor C. This means that the apparent size of the Moon is sometimes larger or smaller than average, and it is this effect that leads to the difference between total and annular eclipses (the distance of the Earth from the Sun also varies during the year, but this is a smaller effect). The city council consists of five councilmembers who are elected by district and two at large councilmembers. The Moon's orbit is also elliptical, which means that the distance of the Moon from the Earth can vary by about 6% from its average value.

New Orleans has a mayor-council government. A solar eclipse can occur only when the New Moon occurs close to one of the points (known as nodes) where the Moon's orbit crosses the ecliptic – hence the name. Other major tourist events and attractions in the city include Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Southern Decadence (one of the largest annual Gay/Lesbian celebrations in the nation), and the Essence Festival. Because of this, at the time of a New Moon, the Moon will usually pass above or below the Sun. The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. The Moon's orbit around the Earth is inclined at an angle of just over 5 degrees to the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun (the ecliptic). New Orleans is also one of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. The larger light gray area is the penumbra, in which a partial eclipse will be seen.

These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them. The small area where the umbra touches the Earth's surface is where a total eclipse will be seen. There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. The dark gray region to the right of the moon is the umbra, where the Sun is completely obscured by the Moon. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly. The diagram to the right shows the alignment of the Sun, Moon and Earth at a solar eclipse. The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. For more information on safe eclipse viewing, see:.

New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. Note that it is never safe to look at an annular or partial eclipse directly, because the Sun's disk is never completely covered during this type of eclipse. gateway, including Miami. The exact time and duration of totality for the location from which the eclipse is being observed should be determined from a reliable source (local astronomers, etc.). The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. However, it is important to stop directly viewing the Sun promptly at the end of totality. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. The Sun's faint corona will be visible, and even the chromosphere, solar prominences, and possibly even a solar flare may be seen.

The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. Contrary to popular belief, it is safe to observe the total phase of a total solar eclipse directly with the unaided eye, binoculars or a telescope, when the Sun's photosphere is completely covered by the Moon; indeed, this is a very spectacular and beautiful sight, and it is too dim to be seen through filters. About 5,000 ships from nearly 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. These precautions apply to viewing the Sun at any time except during the totality phase of a total solar eclipse (see below). The two combined would be the 4th largest port in the world. The optical viewfinders provided with some video and digital cameras are not safe. The Port of South Louisiana, located in the Metropolitan New Orleans Area, handles 199 million short tons. Viewing the Sun's disk on a video display screen (provided by a video camera or digital camera) is safe, although the camera itself may be damaged by direct exposure to the Sun.

The Port of New Orleans handles about 84 million short tons of cargo a year. However, care must be taken to ensure that no one looks through the projector (telescope, pinhole, etc.) directly. Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include BellSouth, Hibernia Corp., IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, and Zatarain's. The projected image of the Sun can then be safely viewed; this technique can be used to observe sunspots, as well as eclipses. The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses the National Finance Center operated by the USDA. This can be done by projecting an image of the disk onto a white piece of paper or card using a pair of binoculars (with one of the lenses covered), a telescope, or another piece of cardboard with a small hole in it (about 1 mm diameter), often called a pinhole camera. The facility is operated by Lockheed-Martin and is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced. The safest way to view the Sun's disk is by indirect projection.

The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. Only properly designed and certified solar filters should ever be used for direct viewing of the Sun's disk. The federal government has a significant presence in the area. Sunglasses are not safe, since they do not block the harmful and invisible infrared radiation which causes retinal damage. The city is also home to one Fortune 500 company, Entergy Corporation, an electric power provider. The Sun's disk can be viewed using appropriate filtration to block the harmful part of the Sun's radiation. There are a substantial number of energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil Company. Viewing the Sun during partial and annular eclipses (and during total eclipses outside the brief period of totality) requires special eye protection, or indirect viewing methods.

Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. Viewing the Sun's disk through any kind of optical aid (binoculars, a telescope, or even an optical camera viewfinder) is even more hazardous, although just viewing it with the naked eye can easily cause damage. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid 20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic. Unfortunately, looking at the Sun during an eclipse is just as dangerous as looking at it outside an eclipse, except during the brief period of totality, when the Sun's disk is completely covered (totality occurs only during a total eclipse and only very briefly—it does not occur during a partial or annular eclipse). The U.S. However, during an eclipse, with so much of the Sun covered, it is easier and more tempting to stare at it. It is one of the busiest seaports in not only the United States, but also the world. Under normal conditions, the Sun is so bright that it's difficult to stare at it directly, so there is no tendency to look at it in a way that might damage the eye.

seaport. The retina has no sensitivity to pain, and the effects of retinal damage may not appear for hours, so there is no warning that injury is occurring. New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. This damage can result in permanent impairment of vision, up to and including blindness. The building was severely damaged, first by storm surge and then by fire, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Looking directly at the photosphere of the Sun (the bright disk of the Sun itself), even for just a few seconds, can cause permanent damage to the retina of the eye, because of the intense visible and invisible radiation that the photosphere emits. Established in 1849, it is the second oldest yacht club in the United States. When the Moon disappears at Full Moon by passing into Earth's shadow, the event is properly called an eclipse, but when the Moon passes in front of the Sun, we see an occultation of the Sun by the Moon.

New Orleans is also home to Southern Yacht Club, located at West End on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain. Properly speaking, an eclipse occurs when one object passes into the shadow cast by another object. Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz. The term eclipse is actually a misnomer: The phenomenon of the Moon passing in front of the Sun is actually an occultation. Historically, many teams have been formerly located in the city, including the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Breakers of the United States Football League, the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). Slightly more annular eclipses than total eclipses occur, because on average the Moon lies too far away from Earth to cover the Sun completely. Nine Super Bowls have been contested in New Orleans. Hence the term annular eclipse.

The city also hosts two college football bowl games annually: the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. In that case, at the time of greatest eclipse there remains a thin annulus (or ring) of brilliant Sun left uncovered. They are currently affiliated with the Washington Nationals. When a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon is at or near apogee, however, it appears smaller, and it cannot cover the Sun completely. The New Orleans Zephyrs, AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie. When a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon is at or near perigee, it appears large enough to cover the bright disk, or photosphere, of the Sun completely, and a total eclipse occurs. The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner, Tom Benson. The furthest point in the orbit is referred to as apogee, and the closest point is called perigee.

The Hornets will play 36 "home" games at the Ford Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the remaining 5 to be split between Norman (University of Oklahoma campus), Baton Rouge (LSU campus) and a March 2006 return to New Orleans for three home games. Because the Moon's orbit around Earth is an ellipse rather than a circle, however, at some times during the month the Moon is further away, and at other times it is closer to Earth, than average. The football season began just a week after the storm hit, and the Saints played their first "home" game against the Giants at Giants Stadium. As seen from Earth, therefore, the Sun and the Moon appear to be about the same size in the sky - about 1/2 of a degree in angular measure. Due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, including damage both to the exterior and the interior of the Louisiana Superdome, the New Orleans Saints have played their "home" games in Baton Rouge and San Antonio, Texas. One of the most remarkable co-incidences in nature is that (i) the Sun lies about 400 times as far from Earth as does the Moon, and (ii) the Sun is also about 400 times the diameter of the Moon. The Saints play in the Louisiana Superdome, and the Hornets play in the adjacent New Orleans Arena. The reason why some solar eclipses are total and others are annular has to do with the elliptical nature of the Moon's orbit around Earth.

The city is the home to several professional, major league sports teams, including the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League and the New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association which relocated from Charlotte, North Carolina, at the start of the 2002–2003 season. There are four types of solar eclipses:. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music," but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music. . Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. A total solar eclipse is considered by many to be the most spectacular natural phenomenon that one can observe. The city also created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. This configuration can only occur at New Moon, when the Sun and Moon are in conjunction, as seen from Earth.

In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun and obscures it totally or partially. Its general atmosphere of Dionysian art has also resulted in both breeding and being a home to chaotic artists such as Crash Worship, Liquiddrone, and Jamal Morelli. February 16, 1980: Launch of rockets from San Marco platform. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. February 26, 1979: Launch of rockets from Red Lake, Canada. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. November 12, 1966: Launch of two Titus-rockets fom Las Palmas, Argentina.

New Orleans has always been a significant center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. May 20, 1966: Launch of rockets at Karystos, Greece to watch the solar eclipse. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists. May 30, 1965: Launch of rockets at Charlestown, USA. Commonly referred to simply as, "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. MacRobert, Sky & Telescope magazine. The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. How to Watch a Partial Solar Eclipse Safely, Alan M.

The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carré, translated Old Square), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux. Eye Safety During Solar Eclipses, Fred Espenak, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. However, some eclipses can only be seen as a partial eclipse, because the central line never intersects the Earth's surface. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), held just before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent. This phenomenon can usually be seen from a large part of the Earth outside of the track of a central eclipse. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. A partial eclipse occurs when the Sun and Moon are not exactly in line, and the Moon only partially obscures the Sun.

Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations, including Mardi Gras, New Year's Eve celebrations, and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. The generic term for a total, annular or hybrid eclipse is a central eclipse. See also: New Orleans Mardi Gras. At some points on the Earth it is visible as a total eclipse; whereas at others it is annular. Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden. A hybrid eclipse is intermediate between a total and annular eclipse. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours."). Hence the Sun appears as a very bright ring surrounding the outline of the Moon.

Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. An annular eclipse occurs when the Sun and Moon are exactly in line, but the apparent size of the Moon is smaller than that of the Sun. The city is also world-famous for its food. During any one eclipse, a total eclipse is visible only from a fairly narrow track on the surface of the Earth. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery. The intensely bright disk of the Sun is replaced by the dark outline of the Moon, and the much fainter corona is visible (see image right). New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. A total eclipse occurs when the Sun is completely obscured by the Moon.

The Audubon Park and the Audubon Zoo are also located in the city of New Orleans. Art museums in the city include the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily. The National D-Day Museum is a relatively new museum (opened on June 6, 2000) dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France.

Also located near the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, now operates as a museum. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and Preservation Hall. Other notable tourist attractions in the quarter include Jackson Square, St. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street.

Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), and many stately 19th century mansions. Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife, St. Several episodes of television series have referenced the city:.

Radio stations serving Greater New Orleans include:. WHNO 20 also operates as an independent station in the area, providing mainly religious programming. PBS stations include WYES 12 and WLAE 32. Major television network affiliates serving the area include WWL 4 (CBS), WGNO 26 (ABC), WDSU 6 (NBC), WVUE 8 (FOX), WNOL 38 (WB), WUPL 54 (UPN), and WPXL 49 (PAX).

The market is the 43rd largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 672,150 homes and 0.610% of the U.S. Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. Other alternative weekly publications include the Louisiana Weekly and the Gambit Weekly. The major daily newspaper is the New Orleans Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837.

Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," "makin' groceries" for grocery shopping, or "neutral ground" for a street median. This word is not used as a generalized term for the New Orleans accent, and is generally reserved for the strongest varieties. One subtype of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat (from "Where y'at). As with many sociolinguistic artifacts, it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population.

This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city (but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes). The prestige associated with being from New Orleans by many residents is likely a factor in the linguistic assimilation of the ethnically divergent population. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups. There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century.

It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with it. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals as "Noo Or-lins," "Noo Awlee-enz," or "Noo Aw-lins." The pronunciation "N'Awlins" is not generally used by locals but has been popularized by the tourist trade.

New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo practice by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and spirit of celebration. Logan in January of 2005 suggests that as many as 50% of whites and 80% of blacks relocated from New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath may relocate permanently. An analysis by Brown University sociologist John R. Tammany registered strong increases in population.

The population was stunted in the late sixties, a decade which saw storm surge from Hurricane Betsy flooded much of the Lower 9th Ward Since the late sixties, the population of New Orleans/Orleans Parish has experienced a steady decline while surrounding parishes such as Jefferson and St. The population of New Orleans reached its highest point in the summer of 1965, when its population reached 702,108. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families were below the poverty line.

The per capita income for the city was $17,258. Males had a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. The median income for a household in the city was $27,133, and the median income for a family was $32,338. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males.

For every 100 females there were 88.2 males. The median age was 33 years. In the city the population was spread out with:. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.23.

There were 188,251 households out of which:. But due to the enormous annual tourist flow, the amount of people inside the city at a given time, such as Mardi Gras season, tends to exceed these numbers sometimes by the hundreds of thousands. These population statistics are based on legal residents of the city. The population of Greater New Orleans stood at 1,337,726 in 2000, making it the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States.

The racial makeup of the city was:. There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). The population density was 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city.

The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1 or 2 inches of snow. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954, and brought 4.5 inches (110 mm). On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. Most recently, a trace of snow fell on Christmas in 2004, during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm.

On rare occasions, snow will fall. The average precipitation is 59.74 inches (1520 mm) annually. The highest recorded temperature was 102.0°F (38.9°C) on August 22, 1980. The lowest recorded temperature was 11.0°F (-11.6°C) on December 23, 1989.

In July, lows average 74°F (23°C), and highs average 91°F (33°C). In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6°C), and daily highs around 62°F (17°C). The climate of New Orleans is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. Bernard Parish to the south, Plaquemines Parish to the southwest, and Jefferson Parish to the west.

Tammany Parish to the northeast, St. Parishes located adjacent to the city of New Orleans include St. John, Mid City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, The upper 9th Ward and Algiers. Other major districts within the city include Bayou St.

Its tallest building is the 50-story One Shell Square. Parts of the city that are located uptown include the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. Parts of the city that are located downtown include the world famous French Quarter (most noted as the central tourist district, with its array of shops, bars, and nightclubs along Bourbon Street), Storyville (now defunct), Treme, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater, the 7th Ward, and the Lower 9th Ward. "Uptown" refers to those parts of town that are upriver from the central business district.

The term "downtown" refers to those parts of town that are downriver from the central business district. Major streets of the area include Canal Street and Poydras St. The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and is historically called the "American Quarter." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. Tammany.

John the Baptist, and St. Charles, St. Bernard, St. The New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 37th largest in the United States, includes the Louisiana parishes of Orleans (contiguous with the city of New Orleans), Jefferson, Plaquemines, St.

Because of the city's high water table most of the cemeteries in the city use above ground crypts as opposed to underground burial. Before the 20th century pumping system, if it rains more than 1 inch, or more recently if there is a major storm surge, such as that caused by a hurricane, greater flooding can occur. Rainwater is continually pumped out of the city and into Lake Pontchartrain across a series of canals lined by levees and dikes. Some 45% of the city is above sea level; these higher areas were developed before 1900; the lowest areas only being developed more recently.

Much of the city is actually located between 1 and 10 feet (0.3 to 3 m) below sea level, and as such, is very prone to flooding. The city of New Orleans actually contains the lowest point in the state of Louisiana, and one of the lowest points in the United States, after Death Valley and the Salton Sea. The Mississippi Delta, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, covers about 13,000 square miles (about 1/4 of Louisiana) and consists of silt deposited by the river, and is the most fertile area of Louisiana. Fields atop the ridges along the river are referred to as the "frontlands." The land contour slopes away from the frontlands to the "backlands", comprised of clay and silt.

The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. The city is located in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, between the Mississippi River in the south and Lake Pontchartrain in the north. The total area is 48.45% water. 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N, 90°4′14″W (29.964722, -90.070556)GR1 on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. By October 1, parts of the city accounting for about one-third of the population of New Orleans had been reopened, including the French Quarter.[4] As of October 1, only 5% of the city remained underwater. New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded when a storm surge from Rita overcame one of the repaired levees on the Industrial Canal [3].

[2]. Concern about the fragility of the city's flood defences and transportation caused repopulation efforts to be postponed due to Hurricane Rita. The mayor announced a "phased repopulation" plan to start bringing residents of the city back in the next two weeks. On September 15, several of the suburban towns started allowing residents to return.

The city government declared the city off-limits to residents while clean-up efforts began and warned that those remaining could be removed by force, for their health and safety. Subsequent investigations showed that the levee failures which flooded the majority of the city were the result of what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1]. Early estimates of the cost of physical damage from the storm have exceeded 100 billion USD. As of November 2005, the Times Picayune article states that, in addition to 1,050 confirmed deaths, there are 5,000 missing residents of the city.

As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. These canals were the 17th Street Canal, the Industrial Canal, and the London Avenue Canal. The situation worsened when levees along three canals were breached. Heavy rains and flooding immediately affected the eastern areas of the city.

The eye of the storm passed within 10 to 15 miles of New Orleans, bringing strong winds that downed trees, shattered windows, and hurled debris around the area. Many residents chose to stay or were stranded in the city by a lack of available transportation. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. The city suffered from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005 on the gulf coast near the city.

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water. A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition. Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the domestic and international tourist industry. While long one of the USA's most-visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy.

Because of Camille's tightly wound rings, the storm actually pulled water from the then impending fate they believed was imminent from Lake Ponchartrain and Lake Borgne, and veered toward her landfall point, approximately 50 miles away at Pass Christian, Mississippi, which is believed to have received a 28 foot storm surge. In 1969 the city was brushed by Hurricane Camille but was spared from the catastrophic flooding it had seen in Hurricane Betsy and later in Hurricane Katrina. In 1965 the city was damaged by Hurricane Betsy, with catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward. Much of the city flooded in September of 1947 due to the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane.

Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish. The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April 2004. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses.

In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans.

The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. (2000-2004).

Jamal Morelli's struggle for the neighborhood was successful in protecting the lower ninth ward. The HCNA sent Jamal Morelli, activist and New Orleans artist, to respresent them in Washington, D.C. The Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, (HCNA) respresenting a substantial group of the aforementioned lower ninth ward, created a lobby against the Army Corps of Engineers furthering work on the levees which might endanger the neighborhoods. This warning was augmented by vestigial fears from Hurricane Betsy, and the lasting stories of the Army Corps of Engineers blasting the flooding levees, drowning the poorer neighborhoods of the lower ninth Ward.

There were many warnings in the late 20th century that a major hurricane or a Mississippi flood could create a lake in the central city as much as 9 m (30 ft) deep, which could take months to pump dry. The subsidence greatly increased the flood risk, should the levees be breached or precipitation be in excess of pumping capacity (as was the case in 2005 in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina). However, pumping of groundwater from underneath the city has resulted in subsidence. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area.

All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City.

Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial.

It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. It was the first captured city in the American South. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union (by David Farragut -son of Spanish emigrants- later named the first US Navy Vice-Admiral) without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color.

New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. However, population growth was at times plagued by yellow fever epidemics, such as the great scourge of 1853 that killed nearly 10,000 people in New Orleans. The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 the city's population was around 102,000, fourth-largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South after Baltimore. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans).

The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. In its early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000. But in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase.

Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon re-acquired the territory from Spain by treaty. In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. Louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere. The three most impressive buildings of New Orleans come from the Spanish times: St.

As a result of this, and a subsequent fire in 1795 (another 200 houses destroyed), much of 18th century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built under Spanish rule and demonstrates Spanish colonial characteristics, wood was replaced with bricks. The Great Fire of 1788 destroyed many of the existing structures in the city (800 houses were destroyed), which were made of wood. In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire and remained under Spanish control for 40 years. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi.

A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for more than a decade before the official founding of the city. John (known to natives as Bayou Choupique). The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville.

Main article: History of New Orleans. . Residents of the city are referred to as New Orleanians. The city's name is often abbreviated NOLA.

The city's unofficial motto, "Laissez les bons temps rouler" ("Let the good times roll") describes the party-like attitude of many residents. The city's several nicknames describe various characteristics of the city, including the "Crescent City" (describing its shape around the Mississippi River), "The Big Easy" (a reference by musicians to the relative ease of finding work in the city) and "The City that Care Forgot" (associated with the easy going, carefree nature of many of the local residents). The city was named in honor of Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded (much as New York was named in honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England). New Orleans was founded by the French in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States.

The two ports together would be the fourth largest port in the world. ports for exporting grain. The Port of South Louisiana is based in the New Orleans metropolitan area and has been ranked the fifth largest port in the world in terms of raw tonnage, and among the largest U.S. port for several major commodities including rubber, cement and coffee.

The Port of New Orleans is the largest U.S. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf. New Orleans remains a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. While most of the city has reopened to residents, and areas which suffered moderate damage have substantially resumed functioning, the parts of town most severely damaged - such as some neighborhoods of the lower 9th Ward - are open only during daylight hours for residents to salvage items from their formerly flooded homes.

As of mid-December 2005, efforts continue to aid survivors, clean up debris, and restore infrastructure. Estimates as of late 2005 cite fewer than 150,000 residing in the city, and projections of the city's eventual population following reconstruction are highly speculative. Since the devastation of the city in conjunction with Hurricane Katrina, the population has been significantly less, due to the majority of surviving residents either taking temporary shelter elsewhere or relocating indefinitely. census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the population of Greater New Orleans at 1,337,726.

The most recent U.S. It is a world-famous tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most noteworthy annual events are Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Jazz Fest, Essence Festival (moved to Houston, TX for 2006), Voodoo Fest, Southern Decadence, and college football's Sugar Bowl (although the bowl game has been moved to Atlanta for the 2006 game). New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French, Spanish and African American influences) as well as its music and cuisine. New Orleans is named after the historical Duke of Orléans, Regent of France and is one of the oldest and most historic cities in the United States.

It is in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. state of Louisiana. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. New Orleans (local pronunciations: /nuːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /la nuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is a major U.S.


Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States. In a 2005 episode of Law and Order: Special Victims Unit, the detectives pursue a child molester who kidnapped three young sisters from New Orleans after their parents were killed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In 2005, American Idol held auditions in New Orleans. In a 2004 episode of Las Vegas called "New Orleans", Danny, Ed and Sam head to New Orleans in search of a big gambler who owes the casino money.

In a 2003 episode of The Drew Carey Show, Drew and his buddies set off on a road trip to New Orleans to find a girl he met after placing an ad on a beer bottle. In a 2001 episode of Seven Days, Parker goes to New Orleans to prove that his friend, who is scheduled to be executed, is innocent. Season 9 (2000) of The Real World was set in New Orleans. The short-lived 1997 CBS series Orleans was set in New Orleans.

In a 1992 episode of The Simpsons called "A Streetcar Named Marge", Marge is cast in a musical version of "A Streetcar Named Desire" that featured a controversial parody song about New Orleans. Urban/Urban Contemporary: KMEZ-FM (102.9), KNOU-FM (104.5), WQUE-FM (93.3), WYLD-FM (98.5). Talk: WSMB-AM (1350), WWL-AM (870), WTIX-AM (690). Sports: WODT-AM (1280).

Rock: KKND-FM (106.7), WRNO-FM (99.5), WEZB-FM (97.1), WKBU-FM (105.3). Public: WTUL-FM (91.5), WRBH-FM (88.3). Oldies: WTKL-FM (95.7), WJSH-FM (104.7). Latino: KGLA-AM (1540), WFNO-FM (830).

Gospel/Christian: KHEV-FM (104.1), WYLD-AM (940), WBSN-FM (89.1), WLNO-AM (1060), WSHO-FM (800), WOPR-FM (94.9), WVOG-AM (600). Contemporary: KLRZ-FM (100.3), WLMG-FM (101.9), WDVW-FM (92.3). Country: WNOE-FM (101.1). Jazz: WWNO-FM (88.9), WWOZ-FM (90.7).

11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. 20.9% from 45 to 64. 29.3% from 25 to 44. 11.4% from 18 to 24.

26.7% under the age of 18. 9.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals. 40.0% were non-families.

24.5% had a female householder with no husband present. 30.8% were married couples living together. 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 3.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

1.28% from two or more races. 0.93% from other races. 0.02% Pacific Islander. 2.26% Asian.

0.20% Native American. 28.05% White. 67.25% African American.

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