New Orleans, Louisiana

Nickname: "The Big Easy"
Motto: "'"
Official website: http://www.cityofno.com/
Location


Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States

Government
Country
State
Parish
United States
Louisiana
Orleans Parish, Louisiana
Mayor C. Ray Nagin (D)
Geographical characteristics
Area
Total 350.2 km²
Land 180.6 km²
Water 169.7 km²
Population
Total (2000) 484,674
Metro area 1,337,726
Density 534.4/km²
Latitude {{{latitude}}}
Longitude {{{longitude}}}
Coordinates 29°57′53″ N
90°4′14″ W
Elevation 3.3 m
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)

New Orleans (local pronunciations: /nuːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /la nuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is a major U.S. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. New Orleans is named after the historical Duke of Orléans, Regent of France and is one of the oldest and most historic cities in the United States.

New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French, Spanish and African American influences) as well as its music and cuisine. It is a world-famous tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most noteworthy annual events are Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Jazz Fest, Essence Festival (moved to Houston, TX for 2006), Voodoo Fest, Southern Decadence, and college football's Sugar Bowl (although the bowl game has been moved to Atlanta for the 2006 game).

The most recent U.S. census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the population of Greater New Orleans at 1,337,726. Since the devastation of the city in conjunction with Hurricane Katrina, the population has been significantly less, due to the majority of surviving residents either taking temporary shelter elsewhere or relocating indefinitely. Estimates as of late 2005 cite fewer than 150,000 residing in the city, and projections of the city's eventual population following reconstruction are highly speculative.

As of mid-December 2005, efforts continue to aid survivors, clean up debris, and restore infrastructure. While most of the city has reopened to residents, and areas which suffered moderate damage have substantially resumed functioning, the parts of town most severely damaged - such as some neighborhoods of the lower 9th Ward - are open only during daylight hours for residents to salvage items from their formerly flooded homes.

New Orleans remains a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf. The Port of New Orleans is the largest U.S. port for several major commodities including rubber, cement and coffee. The Port of South Louisiana is based in the New Orleans metropolitan area and has been ranked the fifth largest port in the world in terms of raw tonnage, and among the largest U.S. ports for exporting grain. The two ports together would be the fourth largest port in the world.

New Orleans was founded by the French in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States. The city was named in honor of Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded (much as New York was named in honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England).

The city's several nicknames describe various characteristics of the city, including the "Crescent City" (describing its shape around the Mississippi River), "The Big Easy" (a reference by musicians to the relative ease of finding work in the city) and "The City that Care Forgot" (associated with the easy going, carefree nature of many of the local residents). The city's unofficial motto, "Laissez les bons temps rouler" ("Let the good times roll") describes the party-like attitude of many residents.

The city's name is often abbreviated NOLA. Residents of the city are referred to as New Orleanians.

History

Main article: History of New Orleans

Colonial era

New Orleans is a historic city. Sign at Jackson Square in the French Quarter

New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. John (known to natives as Bayou Choupique). A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for more than a decade before the official founding of the city. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi.

In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire and remained under Spanish control for 40 years.

The Great Fire of 1788 destroyed many of the existing structures in the city (800 houses were destroyed), which were made of wood. As a result of this, and a subsequent fire in 1795 (another 200 houses destroyed), much of 18th century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built under Spanish rule and demonstrates Spanish colonial characteristics, wood was replaced with bricks.

The three most impressive buildings of New Orleans come from the Spanish times: St. Louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere.

In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon re-acquired the territory from Spain by treaty. But in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000.

19th century

In its early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans).

1888 German map of New Orleans.

The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 the city's population was around 102,000, fourth-largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South after Baltimore. However, population growth was at times plagued by yellow fever epidemics, such as the great scourge of 1853 that killed nearly 10,000 people in New Orleans.

New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union (by David Farragut -son of Spanish emigrants- later named the first US Navy Vice-Admiral) without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. It was the first captured city in the American South. It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville.

20th century

New Orleans panorama from 1919. Canal Street, looking away from the river, 1920s A view across Uptown New Orleans, with the Central Business District in the background, 1990s

Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area. However, pumping of groundwater from underneath the city has resulted in subsidence. The subsidence greatly increased the flood risk, should the levees be breached or precipitation be in excess of pumping capacity (as was the case in 2005 in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina). There were many warnings in the late 20th century that a major hurricane or a Mississippi flood could create a lake in the central city as much as 9 m (30 ft) deep, which could take months to pump dry. This warning was augmented by vestigial fears from Hurricane Betsy, and the lasting stories of the Army Corps of Engineers blasting the flooding levees, drowning the poorer neighborhoods of the lower ninth Ward. The Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, (HCNA) respresenting a substantial group of the aforementioned lower ninth ward, created a lobby against the Army Corps of Engineers furthering work on the levees which might endanger the neighborhoods. The HCNA sent Jamal Morelli, activist and New Orleans artist, to respresent them in Washington, D.C. Jamal Morelli's struggle for the neighborhood was successful in protecting the lower ninth ward. (2000-2004)

In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since.

New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season.

In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April 2004.

The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish.

Much of the city flooded in September of 1947 due to the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane.

In 1965 the city was damaged by Hurricane Betsy, with catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward.

In 1969 the city was brushed by Hurricane Camille but was spared from the catastrophic flooding it had seen in Hurricane Betsy and later in Hurricane Katrina. Because of Camille's tightly wound rings, the storm actually pulled water from the then impending fate they believed was imminent from Lake Ponchartrain and Lake Borgne, and veered toward her landfall point, approximately 50 miles away at Pass Christian, Mississippi, which is believed to have received a 28 foot storm surge.

While long one of the USA's most-visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy. Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the domestic and international tourist industry.

A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition.

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water.

21st Century (Hurricane Katrina)

An aerial view of the flooded areas in part of the New Orleans Central Business District

The city suffered from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005 on the gulf coast near the city. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. Many residents chose to stay or were stranded in the city by a lack of available transportation. The eye of the storm passed within 10 to 15 miles of New Orleans, bringing strong winds that downed trees, shattered windows, and hurled debris around the area. Heavy rains and flooding immediately affected the eastern areas of the city.

The situation worsened when levees along three canals were breached. These canals were the 17th Street Canal, the Industrial Canal, and the London Avenue Canal. As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. As of November 2005, the Times Picayune article states that, in addition to 1,050 confirmed deaths, there are 5,000 missing residents of the city. Early estimates of the cost of physical damage from the storm have exceeded 100 billion USD. Subsequent investigations showed that the levee failures which flooded the majority of the city were the result of what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1]

The city government declared the city off-limits to residents while clean-up efforts began and warned that those remaining could be removed by force, for their health and safety. On September 15, several of the suburban towns started allowing residents to return. The mayor announced a "phased repopulation" plan to start bringing residents of the city back in the next two weeks. Concern about the fragility of the city's flood defences and transportation caused repopulation efforts to be postponed due to Hurricane Rita. [2]. New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded when a storm surge from Rita overcame one of the repaired levees on the Industrial Canal [3]. By October 1, parts of the city accounting for about one-third of the population of New Orleans had been reopened, including the French Quarter.[4] As of October 1, only 5% of the city remained underwater.

Geography and climate

Vertical cross-section of New Orleans, showing maximum levee height of 23 feet (7 m).

New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N, 90°4′14″W (29.964722, -90.070556)GR1 on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 48.45% water.

The city is located in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, between the Mississippi River in the south and Lake Pontchartrain in the north. The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. Fields atop the ridges along the river are referred to as the "frontlands." The land contour slopes away from the frontlands to the "backlands", comprised of clay and silt. The Mississippi Delta, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, covers about 13,000 square miles (about 1/4 of Louisiana) and consists of silt deposited by the river, and is the most fertile area of Louisiana.

The city of New Orleans actually contains the lowest point in the state of Louisiana, and one of the lowest points in the United States, after Death Valley and the Salton Sea. Much of the city is actually located between 1 and 10 feet (0.3 to 3 m) below sea level, and as such, is very prone to flooding. Some 45% of the city is above sea level; these higher areas were developed before 1900; the lowest areas only being developed more recently. Rainwater is continually pumped out of the city and into Lake Pontchartrain across a series of canals lined by levees and dikes. Before the 20th century pumping system, if it rains more than 1 inch, or more recently if there is a major storm surge, such as that caused by a hurricane, greater flooding can occur. Because of the city's high water table most of the cemeteries in the city use above ground crypts as opposed to underground burial.

The New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 37th largest in the United States, includes the Louisiana parishes of Orleans (contiguous with the city of New Orleans), Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, and St. Tammany.

Cityscape

New Orleans contains many distinctive neighborhoods.

The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and is historically called the "American Quarter." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. Major streets of the area include Canal Street and Poydras St. The term "downtown" refers to those parts of town that are downriver from the central business district. "Uptown" refers to those parts of town that are upriver from the central business district. Parts of the city that are located downtown include the world famous French Quarter (most noted as the central tourist district, with its array of shops, bars, and nightclubs along Bourbon Street), Storyville (now defunct), Treme, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater, the 7th Ward, and the Lower 9th Ward. Parts of the city that are located uptown include the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. Its tallest building is the 50-story One Shell Square.

Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. John, Mid City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, The upper 9th Ward and Algiers.

Parishes located adjacent to the city of New Orleans include St. Tammany Parish to the northeast, St. Bernard Parish to the south, Plaquemines Parish to the southwest, and Jefferson Parish to the west.

A true-color satellite image of New Orleans taken on NASA's Landsat 7

Tallest Buildings

Climate

The climate of New Orleans is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6°C), and daily highs around 62°F (17°C). In July, lows average 74°F (23°C), and highs average 91°F (33°C). The lowest recorded temperature was 11.0°F (-11.6°C) on December 23, 1989. The highest recorded temperature was 102.0°F (38.9°C) on August 22, 1980. The average precipitation is 59.74 inches (1520 mm) annually.

On rare occasions, snow will fall. Most recently, a trace of snow fell on Christmas in 2004, during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954, and brought 4.5 inches (110 mm). The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1 or 2 inches of snow.

People and culture

Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was:

The population of Greater New Orleans stood at 1,337,726 in 2000, making it the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States. These population statistics are based on legal residents of the city. But due to the enormous annual tourist flow, the amount of people inside the city at a given time, such as Mardi Gras season, tends to exceed these numbers sometimes by the hundreds of thousands.

There were 188,251 households out of which:

The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.23.

In the city the population was spread out with:

The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,133, and the median income for a family was $32,338. Males had a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,258. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

The population of New Orleans reached its highest point in the summer of 1965, when its population reached 702,108. The population was stunted in the late sixties, a decade which saw storm surge from Hurricane Betsy flooded much of the Lower 9th Ward Since the late sixties, the population of New Orleans/Orleans Parish has experienced a steady decline while surrounding parishes such as Jefferson and St. Tammany registered strong increases in population.

An analysis by Brown University sociologist John R. Logan in January of 2005 suggests that as many as 50% of whites and 80% of blacks relocated from New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath may relocate permanently.

New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo practice by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and spirit of celebration.

Pronunciation

New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals as "Noo Or-lins," "Noo Awlee-enz," or "Noo Aw-lins." The pronunciation "N'Awlins" is not generally used by locals but has been popularized by the tourist trade. The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with it. There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups. The prestige associated with being from New Orleans by many residents is likely a factor in the linguistic assimilation of the ethnically divergent population. This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city (but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes). As with many sociolinguistic artifacts, it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population. One subtype of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat (from "Where y'at). This word is not used as a generalized term for the New Orleans accent, and is generally reserved for the strongest varieties. Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," "makin' groceries" for grocery shopping, or "neutral ground" for a street median.

Media

The major daily newspaper is the New Orleans Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. Other alternative weekly publications include the Louisiana Weekly and the Gambit Weekly.

Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. The market is the 43rd largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 672,150 homes and 0.610% of the U.S. Major television network affiliates serving the area include WWL 4 (CBS), WGNO 26 (ABC), WDSU 6 (NBC), WVUE 8 (FOX), WNOL 38 (WB), WUPL 54 (UPN), and WPXL 49 (PAX). PBS stations include WYES 12 and WLAE 32. WHNO 20 also operates as an independent station in the area, providing mainly religious programming.

Radio stations serving Greater New Orleans include:

Television References

Several episodes of television series have referenced the city:

Museums and other attractions

Bourbon Street, New Orleans, in 2003, looking towards Canal Street.

Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife, St. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), and many stately 19th century mansions.

Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street. Other notable tourist attractions in the quarter include Jackson Square, St. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and Preservation Hall.

Also located near the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, now operates as a museum. The National D-Day Museum is a relatively new museum (opened on June 6, 2000) dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France. The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily.

Art museums in the city include the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. The Audubon Park and the Audubon Zoo are also located in the city of New Orleans. New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery.

The city is also world-famous for its food. Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours.")

Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden.

Annual cultural events and fairs

See also: New Orleans Mardi Gras

Mounted Krewe Officers in the Thoth Parade during Mardi Gras.

Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations, including Mardi Gras, New Year's Eve celebrations, and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), held just before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carré, translated Old Square), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux.

The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. Commonly referred to simply as, "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists.

Music

Louis Armstrong, famous New Orleans Jazz musician.

New Orleans has always been a significant center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. Its general atmosphere of Dionysian art has also resulted in both breeding and being a home to chaotic artists such as Crash Worship, Liquiddrone, and Jamal Morelli. In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues.

The city also created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music," but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music.

Sports & Recreation

The Louisiana Superdome, home to the New Orleans Saints.

The city is the home to several professional, major league sports teams, including the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League and the New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association which relocated from Charlotte, North Carolina, at the start of the 2002–2003 season. The Saints play in the Louisiana Superdome, and the Hornets play in the adjacent New Orleans Arena.

Due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, including damage both to the exterior and the interior of the Louisiana Superdome, the New Orleans Saints have played their "home" games in Baton Rouge and San Antonio, Texas. The football season began just a week after the storm hit, and the Saints played their first "home" game against the Giants at Giants Stadium. The Hornets will play 36 "home" games at the Ford Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the remaining 5 to be split between Norman (University of Oklahoma campus), Baton Rouge (LSU campus) and a March 2006 return to New Orleans for three home games.

The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner, Tom Benson. The New Orleans Zephyrs, AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie. They are currently affiliated with the Washington Nationals.

The city also hosts two college football bowl games annually: the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. Nine Super Bowls have been contested in New Orleans.

Historically, many teams have been formerly located in the city, including the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Breakers of the United States Football League, the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz.

New Orleans is also home to Southern Yacht Club, located at West End on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain. Established in 1849, it is the second oldest yacht club in the United States. The building was severely damaged, first by storm surge and then by fire, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

Economy

A tanker on the Mississippi River in New Orleans.

New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. seaport. It is one of the busiest seaports in not only the United States, but also the world. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid 20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic.

Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. There are a substantial number of energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil Company. The city is also home to one Fortune 500 company, Entergy Corporation, an electric power provider.

The federal government has a significant presence in the area. The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. The facility is operated by Lockheed-Martin and is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced. The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses the National Finance Center operated by the USDA.

Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include BellSouth, Hibernia Corp., IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, and Zatarain's.

The Port of New Orleans handles about 84 million short tons of cargo a year. The Port of South Louisiana, located in the Metropolitan New Orleans Area, handles 199 million short tons. The two combined would be the 4th largest port in the world.

About 5,000 ships from nearly 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. gateway, including Miami.

New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly.

There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them.

New Orleans is also one of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. Other major tourist events and attractions in the city include Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Southern Decadence (one of the largest annual Gay/Lesbian celebrations in the nation), and the Essence Festival.

Infrastructure

Government

New Orleans has a mayor-council government. The city council consists of five councilmembers who are elected by district and two at large councilmembers. Mayor C. Ray Nagin, Jr. was elected in May 2002.

The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system.

The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-county government.GR6 Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou and Carrollton. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans.

Schools

New Orleans Public Schools, the city's school district, is one of the area's largest school districts. NOPS contains approximately 100 individual schools. The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools.

Several institutions of higher education also exist within the city, including University of New Orleans, Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Medical School, and Our Lady of Holy Cross College. Other schools include Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College, Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, Commonwealth University, and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.

Libraries

There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University[7] and Earl K. Long Library at the University of New Orleans.[8]

The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina.[9] The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections.[10]

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection[11] and the Old U.S. Mint.[12]

Transportation

The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), located approximately nine miles west of the city in the city of Kenner. It serves millions of passengers on approximately 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe. The airport also serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express.

Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport, a small, general aviation airport, as well as the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area.

The city is also served by rail via Amtrak. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and it is served by three trains: the Crescent to New York City, the City of New Orleans to Chicago, Illinois, and the Sunset Limited from Orlando to Los Angeles.

In addition, the city is served by six Class I freight railroads. Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway approach the city from the west, Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX from the east, and the Canadian National Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway from the north.

Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). In addition to the many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by DC wires overhead. The St. Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark. The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art.

The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. There are proposals to revive a Desire light rail streetcar line.

Roads in the city are arranged in a radial grid pattern, emanating out to various parts of town from a central point north of the Central Business District. I-10 loops east-west through the city, and traverses the northern edge of the Central Business District, taking traffic west towards Baton Rouge, Louisiana and east-northeast to Slidell, Louisiana. The "Highrise" carries I-10 across the Industrial Canal.

Farther east, the I-10 connects New Orleans East with Slidell, bridging an arm of Lake Pontchartrain. This crossing, a dual causeway known as the "Twin Spans," was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. By October 2005 single lanes in each direction had been reopened on the eastbound span. The westbound span was reopened in early January 2006. The Twin Spans is to be replaced with a new six-lane bridge, expected to be completed in 2009.[13] As I-10 heads south from Metairie towards the Central Business District, it is called the Pontchartrain Expressway.

I-610 provides a direct shortcut across the northern central part of the city, allowing through traffic to bypass I-10's L-shaped route which traverses the more congested areas.

US 90 leaves the Central Business District and goes west through the city's Uptown neighborhood and crosses the Missisisppi River at the Huey P. Long Bridge near the suburb of Jefferson. I-10 is also connected to I-12, north of Lake Pontchartrain, via the tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, which are also the longest in the world.

The interstate highways serving New Orleans were laid out in the middle of the 20th century, a time when a larger proportion of Gulf of Mexico freight traffic passed through New Orleans. I-10 goes west to Houston and beyond and east to Mobile and Florida, with I-59 and I-55 heading northward to Birmingham and Jackson, respectively. Later, I-12 created a shortcut that avoided crossing Lake Pontchartrain. In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns southward toward New Orleans while I-12 continues straight to rejoin I-10 in Baton Rouge. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. The route would follow U.S. Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans, and US 51 terminates just west of the city, Laplace.

The Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal.

Roads along the Mississippi River were the first to carry overland traffic into New Orleans. US 51 (the "Old Hammond Highway"), US 90, and US 11 followed old Indian routes along slight ridges to become the first automotive highways. Louisiana governor Huey P. Long championed Airline Highway (US 61) to bypass the circuitous river road between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. The route of today's US 90 east of New Orleans once included a ferry crossing at Fort Pike. Governor Long built public draw bridges at the Rigolets as political retaliation against the operators of a then-private toll bridge across Lake Pontchartrain. Long achieved his objective: the US 11 toll bridge failed commercially and is owned by the State. US 11 was the escape route for Ignatius J. Reilly at the end of John Kennedy Toole's novel, A Confederacy of Dunces.

West of New Orleans, the Ruddock exit at milepost 6 of I-55 is the only trace left of a thriving community that was literally washed away by the hurricane of September 1915. Frenier Beach Hurricane Storm Surge Revisited In the 1960s, a controversial "Dixie Freeway" that would have been designated I-410 would have created an "outer loop" encompassing St. Bernard Parish, the westbank areas of New Orleans and Jefferson, and back across the river in St. Charles Parish where I-310 now runs. Environmental concern for the wetlands south of New Orleans and economic considerations derailed those plans.

Sister cities

New Orleans has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI): Juan-les-Pins (France), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Matsue (Japan), Mérida (Mexico), Innsbruck (Austria), Pointe Noire (Republic of Congo), San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Caracas (Venezuela), and Holdfast Bay (Australia).


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(SCI): Juan-les-Pins (France), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Matsue (Japan), Mérida (Mexico), Innsbruck (Austria), Pointe Noire (Republic of Congo), San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Caracas (Venezuela), and Holdfast Bay (Australia).
. New Orleans has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. The September 11, 2001 attacks have been the subject of numerous films and other works of art and literature. Environmental concern for the wetlands south of New Orleans and economic considerations derailed those plans. In addition to physical monuments, a number of September 11th family members and friends have set up memorial funds, scholarships, and charities in honor of lost loved ones. Charles Parish where I-310 now runs. The Drawing Center withdrew its proposal for the site, and in consideration of objections raised by some victims' families, New York Governor George Pataki has barred the IFC from building at the site.

Bernard Parish, the westbank areas of New Orleans and Jefferson, and back across the river in St. Among these were the The Drawing Center and the International Freedom Center (IFC). Frenier Beach Hurricane Storm Surge Revisited In the 1960s, a controversial "Dixie Freeway" that would have been designated I-410 would have created an "outer loop" encompassing St. This memorial design been generally praised, while other proposed elements for the site have drawn controversy. West of New Orleans, the Ruddock exit at milepost 6 of I-55 is the only trace left of a thriving community that was literally washed away by the hurricane of September 1915. There is one planned called Reflecting Absence, which was designed by Michael Arad and selected through a design competition. Reilly at the end of John Kennedy Toole's novel, A Confederacy of Dunces. Currently, there is no memorial at the World Trade Center site.

US 11 was the escape route for Ignatius J. Recently, due to the amount of public pressure, it has been announced that the memorial will be redesigned as to avoid any confusion with the sign of Islam. Long achieved his objective: the US 11 toll bridge failed commercially and is owned by the State. The proposed design for Flight 93 National Memorial is called Crescent of Embrace, and it has created some controversy due to its large red crescent plan which also points toward Mecca. Governor Long built public draw bridges at the Rigolets as political retaliation against the operators of a then-private toll bridge across Lake Pontchartrain. Public access to this memorial is restricted to group tours, such as veteran's groups. The route of today's US 90 east of New Orleans once included a ferry crossing at Fort Pike. Within the Pentagon itself, the America's Heroes Memorial was added in September 2002, when the building repairs were completed.

Long championed Airline Highway (US 61) to bypass the circuitous river road between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. [50] Construction of the memorial is scheduled for completion in Fall 2006. Louisiana governor Huey P. An outdoor memorial at the Pentagon, for the public, has been designed by Keith Kaseman and Julie Beckman of KBAS of New York City. US 51 (the "Old Hammond Highway"), US 90, and US 11 followed old Indian routes along slight ridges to become the first automotive highways. Memorials to the victims and heroes of the attacks of September 11 have been planned for the three sites. Roads along the Mississippi River were the first to carry overland traffic into New Orleans. The Bush Administration also invoked 9/11 as the reason to initiate a secret National Security Agency operation "to eavesdrop on telephone and e-mail communications between the United States and people overseas without a warrant." [49].

Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal. Civil liberties groups have criticized the PATRIOT Act, saying that it allows law enforcement to invade the privacy of citizens and eliminates Judicial oversight over law-enforcement and domestic intelligence gathering. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. Congress passed the USA PATRIOT Act, stating that it would help detect and prosecute terrorism and other alleged future crimes. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. government in contemporary history. The Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. Within the United States, President Bush created the Department of Homeland Security, representing the largest re-structuring of the U.S.

The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans, and US 51 terminates just west of the city, Laplace. government claims to the contrary include: (1) allegations by Czech intelligence of a meeting between 9/11 ringleader Mohammed Atta and an Iraqi intelligence official in Prague on the same day Atta was seen in Florida; and (2) evidence that Ahmed Hikmat Shakir, allegedly a contact of Iraqi intelligence, was present at a meeting in Malaysia where future 9/11 hijacker Khalid al Mihdhar is believed by the CIA to have attended.). Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. (Unsubstantiated U.S. The route would follow U.S. No clear evidence has emerged to support the claim. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. government in the lead up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, when for example, Vice President Dick Cheney suggested that Iraq was involved in the September 11 attack during a "Meet the Press" interview: Iraq is "the geographic base of the terrorists who had us under assault now for many years, but most especially on 9-11" (Knight-Ridder October 3, 2003, archived at www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1003-08.htm).

In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns southward toward New Orleans while I-12 continues straight to rejoin I-10 in Baton Rouge. This unsubstantiated view was promoted by the U.S. Later, I-12 created a shortcut that avoided crossing Lake Pontchartrain. The poll asked "How likely it is that Saddam Hussein was personally involved in the September 11th Terrorist attacks?" The response was 32% very likely, 37% somewhat likely, 12% not very likely and 3% not at all likely[48]. I-10 goes west to Houston and beyond and east to Mobile and Florida, with I-59 and I-55 heading northward to Birmingham and Jackson, respectively. Two years after the attacks, the Program on International Policy Attitudes reported on an opinion poll it conducted of the American public from January through September 2003. The interstate highways serving New Orleans were laid out in the middle of the 20th century, a time when a larger proportion of Gulf of Mexico freight traffic passed through New Orleans. "In the war on terror, Iraq is now the central front..." said President Bush on December 14, 2005, [47].

I-10 is also connected to I-12, north of Lake Pontchartrain, via the tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, which are also the longest in the world. government has continued to maintain that the war on Iraq is critical to the American "War on Terrorism". Long Bridge near the suburb of Jefferson. Also, the U.S. US 90 leaves the Central Business District and goes west through the city's Uptown neighborhood and crosses the Missisisppi River at the Huey P. Indeed, President Bush said "The battle of Iraq is one victory in a war on terror that began on September the 11, 2001..."[46]. I-610 provides a direct shortcut across the northern central part of the city, allowing through traffic to bypass I-10's L-shaped route which traverses the more congested areas. invasion of Iraq.

The Twin Spans is to be replaced with a new six-lane bridge, expected to be completed in 2009.[13] As I-10 heads south from Metairie towards the Central Business District, it is called the Pontchartrain Expressway. government has asserted that 9/11 is connected to the U.S. The westbound span was reopened in early January 2006. The U.S. By October 2005 single lanes in each direction had been reopened on the eastbound span. was not the only nation to increase its military readiness, with other notable examples being the Philippines and Indonesia, countries that have their own internal conflicts with terrorists. This crossing, a dual causeway known as the "Twin Spans," was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. The U.S.

Farther east, the I-10 connects New Orleans East with Slidell, bridging an arm of Lake Pontchartrain. The second-biggest operation outside of the United States was the invasion of Afghanistan, by U.S.-led coalitions. The "Highrise" carries I-10 across the Industrial Canal. These goals would be accomplished by means including economic and military sanctions against states perceived as harboring terrorists, and increasing global surveillance and intelligence sharing. I-10 loops east-west through the city, and traverses the northern edge of the Central Business District, taking traffic west towards Baton Rouge, Louisiana and east-northeast to Slidell, Louisiana. The United States declared a war on terrorism, with the stated goals of bringing Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda to justice, and preventing the emergence of other terrorist networks. Roads in the city are arranged in a radial grid pattern, emanating out to various parts of town from a central point north of the Central Business District. citizens held the view that they had "changed the world forever": that the United States was now vulnerable to terrorist attacks in a way that it had not yet experienced.

There are proposals to revive a Desire light rail streetcar line. In the aftermath of the attacks, many U.S. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. Similar attacks may also have been planned in New Delhi, Melbourne, and Montreal. The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. According to Mohammed Afroze, a planned simultaneous attack in London, on the House of Commons and Tower Bridge, was aborted at the last minute, when the would-be hijackers, waiting to board the planes they were to hijack, saw the damage in the USA, panicked, and fled. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the attack's mastermind, wanted to remove at least one member — Khalid al-Mihdhar — from the operation, but he was overruled by Osama bin Laden.

The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. Other al-Qaeda members who allegedly may have attempted, but were unable, to take part in the attacks include Saeed al-Ghamdi (not to be confused with the successful hijacker of the same name), Mushabib al-Hamlan, Zakariyah Essabar, Ali Abdul Aziz Ali, and Tawfiq bin Attash. Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark. He has yet to be sentenced. The St. However, in April 2005, Moussaoui pled guilty to involvement in the hijacking and al-Qaeda, a plea which made him eligible for the death penalty. In addition to the many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by DC wires overhead. Plans to include Moussaoui were allegedly never completed because the al-Qaeda hierarchy allegedly had doubts about his reliability.

Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). Zacarias Moussaoui was reportedly considered as a replacement for Ziad Jarrah, who at one point threatened to withdraw from the scheme because of tensions amongst the plotters. Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway approach the city from the west, Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX from the east, and the Canadian National Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway from the north. military prison known as Camp X-Ray at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. In addition, the city is served by six Class I freight railroads. He was later captured in Afghanistan and imprisoned at the U.S. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and it is served by three trains: the Crescent to New York City, the City of New Orleans to Chicago, Illinois, and the Sunset Limited from Orlando to Los Angeles. in August 2001.

The city is also served by rail via Amtrak. Immigration authorities at Orlando International Airport refused his entry into the U.S. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area. Mohamed al-Kahtani, a Saudi Arabian citizen, may also have been planning to join the hijackers but U.S. Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport, a small, general aviation airport, as well as the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. Ramzi Binalshibh allegedly meant to take part in the attacks, but he was repeatedly denied a visa for entry into the U.S. The airport also serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express. Other would-be hijackers are often referred to as the 20th hijackers.

The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe. In the end, only nineteen allegedly participated. It serves millions of passengers on approximately 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Allegedly twenty-seven members of al-Qaeda attempted to enter the United States to take part in the September 11 attacks. The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), located approximately nine miles west of the city in the city of Kenner. Critics across the political spectrum dismiss much of this speculation about 9/11 as Conspiracy theories that range from the dubious to the fantastic. Mint.[12]. Roosevelt administration before the attack on Pearl Harbor, claiming both attacks were more or less provoked by the United States' government and were allowed to happen to justify going to war.

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection[11] and the Old U.S. In his book Dreaming War: Blood for Oil and the Cheney-Bush Junta, he compares their behaviour before the attacks to that of the Franklin D. The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina.[9] The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections.[10]. Gore Vidal has been highly critical of the Bush Administration. Long Library at the University of New Orleans.[8]. presidential election, 2004), to be more easily accepted. There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University[7] and Earl K. invasion of Afghanistan), and even confirmations of what they consider to be questionable US elections (U.S.

Other schools include Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College, Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, Commonwealth University, and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary. Others investigating alternative theories of the 9/11 attacks are concerned by what they see as a series of 'incompetent' or uninvestigated events and coincidences during the Bush Administration which they believe are not all without intention - they see the attacks of 9/11 as the original or largest 'lie,' (or misleading event) that promoted a wartime mentality which subsequently allowed otherwise contentious legislation (i.e., USA PATRIOT Act), authorizations of military force (Iraq War and U.S. Several institutions of higher education also exist within the city, including University of New Orleans, Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Medical School, and Our Lady of Holy Cross College. invasion and occupation of Middle East countries to gain control of oil; to increase the popularity of the President; to make money for the oil and defense industries. The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools. Reasons behind questioning the official story derive from perceived benefits to the US: as justification for U.S. NOPS contains approximately 100 individual schools. Several books have detailed alternative narratives of the 9/11 attacks, and a large number of websites are devoted to explaining and continuing to examine alternative theories of the September 11 events.

New Orleans Public Schools, the city's school district, is one of the area's largest school districts. Others, from expert to layperson, have espoused this explanation of the buildings' falls. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans. Jones (professor of physics, Brigham Young University), has written an account that finds probable use of pre-positioned cutter-charges in the WTC collapses--in other words, controlled demolition. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. One of its members, Steven E. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou and Carrollton. Some skeptics worldwide have formed what they call a "9/11 Truth Movement." The latest force organized to examine the evidence of government complicity in 9/11 is Scholars for 9/11 Truth.

The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-county government.GR6 Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. Gaps within the public record, the lack of explanation for particular details, such as the collapse of WTC building 7, and firefighter testimonials reporting a series of explosions inside the twin towers, continue to fuel speculation [45]. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system. Others say the damage at the Pentagon and WTC does not correspond to the official narrative. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. Some theories include the President's behavior during the event as evidence. The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. leaders "knew in advance that attacks were planned on or around September 11, 2001, and that they consciously failed to act[44]." There are stories of phone call warnings, even weeks in advance that went unheeded.

was elected in May 2002. A Zogby International Poll published August 30, 2004 reported that half (49.3%) of New York City residents and 41% of New York citizens overall believe that some U.S. Ray Nagin, Jr. Since the attacks, there has been much speculation concerning their planning and execution. Mayor C. [43]. The city council consists of five councilmembers who are elected by district and two at large councilmembers. NIST stated that the final report on the collapse of WTC 7 will appear in a separate report.

New Orleans has a mayor-council government. In addition, the report asserts that the Towers' stairwells were not adequately reinforced to provide emergency escape for people above the impact zones. Other major tourist events and attractions in the city include Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Southern Decadence (one of the largest annual Gay/Lesbian celebrations in the nation), and the Essence Festival. The report concludes that the fireproofing on the Twin Towers' steel infrastructures was blown off by the initial impact of the planes and that if this had not occurred the WTC would likely have remained standing. The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. The investigation [42] was to serve as the basis for:. New Orleans is also one of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. The goals of this investigation — completed on April 6, 2005 — were to investigate the building construction, the materials used, and the technical conditions that contributed to the outcome of the WTC disaster.

These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them. A federal technical building and fire safety investigation of the collapses of the Twin Towers and 7 WTC has been conducted by the United States Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. For details on its collapse see: 7 World Trade Center. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly. 7 World Trade Center collapsed in the late afternoon of September 11. The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. If they are correct, supertall buildings that share the WTC's major design elements (for example, Chicago's Sears Tower and John Hancock Center) could be considered particularly vulnerable.

New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. Although the kinetic energy of the jetliner impacts and the resulting fires were unprecedented in the history of building disasters, some engineers strongly believe skyscrapers of more traditional design (such as New York City's Empire State Building and Malaysia's Petronas Towers) would have fared much better under the circumstances, perhaps standing indefinitely. gateway, including Miami. The design of the WTC included many basic innovations distinguishing it from all previous skyscrapers and from many built since. The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. government agencies. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. There has been much speculation on the "performance" of the Twin Towers after the impacts, and the reasons for the collapse are under active debate by structural engineers, architects, and the relevant U.S.

The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. The purpose of the study is to determine whether there is significant difference in development and health progression of children whose mothers were exposed versus those who were not exposed after the WTC collapse. About 5,000 ships from nearly 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. The staff of this study assess the children using psychological testing every year and interview the mothers every six months. The two combined would be the 4th largest port in the world. Due to this potential harm, a notable children's environmental health center is currently analyzing the children whose mothers were pregnant during the WTC collapse, and were living or working near the World Trade Center towers. The Port of South Louisiana, located in the Metropolitan New Orleans Area, handles 199 million short tons. There is scientific speculation that exposure to various toxic products and the pollutants in the air surrounding the Towers after the WTC collapse may have negative effects on fetal development.

The Port of New Orleans handles about 84 million short tons of cargo a year. [41]. Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include BellSouth, Hibernia Corp., IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, and Zatarain's. This has led to debilitating illnesses among rescue and recovery workers, as well as some residents, students, and office workers of Lower Manhattan and nearby Chinatown. The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses the National Finance Center operated by the USDA. Thousands of tons of toxic debris resulting from the collapse of the Twin Towers included asbestos, lead, and mercury, as well as unprecedented levels of dioxin and PAHs from the fires which burned for three months. The facility is operated by Lockheed-Martin and is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced. [40].

The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. At the deadline for victim's compensation, September 11, 2003, 2,833 applications were received from the families of those killed (from an official death toll of 2,986). The federal government has a significant presence in the area. The task of providing financial assistance to the survivors and the families of victims. The city is also home to one Fortune 500 company, Entergy Corporation, an electric power provider. Many relief funds were immediately set up to assist victims of the attacks. There are a substantial number of energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil Company. [37][38] [39].

Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. These platforms were closed on May 30, 2002. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid 20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic. Temporary wooden "viewing platforms" were set up for tourists to view construction crews clearing out the gaping holes where the towers once stood. The U.S. It took several weeks to simply put out the fires burning in the rubble of the WTC, and the clean-up was not completed until May 2002. It is one of the busiest seaports in not only the United States, but also the world. Rescue and recovery efforts took months to complete.

seaport. Many towers in the United States metropolitan areas were evacuated hours after the attacks, including Los Angeles, where traffic was at its lowest volume ever for that city, and the major downtown business district was virtually deserted. New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. airline industry. The building was severely damaged, first by storm surge and then by fire, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The attacks led to nearly a 20% cutback [36] in air travel capacity, and exacerbated financial problems in the struggling U.S. Established in 1849, it is the second oldest yacht club in the United States. North American air space was closed for several days after the attacks and air travel decreased significantly upon its reopening.

New Orleans is also home to Southern Yacht Club, located at West End on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain. There is no consensus regarding the demand for office space looking forward to 2010, so the market for 7 WTC and other new construction in the financial district is soft. Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz. Only Ameriprise Financial, Inc., a spinoff of American Express Financial Advisors has been named as a potential tenant for it[35]. Historically, many teams have been formerly located in the city, including the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Breakers of the United States Football League, the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). On the sites of the totally destroyed buildings, one, 7 World Trade Center, has a new office tower. Nine Super Bowls have been contested in New Orleans. [34].

The city also hosts two college football bowl games annually: the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. For example, Mayor Bloomberg had made New York's bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics the core of his capital development plan from 2002 until mid-2005, and Governor Pataki largely delegated his role to the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation [33] which has been widely criticized for doing little with the enormous funding directed to the rebuilding efforts. They are currently affiliated with the Washington Nationals. The rebuilding has been inhibited by a lack of agreement on priorities. The New Orleans Zephyrs, AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie. [29] [30] [31] [32]. The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner, Tom Benson. Many questioned whether this loss of jobs and its associated tax base would ever be restored.

The Hornets will play 36 "home" games at the Ford Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the remaining 5 to be split between Norman (University of Oklahoma campus), Baton Rouge (LSU campus) and a March 2006 return to New Orleans for three home games. The pre-2001 trend of moving jobs out of Lower Manhattan to Midtown and New Jersey was accelerated. The football season began just a week after the storm hit, and the Saints played their first "home" game against the Giants at Giants Stadium. Much of what was destroyed was valuable Class-A space. Due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, including damage both to the exterior and the interior of the Louisiana Superdome, the New Orleans Saints have played their "home" games in Baton Rouge and San Antonio, Texas. ft) of Lower Manhattan office space was either damaged or destroyed. The Saints play in the Louisiana Superdome, and the Hornets play in the adjacent New Orleans Arena. 30% (28.7 million sq.

The city is the home to several professional, major league sports teams, including the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League and the New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association which relocated from Charlotte, North Carolina, at the start of the 2002–2003 season. The economy of Lower Manhattan, which by itself is the third-largest business district in the United States (after Midtown Manhattan and the Chicago Loop) was devastated in the immediate aftermath. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music," but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music. As of 2005 Wall and Broad Streets near the New York Stock Exchange remain barricaded and guarded to prevent a physical attack upon the building. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. stocks lost $1.2 trillion in value for the week. The city also created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. U.S.

In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues. By the end of the week, the DJIA had fallen 1369.7 points (14.3%), its largest one-week point drop in history. Its general atmosphere of Dionysian art has also resulted in both breeding and being a home to chaotic artists such as Crash Worship, Liquiddrone, and Jamal Morelli. When the stock markets reopened on September 17, 2001, after the longest closure since the Great Depression in 1929, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (“DJIA”) stock market index fell 684 points, or 7.1%, to 8920, its biggest-ever one-day point decline. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) facilities and remote data processing sites were not damaged by the attack, but member firms, customers and markets were unable to communicate due to major damage to the telephone exchange facility near the World Trade Center. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. The New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange and NASDAQ did not open on September 11 and remained closed until September 17.

New Orleans has always been a significant center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. The attacks had significant short-term economic impact for the United States and world markets. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists. He, like others, was a Sikh who was mistaken for a Muslim. Commonly referred to simply as, "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. Balbir Singh Sodhi, one of the first victims of this backlash, was shot dead on September 15. The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. A total of nine people were murdered within the United States as part of retaliation.

The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carré, translated Old Square), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux. There were some incidents of harassment and hate crimes against Middle Easterners and other "Middle Eastern looking" people, particularly Sikhs, due to the fact that Sikh males usually wear turbans, stereotypically associated with Muslims in the United States. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. According to a report by the Journal of the American Medical Association released on May 7, 2003: "...the number of blood donations in the weeks after the September 11, 2001 attacks was markedly greater than in the corresponding weeks of 2000 (2.5 times greater in the first week after the attacks; 1.3–1.4 times greater in the second to fourth weeks after the attack)." [28]. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), held just before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent. Blood donations saw a surge in the weeks after 9/11. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. New York City bore the brunt of the attacks.

Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations, including Mardi Gras, New Year's Eve celebrations, and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. Bush. See also: New Orleans Mardi Gras. than President George W. Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden. He was named Person of the Year by Time magazine for 2001, and at times had a higher profile in the U.S. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours."). The highly visible role played by Rudy Giuliani, then Mayor of New York City, won him high praise nationally.

Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. The number of casualties among the emergency service personnel was unprecedented. The city is also world-famous for its food. Gratitude toward uniformed public-safety workers, and especially toward firefighters, was widely expressed in light of both the drama of the risks taken on the scene and the high death toll among the workers. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery. The attacks also had immediate and overwhelming effects upon the United States population. New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. Secretary of State Colin Powell, who ordered a review of restrictions placed on people entering the United States.

The Audubon Park and the Audubon Zoo are also located in the city of New Orleans. [27] Yusuf Islam's expulsion led British foreign secretary, Jack Straw, to complain to the U.S. Art museums in the city include the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. and was subsequently deported to the UK after his flight was briefly diverted to Maine. The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily. In September, 2004 Yusuf Islam, a British Muslim previously known as the singer Cat Stevens, was barred from entering the U.S. The National D-Day Museum is a relatively new museum (opened on June 6, 2000) dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France. (See Camp X-Ray for further details.).

Also located near the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, now operates as a museum. The legitimacy of these detentions has been questioned by, among others, member states of the European Union, the Organization of American States, and Amnesty International. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and Preservation Hall. The United States set up a detention center at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba to hold "illegal enemy combatants". Other notable tourist attractions in the quarter include Jackson Square, St. COINTELPRO's monitoring of public meetings) were "dismantled" by the USA PATRIOT Act [24] (PDF); civil liberty organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union [25] and Liberty [26] argued that certain civil rights protections were also being circumvented. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street. This process aroused controversy, as critics such as the Bill of Rights Defense Committee argued that traditional restrictions on federal surveillance (e.g.

Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. Law enforcement and intelligence agencies in a number of countries, including Italy [22], Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines [23] arrested people they labeled terrorist suspects for the stated purpose of breaking up militant cells around the world. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), and many stately 19th century mansions. Numerous countries, including the UK, France, Germany, Indonesia, China, Russia, Pakistan, Jordan, Mauritius, Uganda and Zimbabwe [20] (PDF), introduced "anti-terrorism" legislation and froze the bank accounts [21] of businesses and individuals they suspected of having al-Qaeda ties. Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife, St. [19]. Several episodes of television series have referenced the city:. a number of military airports and bases for its attack on Afghanistan, and arrested over six hundred supposed al-Qaeda members, whom it handed over to the U.S.

Radio stations serving Greater New Orleans include:. It gave the U.S. WHNO 20 also operates as an independent station in the area, providing mainly religious programming. [18] The Pakistani authorities moved decisively to align themselves with the United States in a war against Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda. PBS stations include WYES 12 and WLAE 32. Approximately one month after the attacks, the United States led a broad coalition of international forces into Afghanistan in pursuit of al-Qaeda forces in order to topple the Taliban Government for harboring what it referred to as a terrorist organization. Major television network affiliates serving the area include WWL 4 (CBS), WGNO 26 (ABC), WDSU 6 (NBC), WVUE 8 (FOX), WNOL 38 (WB), WUPL 54 (UPN), and WPXL 49 (PAX). They were denounced by mainstream media and governments world-wide, with the headline of Paris, France's Le Monde newspaper summing up the international mood of sympathy [17]: "Today We Are All Americans".

The market is the 43rd largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 672,150 homes and 0.610% of the U.S. The attacks had major global political ramifications. Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. By contrast, the Bush administration says that Al-Qaeda was motivated by hatred of the freedom and democracy exemplified by the United States, and independent analysts say that one major Al-Qaeda motive is to encourage Islamic solidarity focussed on a common enemy, and thus in the long term help pave the way for an Islamic world order. Other alternative weekly publications include the Louisiana Weekly and the Gambit Weekly. US protection of these Israeli politics in the region." Marwan al-Shehhi is said to have explained his humorless demeanor with the words: "How can you laugh when people are dying in Palestine?" However, bin Laden's 1998 fatwa against the United States (see above) was issued during the highpoint of the Israel-Palestine Oslo agreement era, when all parties believed the conflict was rapidly vanishing. The major daily newspaper is the New Orleans Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. foreign policy favoring Israel." The same motivation has been imputed to the two pilots who flew into the WTC: Mohamed Atta was described by one Ralph Bodenstein - who traveled, worked and talked with him - as "most imbued actually about..

Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," "makin' groceries" for grocery shopping, or "neutral ground" for a street median. from his violent disagreement with U.S. This word is not used as a generalized term for the New Orleans accent, and is generally reserved for the strongest varieties. The 9/11 Commission Report determined that the animosity towards the United States felt by Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, the so-called "principal architect" of the 9/11 attacks, stemmed "by his own account .. One subtype of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat (from "Where y'at). [16]. As with many sociolinguistic artifacts, it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population. He declared that a continuing objective of his holy war was to "[bleed] America to the point of bankruptcy".

This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city (but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes). In a 2004 video, apparently acknowledging responsibility for the attacks, bin Laden stated that he was motivated to "restore freedom to our nation", to "punish the aggressor in kind", and to inflict economic damage on America. The prestige associated with being from New Orleans by many residents is likely a factor in the linguistic assimilation of the ethnically divergent population. Statements of Al-Qaeda recorded after 9/11 are suggested to add weight to this speculation. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups. To the disapproval of moderate Muslims, the fatwa uses Islamic texts to explain violent action against American military and citizenry until the alleged grievances are reversed: stating "ulema have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries". There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century. The Gulf War and the ensuing sanctions against and bombing of Iraq by the United States, were cited, in 1998, as further proof of these allegations.

It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with it. The fatwa states that the United States:. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". The motivation for this campaign was set out in a 1998 fatwa [15] issued by bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Abu-Yasir Rifa'i Ahmad Taha, Shaykh Mir Hamzah, and Fazlur Rahman. The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. The group's involvement in the bombing of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania is widely suspected, and Al-Qaeda had declared responsibility for the 2000 USS Cole attack in Yemen. New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals as "Noo Or-lins," "Noo Awlee-enz," or "Noo Aw-lins." The pronunciation "N'Awlins" is not generally used by locals but has been popularized by the tourist trade. According to official US Government sources, the September 11th attacks were consistent with the mission statement of Al-Qaeda.

New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo practice by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and spirit of celebration. To date, only peripheral figures have been tried or convicted in connection with the attacks. Logan in January of 2005 suggests that as many as 50% of whites and 80% of blacks relocated from New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath may relocate permanently. The Commission stated that "9/11 plotters eventually spent somewhere between $400,000 and $500,000 to plan and conduct their attack", but that the specific origin of the funds used to execute the attacks remained unknown. An analysis by Brown University sociologist John R. A United States government task force known as the 9-11 Commission, and calling itself "The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States", released its report on July 22, 2004, concluding that the attacks were conceived and implemented by al-Qaeda operatives. Tammany registered strong increases in population. He said that the attacks were carried out because "we are a free people who do not accept injustice, and we want to regain the freedom of our nation.".

The population was stunted in the late sixties, a decade which saw storm surge from Hurricane Betsy flooded much of the Lower 9th Ward Since the late sixties, the population of New Orleans/Orleans Parish has experienced a steady decline while surrounding parishes such as Jefferson and St. Shortly before the US presidential election in 2004 in a taped statement, bin Laden publicly acknowledged al-Qaida's involvement in the attacks on the U.S, and admitted his direct link to the attacks. The population of New Orleans reached its highest point in the summer of 1965, when its population reached 702,108. Such a practice is forbidden even in the course of a battle." [13][14]. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Islam strictly forbids causing harm to innocent women, children and other people. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families were below the poverty line. I had no knowledge of these attacks, nor do I consider the killing of innocent women, children and other humans as an appreciable act.

The per capita income for the city was $17,258. As a Muslim, I try my best to avoid telling a lie. Males had a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. In it, bin Laden stated "I have already said that I am not involved in the 11 September attacks in the United States. The median income for a household in the city was $27,133, and the median income for a family was $32,338. The second public response was read on September 28 by Daily Ummat, a Pakistani newspaper. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. news networks and worldwide.

For every 100 females there were 88.2 males. [10][11][12] This denial was broadcast on U.S. The median age was 33 years. Osama bin Laden responded by reading a statement on September 16, 2001, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation," which was broadcast by Qatar's Al Jazeera satellite channel. In the city the population was spread out with:. The tape was broadcast on various news networks in December 2001. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.23. The factuality of the tape is questioned in the Muslim world: "But the BBC's Middle East correspondent, Frank Gardner, says that at street level in the Arab world, many believe the tape is a fake, a PR gimmick dreamed up by the US administration." [9].

There were 188,251 households out of which:. [8] In the tape, bin Laden admits to planning the attacks. But due to the enormous annual tourist flow, the amount of people inside the city at a given time, such as Mardi Gras season, tends to exceed these numbers sometimes by the hundreds of thousands. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan which showed Osama bin Laden talking to Khaled al-Harbi. These population statistics are based on legal residents of the city. In November 2001, U.S. The population of Greater New Orleans stood at 1,337,726 in 2000, making it the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Shortly after the attacks, the United States government declared al-Qaeda and bin Laden the prime suspects.

The racial makeup of the city was:. Bin Laden earlier declared a holy war against the United States. There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). Osama bin Laden, a leader of al-Qaeda initially denied involvement and knowledge of the incidents. The population density was 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). military and civilian targets in Africa and the Middle East. As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. al-Qaeda claims responsibility for several attacks on U.S.

The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1 or 2 inches of snow. The United States government has blamed al-Qaeda for the 9/11 attacks. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954, and brought 4.5 inches (110 mm). They report that the city has "about 10,000 unidentified bone and tissue fragments that cannot be matched to the list of the dead" (AP, 23 February 2005). On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. According to Associated Press, the city identified over 1,600 bodies but was unable to identify the rest of the bodies (about 1,100 people). Most recently, a trace of snow fell on Christmas in 2004, during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. Greenwich, one of the wealthiest towns in the world, had more residents killed than any other town in the area.

On rare occasions, snow will fall. In Greenwich, Connecticut, about 15 miles north of the city, hundreds of students had direct ties to victims of the attacks. The average precipitation is 59.74 inches (1520 mm) annually. Scarsdale, New York schools closed for the day. The highest recorded temperature was 102.0°F (38.9°C) on August 22, 1980. In New Jersey and Connecticut, private schools were evacuated. The lowest recorded temperature was 11.0°F (-11.6°C) on December 23, 1989. Other school districts shielded students from watching television because many of their parents held jobs in the World Trade Center towers.

In July, lows average 74°F (23°C), and highs average 91°F (33°C). As the suburbs around New York City learned of the destruction so close to home, many schools closed for the day, evacuated, or were locked-down. In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6°C), and daily highs around 62°F (17°C). Only about 18 managed to escape in time from above the impact zone and out of the South Tower before it collapsed. The climate of New Orleans is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. As many as 600 people were trapped at and above the floors of impact in the South Tower (2 WTC). Bernard Parish to the south, Plaquemines Parish to the southwest, and Jefferson Parish to the west. None of them survived.

Tammany Parish to the northeast, St. As many as 1,366 people were trapped at and above the floors of impact in the North Tower (1 WTC). Parishes located adjacent to the city of New Orleans include St. By some accounts, fleeing occupants instead encountered locked access doors upon reaching the roof. John, Mid City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, The upper 9th Ward and Algiers. No rescue plan existed for such an eventuality. Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. In addition, some of the occupants of each tower above its point of impact made their way upward towards the roof in hope of helicopter rescue.

Its tallest building is the 50-story One Shell Square. At the World Trade Center, faced with a desperate situation of smoke and burning heat from the jet fuel, an estimated 50 people jumped to their deaths from the burning towers [7], landing on the streets and rooftops of adjacent buildings hundreds of feet below (a reaction to the attacks similar to the effects of the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire and the burning of the General Slocum). Parts of the city that are located uptown include the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. With the Madrid attacks on March 11, 2004 called "M11" or "311" and the 7 July 2005 London bombings called "7/7" , the convention has been extended. Parts of the city that are located downtown include the world famous French Quarter (most noted as the central tourist district, with its array of shops, bars, and nightclubs along Bourbon Street), Storyville (now defunct), Treme, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater, the 7th Ward, and the Lower 9th Ward. 911 is the telephone number used in the United States to dial for emergency assistance (police, ambulance, and fire department). "Uptown" refers to those parts of town that are upriver from the central business district. Both are pronounced "nine-eleven".

The term "downtown" refers to those parts of town that are downriver from the central business district. style for writing short dates, in which the month precedes the day. Major streets of the area include Canal Street and Poydras St. The latter two are from the U.S. The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and is historically called the "American Quarter." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. The attacks are often referred to simply as September 11th, 9/11, or 9-11. Tammany. Capitol, which was given the code name "The Faculty of Law".

John the Baptist, and St. [6] The 9/11 Panel reports that captured al-Qaeda mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammed said that Flight 93's target was the U.S. Charles, St. There is a dispute about the exact timing of the crash, founded on the seismic evidence which indicates that the impact actually occurred at 10:06. Bernard, St. Soon afterwards, the aircraft crashed in a field near Shanksville in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania at 10:03:11 AM local time (14:03:11 UTC). The New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 37th largest in the United States, includes the Louisiana parishes of Orleans (contiguous with the city of New Orleans), Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. The term "let's roll" would later become the war cry for those fighting Al Qaeda in Afghanistan.

Because of the city's high water table most of the cemeteries in the city use above ground crypts as opposed to underground burial. After praying, he simply said "let's roll". Before the 20th century pumping system, if it rains more than 1 inch, or more recently if there is a major storm surge, such as that caused by a hurricane, greater flooding can occur. According to 9-1-1 tapes, one of the passengers had asked for the operator to pray with him before the passengers attempted to retake the aircraft. Rainwater is continually pumped out of the city and into Lake Pontchartrain across a series of canals lined by levees and dikes. Black box recordings reportedly revealed that passengers, led by Todd Beamer, Jeremy Glick and Mark Bingham, attempted to seize control of the plane from the hijackers, who then rocked the plane in a failed attempt to subdue the passengers. Some 45% of the city is above sea level; these higher areas were developed before 1900; the lowest areas only being developed more recently. Capitol or the White House in Washington, D.C.

Much of the city is actually located between 1 and 10 feet (0.3 to 3 m) below sea level, and as such, is very prone to flooding. It has been speculated that the hijackers of the fourth hijacked aircraft, United Airlines Flight 93, intended to crash into the U.S. The city of New Orleans actually contains the lowest point in the state of Louisiana, and one of the lowest points in the United States, after Death Valley and the Salton Sea. Bomb threats were made on three of the aircraft, but not on American 77. The Mississippi Delta, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, covers about 13,000 square miles (about 1/4 of Louisiana) and consists of silt deposited by the river, and is the most fertile area of Louisiana. The 9/11 Commission could only establish that two of the hijackers had recently purchased Leatherman multi-function hand tools [5], but some form of noxious chemical spray, such as tear gas or pepper spray, was reported to have been used on American 11 and United 175 to keep passengers out of the first-class cabin. Fields atop the ridges along the river are referred to as the "frontlands." The land contour slopes away from the frontlands to the "backlands", comprised of clay and silt. The hijackers reportedly took control of the aircraft by using box cutter knives to kill flight attendants and at least one pilot or passenger.

The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. [4]. The city is located in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, between the Mississippi River in the south and Lake Pontchartrain in the north. For example, the BBC reported 14 days after the attack that 4 of the 19 were alive based upon the initial identification supplied by the FBI. The total area is 48.45% water. For a short period, the precise identity of the 19 hijackers was uncertain. 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water. A total of 19 were later identified by the FBI, four on United 93 and five each on the other three flights.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). They reported that multiple hijackers were aboard each plane. New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N, 90°4′14″W (29.964722, -90.070556)GR1 on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. Some passengers and crew members were able to make phone calls from the doomed flights. By October 1, parts of the city accounting for about one-third of the population of New Orleans had been reopened, including the French Quarter.[4] As of October 1, only 5% of the city remained underwater. In Arlington County, a portion of the Pentagon was severely damaged by fire and one section of the building collapsed. New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded when a storm surge from Rita overcame one of the repaired levees on the Industrial Canal [3]. Communications equipment such as broadcast radio, television and two way radio antenna towers were damaged beyond repair.

[2]. In total, on Manhattan Island, 25 buildings were damaged. Concern about the fragility of the city's flood defences and transportation caused repopulation efforts to be postponed due to Hurricane Rita. In addition to the 110-floor Twin Towers of the World Trade Center itself, five other buildings at the WTC site, including WTC building 7, and four subway stations were destroyed or badly damaged. The mayor announced a "phased repopulation" plan to start bringing residents of the city back in the next two weeks. At least 2,986 people were killed in total. On September 15, several of the suburban towns started allowing residents to return. The fatalities were in the thousands: 265 on the four planes; 2,595, including 343 New York City firefighters, 23 NYPD police officers, and 37 Port Authority police officers in the towers and on the ground; and 125 civilians and military personnel at the Pentagon.

The city government declared the city off-limits to residents while clean-up efforts began and warned that those remaining could be removed by force, for their health and safety. No one survived in any of the hijacked aircraft. Subsequent investigations showed that the levee failures which flooded the majority of the city were the result of what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1]. The crash in Pennsylvania is believed to have resulted from the hijackers either deliberately crashing the aircraft or losing control of it as they fought with the passengers. Early estimates of the cost of physical damage from the storm have exceeded 100 billion USD. The fourth hijacked plane, United Airlines Flight 93, crashed in a field near Shanksville and Stonycreek Township in Somerset County, Pennsylvania at 10:03:11 AM local time (14:03:11 UTC), with parts and debris found up to eight miles away. As of November 2005, the Times Picayune article states that, in addition to 1,050 confirmed deaths, there are 5,000 missing residents of the city. American Airlines Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon at 9:37:46 AM local time (13:37:46 UTC).

As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. At 9:03:11 AM local time (13:03:11 UTC), United Airlines Flight 175 crashed into the south tower, an event covered live by television broadcasters that had their cameras trained on the North Tower. These canals were the 17th Street Canal, the Industrial Canal, and the London Avenue Canal. American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the north side of the north tower of the World Trade Center (WTC) at 8:46:40 AM local time (12:46:40 UTC). The situation worsened when levees along three canals were breached. gallons (91,000 litres) per aircraft [3], the aircraft were used as flying incendiary bombs. Heavy rains and flooding immediately affected the eastern areas of the city. With jet fuel capacities of nearly 24,000 U.S.

The eye of the storm passed within 10 to 15 miles of New Orleans, bringing strong winds that downed trees, shattered windows, and hurled debris around the area. The attacks started with the hijacking of four commercial airliners. Many residents chose to stay or were stranded in the city by a lack of available transportation. . New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. The attacks, and the subsequent US-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have made United States homeland security concerns much more prominent than they were in the previous decade.
. The city suffered from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005 on the gulf coast near the city. The September 11th attacks are among the most significant events to have occurred so far in the 21st century in terms of the profound political, psychological, and economic effects that followed in the United States and many other parts of the world.

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water. Bin Laden initially denied responsibility, [2] but later admitted to involvement in the attacks. A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition. The 9/11 Commission states in its final report that the attackers were terrorists. Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the domestic and international tourist industry. He was captured in 2003. While long one of the USA's most-visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy. American investigators concluded that it was Khalid Shaikh Mohammed who led the planning of the attacks.

Because of Camille's tightly wound rings, the storm actually pulled water from the then impending fate they believed was imminent from Lake Ponchartrain and Lake Borgne, and veered toward her landfall point, approximately 50 miles away at Pass Christian, Mississippi, which is believed to have received a 28 foot storm surge. Fifteen of the hijackers were from Saudi Arabia, two were from the United Arab Emirates, and one each came from Egypt and Lebanon. In 1969 the city was brushed by Hurricane Camille but was spared from the catastrophic flooding it had seen in Hurricane Betsy and later in Hurricane Katrina. The nineteen conspiring hijackers who carried out the attack were affiliated with the Al-Qaeda organization, a well-organized Islamic terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden, a former Saudi national whose citizenship was revoked in 1994[1]. In 1965 the city was damaged by Hurricane Betsy, with catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward. The official count records 2,986 deaths in the attacks, including the nineteen hijackers. Much of the city flooded in September of 1947 due to the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane. The fourth plane crashed into a rural field in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, following apparent passenger resistance.

Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish. Department of Defense headquarters, the Pentagon, in Arlington County, Virginia. The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. The hijackers crashed the third aircraft into the U.S. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April 2004. Within two hours, both towers had collapsed. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses. The hijackers crashed two planes into the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City—one into each of the two tallest towers, about 18 minutes apart.

In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. domestic commercial airliners. New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season. The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of coordinated suicide attacks upon the United States of America carried out on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, in which a total of nineteen Arab hijackers simultaneously took control of four U.S. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since. Improved public safety. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans. Revisions to building and fire codes, standards, and practices.

The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. Improved tools and guidance for industry and safety officials. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. Improvements in the way buildings are designed, constructed, maintained, and used. In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. Supports Israel, and wishes to divert international attention from (and tacitly maintain) the occupation of Palestine. (2000-2004). Intends thereby to create disunion between Muslim states, thus weakening them as a political force.

Jamal Morelli's struggle for the neighborhood was successful in protecting the lower ninth ward. Has military bases and installations upon the Arabian Peninsula, which violates the Muslim holy land, in order to threaten neighboring Muslim countries. The HCNA sent Jamal Morelli, activist and New Orleans artist, to respresent them in Washington, D.C. Supports abusive regimes and monarchies in the Middle East, thereby oppressing their people. The Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, (HCNA) respresenting a substantial group of the aforementioned lower ninth ward, created a lobby against the Army Corps of Engineers furthering work on the levees which might endanger the neighborhoods. Dictates policy to the rulers of those countries. This warning was augmented by vestigial fears from Hurricane Betsy, and the lasting stories of the Army Corps of Engineers blasting the flooding levees, drowning the poorer neighborhoods of the lower ninth Ward. Plunders the resources of the Arabian Peninsula.

There were many warnings in the late 20th century that a major hurricane or a Mississippi flood could create a lake in the central city as much as 9 m (30 ft) deep, which could take months to pump dry. The subsidence greatly increased the flood risk, should the levees be breached or precipitation be in excess of pumping capacity (as was the case in 2005 in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina). However, pumping of groundwater from underneath the city has resulted in subsidence. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area.

All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City.

Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial.

It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. It was the first captured city in the American South. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union (by David Farragut -son of Spanish emigrants- later named the first US Navy Vice-Admiral) without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color.

New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. However, population growth was at times plagued by yellow fever epidemics, such as the great scourge of 1853 that killed nearly 10,000 people in New Orleans. The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 the city's population was around 102,000, fourth-largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South after Baltimore. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans).

The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. In its early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000. But in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase.

Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon re-acquired the territory from Spain by treaty. In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. Louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere. The three most impressive buildings of New Orleans come from the Spanish times: St.

As a result of this, and a subsequent fire in 1795 (another 200 houses destroyed), much of 18th century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built under Spanish rule and demonstrates Spanish colonial characteristics, wood was replaced with bricks. The Great Fire of 1788 destroyed many of the existing structures in the city (800 houses were destroyed), which were made of wood. In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire and remained under Spanish control for 40 years. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi.

A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for more than a decade before the official founding of the city. John (known to natives as Bayou Choupique). The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville.

Main article: History of New Orleans. . Residents of the city are referred to as New Orleanians. The city's name is often abbreviated NOLA.

The city's unofficial motto, "Laissez les bons temps rouler" ("Let the good times roll") describes the party-like attitude of many residents. The city's several nicknames describe various characteristics of the city, including the "Crescent City" (describing its shape around the Mississippi River), "The Big Easy" (a reference by musicians to the relative ease of finding work in the city) and "The City that Care Forgot" (associated with the easy going, carefree nature of many of the local residents). The city was named in honor of Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded (much as New York was named in honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England). New Orleans was founded by the French in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States.

The two ports together would be the fourth largest port in the world. ports for exporting grain. The Port of South Louisiana is based in the New Orleans metropolitan area and has been ranked the fifth largest port in the world in terms of raw tonnage, and among the largest U.S. port for several major commodities including rubber, cement and coffee.

The Port of New Orleans is the largest U.S. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf. New Orleans remains a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. While most of the city has reopened to residents, and areas which suffered moderate damage have substantially resumed functioning, the parts of town most severely damaged - such as some neighborhoods of the lower 9th Ward - are open only during daylight hours for residents to salvage items from their formerly flooded homes.

As of mid-December 2005, efforts continue to aid survivors, clean up debris, and restore infrastructure. Estimates as of late 2005 cite fewer than 150,000 residing in the city, and projections of the city's eventual population following reconstruction are highly speculative. Since the devastation of the city in conjunction with Hurricane Katrina, the population has been significantly less, due to the majority of surviving residents either taking temporary shelter elsewhere or relocating indefinitely. census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the population of Greater New Orleans at 1,337,726.

The most recent U.S. It is a world-famous tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most noteworthy annual events are Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Jazz Fest, Essence Festival (moved to Houston, TX for 2006), Voodoo Fest, Southern Decadence, and college football's Sugar Bowl (although the bowl game has been moved to Atlanta for the 2006 game). New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French, Spanish and African American influences) as well as its music and cuisine. New Orleans is named after the historical Duke of Orléans, Regent of France and is one of the oldest and most historic cities in the United States.

It is in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. state of Louisiana. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. New Orleans (local pronunciations: /nuːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /la nuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is a major U.S.


Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States. In a 2005 episode of Law and Order: Special Victims Unit, the detectives pursue a child molester who kidnapped three young sisters from New Orleans after their parents were killed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In 2005, American Idol held auditions in New Orleans. In a 2004 episode of Las Vegas called "New Orleans", Danny, Ed and Sam head to New Orleans in search of a big gambler who owes the casino money.

In a 2003 episode of The Drew Carey Show, Drew and his buddies set off on a road trip to New Orleans to find a girl he met after placing an ad on a beer bottle. In a 2001 episode of Seven Days, Parker goes to New Orleans to prove that his friend, who is scheduled to be executed, is innocent. Season 9 (2000) of The Real World was set in New Orleans. The short-lived 1997 CBS series Orleans was set in New Orleans.

In a 1992 episode of The Simpsons called "A Streetcar Named Marge", Marge is cast in a musical version of "A Streetcar Named Desire" that featured a controversial parody song about New Orleans. Urban/Urban Contemporary: KMEZ-FM (102.9), KNOU-FM (104.5), WQUE-FM (93.3), WYLD-FM (98.5). Talk: WSMB-AM (1350), WWL-AM (870), WTIX-AM (690). Sports: WODT-AM (1280).

Rock: KKND-FM (106.7), WRNO-FM (99.5), WEZB-FM (97.1), WKBU-FM (105.3). Public: WTUL-FM (91.5), WRBH-FM (88.3). Oldies: WTKL-FM (95.7), WJSH-FM (104.7). Latino: KGLA-AM (1540), WFNO-FM (830).

Gospel/Christian: KHEV-FM (104.1), WYLD-AM (940), WBSN-FM (89.1), WLNO-AM (1060), WSHO-FM (800), WOPR-FM (94.9), WVOG-AM (600). Contemporary: KLRZ-FM (100.3), WLMG-FM (101.9), WDVW-FM (92.3). Country: WNOE-FM (101.1). Jazz: WWNO-FM (88.9), WWOZ-FM (90.7).

11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. 20.9% from 45 to 64. 29.3% from 25 to 44. 11.4% from 18 to 24.

26.7% under the age of 18. 9.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals. 40.0% were non-families.

24.5% had a female householder with no husband present. 30.8% were married couples living together. 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 3.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

1.28% from two or more races. 0.93% from other races. 0.02% Pacific Islander. 2.26% Asian.

0.20% Native American. 28.05% White. 67.25% African American.

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