New Orleans, Louisiana

Nickname: "The Big Easy"
Motto: "'"
Official website: http://www.cityofno.com/
Location


Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States

Government
Country
State
Parish
United States
Louisiana
Orleans Parish, Louisiana
Mayor C. Ray Nagin (D)
Geographical characteristics
Area
Total 350.2 km²
Land 180.6 km²
Water 169.7 km²
Population
Total (2000) 484,674
Metro area 1,337,726
Density 534.4/km²
Latitude {{{latitude}}}
Longitude {{{longitude}}}
Coordinates 29°57′53″ N
90°4′14″ W
Elevation 3.3 m
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)

New Orleans (local pronunciations: /nuːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /la nuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is a major U.S. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. New Orleans is named after the historical Duke of Orléans, Regent of France and is one of the oldest and most historic cities in the United States.

New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French, Spanish and African American influences) as well as its music and cuisine. It is a world-famous tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most noteworthy annual events are Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Jazz Fest, Essence Festival (moved to Houston, TX for 2006), Voodoo Fest, Southern Decadence, and college football's Sugar Bowl (although the bowl game has been moved to Atlanta for the 2006 game).

The most recent U.S. census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the population of Greater New Orleans at 1,337,726. Since the devastation of the city in conjunction with Hurricane Katrina, the population has been significantly less, due to the majority of surviving residents either taking temporary shelter elsewhere or relocating indefinitely. Estimates as of late 2005 cite fewer than 150,000 residing in the city, and projections of the city's eventual population following reconstruction are highly speculative.

As of mid-December 2005, efforts continue to aid survivors, clean up debris, and restore infrastructure. While most of the city has reopened to residents, and areas which suffered moderate damage have substantially resumed functioning, the parts of town most severely damaged - such as some neighborhoods of the lower 9th Ward - are open only during daylight hours for residents to salvage items from their formerly flooded homes.

New Orleans remains a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf. The Port of New Orleans is the largest U.S. port for several major commodities including rubber, cement and coffee. The Port of South Louisiana is based in the New Orleans metropolitan area and has been ranked the fifth largest port in the world in terms of raw tonnage, and among the largest U.S. ports for exporting grain. The two ports together would be the fourth largest port in the world.

New Orleans was founded by the French in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States. The city was named in honor of Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded (much as New York was named in honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England).

The city's several nicknames describe various characteristics of the city, including the "Crescent City" (describing its shape around the Mississippi River), "The Big Easy" (a reference by musicians to the relative ease of finding work in the city) and "The City that Care Forgot" (associated with the easy going, carefree nature of many of the local residents). The city's unofficial motto, "Laissez les bons temps rouler" ("Let the good times roll") describes the party-like attitude of many residents.

The city's name is often abbreviated NOLA. Residents of the city are referred to as New Orleanians.

History

Main article: History of New Orleans

Colonial era

New Orleans is a historic city. Sign at Jackson Square in the French Quarter

New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. John (known to natives as Bayou Choupique). A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for more than a decade before the official founding of the city. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi.

In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire and remained under Spanish control for 40 years.

The Great Fire of 1788 destroyed many of the existing structures in the city (800 houses were destroyed), which were made of wood. As a result of this, and a subsequent fire in 1795 (another 200 houses destroyed), much of 18th century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built under Spanish rule and demonstrates Spanish colonial characteristics, wood was replaced with bricks.

The three most impressive buildings of New Orleans come from the Spanish times: St. Louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere.

In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon re-acquired the territory from Spain by treaty. But in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000.

19th century

In its early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans).

1888 German map of New Orleans.

The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 the city's population was around 102,000, fourth-largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South after Baltimore. However, population growth was at times plagued by yellow fever epidemics, such as the great scourge of 1853 that killed nearly 10,000 people in New Orleans.

New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union (by David Farragut -son of Spanish emigrants- later named the first US Navy Vice-Admiral) without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. It was the first captured city in the American South. It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville.

20th century

New Orleans panorama from 1919. Canal Street, looking away from the river, 1920s A view across Uptown New Orleans, with the Central Business District in the background, 1990s

Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area. However, pumping of groundwater from underneath the city has resulted in subsidence. The subsidence greatly increased the flood risk, should the levees be breached or precipitation be in excess of pumping capacity (as was the case in 2005 in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina). There were many warnings in the late 20th century that a major hurricane or a Mississippi flood could create a lake in the central city as much as 9 m (30 ft) deep, which could take months to pump dry. This warning was augmented by vestigial fears from Hurricane Betsy, and the lasting stories of the Army Corps of Engineers blasting the flooding levees, drowning the poorer neighborhoods of the lower ninth Ward. The Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, (HCNA) respresenting a substantial group of the aforementioned lower ninth ward, created a lobby against the Army Corps of Engineers furthering work on the levees which might endanger the neighborhoods. The HCNA sent Jamal Morelli, activist and New Orleans artist, to respresent them in Washington, D.C. Jamal Morelli's struggle for the neighborhood was successful in protecting the lower ninth ward. (2000-2004)

In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since.

New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season.

In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April 2004.

The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish.

Much of the city flooded in September of 1947 due to the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane.

In 1965 the city was damaged by Hurricane Betsy, with catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward.

In 1969 the city was brushed by Hurricane Camille but was spared from the catastrophic flooding it had seen in Hurricane Betsy and later in Hurricane Katrina. Because of Camille's tightly wound rings, the storm actually pulled water from the then impending fate they believed was imminent from Lake Ponchartrain and Lake Borgne, and veered toward her landfall point, approximately 50 miles away at Pass Christian, Mississippi, which is believed to have received a 28 foot storm surge.

While long one of the USA's most-visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy. Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the domestic and international tourist industry.

A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition.

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water.

21st Century (Hurricane Katrina)

An aerial view of the flooded areas in part of the New Orleans Central Business District

The city suffered from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005 on the gulf coast near the city. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. Many residents chose to stay or were stranded in the city by a lack of available transportation. The eye of the storm passed within 10 to 15 miles of New Orleans, bringing strong winds that downed trees, shattered windows, and hurled debris around the area. Heavy rains and flooding immediately affected the eastern areas of the city.

The situation worsened when levees along three canals were breached. These canals were the 17th Street Canal, the Industrial Canal, and the London Avenue Canal. As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. As of November 2005, the Times Picayune article states that, in addition to 1,050 confirmed deaths, there are 5,000 missing residents of the city. Early estimates of the cost of physical damage from the storm have exceeded 100 billion USD. Subsequent investigations showed that the levee failures which flooded the majority of the city were the result of what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1]

The city government declared the city off-limits to residents while clean-up efforts began and warned that those remaining could be removed by force, for their health and safety. On September 15, several of the suburban towns started allowing residents to return. The mayor announced a "phased repopulation" plan to start bringing residents of the city back in the next two weeks. Concern about the fragility of the city's flood defences and transportation caused repopulation efforts to be postponed due to Hurricane Rita. [2]. New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded when a storm surge from Rita overcame one of the repaired levees on the Industrial Canal [3]. By October 1, parts of the city accounting for about one-third of the population of New Orleans had been reopened, including the French Quarter.[4] As of October 1, only 5% of the city remained underwater.

Geography and climate

Vertical cross-section of New Orleans, showing maximum levee height of 23 feet (7 m).

New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N, 90°4′14″W (29.964722, -90.070556)GR1 on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 48.45% water.

The city is located in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, between the Mississippi River in the south and Lake Pontchartrain in the north. The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. Fields atop the ridges along the river are referred to as the "frontlands." The land contour slopes away from the frontlands to the "backlands", comprised of clay and silt. The Mississippi Delta, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, covers about 13,000 square miles (about 1/4 of Louisiana) and consists of silt deposited by the river, and is the most fertile area of Louisiana.

The city of New Orleans actually contains the lowest point in the state of Louisiana, and one of the lowest points in the United States, after Death Valley and the Salton Sea. Much of the city is actually located between 1 and 10 feet (0.3 to 3 m) below sea level, and as such, is very prone to flooding. Some 45% of the city is above sea level; these higher areas were developed before 1900; the lowest areas only being developed more recently. Rainwater is continually pumped out of the city and into Lake Pontchartrain across a series of canals lined by levees and dikes. Before the 20th century pumping system, if it rains more than 1 inch, or more recently if there is a major storm surge, such as that caused by a hurricane, greater flooding can occur. Because of the city's high water table most of the cemeteries in the city use above ground crypts as opposed to underground burial.

The New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 37th largest in the United States, includes the Louisiana parishes of Orleans (contiguous with the city of New Orleans), Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, and St. Tammany.

Cityscape

New Orleans contains many distinctive neighborhoods.

The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and is historically called the "American Quarter." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. Major streets of the area include Canal Street and Poydras St. The term "downtown" refers to those parts of town that are downriver from the central business district. "Uptown" refers to those parts of town that are upriver from the central business district. Parts of the city that are located downtown include the world famous French Quarter (most noted as the central tourist district, with its array of shops, bars, and nightclubs along Bourbon Street), Storyville (now defunct), Treme, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater, the 7th Ward, and the Lower 9th Ward. Parts of the city that are located uptown include the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. Its tallest building is the 50-story One Shell Square.

Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. John, Mid City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, The upper 9th Ward and Algiers.

Parishes located adjacent to the city of New Orleans include St. Tammany Parish to the northeast, St. Bernard Parish to the south, Plaquemines Parish to the southwest, and Jefferson Parish to the west.

A true-color satellite image of New Orleans taken on NASA's Landsat 7

Tallest Buildings

Climate

The climate of New Orleans is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6°C), and daily highs around 62°F (17°C). In July, lows average 74°F (23°C), and highs average 91°F (33°C). The lowest recorded temperature was 11.0°F (-11.6°C) on December 23, 1989. The highest recorded temperature was 102.0°F (38.9°C) on August 22, 1980. The average precipitation is 59.74 inches (1520 mm) annually.

On rare occasions, snow will fall. Most recently, a trace of snow fell on Christmas in 2004, during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954, and brought 4.5 inches (110 mm). The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1 or 2 inches of snow.

People and culture

Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was:

The population of Greater New Orleans stood at 1,337,726 in 2000, making it the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States. These population statistics are based on legal residents of the city. But due to the enormous annual tourist flow, the amount of people inside the city at a given time, such as Mardi Gras season, tends to exceed these numbers sometimes by the hundreds of thousands.

There were 188,251 households out of which:

The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.23.

In the city the population was spread out with:

The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,133, and the median income for a family was $32,338. Males had a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,258. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

The population of New Orleans reached its highest point in the summer of 1965, when its population reached 702,108. The population was stunted in the late sixties, a decade which saw storm surge from Hurricane Betsy flooded much of the Lower 9th Ward Since the late sixties, the population of New Orleans/Orleans Parish has experienced a steady decline while surrounding parishes such as Jefferson and St. Tammany registered strong increases in population.

An analysis by Brown University sociologist John R. Logan in January of 2005 suggests that as many as 50% of whites and 80% of blacks relocated from New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath may relocate permanently.

New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo practice by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and spirit of celebration.

Pronunciation

New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals as "Noo Or-lins," "Noo Awlee-enz," or "Noo Aw-lins." The pronunciation "N'Awlins" is not generally used by locals but has been popularized by the tourist trade. The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with it. There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups. The prestige associated with being from New Orleans by many residents is likely a factor in the linguistic assimilation of the ethnically divergent population. This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city (but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes). As with many sociolinguistic artifacts, it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population. One subtype of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat (from "Where y'at). This word is not used as a generalized term for the New Orleans accent, and is generally reserved for the strongest varieties. Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," "makin' groceries" for grocery shopping, or "neutral ground" for a street median.

Media

The major daily newspaper is the New Orleans Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. Other alternative weekly publications include the Louisiana Weekly and the Gambit Weekly.

Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. The market is the 43rd largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 672,150 homes and 0.610% of the U.S. Major television network affiliates serving the area include WWL 4 (CBS), WGNO 26 (ABC), WDSU 6 (NBC), WVUE 8 (FOX), WNOL 38 (WB), WUPL 54 (UPN), and WPXL 49 (PAX). PBS stations include WYES 12 and WLAE 32. WHNO 20 also operates as an independent station in the area, providing mainly religious programming.

Radio stations serving Greater New Orleans include:

Television References

Several episodes of television series have referenced the city:

Museums and other attractions

Bourbon Street, New Orleans, in 2003, looking towards Canal Street.

Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife, St. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), and many stately 19th century mansions.

Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street. Other notable tourist attractions in the quarter include Jackson Square, St. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and Preservation Hall.

Also located near the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, now operates as a museum. The National D-Day Museum is a relatively new museum (opened on June 6, 2000) dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France. The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily.

Art museums in the city include the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. The Audubon Park and the Audubon Zoo are also located in the city of New Orleans. New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery.

The city is also world-famous for its food. Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours.")

Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden.

Annual cultural events and fairs

See also: New Orleans Mardi Gras

Mounted Krewe Officers in the Thoth Parade during Mardi Gras.

Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations, including Mardi Gras, New Year's Eve celebrations, and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), held just before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carré, translated Old Square), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux.

The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. Commonly referred to simply as, "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists.

Music

Louis Armstrong, famous New Orleans Jazz musician.

New Orleans has always been a significant center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. Its general atmosphere of Dionysian art has also resulted in both breeding and being a home to chaotic artists such as Crash Worship, Liquiddrone, and Jamal Morelli. In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues.

The city also created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music," but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music.

Sports & Recreation

The Louisiana Superdome, home to the New Orleans Saints.

The city is the home to several professional, major league sports teams, including the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League and the New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association which relocated from Charlotte, North Carolina, at the start of the 2002–2003 season. The Saints play in the Louisiana Superdome, and the Hornets play in the adjacent New Orleans Arena.

Due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, including damage both to the exterior and the interior of the Louisiana Superdome, the New Orleans Saints have played their "home" games in Baton Rouge and San Antonio, Texas. The football season began just a week after the storm hit, and the Saints played their first "home" game against the Giants at Giants Stadium. The Hornets will play 36 "home" games at the Ford Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the remaining 5 to be split between Norman (University of Oklahoma campus), Baton Rouge (LSU campus) and a March 2006 return to New Orleans for three home games.

The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner, Tom Benson. The New Orleans Zephyrs, AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie. They are currently affiliated with the Washington Nationals.

The city also hosts two college football bowl games annually: the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. Nine Super Bowls have been contested in New Orleans.

Historically, many teams have been formerly located in the city, including the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Breakers of the United States Football League, the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz.

New Orleans is also home to Southern Yacht Club, located at West End on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain. Established in 1849, it is the second oldest yacht club in the United States. The building was severely damaged, first by storm surge and then by fire, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

Economy

A tanker on the Mississippi River in New Orleans.

New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. seaport. It is one of the busiest seaports in not only the United States, but also the world. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid 20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic.

Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. There are a substantial number of energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil Company. The city is also home to one Fortune 500 company, Entergy Corporation, an electric power provider.

The federal government has a significant presence in the area. The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. The facility is operated by Lockheed-Martin and is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced. The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses the National Finance Center operated by the USDA.

Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include BellSouth, Hibernia Corp., IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, and Zatarain's.

The Port of New Orleans handles about 84 million short tons of cargo a year. The Port of South Louisiana, located in the Metropolitan New Orleans Area, handles 199 million short tons. The two combined would be the 4th largest port in the world.

About 5,000 ships from nearly 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. gateway, including Miami.

New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly.

There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them.

New Orleans is also one of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. Other major tourist events and attractions in the city include Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Southern Decadence (one of the largest annual Gay/Lesbian celebrations in the nation), and the Essence Festival.

Infrastructure

Government

New Orleans has a mayor-council government. The city council consists of five councilmembers who are elected by district and two at large councilmembers. Mayor C. Ray Nagin, Jr. was elected in May 2002.

The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system.

The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-county government.GR6 Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou and Carrollton. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans.

Schools

New Orleans Public Schools, the city's school district, is one of the area's largest school districts. NOPS contains approximately 100 individual schools. The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools.

Several institutions of higher education also exist within the city, including University of New Orleans, Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Medical School, and Our Lady of Holy Cross College. Other schools include Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College, Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, Commonwealth University, and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.

Libraries

There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University[7] and Earl K. Long Library at the University of New Orleans.[8]

The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina.[9] The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections.[10]

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection[11] and the Old U.S. Mint.[12]

Transportation

The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), located approximately nine miles west of the city in the city of Kenner. It serves millions of passengers on approximately 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe. The airport also serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express.

Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport, a small, general aviation airport, as well as the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area.

The city is also served by rail via Amtrak. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and it is served by three trains: the Crescent to New York City, the City of New Orleans to Chicago, Illinois, and the Sunset Limited from Orlando to Los Angeles.

In addition, the city is served by six Class I freight railroads. Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway approach the city from the west, Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX from the east, and the Canadian National Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway from the north.

Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). In addition to the many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by DC wires overhead. The St. Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark. The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art.

The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. There are proposals to revive a Desire light rail streetcar line.

Roads in the city are arranged in a radial grid pattern, emanating out to various parts of town from a central point north of the Central Business District. I-10 loops east-west through the city, and traverses the northern edge of the Central Business District, taking traffic west towards Baton Rouge, Louisiana and east-northeast to Slidell, Louisiana. The "Highrise" carries I-10 across the Industrial Canal.

Farther east, the I-10 connects New Orleans East with Slidell, bridging an arm of Lake Pontchartrain. This crossing, a dual causeway known as the "Twin Spans," was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. By October 2005 single lanes in each direction had been reopened on the eastbound span. The westbound span was reopened in early January 2006. The Twin Spans is to be replaced with a new six-lane bridge, expected to be completed in 2009.[13] As I-10 heads south from Metairie towards the Central Business District, it is called the Pontchartrain Expressway.

I-610 provides a direct shortcut across the northern central part of the city, allowing through traffic to bypass I-10's L-shaped route which traverses the more congested areas.

US 90 leaves the Central Business District and goes west through the city's Uptown neighborhood and crosses the Missisisppi River at the Huey P. Long Bridge near the suburb of Jefferson. I-10 is also connected to I-12, north of Lake Pontchartrain, via the tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, which are also the longest in the world.

The interstate highways serving New Orleans were laid out in the middle of the 20th century, a time when a larger proportion of Gulf of Mexico freight traffic passed through New Orleans. I-10 goes west to Houston and beyond and east to Mobile and Florida, with I-59 and I-55 heading northward to Birmingham and Jackson, respectively. Later, I-12 created a shortcut that avoided crossing Lake Pontchartrain. In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns southward toward New Orleans while I-12 continues straight to rejoin I-10 in Baton Rouge. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. The route would follow U.S. Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans, and US 51 terminates just west of the city, Laplace.

The Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal.

Roads along the Mississippi River were the first to carry overland traffic into New Orleans. US 51 (the "Old Hammond Highway"), US 90, and US 11 followed old Indian routes along slight ridges to become the first automotive highways. Louisiana governor Huey P. Long championed Airline Highway (US 61) to bypass the circuitous river road between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. The route of today's US 90 east of New Orleans once included a ferry crossing at Fort Pike. Governor Long built public draw bridges at the Rigolets as political retaliation against the operators of a then-private toll bridge across Lake Pontchartrain. Long achieved his objective: the US 11 toll bridge failed commercially and is owned by the State. US 11 was the escape route for Ignatius J. Reilly at the end of John Kennedy Toole's novel, A Confederacy of Dunces.

West of New Orleans, the Ruddock exit at milepost 6 of I-55 is the only trace left of a thriving community that was literally washed away by the hurricane of September 1915. Frenier Beach Hurricane Storm Surge Revisited In the 1960s, a controversial "Dixie Freeway" that would have been designated I-410 would have created an "outer loop" encompassing St. Bernard Parish, the westbank areas of New Orleans and Jefferson, and back across the river in St. Charles Parish where I-310 now runs. Environmental concern for the wetlands south of New Orleans and economic considerations derailed those plans.

Sister cities

New Orleans has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI): Juan-les-Pins (France), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Matsue (Japan), Mérida (Mexico), Innsbruck (Austria), Pointe Noire (Republic of Congo), San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Caracas (Venezuela), and Holdfast Bay (Australia).


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(SCI): Juan-les-Pins (France), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Matsue (Japan), Mérida (Mexico), Innsbruck (Austria), Pointe Noire (Republic of Congo), San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Caracas (Venezuela), and Holdfast Bay (Australia). Schiavo's diagnosis of being in a persistent vegetative state and that he provided her with appropriate care."[43]. New Orleans has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. DCF investigators found the claims to be groundless, stating that there were "no indicators" of abuse in any of the cases and concluding that "[t]he preponderance of the evidence shows that Michael Schiavo followed doctors' orders [regarding] Ms. Environmental concern for the wetlands south of New Orleans and economic considerations derailed those plans. These included Terri supposedly being in pain from recent dental work, Terri not having had any dental work for years prior to that, and the blinds in her room not being open wide enough. Charles Parish where I-310 now runs. During the final stages of the court battle in March 2005, around 30 individuals made a variety of complaints to the DCF, alleging various abuses.

Bernard Parish, the westbank areas of New Orleans and Jefferson, and back across the river in St. On March 11, 2005, media tycoon Robert Herring (who believes that stem cell research could have cured Schiavo's condition) offered $1 million (USD) to Michael Schiavo if he agreed to cede his guardianship to his wife's parents.[42] The offer was rejected; George Felos, attorney for Michael Schiavo, described it as "offensive," adding that Michael had rejected other monetary offers, including one of $10 million (USD). Frenier Beach Hurricane Storm Surge Revisited In the 1960s, a controversial "Dixie Freeway" that would have been designated I-410 would have created an "outer loop" encompassing St. The Schindlers' legal fight was funded by a variety of sources on the political right.[41]. West of New Orleans, the Ruddock exit at milepost 6 of I-55 is the only trace left of a thriving community that was literally washed away by the hurricane of September 1915. Although the vast majority of protests were nonviolent, two of the more extreme acts included death threats aimed towards Michael Schiavo. Reilly at the end of John Kennedy Toole's novel, A Confederacy of Dunces. The case drew notable figures on both sides of the debate, as well as many pressure groups and public protesters.

US 11 was the escape route for Ignatius J. A number of opinion polls were carried out, particularly on the question of federal involvement in the Terri Schiavo case, with conflicting results. Long achieved his objective: the US 11 toll bridge failed commercially and is owned by the State. The Terri Schiavo case held the attention of both American and international audiences and had major political ramifications. Governor Long built public draw bridges at the Rigolets as political retaliation against the operators of a then-private toll bridge across Lake Pontchartrain. Jay Wolfson was appointed by Florida legislature to "deduce and represent the best wishes and bests interests of Theresa Schiavo." He reported to Governor Jeb Bush that "the evidence that served as the basis for the decisions regarding Theresa Schiavo were firmly grounded within Florida statutory and case law, which clearly and unequivocally provide for the removal of artificial nutrition in cases of persistent vegetative states," and that the evidence regarding Schiavo's medical condition and intentions had been "deemed, by the trier of fact to be clear and convincing." and "The reasonable degree of medical certainty associated with her diagnosis and prognosis is very high."[40]. The route of today's US 90 east of New Orleans once included a ferry crossing at Fort Pike. In 2003, guardian ad litem Dr.

Long championed Airline Highway (US 61) to bypass the circuitous river road between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. The court determined that she had made "credible and reliable" statements that she wouldn't want to be "kept alive on a machine," based on expert testimony, finding that Americans don't want to live "with no hope of improvement," and that her condition in a persistent vegetative state had "long since satisfied" the requirement that there be no hope of improvement.[39]. Louisiana governor Huey P. During a trial in 2000, testimony was heard from witnesses on both sides to establish Schiavo's wishes regarding life support. US 51 (the "Old Hammond Highway"), US 90, and US 11 followed old Indian routes along slight ridges to become the first automotive highways. Schiavo's husband insisted that she had expressed her wishes not to be kept on life support with no hope for improvement. Roads along the Mississippi River were the first to carry overland traffic into New Orleans. Judge Greer rejected their request.[38].

Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal. This led to a challenge by Schiavo's parents, who requested a new trial about whether their daughter, as a devout Catholic, would wish to go against the Church's teaching. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. Pope John Paul II stated that health care providers are morally bound to provide food and water to patients in persistent vegetative states. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. David Gibbs III, the lead lawyer for Terri Schiavo’s parents, supported Vatican statements which condemned her treatment as euthanasia. The Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. Michael had her gravestone read:.

The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans, and US 51 terminates just west of the city, Laplace. The Schindlers' attorney stated that the family was notified by fax only after the memorial service; by then, the family had already started getting calls from reporters.[37] The ashes were interred at Sylvan Abbey Memorial Park in Clearwater, Florida. Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. On June 20, the cremated remains of Terri Schiavo were buried. The route would follow U.S. He was under court order to provide this information to them. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. On May 7, Schiavo's parents made public a complaint that they hadn't been informed of when and where the ashes of their daughter had been (or were to be) buried by Michael Schiavo.

In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns southward toward New Orleans while I-12 continues straight to rejoin I-10 in Baton Rouge. It can be heard here (Audio: MP3 Format).[36]. Later, I-12 created a shortcut that avoided crossing Lake Pontchartrain. Father Frank Pavone, an activist with Priests for Life, delivered the homily. I-10 goes west to Houston and beyond and east to Mobile and Florida, with I-59 and I-55 heading northward to Birmingham and Jackson, respectively. Her parents offered a memorial Mass for her at the Holy Name of Jesus Catholic Church in Gulfport on April 5. The interstate highways serving New Orleans were laid out in the middle of the 20th century, a time when a larger proportion of Gulf of Mexico freight traffic passed through New Orleans. Schiavo's body was cremated following the autopsy.

I-10 is also connected to I-12, north of Lake Pontchartrain, via the tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, which are also the longest in the world. The manner of death will therefore be certified as undetermined.". Long Bridge near the suburb of Jefferson. The cause of which [sic] cannot be determined with reasonable medical certainty. US 90 leaves the Central Business District and goes west through the city's Uptown neighborhood and crosses the Missisisppi River at the Huey P. Schiavo suffered severe anoxic brain injury. I-610 provides a direct shortcut across the northern central part of the city, allowing through traffic to bypass I-10's L-shaped route which traverses the more congested areas. Regarding the cause and manner of Schiavo’s death, Thogmartin wrote, "Mrs.

The Twin Spans is to be replaced with a new six-lane bridge, expected to be completed in 2009.[13] As I-10 heads south from Metairie towards the Central Business District, it is called the Pontchartrain Expressway. The examiners also found no evidence that Schiavo had been the victim of trauma (such as domestic violence). The westbound span was reopened in early January 2006. Although it was stated that Schiavo suffered from an eating disorder that caused a serious electrolyte disturbance, stopping her heart, the autopsy itself showed did not provide, and could not have provided, evidence to support this claim. By October 2005 single lanes in each direction had been reopened on the eastbound span. Aside from a localized, healed inflammation, the cardiac pathologist who studied Schiavo's heart found it and the coronary vessels to be healthy. This crossing, a dual causeway known as the "Twin Spans," was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina. In the case of Terri Schiavo, seven of the eight neurologists who examined her in her last years stated that she met the clinical criteria for PVS; the serial CT scans, EEGs, the one MRI, and finally, the pathologic findings, were consistent with that diagnosis.

Farther east, the I-10 connects New Orleans East with Slidell, bridging an arm of Lake Pontchartrain. Ancillary investigations, such as CT scans, MRI, EEGs, and lately fMRI and PET scanning, may only provide support for the clinical impression—as might the pathologic findings, after death. The "Highrise" carries I-10 across the Industrial Canal. As the condition is defined in clinical terms, it can therefore only be diagnosed in persons who, at some point, are shown to meet those clinical terms. I-10 loops east-west through the city, and traverses the northern edge of the Central Business District, taking traffic west towards Baton Rouge, Louisiana and east-northeast to Slidell, Louisiana. Nelson, P.A., cautioned that "[n]europathologic examination alone of the decedent’s brain – or any brain for that matter – cannot prove or disprove a diagnosis of persistent vegetative state or minimally conscious state."[35] The vegetative state is a behaviorally defined syndrome of complete unawareness, to self and to environment, that occurs in a person who nevertheless experiences wakefulness. Roads in the city are arranged in a radial grid pattern, emanating out to various parts of town from a central point north of the Central Business District. Stephen J.

There are proposals to revive a Desire light rail streetcar line. The damage was, in the words of Thogmartin, "irreversible, and no amount of therapy or treatment would have regenerated the massive loss of neurons."[34] Dr. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. There was marked damage to important relay circuits deep in the brain (the thalami)—another common pathologic hallmark of PVS. The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. The pattern of damage to the cortex, with injury tending to worsen from the front of the cortex to the back, is also typical. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art. Throughout the cerebral cortex, the large pyramidal neurons that comprise some 70 percent of cortical cells—critical to the functioning of the cortex—were completely lost.

The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. The neuropathologic changes in her brain were precisely of the type seen in patients who enter a PVS following cardiac arrest. Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark. Microscopic examination revealed extensive damage to nearly all brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, the thalami, the basal ganglia, the hippocampus, the cerebellum, and the midbrain. The St. The brain itself weighed 615 g, only half the weight expected for a female of her age, height, and weight. In addition to the many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by DC wires overhead. Examination of Schiavo’s nervous system revealed extensive injury.

Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). The official autopsy report[33] was released on June 15, 2005. Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway approach the city from the west, Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX from the east, and the Canadian National Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway from the north. Thogmartin also arranged for specialized cardiac and genetic examinations to be made. In addition, the city is served by six Class I freight railroads. Jon Thogmartin. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and it is served by three trains: the Crescent to New York City, the City of New Orleans to Chicago, Illinois, and the Sunset Limited from Orlando to Los Angeles. The autopsy was lead by Dr.

The city is also served by rail via Amtrak. The manner of death was certified as "undetermined", but acute dehydration was noted. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area. It revealed extensive brain damage and generally supported the PVS diagnosis. Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport, a small, general aviation airport, as well as the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. The autopsy occurred on April 1, 2005. The airport also serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express. After her death, Schiavo's body was taken to the office of the medical examiner for Pinellas and Pasco counties.

The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe. The Schindler family was allowed into the room after Michael Schiavo had left.[32]. It serves millions of passengers on approximately 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Her parents, who had been denied access to her during her last hours, went to the hospice to visit her when they were informed she might be approaching death; they arrived half an hour after her death. The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA: MSY, ICAO: KMSY), located approximately nine miles west of the city in the city of Kenner. EST on Thursday, March 31, 2005, with her husband Michael at her side. Mint.[12]. Terri Schiavo died at 9:05 a.m.

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection[11] and the Old U.S. As her tongue was too dry to receive a small piece of the host, she received under the species of wine, one drop being placed on her tongue. The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina.[9] The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections.[10]. The Eucharist, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, can be received under the consecrated species of either bread (referred to as the host) or wine. Long Library at the University of New Orleans.[8]. In accordance with the Catholic ritual of Viaticum, she received the Eucharist for the last time; it had been administered to her once through her feeding tube just before it was removed. There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University[7] and Earl K. The next day, Schiavo was given the Anointing of the Sick ("Last Rites").

Other schools include Delgado Community College, Nunez Community College, Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, Commonwealth University, and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary. On March 26, 2005, Bob and Mary Schindler announced that their legal options had been exhausted. Several institutions of higher education also exist within the city, including University of New Orleans, Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Medical School, and Our Lady of Holy Cross College. In jest, one official said local police discussed "...whether we had enough officers to hold off the National Guard."[31]. The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools. If Bush (or the Florida Legislature) had ignored Greer's order by attempting to remove Schiavo from the hospice, a confrontation between the Pinellas Park Police Department and the FDLE agents could have ensued. NOPS contains approximately 100 individual schools. Governor Bush decided to obey the court order despite enormous pressure from the political right.

New Orleans Public Schools, the city's school district, is one of the area's largest school districts. Once Greer was made aware of the stay, he ordered it lifted and all parties stood down. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans. While the stay was in effect, Florida Department of Law Enforcement personnel prepared to take custody of Terri and transfer her to a local hospital for reinsertion of the feeding tube. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. The order was appealed to the 2nd DCA the following day, which resulted in an automatic stay under state law. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou and Carrollton. On March 24, 2005, Greer denied a petition for intervention by the Department of Children & Families (DCF) and signed an order forbidding the department from "taking possession of Theresa Marie Schiavo or removing her" from the hospice and directed "each and every and singular sheriff of the state of Florida" to enforce his order.

The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-county government.GR6 Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. It suggested the Schiavo case offered "a great political issue" that would appeal to the party's base (core supporters) and could be used against Senator Bill Nelson, a Democrat from Florida who is up for reelection in 2006, because he had refused to co-sponsor the bill.[30]. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system. The memo was written by Brian Darling, the legal counsel to Florida Republican senator Mel Martinez. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. At the same time, the so-called Schiavo memo surfaced, causing a political firestorm. The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. Supreme Court declined to grant certiorari, effectively ending the Schindlers' legal options.

was elected in May 2002. As in the state courts, all of the Schindlers' federal petitions and appeals were denied, and the U.S. Ray Nagin, Jr. EST. Mayor C. from his vacation in Texas in order to sign the bill into law at 1:11 a.m. The city council consists of five councilmembers who are elected by district and two at large councilmembers. President Bush flew to Washington D.C.

New Orleans has a mayor-council government. EST. Other major tourist events and attractions in the city include Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, Southern Decadence (one of the largest annual Gay/Lesbian celebrations in the nation), and the Essence Festival. The bill passed the House on March 21 at 12:41 a.m. The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. Governor Bush and Congressional Republicans anticipated Greer's adverse ruling well before it was delivered and worked on a daily basis to find an alternative means of overturning the legal process by utilizing the authority of the United States Congress.[29] On March 20, 2005, the Senate (with only three members present) passed their version of the resolution, followed by the House of Representatives, a private bill which came to be called the "Palm Sunday Compromise" (S-686), transferring jurisdiction of the Schiavo case to the federal courts. New Orleans is also one of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. Greer told congressional attorneys, "I have had no cogent reason why the (congressional) committee should intervene." He also stated that last-minute action by Congress does not invalidate years of court rulings.[27][28] Although Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist, Senator Rick Santorum, and House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, brought the possibility of sanctioning Greer on charges of contempt of Congress, Congress did not attempt to enforce the subpoenas or take any action against Greer.

These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them. Following Greer's order on March 18, 2005 to remove the feeding tube, Republicans in the United States Congress subpoenaed both Michael and Terri Schiavo to testify at a congressional hearing.[25] It is contempt of Congress to prevent or discourage congressional witnesses from testifying.[26] The purpose of the subpoenas was thus to postpone the feeding tube removal. There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. The Florida Supreme Court then overturned the law as unconstitutional.[24]. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly. On May 5, 2004, Baird found "Terri's Law" unconstitutional, and struck it down.[21] Bush appealed this order to the 2nd DCA, but, on May 12, they issued an "Order Relinquishing Case for Entry of Final Judgment and Order to Show Cause Why this Proceeding Should Not be Certified to the Supreme Court As Requiring Immediate Resolution."[22] The 2nd DCA, in sending it directly to the Florida's Supreme Court, invoked "pass through" jurisdiction.[23]. The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. On March 17, Baird denied the Schindlers the right to intervene a 2nd time,[17] and the Schindlers, represented by the conservative American Center for Law and Justice (ACLJ), appealed the right to participate in the "Terri's Law" case, with the court scheduling an oral argument [18] date for June 14.[19] The Schindlers' other attorney, Pat Anderson, was concurrently challenging Michael Schiavo's right to be Terri's guardian, and, on June 16, [20] she made a petition for writ of Quo Warranto, a pleading that asks "by what right" someone acts in an official capacity.

New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. They appealed, and, on February 13, the Florida Second District Court of Appeal (2nd DCA) reversed Baird's ruling,[16] allowing them to participate. gateway, including Miami. Greer. The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. Douglas Baird, a Circuit Judge in the Florida 6th Circuit, the same circuit as for Judge George W. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. At the same time, Robert and Mary Schindler, Terri's parents attempted to intervene and participate in the "Terri's Law" case but were denied by Judge W.

The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. Michael Schiavo opposed the Governor's intervention, and was represented, in part, by the ACLU. About 5,000 ships from nearly 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. Bush immediately ordered the feeding tube reinserted. The two combined would be the 4th largest port in the world. Earlier, in October of 2003, when the Schindlers' final appeal was exhausted, the Florida Legislature passed "Terri's Law,"[15] giving Governor Jeb Bush the authority to intervene in the case. The Port of South Louisiana, located in the Metropolitan New Orleans Area, handles 199 million short tons. Congress made use of extraordinary measures to support the Schindlers.

The Port of New Orleans handles about 84 million short tons of cargo a year. Both the state government of Florida and the U.S. Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include BellSouth, Hibernia Corp., IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, and Zatarain's. Many are obviously not aware of the medical exams undertaken for the 2002 trial..." [14]. The Michoud Assembly Facility also houses the National Finance Center operated by the USDA. Greer noted that "[m]ost of the doctor affidavits submitted are based on their understanding of Schiavo's condition from news reports or video clips they have seen. The facility is operated by Lockheed-Martin and is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced. Both are asking for an experimental procedure." [13] The following day, Greer denied the first motion as well, citing that an affiant doctor for Michael cautioned that fMRI was an experimental procedure that should be conducted in an academic setting, because Schiavo had already undergone swallowing tests and failed, and because VitalStim had only been performed on patients who were not in a PVS.

The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. The same declarations are being used for both motions and the motion appears to be an alternative pleading to the [previous] motion. The federal government has a significant presence in the area. [12] Judge Greer denied the second motion on March 8, saying "it has become clear that the [second] motion is part and parcel of [the previous] motion on medical evaluations. The city is also home to one Fortune 500 company, Entergy Corporation, an electric power provider. On February 28, the Schindlers filed a motion, asking for permission to attempt to provide Schiavo with "Food and Water by Natural Means." This second motion asked for permission to "attempt to feed" Schiavo by mouth. There are a substantial number of energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil Company. on Friday, March 18, 2005." [11].

Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. Anderson argued that Greer did not specify "artificial nutrition and hydration" versus "oral nutrition and hydration" and stated that "the withholding of food and water...was not ordered by the Court but by Michael Schiavo." [10] In his order, Greer also set a time and date for the removal of the feeding tube: "1:00 p.m. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid 20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic. [7] [8] Patricia Fields Anderson, the Schindler family attorney, still held out hope "that Terri might be able to take nourishment orally, despite past findings that she is incapable." [9] Judge Greer formally denied the motion and ordered the "removal of nutrition and hydration from the ward" . The U.S. The motion was accompanied by thirty-three affidavits from doctors in several specialties, speech pathologists and therapists, and a few neuropsychologists, all urging that new tests be undertaken. It is one of the busiest seaports in not only the United States, but also the world. On February 23, 2005, the Schindlers filed a motion for relief from judgment pending medical evaluations[6] The Schindlers wanted Schiavo to be tested with an fMRI and given a swallowing therapy called VitalStim.

seaport. No stay was granted by the appellate courts, and on March 18, 2005, Schiavo's feeding tube was removed for a third time. New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. The Schindlers filed two motions in an effort for forestall the removal of Terri's feeding tube. The building was severely damaged, first by storm surge and then by fire, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In addressing the issue of law surrounding the case, Wolfson concluded "that the trier of fact and the evidence that served as the basis for the decisions regarding Theresa Schiavo were firmly grounded within Florida statutory and case law, which clearly and unequivocally provide for the removal of artificial nutrition in cases of persistent vegetative states.". Established in 1849, it is the second oldest yacht club in the United States. Of suggestions that Michael Schiavo refused to relinquish his guardianship because of financial interests or to cover up previous abuse, Wolfson reported that "there is no evidence in the record to substantiate any of these perceptions or allegations.".

New Orleans is also home to Southern Yacht Club, located at West End on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain. That the Schindlers would keep their daughter alive to the point of her "limbs being amputated," was not accurate according to Wolfson. Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz. Wolfson addressed two criticisms that media attention had affixed to the Schindlers and Michael Schiavo, respectively. Historically, many teams have been formerly located in the city, including the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Breakers of the United States Football League, the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). In examining medical records and consultations surrounding the case, Wolfson concluded: "(that there is) well documented information that she is in a persistent vegetative state with no likelihood of improvement, and that the neurological and speech pathology evidence in the file support the contention that she cannot take oral nutrition or hydration and cannot consciously interact with her environment." He observed further that while there appeared to be agreement about Schiavo and PVS: "the Schindlers have adopted what appears to be a position that Theresa is not in a persistent vegetative state, and/or that they do not support the fact that such a medical state exists at all.". Nine Super Bowls have been contested in New Orleans. His central finding was: "The GAL was not able to independently determine that there were consistent, repetitive, intentional, reproducible interactive and aware activities." He notes further, that when joined by her parents no success was gained in eliciting a repetitive or consistent response from Schiavo.

The city also hosts two college football bowl games annually: the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl. In December, 2003, he submitted his report, referring to himself in the third person as "the GAL". They are currently affiliated with the Washington Nationals. Wolfson visited Schiavo at least daily over the course of a month. The New Orleans Zephyrs, AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie. By the start of 2005, feeding tube removal again seemed imminent and the case again began to reach a national audience. The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner, Tom Benson. Throughout 2004, the legal struggle continued, but it received less publicity.

The Hornets will play 36 "home" games at the Ford Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the remaining 5 to be split between Norman (University of Oklahoma campus), Baton Rouge (LSU campus) and a March 2006 return to New Orleans for three home games. Wolfson's report did not change Michael's role as Terri's legal guardian and did not otherwise obstruct him legally. The football season began just a week after the storm hit, and the Saints played their first "home" game against the Giants at Giants Stadium. Jay Wolfson, to "deduce and represent the best wishes and best interests" of Schiavo, and report them to Governor Bush. Due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, including damage both to the exterior and the interior of the Louisiana Superdome, the New Orleans Saints have played their "home" games in Baton Rouge and San Antonio, Texas. Part of the legislation required the appointment of a guardian ad litem, Dr. The Saints play in the Louisiana Superdome, and the Hornets play in the adjacent New Orleans Arena. [5] She was then returned to the hospice.

The city is the home to several professional, major league sports teams, including the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League and the New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association which relocated from Charlotte, North Carolina, at the start of the 2002–2003 season. She was taken to a hospital, where her feeding tube was surgically reinserted. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music," but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music. Bush immediately sent the Florida Department of Law Enforcement to remove Schiavo from the hospice. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. See "Government involvement" for additional details. The city also created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. Within a week, the Florida legislature passed and Florida Governor Jeb Bush signed "Terri's Law", enabling Bush to intervene.

In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues. On October 15, 2003, Schiavo's feeding tube was removed. Its general atmosphere of Dionysian art has also resulted in both breeding and being a home to chaotic artists such as Crash Worship, Liquiddrone, and Jamal Morelli. Iyer for the January 2000 evidentiary hearing had Iyer contacted them [in 1996] as her affidavit alleges." [4]. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. Schindler would not have subpoenaed Ms. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. and Mrs.

New Orleans has always been a significant center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. Schindler...It is impossible to believe that Mr. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists. and Mrs. Commonly referred to simply as, "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. Iyer details what amounts to a 15-month cover-up [April 1995 through July 1996] which include the staff of Palm Garden of Largo Convalescent Center, the Guardian of the Person, the guardian ad litem, the medical professionals, the police and, believe it or not, Mr. The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. The exhibits relied upon by them clearly demonstrate this to be true." Regarding Iyer's statements, Greer wrote that they were "incredible to say the least" and that "Ms.

The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carré, translated Old Square), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux. It is not even a veiled or disguised attempt. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. Schindler to re-litigate the entire case. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), held just before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent. and Mrs. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. On September 17, Judge George Greer denied the petition, and wrote that "the Petition is an attempt by Mr.

Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations, including Mardi Gras, New Year's Eve celebrations, and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. Iyer stated that standing orders were not to contact the Schindler family, but that she "would call them anyway." Iyer stated that she eventually called the police and was fired the next day. See also: New Orleans Mardi Gras. She stated that it was medically possible that Michael injected his wife with insulin in an attempt to kill her. Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden. One of the nurses, Carla Sauer Iyer said in her affidavit that her initial training in 1996 consisted solely of the instruction, "do what Michael Schiavo tells you or you're terminated." She stated that on five different occasions, she tested Schiavo's blood sugar levels after Michael visited her, and she found that her blood sugar levels were so low it wouldn't even register a number. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours."). At the hearing the Schindlers' counsel read into the record additional affidavits from three speech professionals and two nurses.

Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. Gimon. The city is also world-famous for its food. Alexander T. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery. Accompanying the petition were four affidavits from members of the Schindler family and one from Dr. New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. The petition was denied.

The Audubon Park and the Audubon Zoo are also located in the city of New Orleans. On September 11, 2003, the Schindlers petitioned the court to forestall removal of the feeding tube to provide for "eight weeks' therapy". Art museums in the city include the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. In the fall of 2002, their first child was born. The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily. In 1995, Michael began a relationship with another woman, Jodi Centonze. The National D-Day Museum is a relatively new museum (opened on June 6, 2000) dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France. By the summer of 2003, Michael's pursuit of having Terri's feeding tube removed had progressed to the point where removal seemed imminent.

Also located near the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, now operates as a museum. Pro-life groups had begun to actively come to the aid of the Schindlers and the story was receiving increasing publicity at the state level. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and Preservation Hall. As the legal conflict escalated to the state level, the Schindlers began to use Randall Terry as their spokesman. Other notable tourist attractions in the quarter include Jackson Square, St. The Schindlers released an influential video of Terri and her mother in what appeared to be some form of interaction. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street. They would do so again in 2005.

Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. In March of 2000, the Schindlers filed a motion to permit oral feeding of Schiavo, which is not considered a life-prolonging procedure under Florida law. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), and many stately 19th century mansions. There were many legal conflicts over the next five years between Michael Schiavo and Terri's parents. Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife, St. The courts determined that Terri was in a persistent vegetative state from which she had little chance of ever recovering. Several episodes of television series have referenced the city:. In 1998, Michael requested that Terri's nutrition be withheld with the obvious intention that Terri's life should come to an end in the near future.

Radio stations serving Greater New Orleans include:. Terri's parents and, in several cases, medical administrative staff moved to opposed these measures and thus began a long and complicated legal struggle. WHNO 20 also operates as an independent station in the area, providing mainly religious programming. He requested that treatment for infections be halted. PBS stations include WYES 12 and WLAE 32. In 1994, Michael Schiavo indicated that he saw no hopes for his wife's recovery, and that she would not want to continue her life under those circumstances. Major television network affiliates serving the area include WWL 4 (CBS), WGNO 26 (ABC), WDSU 6 (NBC), WVUE 8 (FOX), WNOL 38 (WB), WUPL 54 (UPN), and WPXL 49 (PAX). The Schindler's continue to present statements to the public that question this diagnosis, but the issue has not further been addressed by the courts.

The market is the 43rd largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 672,150 homes and 0.610% of the U.S. Michael fought and won a malpractice suit with a large monetary award against Terri's obstetrician based on the premise that Terri had an undiagnosed eating disorder. Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. That latter pursuit was not successful. Other alternative weekly publications include the Louisiana Weekly and the Gambit Weekly. She was diagnosed as being in persistent vegetative state and was provided with standard care for such a case and was also provided with some extraordinary procedures in pursuit of a cognitive recovery. The major daily newspaper is the New Orleans Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. She was fitted with a feeding tube for nutrition and hydration.

Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," "makin' groceries" for grocery shopping, or "neutral ground" for a street median. Terri Schiavo suffered a cardiac arrest at her home in 1990. This word is not used as a generalized term for the New Orleans accent, and is generally reserved for the strongest varieties.
. One subtype of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat (from "Where y'at). The physician who examined her did not take a complete medical history, which might have indicated an eating disorder. As with many sociolinguistic artifacts, it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population. At this time Schiavo's weight had dropped to 120 pounds, and she had stopped menstruating.

This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city (but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes). In 1989, the Schiavos began visiting an obstetrician and receiving fertility services and counseling in the hopes of having a child. The prestige associated with being from New Orleans by many residents is likely a factor in the linguistic assimilation of the ethnically divergent population. In Florida, she worked as an insurance claims clerk for the Prudential insurance company, and Michael was a restaurant manager. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups. Petersburg three months later. There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century. Schiavo's parents also moved to St.

It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with it. Petersburg, Florida, in April 1986. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". They moved to St. The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. They were married on November 10, 1984, at Our Lady of Good Counsel Church in Southampton, Pennsylvania. New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals as "Noo Or-lins," "Noo Awlee-enz," or "Noo Aw-lins." The pronunciation "N'Awlins" is not generally used by locals but has been popularized by the tourist trade. After dating for five months, the couple became engaged.

New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo practice by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and spirit of celebration. He was her first boyfriend. Logan in January of 2005 suggests that as many as 50% of whites and 80% of blacks relocated from New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath may relocate permanently. She met Michael Schiavo in 1982 in a sociology class at Bucks County Community College. An analysis by Brown University sociologist John R. She went on a NutriSystem diet and lost about 55 pounds (25 kg).[2] She may have developed an eating disorder around this time.[3] In 1981, she graduated from Archbishop Wood Catholic High School. Tammany registered strong increases in population. By her senior year in high school, Schiavo was overweight, with a height of 5 feet, 3 inches (160 cm) and a weight of around 200 pounds (90 kg).

The population was stunted in the late sixties, a decade which saw storm surge from Hurricane Betsy flooded much of the Lower 9th Ward Since the late sixties, the population of New Orleans/Orleans Parish has experienced a steady decline while surrounding parishes such as Jefferson and St. (Bobby) and Suzanne (now Suzanne Vitadamo). The population of New Orleans reached its highest point in the summer of 1965, when its population reached 702,108. Her younger siblings were Robert Jr. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Schiavo grew up in the Huntingdon Valley area of Lower Moreland Township, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as the eldest of three children of Robert and Mary Schindler. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families were below the poverty line. .

The per capita income for the city was $17,258. She died at a Pinellas Park, Florida hospice on March 31, 2005, at the age of 41. Males had a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. Her feeding tube was removed a third and final time on March 18, 2005. The median income for a household in the city was $27,133, and the median income for a family was $32,338. Despite these interventions, the courts continued to find that Schiavo was in a PVS with no hope for recovery, and would want to cease life support. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. By March 2005, the legal history around the Schiavo case included fourteen appeals and numerous motions, petitions, and hearings in the Florida courts; five suits in Federal District Court; Florida legislation struck down by the Supreme Court of Florida; a subpoena by a congressional committee in an attempt to qualify Schiavo for "witness protection"; federal legislation (Palm Sunday Compromise); and four denials of certiorari from the Supreme Court of the United States.[1].

For every 100 females there were 88.2 males. By 2003, the matter, while still local to Florida, had received some national attention. The median age was 33 years. The courts consistently found that Schiavo was in a PVS and had made credible statements that she would not wish to be kept alive on a machine. In the city the population was spread out with:. Beginning in 1998, Terri's husband and guardian Michael Schiavo petitioned the courts to remove the gastric feeding tube keeping Schiavo alive; Schiavo's parents Robert and Mary Schindler fought a series of legal battles opposing Michael. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.23. Within three years, she was diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) with little chance of recovery.

There were 188,251 households out of which:. She remained in a coma for ten weeks. But due to the enormous annual tourist flow, the amount of people inside the city at a given time, such as Mardi Gras season, tends to exceed these numbers sometimes by the hundreds of thousands. Schiavo experienced cardiac arrest due to a potassium imbalance and collapsed in her home in 1990, incurring massive brain damage. These population statistics are based on legal residents of the city. Petersburg, Florida whose medical circumstances and attendant legal battles fueled significant media attention and led to several high-profile court decisions and involvement by politicians and interest groups. The population of Greater New Orleans stood at 1,337,726 in 2000, making it the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Theresa Marie "Terri" Schiavo (December 3, 1963 – March 31, 2005) was a woman from St.

The racial makeup of the city was:. "Schiavo abuse claims were old," Saint Petersburg Times, June 4, 2005 link. There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). ^ Tisch, Chris and Krueger, Curtis. The population density was 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). "Statement from Gloria Allred, Attorney-at-Law, Representing Robert Herring, Sr.:," Christian Wire Service, March 10, 2005 link. As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. ^ Allred, Gloria, Esq.

The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1 or 2 inches of snow. "Money Trail in the Schiavo Case: Bioethics for Sale?," The Daily Kos, March 22, 2005 link. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954, and brought 4.5 inches (110 mm). ^ Zúniga, Markos Moulitsas. On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. "A REPORT TO GOVERNOR JEB BUSH AND THE 6TH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT IN THE MATTER OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO," Abstract Appeal Legal Blog, December 1, 2003 link. Most recently, a trace of snow fell on Christmas in 2004, during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. ^ Wolfson, Jay, DrPH, JD.

On rare occasions, snow will fall. 6th Judicial Circuit, February 11, 2000 link. The average precipitation is 59.74 inches (1520 mm) annually. 90-2908GD-003, Fla. The highest recorded temperature was 102.0°F (38.9°C) on August 22, 1980. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated," File No. The lowest recorded temperature was 11.0°F (-11.6°C) on December 23, 1989. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge.

In July, lows average 74°F (23°C), and highs average 91°F (33°C). "The Terri Schiavo Case: Vatican official enters Schiavo feeding tube fray," Saint Petersburg Times, February 26, 2005 link. In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6°C), and daily highs around 62°F (17°C). ^ Moore, Waveney Ann. The climate of New Orleans is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. "Schiavo's Remains Buried Amid Acrimony: Acrimony Between Terri Schiavo's Parents and Husband Continues As Her Remains Buried in Florida," Associated Press, June 21, 2005 link. Bernard Parish to the south, Plaquemines Parish to the southwest, and Jefferson Parish to the west. ^ Stacy, Mitch.

Tammany Parish to the northeast, St. "Schiavo's parents planning a funeral Mass for today," Saint Petersburg Times, April 5, 2005 link. Parishes located adjacent to the city of New Orleans include St. ^ By Times Staff. John, Mid City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, The upper 9th Ward and Algiers. "REPORT OF AUTOPSY" for Theresa Schiavo, Case #5050439, June 13, 2005 link. Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. ^ Thogmartin, Jon R., M.D.

Its tallest building is the 50-story One Shell Square. "Autopsy: No sign Schiavo was abused: Findings show woman's brain 'profoundly atrophied'," CNN, June 17, 2005 link. Parts of the city that are located uptown include the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. ^ Phillips, Rich, Producer. Parts of the city that are located downtown include the world famous French Quarter (most noted as the central tourist district, with its array of shops, bars, and nightclubs along Bourbon Street), Storyville (now defunct), Treme, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater, the 7th Ward, and the Lower 9th Ward. "REPORT OF AUTOPSY" for Theresa Schiavo, Case #5050439, June 13, 2005 link. "Uptown" refers to those parts of town that are upriver from the central business district. ^ Thogmartin, Jon R., M.D.

The term "downtown" refers to those parts of town that are downriver from the central business district. "Attorney: Terri's husband cradled her: 'It was a very emotional moment for many of us there'," CNN, April 1, 2005 link. Major streets of the area include Canal Street and Poydras St. ^ An Unsigned News Story. The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and is historically called the "American Quarter." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. "KCBS Report: State Tried Schiavo Grab," WCBS-TV, March 26, 2005 (WCBS-TV New York, reprinting a KCBS-TV Los Angeles Story) link. Tammany. ^ An Unsigned "AP" News Story.

John the Baptist, and St. "GOP memo says issue offers political rewards," The Washington Post, April 4, 2005 link. Charles, St. ^ An Unsigned News Story. Bernard, St. "Lawyers for Bush, lawmakers worked at exhausting pace on Schiavo," The Associated Press, May 24, 2005 link. The New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 37th largest in the United States, includes the Louisiana parishes of Orleans (contiguous with the city of New Orleans), Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. ^ Farrington, Brendan.

Because of the city's high water table most of the cemeteries in the city use above ground crypts as opposed to underground burial. "Schiavo's Feeding Tube Removed," TBO.com News, March 18, 2005 link. Before the 20th century pumping system, if it rains more than 1 inch, or more recently if there is a major storm surge, such as that caused by a hurricane, greater flooding can occur. ^ An Unsigned "AP" News Story. Rainwater is continually pumped out of the city and into Lake Pontchartrain across a series of canals lined by levees and dikes. "Schiavo's feeding tube removed despite congressional intervention," USA Today, March 18, 2005 link. Some 45% of the city is above sea level; these higher areas were developed before 1900; the lowest areas only being developed more recently. ^ An Unsigned "AP" News Story.

Much of the city is actually located between 1 and 10 feet (0.3 to 3 m) below sea level, and as such, is very prone to flooding. "Docs Remove Terri Schiavo's Feeding Tube: Tube Was Scheduled To Be Removed Friday," CBS 2 Chicago, WBBM-TV, March 17, 2005 link. The city of New Orleans actually contains the lowest point in the state of Louisiana, and one of the lowest points in the United States, after Death Valley and the Salton Sea. ^ An Unsigned News Story. The Mississippi Delta, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, covers about 13,000 square miles (about 1/4 of Louisiana) and consists of silt deposited by the river, and is the most fertile area of Louisiana. House of Representatives, March 18, 2005 link. Fields atop the ridges along the river are referred to as the "frontlands." The land contour slopes away from the frontlands to the "backlands", comprised of clay and silt. "SUBPOENA," Committee on Government Reform, U.S.

The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. ^ Davis, Tom, Chairman, (for The Committee). The city is located in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, between the Mississippi River in the south and Lake Pontchartrain in the north. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Guardian of Theresa Schiavo, Appellee," Case Number: SC04-925, Florida Supreme Court, September 23, 2004 link. The total area is 48.45% water. "JEB BUSH, Governor of Florida, et al., Appellants, vs. 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water. ^ Pariente, Barbara, Chief Justice (for The Court).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). "Schiavo News," Abstract Appeal Legal Web Log, June 10, 2004 link. New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N, 90°4′14″W (29.964722, -90.070556)GR1 on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. ^ Conigliaro, Matt, Esq. By October 1, parts of the city accounting for about one-third of the population of New Orleans had been reopened, including the French Quarter.[4] As of October 1, only 5% of the city remained underwater. "Order Relinquishing Case for Entry of Final Judgment and Order to Show Cause Why this Proceeding Should Not be Certified to the Supreme Court As Requiring Immediate Resolution," Case Number: 2D04-2045, Florida Second District Court of Appeal, May 12, 2004 (Pages 6 & 7 of the 7-page Brief at the link following) link. New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded when a storm surge from Rita overcame one of the repaired levees on the Industrial Canal [3]. ^ Birkhold, James, Clerk (for The Court).

[2]. 6th Judicial Circuit, May 5, 2005 link. Concern about the fragility of the city's flood defences and transportation caused repopulation efforts to be postponed due to Hurricane Rita. 03-008212-CI-20, Fla. The mayor announced a "phased repopulation" plan to start bringing residents of the city back in the next two weeks. Jeb BUSH, Governor of the State of Florida, and Charlie Crist, Attorney General of the State of Florida, Respondents," Case No. On September 15, several of the suburban towns started allowing residents to return. "Michael SCHIAVO, as Guardian of the person of Theresa Marie Schiavo, Petitioner, v.

The city government declared the city off-limits to residents while clean-up efforts began and warned that those remaining could be removed by force, for their health and safety. Douglas, Circuit Judge. Subsequent investigations showed that the levee failures which flooded the majority of the city were the result of what has been called "the largest civil engineering disaster in the history of the United States" [1]. ^ Baird, W. Early estimates of the cost of physical damage from the storm have exceeded 100 billion USD. "News Coverage of Terri Schiavo's family's challenge to Mike Schiavo's guardianship," Purple Moose Marie Web log, June 16, 2004 link. As of November 2005, the Times Picayune article states that, in addition to 1,050 confirmed deaths, there are 5,000 missing residents of the city. ^ Ford, Cheryl, R.N.

As much as 80% of the city, much of which is below sea level, flooded, with water reaching a depth of 25 feet (7.6 meters) in some areas. "Case Docket," Case Number: 2D04-1528, Florida Second District Court of Appeal, link. These canals were the 17th Street Canal, the Industrial Canal, and the London Avenue Canal. ^ State of Florida. The situation worsened when levees along three canals were breached. "Lakeland Appeals Court holds Oral Arguments for Terri's Law," Purple Moose Marie Web log, June 14, 2004 link. Heavy rains and flooding immediately affected the eastern areas of the city. ^ Anonymous.

The eye of the storm passed within 10 to 15 miles of New Orleans, bringing strong winds that downed trees, shattered windows, and hurled debris around the area. Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, March 17, 2004 link. Many residents chose to stay or were stranded in the city by a lack of available transportation. "Judge Baird Again Denies Schindlers' Request To Intervene In "Terri's Law" Case," Fla. New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued a mandatory evacuation of the entire city, the first such order ever issued in New Orleans. ^ Reynolds, Dave, Inclusion Daily Express. The city suffered from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005 on the gulf coast near the city. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, as Guardian of the person of THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Appellee," Case Number: 2D03-5200, Florida Second District Court of Appeal, February 13, 2004 link.

The city experienced severe flooding in the May 8th 1995 Louisiana Flood when heavy rains suddenly dumped over a foot of water on parts of town faster than the pumps could remove the water. "ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, parents of THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Appellants, v. A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition. ^ David, Charles A., Jr., Judge (for The Court). Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the domestic and international tourist industry. 35-E, which later was passed into Law as Florida Public Law, Chapter 2003-418, commonly known as "Terri's Law," link. While long one of the USA's most-visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy. House Bill No.

Because of Camille's tightly wound rings, the storm actually pulled water from the then impending fate they believed was imminent from Lake Ponchartrain and Lake Borgne, and veered toward her landfall point, approximately 50 miles away at Pass Christian, Mississippi, which is believed to have received a 28 foot storm surge. ^ State of Florida. In 1969 the city was brushed by Hurricane Camille but was spared from the catastrophic flooding it had seen in Hurricane Betsy and later in Hurricane Katrina. 6th Judicial Circuit, March 9, 2005 link. In 1965 the city was damaged by Hurricane Betsy, with catastrophic flooding of the city's Lower 9th Ward. 90-2908-GD-003, Fla. Much of the city flooded in September of 1947 due to the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No.

Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. The suburbs saw great growth in the second half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April 2004. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with buses. 6th Judicial Circuit, March 8, 2005 link.

In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. 90-2908-GD-003, Fla. New Orleans was hit by major storms in the 1909 Atlantic hurricane season and the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No. The city has had no cases of Yellow Fever since. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the city to demonstrate the safety of New Orleans. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated.

The effort was a success and the disease was stopped before reaching epidemic proportions. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. As the role of mosquitos in spreading the disease was newly understood, the city embarked on a massive campaign to drain, screen, or oil all cisterns and standing water (breeding ground for mosquitos) in the city and educate the public on their vital role in preventing mosquitos. "EMERGENCY EXPEDITED MOTION FOR PERMISSION TO PROVIDE THERESA SCHIAVO WITH FOOD AND WATER BY NATURAL MEANS," File Number: 90-2908GD-003, February 27, 2005 link. In 1905 Yellow Fever was reported in the city, which had suffered under repeated epidemics of the disease in the previous century. ^ Gibbs, David C., III, Esq. (2000-2004). 6th Judicial Circuit, February 25, 2005 link.

Jamal Morelli's struggle for the neighborhood was successful in protecting the lower ninth ward. 90-2908-GD-003, Fla. The HCNA sent Jamal Morelli, activist and New Orleans artist, to respresent them in Washington, D.C. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No. The Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, (HCNA) respresenting a substantial group of the aforementioned lower ninth ward, created a lobby against the Army Corps of Engineers furthering work on the levees which might endanger the neighborhoods. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. This warning was augmented by vestigial fears from Hurricane Betsy, and the lasting stories of the Army Corps of Engineers blasting the flooding levees, drowning the poorer neighborhoods of the lower ninth Ward. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated.

There were many warnings in the late 20th century that a major hurricane or a Mississippi flood could create a lake in the central city as much as 9 m (30 ft) deep, which could take months to pump dry. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. The subsidence greatly increased the flood risk, should the levees be breached or precipitation be in excess of pumping capacity (as was the case in 2005 in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina). "Judge Greer and Michael Schiavo: Collusive Law Breaking in Attempts to End Terri's Life," Liberty To The Captives, October 31, 2003 link. However, pumping of groundwater from underneath the city has resulted in subsidence. ^ Ruby, Lisa. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area. "Too thin a line between life, death for Schiavo," Saint Petersburg Times, September 15, 2003 link.

All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. ^ Troxler, Howard. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. "On Face the Nation, Family Research Council's Perkins misrepresented Schindler family's 33 affidavits calling for more medical treatment for Terri Schiavo," Media Matters for America, March 28, 2005 link. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. ^ An Unsigned Editorial. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City. 6th Judicial Circuit, March 9, 2005 link.

Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. 90-2908-GD-003, Fla. Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated.

It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. It was the first captured city in the American South. "RESPONDENTS' FLA.R.CIV.P.1.540(b)(5) MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT PENDING CONTEMPORARY MEDICAL/PSYCHIATRIC/REHABILITATIVE EVALUATION OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO," File Number: 90-2908GD-003, February 23, 2005 link. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union (by David Farragut -son of Spanish emigrants- later named the first US Navy Vice-Admiral) without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. ^ Gibbs, David C., III, Esq. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color. "Transcript: Michael Schiavo on 'Nightline': Husband at the Heart of the 'Right to Die' Case Speaks to Chris Bury," ABC News, March 15, 2005 link.

New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. ^ Bury, Chris. However, population growth was at times plagued by yellow fever epidemics, such as the great scourge of 1853 that killed nearly 10,000 people in New Orleans. 6th Judicial Circuit, September 17, 2003 link. The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 the city's population was around 102,000, fourth-largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South after Baltimore. 90-2908GD-003, Fla. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans). ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No.

The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, as Guardian of the person of THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Petitioner, v. In its early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. But in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. "Terri Schiavo case reveals the dangers of eating disorders," The Johns Hopkins Newsletter, March 24, 2005 link.

Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon re-acquired the territory from Spain by treaty. ^ Nair, Sandya. In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. "The Legacy of Terri Schiavo," Newsweek, April 4, 2005 link. Louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere. ^ Campo-Flores, Arian. The three most impressive buildings of New Orleans come from the Spanish times: St. "RESPONDENT MICHAEL SCHIAVO'S OPPOSITION TO APPLICATION FOR INJUNCTION," Case No.: 04A-825, March 24, 2005 link.

As a result of this, and a subsequent fire in 1795 (another 200 houses destroyed), much of 18th century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built under Spanish rule and demonstrates Spanish colonial characteristics, wood was replaced with bricks. ^ Felos, George J., Esq. The Great Fire of 1788 destroyed many of the existing structures in the city (800 houses were destroyed), which were made of wood. note: See peace symbol. In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire and remained under Spanish control for 40 years. Ed. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi.

A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for more than a decade before the official founding of the city. John (known to natives as Bayou Choupique). The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville.

Main article: History of New Orleans. . Residents of the city are referred to as New Orleanians. The city's name is often abbreviated NOLA.

The city's unofficial motto, "Laissez les bons temps rouler" ("Let the good times roll") describes the party-like attitude of many residents. The city's several nicknames describe various characteristics of the city, including the "Crescent City" (describing its shape around the Mississippi River), "The Big Easy" (a reference by musicians to the relative ease of finding work in the city) and "The City that Care Forgot" (associated with the easy going, carefree nature of many of the local residents). The city was named in honor of Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded (much as New York was named in honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England). New Orleans was founded by the French in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States.

The two ports together would be the fourth largest port in the world. ports for exporting grain. The Port of South Louisiana is based in the New Orleans metropolitan area and has been ranked the fifth largest port in the world in terms of raw tonnage, and among the largest U.S. port for several major commodities including rubber, cement and coffee.

The Port of New Orleans is the largest U.S. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf. New Orleans remains a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. While most of the city has reopened to residents, and areas which suffered moderate damage have substantially resumed functioning, the parts of town most severely damaged - such as some neighborhoods of the lower 9th Ward - are open only during daylight hours for residents to salvage items from their formerly flooded homes.

As of mid-December 2005, efforts continue to aid survivors, clean up debris, and restore infrastructure. Estimates as of late 2005 cite fewer than 150,000 residing in the city, and projections of the city's eventual population following reconstruction are highly speculative. Since the devastation of the city in conjunction with Hurricane Katrina, the population has been significantly less, due to the majority of surviving residents either taking temporary shelter elsewhere or relocating indefinitely. census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the population of Greater New Orleans at 1,337,726.

The most recent U.S. It is a world-famous tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most noteworthy annual events are Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday"), Jazz Fest, Essence Festival (moved to Houston, TX for 2006), Voodoo Fest, Southern Decadence, and college football's Sugar Bowl (although the bowl game has been moved to Atlanta for the 2006 game). New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French, Spanish and African American influences) as well as its music and cuisine. New Orleans is named after the historical Duke of Orléans, Regent of France and is one of the oldest and most historic cities in the United States.

It is in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. state of Louisiana. port city and historically the largest city in the U.S. New Orleans (local pronunciations: /nuːˈɔɹliːnz/, /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /la nuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is a major U.S.


Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States. In a 2005 episode of Law and Order: Special Victims Unit, the detectives pursue a child molester who kidnapped three young sisters from New Orleans after their parents were killed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In 2005, American Idol held auditions in New Orleans. In a 2004 episode of Las Vegas called "New Orleans", Danny, Ed and Sam head to New Orleans in search of a big gambler who owes the casino money.

In a 2003 episode of The Drew Carey Show, Drew and his buddies set off on a road trip to New Orleans to find a girl he met after placing an ad on a beer bottle. In a 2001 episode of Seven Days, Parker goes to New Orleans to prove that his friend, who is scheduled to be executed, is innocent. Season 9 (2000) of The Real World was set in New Orleans. The short-lived 1997 CBS series Orleans was set in New Orleans.

In a 1992 episode of The Simpsons called "A Streetcar Named Marge", Marge is cast in a musical version of "A Streetcar Named Desire" that featured a controversial parody song about New Orleans. Urban/Urban Contemporary: KMEZ-FM (102.9), KNOU-FM (104.5), WQUE-FM (93.3), WYLD-FM (98.5). Talk: WSMB-AM (1350), WWL-AM (870), WTIX-AM (690). Sports: WODT-AM (1280).

Rock: KKND-FM (106.7), WRNO-FM (99.5), WEZB-FM (97.1), WKBU-FM (105.3). Public: WTUL-FM (91.5), WRBH-FM (88.3). Oldies: WTKL-FM (95.7), WJSH-FM (104.7). Latino: KGLA-AM (1540), WFNO-FM (830).

Gospel/Christian: KHEV-FM (104.1), WYLD-AM (940), WBSN-FM (89.1), WLNO-AM (1060), WSHO-FM (800), WOPR-FM (94.9), WVOG-AM (600). Contemporary: KLRZ-FM (100.3), WLMG-FM (101.9), WDVW-FM (92.3). Country: WNOE-FM (101.1). Jazz: WWNO-FM (88.9), WWOZ-FM (90.7).

11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. 20.9% from 45 to 64. 29.3% from 25 to 44. 11.4% from 18 to 24.

26.7% under the age of 18. 9.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals. 40.0% were non-families.

24.5% had a female householder with no husband present. 30.8% were married couples living together. 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 3.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

1.28% from two or more races. 0.93% from other races. 0.02% Pacific Islander. 2.26% Asian.

0.20% Native American. 28.05% White. 67.25% African American.

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