Naked News

The Naked News logo.

Naked News, billing itself as "the program with nothing to hide", is a subscription website featuring a real television newscast prepared in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The male and female anchors read the news fully nude or strip as they present their news segments. Naked News TV is its offshoot pay-per-view or subscription service. Regardless of the gender of the anchor, the male demographic is particularly high for the show.

History

Naked News was conceived in 1998 and debuted in 1999 as a web-based news service and featuring an all-female cast. The website was popularized entirely by word of mouth, and quickly became an internet meme. During the height of its popularity, the website was promoted as receiving over 6 million hits per month. This number did not refer to the number of actual subscribers of the site, which was believed to be vastly lower. Part of the large amounts of web traffic in the site's early days was because the entire newscast could be viewed for free, though subscribers got access to a higher bandwidth feed and other extras. By 2002, only one news segment could be viewed freely, and by 2004, no free content remained on the website.

A male version of the show was created in 2001 to parallel the female version. It does not however enjoy the same popularity and fame, and there are currently more female than male anchors. Although it was originally targeted towards female viewers (at one point said to be 30% of the website's audience), the male show now openly promotes itself as news from a gay perspective.

Its offshoot Naked News TV aired as a late-night television series on the Toronto television station Citytv, and (until February 2005) on British satellite channel Get Lucky TV. The show is or has been available on pay-per-view or by subscription in various markets in the U.S., Australia, Canada, the UK, Ireland, and even France (dubbed into French).

Opinions of Naked News

Naked News has earned some praise from established journalists for its coverage of international news items not often covered in mainstream news media. Victoria Sinclair, the first NN announcer and one of only two with journalism experience, has also received some praise for her newsreading ability.

Naked News has generated some controversy among the media, and even within its own staff. Critics charge that the nudity is little more than a gimmick that trivializes important news events, while proponents argue that such gimmicks exist on most television news already; nudity is just a particularly successful one. Sinclair herself has questioned the appropriateness of disrobing while reading of tragic events. She did not undress when she read the news of the death of former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, nor for the September 11, 2001 program (which was not aired). The anchors have all since continued the tradition of reading tragic events fully clothed. This too has proven to be controversial as observers have complained that stories that warranted "fully-clothed" coverage were, in fact, Western or "Eurocentric" tragedies, while disasters happening elsewhere in the world were deemed "less important." In actuality, the producers of Naked News have instituted a basic rule in this area: No disrobing during any news coverage of a major tragedy anywhere in the world. It was said that events like the 2005 Indian Ocean Earthquake were reported in the nude, while news of the London bombings as well as all follow-up reports and interviews done in the following days, were done fully clothed both in studio and in London.

Cast

Most of the show's announcers have been recruited through classified ads in alternative newspapers in Toronto. As such, most of the show's crew comes from the Toronto area. The show features occasional on-the-street interviews by topless newscasters, which are made possible by Ontario's Topfree equality laws. Since the show's inception in 1999, there has been much turnover among the newscasters, and many guest anchors. The female announcers have been featured in almost every media including television (CBS Sunday Morning, The Today Show, The View, Sally Jesse Raphaël, and numerous appearances on Entertainment Tonight and ET Insider) newspapers and magazines, (TV Guide, Playboy) and as guests on multiple radio shows including Howard Stern.

The current female anchors are:

  • Victoria Sinclair - The first NN reporter, she originally performed solo before additional news anchors were added. Sinclair left the show in Sept. 2001, and returned in Nov. 2002
  • April Torres
  • Athena King - a.k.a. "Athena the Greek".
  • Roxanne West
  • Sandrine Renard
  • Lily Kwan
  • Michelle Pantoliano - Former radio & TV broadcaster from New York City.
  • Christine Kerr
  • Gia Gomez
  • Cameron Shore
  • Yukiko Kimura

Past female anchors are:

  • Ashley Jenning
  • Samantha Page
  • Erica Stevens
  • Diane Foster
  • Brooke Roberts
  • Holly Weston - She continued on the show throughout her pregnancy.
  • Carmen Russo - At age 42, she is the oldest cast member. She is unrelated to the Italian model of the same name.
  • Devon Calwell - At age 19, she is the youngest cast member.
  • Erin Sherwood
  • Allyson Jones
  • Gretchen Frazier
  • Kaye Grant
  • Kelli Graham
  • Sarah Winters

The current male anchors are:

  • Lucas Tyler - The first male anchor of the show, now also producer and director, said to bear a strong resemblance to NBC newsman Matt Lauer.
  • Raoul Santos
  • Jeremy Chase
  • Jack Lange
  • Malcolm Matisse

Past male anchors are:

  • Derek Shaw
  • Cole McQuade
  • Joshua Holt - Recently announced he was gay in the pages of The Advocate magazine.
  • Brendan Tanner
  • Brock Stern
  • Warren Michaels
  • Robert Milan

Imitators

The initial success of the show's concept spawned several imitators, mostly on the websites, but also including "The Daily Flash", a news program on Playboy TV.

Among the imitators on the internet:

  • www.strip-news.de, a now-defunct German language webcast with both male and female announcers.
  • Comedie - This program on a French cable TV network ran a series promos featuring males and females casually undressing as they read jokes.
  • Radio Tango - Oslo, Norway radio station once featured stripping female weather readers on their website.



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. But just in case you happen to be lost in madrid and want some party and good atmosphere here are some places to look for:. Among the imitators on the internet:. It has a trendy and young flavour so it may not suit everybodies' tastes. The initial success of the show's concept spawned several imitators, mostly on the websites, but also including "The Daily Flash", a news program on Playboy TV. This list is by no means complete. Past male anchors are:. After the dinner it is a good idea to have a drink around, or head for other districts, depending on what you want.

The current male anchors are:. They are relatively small and pedestrian areas so it is nice to walk around mixing with the locals. Past female anchors are:. So let us recommend you for the beginning a night walk around Chueca or Latina area, until you find a restaurant that fancies you. The current female anchors are:. La Latina is really famous on Sunday Mornings, but for a Saturday dinner is good as well. The female announcers have been featured in almost every media including television (CBS Sunday Morning, The Today Show, The View, Sally Jesse Raphaël, and numerous appearances on Entertainment Tonight and ET Insider) newspapers and magazines, (TV Guide, Playboy) and as guests on multiple radio shows including Howard Stern. If "spanish tapas" is what you fancy, La Latina and C/Segovia districts have very interesting wineries specialized on tapas.

Since the show's inception in 1999, there has been much turnover among the newscasters, and many guest anchors. In Chueca district you can find hundreds of trendy, but not neccessarily expensive, dinner restaurants. The show features occasional on-the-street interviews by topless newscasters, which are made possible by Ontario's Topfree equality laws. The dinning ceremony extends well until 1 AM, good time to have the "primera" (the first drink). As such, most of the show's crew comes from the Toronto area. A normal time for this would be 10PM on winters and even 11PM on summers. Most of the show's announcers have been recruited through classified ads in alternative newspapers in Toronto. Remember, Spaniards love to have dinner really late.

It was said that events like the 2005 Indian Ocean Earthquake were reported in the nude, while news of the London bombings as well as all follow-up reports and interviews done in the following days, were done fully clothed both in studio and in London. Madrid has excellent restaurants where to set the bases for a big night out. This too has proven to be controversial as observers have complained that stories that warranted "fully-clothed" coverage were, in fact, Western or "Eurocentric" tragedies, while disasters happening elsewhere in the world were deemed "less important." In actuality, the producers of Naked News have instituted a basic rule in this area: No disrobing during any news coverage of a major tragedy anywhere in the world. So you want a little party, huh? The best start for this is to have a dinner out. The anchors have all since continued the tradition of reading tragic events fully clothed. 'street life' is also very popular due to the safety the city inspires to anyone who want to walk at night. She did not undress when she read the news of the death of former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, nor for the September 11, 2001 program (which was not aired). Central Madrid district is rammed with night clubs, discos, late restaurants, bars and pubs.

Sinclair herself has questioned the appropriateness of disrobing while reading of tragic events. It's quite common to be in a traffic jam at 5AM any tuesday, wondering where the people is going, or if they have to work tomorrow. Critics charge that the nudity is little more than a gimmick that trivializes important news events, while proponents argue that such gimmicks exist on most television news already; nudity is just a particularly successful one. Few cities in the world have the phrenetic activity you can find in Madrid any day of the year, any time round the clock. Naked News has generated some controversy among the media, and even within its own staff. Madrid is also home to the Circuit del Jarama, a motorsport race circuit which formerly hosted the Formula One Spanish Grand Prix. Victoria Sinclair, the first NN announcer and one of only two with journalism experience, has also received some praise for her newsreading ability. There are two other major teams, the Primera Division club Atlético de Madrid and Rayo Vallecano.

Naked News has earned some praise from established journalists for its coverage of international news items not often covered in mainstream news media. Madrid is home to Real Madrid, the world's most successful football club (according to FIFA). The show is or has been available on pay-per-view or by subscription in various markets in the U.S., Australia, Canada, the UK, Ireland, and even France (dubbed into French). The province of Madrid is also served by an extensive commuter rail network called Cercanías. Its offshoot Naked News TV aired as a late-night television series on the Toronto television station Citytv, and (until February 2005) on British satellite channel Get Lucky TV. With the addition of a loop serving suburbs to Madrid's south-west "Metrosur", it is now the second largest metro system in Western Europe, second only to London's Underground. Although it was originally targeted towards female viewers (at one point said to be 30% of the website's audience), the male show now openly promotes itself as news from a gay perspective. Serving the city's population of some three million, the Madrid Metro is one of the most extensive and fastest-growing metro networks in the world.

It does not however enjoy the same popularity and fame, and there are currently more female than male anchors. As of 2005, AVE high-speed trains link Atocha station to Seville and Toledo in the south and Lleida in the east (to be extended to Barcelona). A male version of the show was created in 2001 to parallel the female version. The overall goal is to have all important provincial cities be no more than 4 hours away from Madrid, and no more than 6 hours away from Barcelona. By 2002, only one news segment could be viewed freely, and by 2004, no free content remained on the website. Currently, an ambitious plan includes the construction of a 7,000 km network, centered on Madrid. Part of the large amounts of web traffic in the site's early days was because the entire newscast could be viewed for free, though subscribers got access to a higher bandwidth feed and other extras. The crown jewel of Spain's next decade of infrastructure construction is the Spanish high speed rail network, Alta Velocidad Española AVE.

This number did not refer to the number of actual subscribers of the site, which was believed to be vastly lower. In Madrid, the main rail terminals are Atocha and Chamartín. During the height of its popularity, the website was promoted as receiving over 6 million hits per month. Spain's railway system, the Red Nacional de Ferrocarriles Españoles (Renfe) operates the vast majority of Spain's railways. The website was popularized entirely by word of mouth, and quickly became an internet meme. Two additional runways have also being constructed and will soon be in operation, making Barajas a fully operational 4 runway airport. Naked News was conceived in 1998 and debuted in 1999 as a web-based news service and featuring an all-female cast. It is expected to significantly reduce delays and double the capacity of the airport.

. Given annual increases of 10%, a new fourth and fifth terminals are in the process of being constructed. Regardless of the gender of the anchor, the male demographic is particularly high for the show. Current passenger volumes range upwards of 40 million passengers per year, putting it in the top 20 busiest airports in the world. Naked News TV is its offshoot pay-per-view or subscription service. It consequently serves as the main gateway to the Iberian peninsula from Europe and the rest of the world. The male and female anchors read the news fully nude or strip as they present their news segments. Barajas serves as the main hub of Iberia Airlines and other airlines.

Naked News, billing itself as "the program with nothing to hide", is a subscription website featuring a real television newscast prepared in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Madrid is served by Barajas International Airport. Radio Tango - Oslo, Norway radio station once featured stripping female weather readers on their website. [3]. Comedie - This program on a French cable TV network ran a series promos featuring males and females casually undressing as they read jokes. The Medical School is sited outside the main site and beside the Hospital Universitario La Paz. www.strip-news.de, a now-defunct German language webcast with both male and female announcers. Located on the main site are the Rectorate building and the Faculties of Science, Philosophy and Fine Arts, Law, Economic Science and Business Studies, Psychology, Higher School of Computing Science and Engineering, and the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education.

Robert Milan. Known simply as la Autónoma in Madrid, its main site is the Cantoblanco Campus, situated 15 kilometers to the north of the capital (M-607) and close to the municipal areas of Madrid, namely Alcobendas, San Sebastián de los Reyes, Tres Cantos and Colmenar Viejo. Warren Michaels. The Autonoma is widely recognised for its research strengths in theoretical physics. Brock Stern. The Autonoma, perhaps Spain's best university for research along with Complutense, was instituted under the leadership of the famous physicist, Nicolás Cabrera. Brendan Tanner. The old Alcala campus reopened as an independent university (Universidad de Alcalá de Henares) in 1977.

Joshua Holt - Recently announced he was gay in the pages of The Advocate magazine. The campus in the Ciudad Universitaria quarter in Madrid was built starting in 1927, and around 1980 a secondary campus was created in the neighbouring town of Somosaguas. Cole McQuade. After 1836 the university was moved to Madrid and renamed Universidad Central. Derek Shaw. The university achieved the name "Complutense" due to the fact that it was originally situated in the town of Alcalá de Henares, whose Latin name was Complutum. Malcolm Matisse. The Complutense University has its origins in the 13th century on the banks of the river Henares.

Jack Lange. It is located on two campuses, in the university quarter Ciudad Universitaria at Moncloa in Madrid, and in Somosaguas. Jeremy Chase. It has 10000 staff and a student population of 117 000. Raoul Santos. The Complutense University is one of the oldest universities in the world, and the largest in Spain. Lucas Tyler - The first male anchor of the show, now also producer and director, said to bear a strong resemblance to NBC newsman Matt Lauer. However, as prices continue to rise and more jobs become available, nightlife in Madrid is becoming more and more like that of other European cities such as Stockholm or Munich.

Sarah Winters. A particular hub for this night activity is nowadays the gay district of Chueca. Kelli Graham. This nightlife, called la movida or la marcha and initially focussed on the Plaza del Dos de Mayo, flourished after the death of Franco, especially during the 80's while Madrid's mayor Enrique Tierno Galván was in office. Kaye Grant. Younger madrileños sometimes dance all night, stop off for chocolate y churros at dawn, go home, shower, shave, and go to work. Gretchen Frazier. Madrid is also noted for its nightlife and discotheques.

Allyson Jones. Other nearby towns are popular as day trips from Madrid, including Toledo, Segovia, Ávila, Aranjuez, Alcalá de Henares, the monastery and palace complex of El Escorial, and Chinchón. Erin Sherwood. Madrid is also host to one of the most famous bullfighting rings in the world, Las Ventas [2]. Devon Calwell - At age 19, she is the youngest cast member. Some places that you need to phone to make an appointment to visit are-. She is unrelated to the Italian model of the same name. Important cultural and tourist spots include the so-called Golden Triangle of Art, located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising the famous Prado Museum,free on Sunday mornings, (with highlights such as Diego Velázquez's Las Meninas and Francisco de Goya's La Maja Vestida and La Maja Desnuda), the Thyssen Bornemisza Museum and the Reina Sofia Museum (where Pablo Picasso's Guernica hangs); the Plaza Mayor; the Gran Via; the Casón del Buen Retiro (hosting the 19th-century collection of the Prado Museum; currently closed for reform), the Palacio Real-free to go in on Wednesdays if you have a European Union passport, the Templo de Debod (a temple brought stone-by-stone from Egypt), the Monasterio de las Descalzas Reales, the Puerta del Sol and the Parque del Buen Retiro.The Naval Museum between Cibeles and the Prado (Paseo Prado,5) is free and gives a great insight into the former Spanish sea-power.

Carmen Russo - At age 42, she is the oldest cast member. Precipitation, although very limited, can be observed all throughout the year except during summer. Holly Weston - She continued on the show throughout her pregnancy. In fact, the daily oscillation of the weather conditions its quite reduced in the center of the city, but its far more noticeable in the outskirts of Madrid. Brooke Roberts. Summer tends to be warm with temperatures that easily reach 24 °C in July and that can often reach 35 °C. Diane Foster. The region of Madrid has a Mediterranean climate that manifests itself with fresh winters that often experience temperatures lower than 8 °C.

Erica Stevens. There are also important communities of Chinese, Guinean, Romanian and Filipino people. Samantha Page. The largest immigrant groups include: Ecuadorian: 83,967, Moroccan: 51,300, Colombian: 37,218, and Peruvian: 32.791. Ashley Jenning. While almost 9 in 10 inhabitants are Spanish, there are many recent immigrants who come from Latin America, Europe, and North Africa. Yukiko Kimura. As the capital city of Spain, the city has attracted many immigrants from around the world.

Cameron Shore. It is also home to the Rayo Vallecano soccer team. Gia Gomez. Vallecas is a working-class residential district in the south of Madrid. Christine Kerr. Today there is a street named in her honour very close to the roundabout 'Glorieta de Bilbao'. Michelle Pantoliano - Former radio & TV broadcaster from New York City. She was killed fighting the French in 1808.

Lily Kwan. The name Malasaña comes from the 17 year old girl Manuela Malasaña who once lived on the street San Andrés. Sandrine Renard. Although popularly known as the barrio Malasaña, the real name for the area is Universidad (University). Roxanne West. The area's center is the Plaza del Dos de Mayo (in commemoration of the Madrilenian popular uprising on May 2, 1808, brutally and effectivey repressed by the French troops and which started the Spanish Independence War). "Athena the Greek". It's one of the classic areas for partying the night away.

Athena King - a.k.a. Its streets are currently being renovated, making it a much more attractive quarter (the streetworks are almost finished). April Torres. Malasaña is a vibrant neighborhood full of lively bars and clubs overflowing with young people. 2002. Bordering on La Latina's east side is the famous Rastro flea-market (a prime pick-pocket spot). 2001, and returned in Nov. There are also a number of attractive churches as well as Madrid's town palace.

Sinclair left the show in Sept. There are quite a few nightlife spots. Victoria Sinclair - The first NN reporter, she originally performed solo before additional news anchors were added. Its difficult to put precise boundaries on La Latina, because, like its immediate neighbors, streets are narrow and wind a lot. In and around this area are the origins of Madrid. It's also one of the best places to search for non-Spanish foodstuff, (herbs and spices etc.) Due to its immigrant character and the fact that the terrorists responsible for the Madrid train bombings of 11 March 2004, were based in Lavapiés (in particular, in a popular Moroccan restaurant called Al-Baraka), there are substantiated fears of crime in this district.

The presence of immigrants has led to an inevitable variety of shops and restaurants - this is a good place for good and cheap restaurants of local and international food. Lavapiés is one of the areas with a high concentration of immigrants, and also tends to attract artists and writers adding to the cosmopolitan mix. Traditionally one of the poorer neighborhoods near the city center, this district has maintained much of true 'Madrileño' spirit of the past. One of those streets, Fuencarral has become a link between the old shopping areas of the center of the city, the Bohemian Malasaña and the hip Chueca, making of it one of the most cosmopolitan areas of the city.

It is also a hub for Madrid's red-light district, especially the side streets. As the name implies, the Gran Vía district contains one of Madrid's most important avenues, the Gran Vía (literally, "Great Way") First and foremost it is a shopping street, but it also contains a number of tourist accommodations, plenty of nightlife and most of Madrid's largest movie theaters. In addition, we find the highly ornate Banco de España, the Café del Círculo de Bellas Artes, the Zarzuela theater. It also includes one of the three museums of the Madrid golden triangle, the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum.

The most important include Spanish parliament buildings of the lower house Congreso de los Diputados. This district is small in size but packs a number of powerful sites. It is still quite attractive and has many good and interesting places to eat, as well as some of Madrid's most avant garde fashion and shoe shops. However, later on during the decade it became one of the most active centers of the so-called 'La Movida', largely due to its new-found status as a popular gay village.

This district was the site of major urban decay during the early 1980s. Chueca is among the most authentic and cosmopolitan neighborhoods in the downtown city center. Main article: Chueca. The area is directly linked to Barajas Airport by metro line 8 from Nuevos Ministerios station.

A very large (3 interconnected buildings) El Corte Inglés department store is also here. Torre Windsor, one of the skycrapers in this area, burnt entirely on the night between 12 February and 13, 2005 [1]. The area is populated by skyscrapers, among them Torre Picasso, Edificio BBVA and Torre Europa. This is the financial district.

This district also contains the main bus terminal as it is a central point of the city. The area also contains a number of art galleries and restaurants serving traditional food. The two important sites located in this area are the Reina Sofía Museum and the beautiful Atocha Railway Station, one of the two main train stations in Madrid (the other one is Chamartín). Atocha includes a rather large area which is bordered by the Huertas and Lavapiés districts.

It is within walking distance of the main cultural and commercial areas of the city such as the Prado museum, the expansive Parque del Buen Retiro as well as near the business center on the lower part of the Paseo de la Castellana. This plaza commemorates Christopher Columbus, who was responsible for ushering in the Spanish imperial golden age of the 16th and 17th centuries. This district contains the large Plaza de Colón. There are also some excellent frescos inside the palace by Tiépolo, and paintings by Velázquez, Goya, Rubens, El Greco, Juan de Flandes and Caravaggio, among others.

The palace is interesting in its own right, in particular its architecture and gardens (there are two, the Jardines del Moro and the Sabattini gardens). The entire palace is not open to the public, but most of the more important rooms can be visited. The Royal Palace is no longer used as a residence, but it has been kept intact since it last functioned as home to the King, primarily serving as a tourist attraction. In front of the theatre is the Royal Palace.

As the name implies, Madrid's main Opera Theatre is the Teatro Real (Royal theatre). It is the work of Juan de Bolonia. The statue of Felipe III on horseback in the centre of the square dates back to 1616. Under its porticoes there are some old and traditional shops.

The Plaza Mayor has been the scene of multitudinous events: market, bullring and "actos de fe" against supposed heretics and the executions of those condemned to death. Nevertheless, the Plaza Mayor as we know it today is the work of the architect Juan de Villanueva who was entrusted with its reconstruction in 1790 after a spate of big fires. This king asked Juan Gomez de Mora to continue with the project, and he finished the porticoes in 1619. Juan de Herrera was the architect who designed the first project in 1581 to remodel the old Plaza del Arrabal but the construction didn't start until 1617, during the Felipe III's reign.

The origins of the Plaza go back to 1581 when Felipe II told Juan de Herrera to devise a plan to remodel the busy and chaotic area of the old Plaza del Arrabal. Previously it was named the Plaza del Arrabal. The Plaza Mayor was built during the Austrian period. It has a total of nine entranceways.

The Plaza is rectangular in shape and is surrounded by three-floored residential buildings. It is located in the historical and commercial heart of the city. The Plaza Mayor is one of the most beautiful and emblematic urban areas in what is known as the Madrid of the House of Austria. As expected with any major European capital city, each district (or barrio in Spanish) has its own feel.

The modern metropolis is home to over three million people. Madrid is a leading southern European city and the most important link between the European Union and Latin America. Modern Madrid ranks as one of the important cities in Europe. Within Spain, reaction against the dictatorial bureaucracy centered in Madrid and a history of centralism that predated Franco by centuries has resulted in the successful modern movement towards increased autonomy for the regions of Spain, considered as autonomous regions, under the umbrella of Spain.

With his death, Madrid, and Spain as a whole, began to reassert itself on the international stage. Years of the Franco regime left Madrid and much the country in economic shambles due to isolation. Contemporary Madrid came into its own after the death of the Fascist dictator Francisco Franco. Befitting from the prosperity it gained in the 1980s, the capital city of Spain has consolidated its position as the leading economic, cultural, industrial, educational, and technological center on the Iberian peninsula.

After the death of Franco, emerging democratic parties (including those of left-wing and republican ideology) accepted Franco's wishes of being succeeded by Juan Carlos I--in order to secure stablity and democracy--which led Spain to its current position as constitutional monarchy. Like anything related to ETA, this incident is still today a matter of controversy; while some think that it created further instability, others hold that the terrorist action--by preventing Carrero Blanco from continuing the dictatorship after Franco's death--contributed to lead the country towards democracy. Towards the end of the dictatorship the Basque terrorist group ETA assassinated Franco's prime minister, Luis Carrero Blanco, in the Street of Claudio Coello. During the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, Madrid became very industrialized and there were massive migrations into the city.

It was during the Civil War that Madrid had the sad honor of being the first city bombed by airplanes to spread terror among innocent citizens. During this war (1936-1939) Madrid was one of the most affected cities and its streets were battlezones. She could not to calm down the political tension that would lead to yet another revolt, the First Spanish Republic, and the comeback of the monarchs which eventually led to the Second Spanish Republic and the Spanish Civil War. This would start a period where liberal and conservative government alternated, that would end with the enthronement of Isabel II (1830-1904).

After the war of independence (1814) Fernando VII came back to the throne, but after a liberal military revolution, Colonel Riego made the king swear respect to the Constitution. On May 2, 1808 (Spanish: Dos de Mayo) the Madrilenes revolted against the French forces, whose brute reaction would have a lasting impact on French rule in Spain and France's image in Europe in general. After the Mutiny of Aranjuez which was led by his own son Fernando VII against him, Carlos IV resigned, but Fernando VII's reign would be short: in May of 1808 Napoleon's troops entered the city. When Carlos IV (1748-1819) became king the people of Madrid revolted.

Carlos III was one of the most popular kings in the history of Madrid, and the saying "the best mayor, the king" became popular during those times. However, it would not be until Carlos III (1716-1788) that Madrid would become a modern city. Felipe V decided that a European capital could not stay in such a state, and new palaces (including the Palacio Real de Madrid) were built during his reign. During the Siglo de Oro (Golden Century), in the 16th/17th century, Madrid had no resemblance with other European capitals: the population of the city was economically dependent on the business of the court itself.

Aside from a brief period, 1601-1606, when Felipe III installed his court in Valladolid, Madrid's fortunes have closely mirrored those of Spain. Seville continued to control the Spanish Indies, but Madrid controlled Seville. Although he made no official declaration, the seat of the court was the de facto capital. Though Charles favored Madrid, it was his son, Philip II (1527-1598) who moved the court to Madrid in 1561.

The kingdoms of Castilla, with its capital at Toledo, and Aragón, with its capital at Barcelona, were welded into modern Spain by Charles I of Spain. The grand entry of Ferdinand and Isabella to Madrid heralded the end of strife between Castile and Aragon. After troubles and a big fire, Henry III of Castile (1379-1406) rebuilt the city and established himself safely fortified outside its walls in El Pardo. Sephardic Jews and Moors continued to live in the city until they were expelled at the end of the 15th century.

In 1329, the Cortes Generales first assembled in the city to advise Ferdinand IV of Castile. He reconsecrated the mosque as the church of the Virgin of Almudena (almudin, the garrison's granary). The citadel was conquered in 1085 by Alfonso VI of Castile in his advance towards Toledo. From this came the naming of the site as Majerit, which was later rendered to the modern-day spelling of Madrid).

Near that palace was the Manzanares, which the Muslims called al-Majrīṭ (Arabic: المجريط, "source of water"). Around this palace a small citadel, al-Mudaina, was built. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, the first historical data from the city comes from the 9th century, when Mehmed I ordered the construction of a small palace in the same place that is today occupied by the Palacio Real. .

The residents of Madrid are called madrileños, and the current mayor is Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón. Following the restoration of democracy in 1975 and the integation to the European Union, Madrid has experienced an increasing role in European finances making it one of the most important Southern European cities. The city spans a total of 607 km² (378 square miles). The entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area (urban area and suburbs) is calculated to be 5.843 million.

The estimated population of the city was 3.228 million (July 2005), while the estimated urban area population is 5.078 million. Other cultural highlights include the Royal Palace of Madrid and the nearby royal monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial. Renowned museums such as Museo del Prado, the Museo Reina Sofia, and the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza are major tourist attractions in the city. As the former capital of the old Spanish Empire Madrid has been bestowed with a degree of cultural predominance.

Due to its geographical location and history, Madrid has been considered the financial and political center of the Iberian Peninsula. It is located on the Manzanares river in the center of the country. Madrid is the capital and largest city in Spain, as well as in the province and the autonomous community of the same name. Hard House.

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12-6AM. Commercial House. Big. Divino: Ermita Del Santo.

Uplifting house and electro 12-6AM. Big. Coppelia: Castellana/Recoletos. 12-6AM.

Mixed. Trendy house. Small and nice. 8 y medio: Gran Via.

Capote: Alonso Martinez. Can book a bed in advance !!. Colonial Chill Out, nice bar with cushions where to chill and enjoy a cocktail while laying down with friends. Areia: Chueca.

Nice terraces on summer. Malasaña is the district for rock and roll, and independent music. A must on sunday mornings. Hosts a big number of wineries and tapas bars.

La Latina is frequented by artists. This area has a little bit of everything: Bars, pubs, restaurants, clubs. Bilbao is also an option. The music heard is frequently cheesy house and commercial stuff.

The pubs and clubs around host a mixed and open-minded clientele. Chueca is more headed towards trendy people. Also nice restaurants. Nice pubs and clubs.

Avenida De Brasil and nearbies is for beautiful people. All kinds of music here. Alonso Martinez is rammed with youngsters. Cafe Central Madrid's top Jazz venue.

Teatro de la Comedia. Teatro Español. A major player in the arts scene in Madrid, apart from a theatre and concert hall and vast café, it has four exhibition spaces that show work in all media. Círculo de Bellas Artes Compared to the ICA in London, or the Kitchen in New York, this great multi functional cultural and social centre, housed in its own fine building since 1926, is older and larger than both.

Teatro de la Abadía. It houses a theatre, concerts, a café and a huge gallery space, where group shows of many important Hispanic artists are staged. Centro Cultural de la Villa Worth visiting just to stroll under the deafening, refreshing waterfall located below the Columbus monument. It also programmes Opera and Lied.

It puts on the traditional Spanish operettas known as zarzuela, a kind of visual, bawdy comedy. Teatro de la ZarzuelaThis is one theatre you won't need Spanish for. Teatro Monumental: The Orquesta Sinfonica de RTVE performs every Thursday and Friday in this old concert hall. Auditorio Nacional de Music: Was built in the 80s and houses two concert rooms for classical music.

Teatro Real: Madrid's main Opera House. Escuela Superior de Música Reina Sofia. Real Conservatorio Superior de Música. Escuela de Organización Industrial (EOI).

Universidad San Pablo (CEU). Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca (UPSAM). Universidad Pontificia de Comillas (UPComillas). Universidad Francisco de Vitoria (Francisco de Vitoria).

Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM). Universidad Camilo José Cela (Cela). Universidad Antonio de Nebrija (Nebrija). Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED).

Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Rey Juan Carlos). Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM). Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM). Puerta de Alcalá (An old gate for the city walls that is nowadays one of the most emblematic signs of Madrid).

Puerta de Europa (Famous towers leaning toward each other at 15 degree angle). Faro de Moncloa (Transmission tower with observation deck). Torre España. Palacio De Liria (915475302.There appears to be at least an 18 month waiting list).

Museo Del Reloj Grassy ( better to call, 915321007). Museo De La Farmacia Hispaña (913941797). Museo de Antropologia Medico Forense Paleopatologia y Criminalistica Profesor Reverte Coma (913941578). Casa-Museo Manuel Benedito (915754687).

Casa-Museo Jose Padilla (913561258 11am-2pm).

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