Mexico

The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered by the United States to the north, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. It is the northernmost and westernmost country in Latin America, and also the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.

Motto: none
Anthem: Mexicanos, al grito de guerra
Capital Mexico City
19°03′ N 99°22′ W
Largest city Mexico City
Official language(s) Spanish
Government  • President Federal Republic
Vicente Fox
Independence
 • Declared
 • Recognized
From Spain
September 16, 1810
September 27, 1821
Area
 • Total
 • Water (%)
 
1,964,375 km² (13th)
2.5%
Population
 • 2005 est.
 • 2000 census

 • Density
 
106,202,903 (11th)
97,483,412

54.3/km² (117th)
GDP (PPP)
 • Total
 • Per capita
2004 estimate
$1.005 trillion (13th)
$9,666 (66th)
HDI (2003) 0.814 (53rd) – high
Currency Peso (MXN)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
(UTC-8 to -6)
varies (UTC)
Internet TLD .mx
Calling code +52

History

Pre-Hispanic Times

Hunter-Gatherer peoples are thought to have discovered and habitated its territory more than 28,000 years ago. Ancient Mexicans began to selectively breed corn plants around 8,000 B.C. Evidence shows the explosion of pottery works by 2300 B.C. and the beginning of intensive farming between 1800 and 1500 BC.

For more than 3,000 years, Mexico was the site of several Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Aztec, the Olmec, Teotihuacan, the Toltec, Mixtec, Zapotec and the Mayan.

These indigenous civilizations are credited with many inventions: pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, writing, highly-accurate calendars, fine arts, intensive agriculture, engineering, an abacus, a complex theology, and the wheel.

Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls all over northern Mexico (especially in the state of Nuevo León) demonstrate an early propensity for counting in Mexico. These very early and ancient count-markings were associated with astronomical events and underscore the influence that astronomical activities had upon Mexican natives, even before they possessed civilization. In fact, the later Mexican civilizations would all carefully build their cities and ceremonial centers according to specific astronomical events.

At different points in time, three different Mexican cities were the largest cities in the world: Teotihuacan, Tenochtitlan, and Cholula. These cities, among several others, blossomed as centers of commerce, ideas, ceremonies, and theology. In turn, they radiated influence outwards onto neighboring cultures.

Mayan architecture at Uxmal An image of one of the pyramids in the upper level of Yaxchilán Atlantes at Tula, Hidalgo

While many city-states, kingdoms, and empires competed with one another for power and prestige, Mexico had four major, unifying civilizations: The Olmec, Teotihuacan, Toltec, and the Aztec. These four civilizations extended their reach across Mexico and beyond like no others. They consolidated power and distributed influence in matters of trade, art, politics, technology, and theology. Other regional power players made economic and political alliances with these four civilizations over the span of 4,000 years. Many made war with them, but almost all found themselves within these four spheres of influence.

Latecomers to Mexico's central plateau, the Mexica, or Aztec, as they were sometimes called in memory of Aztlán, the starting point of their tribes wanderings, never thought of themselves as anything but heirs of the brilliant civilizations that had preceded them. For them, highly-civilized arts, sculpture, architecture, engraving, feather-mosiac work, and the invention of the calendar were due to the former inhabitants of Tula, the Toltecs, who reached the height of their civilization in the tenth and eleventh centuries.

The Mexica, one of the Aztec groups, were the first people in the world to practice mandatory education for all people, regardless of gender, rank, or station. There were two types of schools: the telpochcalli, for practical and military studies, and the calmecac, for advanced learning in writing, astronomy, statesmanship, theology, and other areas.

The Aztecs' religious beliefs were based on a fear that the universe would cease functioning without a constant offering of human sacrifice. This belief was common throughout nahuatl people. As a result, Aztec warfare was conducted with an aim to only injure the enemy, so that he could later be sacrificed, and weapons were constructed with this in mind. This penchant for human sacrifice proved to be the undoing of the Aztecs, for when they confronted the Spaniards, who fought to the death, their less effective weapons made resistance difficult. In order to acquire captives in time of peace, the Aztec resorted to ritual warfare, or flower war. Tlaxcalteca and other nahuatl nations were forced into such wars, so they joined the Spaniard forces against the Aztec. The small Spanish force was reinforced with thousands of indian allies, who were schooled on European warfare.

The Spanish Era

The arrival of the Spanish in the early 16th century and their defeat of the Mexica in 1521 marked the beginning of the 300 year-long colonial period of Mexico as New Spain. After the fall of Tenochtitlan, it would take decades of continuous war to pacify Mesoamerica. Particularly fierce were the "Chichimeca wars" in the north of Mexico (1576-1606).

The colonists brought with them the Catholic faith, to which the population seemingly converted rapidly, but soon they found that the natives had adopted "the god of the heavens", as they called it, as just one of their gods. While it was an important god, because it was the god of the conquerors,they did not see why they had to abandon their old beliefs. As a result, a second wave of missionaries began a process attempting to completely erase the old beliefs, and thus wiped out many aspects of Mesoamerican culture. Hundreds of thousands of codices were destroyed, priests and teachers were persecuted, and the temples and statues of the gods were destroyed. The Mesoamerican sex education system was set aside and replaced by church education; even some foods associated with religion, like amaranto, were forbidden. Eventually, the natives were declared minors, and forbidden to read and write, so they would always need a white man in charge of them to be responsible of their indoctrination. Although officially they could not become slaves, the system, known as encomienda, came to signify the oppression and exploitation of natives, although its originators did not set out with such intent. Due to some horrifying instances of abuse against the indigenous peoples, Bishop Bartolome de las Casas suggested bringing black slaves to replace them. Bartolome later repented when he saw the treatment given to the black slaves.

Unlike the English-speaking colonists of North America, the majority of the Spanish colonists married the natives, and were even encouraged to do so by Queen Isabella during the earliest days of colonization. The first Spanish colonists were mainly only males, so they took native women, and although rarely, also black women. After the native population was decimated by epidemics and forced labor, black slaves were imported, and for a time in certain areas they even outnumbered the white populations (few modern Mexicans are aware of or acknowledge this). However, they eventually mixed with the population resulting in only a few black communities left to date (see Afro-Mexican). As a result of these unions, as well as concubinage, a vast class of people known as "Mestizos" and mulattos came into being. But even if mixes were allowed, the white population tried to keep their status. A system was created to keep each mix in a different social level: "El sistema de castas" (the caste system). Each different mix had a name and different privileges or prohibitions. There were even two different kinds of whites, those born in Spain, or "peninsulares", and in a lower level, those born in America, or "criollos". Mestizos and then mulattos were next, followed by the unmixed natives, zambos (amerindian mixed with black), and blacks, respectively. The Spanish "peninsulares" tried by all means to keep their status, even if they took native women. Those who were wealthy enough also tried to have a Spanish wife, who was sent to give birth in Spain to prevent their children from becoming criollos. Mestizos and criollos were not allowed in the upper levels of the government, and eventually they joined forces for the independence of México. With independence, the caste system and slavery were abolished.

Mestizos, while they no longer have a separate legal status from other groups, comprise approximately 60% of the population. In modern México, mestizo has became more a cultural term, since a Native American that abandons his traditional ways is considered a mestizo, also most Afromexicans prefer to be considered mestizo, since they feel more identified with this group.

During the following centuries, under Spanish rule, a new culture developed that combined the customs and traditions of the indigenous peoples with that of Catholic Spain. Numerous churches and other buildings were constructed in the Spanish style, and cities were named after various saints and objects of veneration, such as "San Luis Potosí" (after St. Louis) and "Vera Cruz" ("True Cross").

Spanish settlers brought with them smallpox, typhus, and other diseases. Most of the settlers had developed an immunity from childhood, but the indigenous peoples had not. There were three separate epidemics that decimated the population: Smallpox (1520-1521), measles ( 1545-1548) and typhus (1576-1581). Of the estimated 15 to 20 million of the original prehispanic population, less than two million survived. At the end of the 16th century, New Spain was an underpopulated country with abandoned cities, which would be the main cause of collapse of the Mesoamerican cultures.

Mexican Independence

Map of Mexico, 1847

On September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic priest in the small town of Dolores, causing a long war that eventually led to the official recognition of independence from Spain in 1821 and the creation of the First Mexican Empire. Actually, Hidalgo declared the independence from France, as José Bonaparte (Napoleon's brother), also known in Mexico as Pepe Botella (Spanish: Bottle Joe, as he had a fame of a heavy drinker), was ruling Spain at that time. The initial intention of the movement then, was to be obtain independence from France, but still being part of Spain. Then, as the war escalated, the objective change to independece from Spain.

After independence, Spanish possessions in Central America which also proclaimed independence were all incorporated into Mexico from 1822 to 1823, with the exception of Chiapas.

Soon after achieving its independence from Spain, the Mexican government, in an effort to populate its sparsely-settled hinterlands, awarded land grants in a remote area of the northernmost state of Coahuila y Tejas to hundreds of immigrant families from the United States, on the condition that the settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship. It also forbade the importation of slaves, a condition that, like the others, was largely ignored.

The Empire soon fell to rogue republican forces led by Antonio López de Santa Anna. The first Republic was formed with Guadalupe Victoria as its first president, followed in office by Santa Anna. As president, in 1834 Santa Anna abrogated the federal constitution, causing insurgencies in the southern state of Yucatán and the northernmost portion of the northern state of Coahuila y Tejas. Both areas sought independence from the Mexican government. While negotiations eventually brought Yucatán to again recognize Mexican sovereignty, Santa Anna's army turned to the northern rebellion. The inhabitants of Tejas, calling themselves Texans and led mainly by relatively recently-arrived English-speaking settlers, declared independence from Mexico at Washington-on-the-Brazos, giving birth to the Republic of Texas. Texas won its independence in 1836, further reducing the territory of the fledgling republic. In 1845, voters in Texas approved to be annexed by the United States, and was passed by Congress and signed into law by President John Tyler.

The US government sent troops to Texas in order to secure the territory ignoring the Mexican demands of withdrawal. Mexico saw this as an US intervention on internal affairs by supporting a rebel province. Mexican troops then attacked and captured one of the American detachments near the Rio Grande. President James K. Polk requested a declaration of war and the US Congress voted in favor on 13 May 1846. Mexico declared war on 23 May. This resulted in the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848. Mexico was defeated by the United States, resulting in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo, where the United States purchased the remaining disputed territories for $15 million, from which were formed the modern states of California, Nevada, and Utah, and most of Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado (see Mexican-American War).

In the 1860s, the country again suffered a military occupation, this time by France, seeking to establish the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as Emperor of Mexico, with support from the Roman Catholic clergy and conservative criolloss. The Second Mexican Empire was then overthrown by President Benito Juárez, with diplomatic and logistical support from the United States and the military expertise of General Porfirio Díaz. General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French Army (arguably the most powerful in the world at the time) at the city of Puebla on May 5, 1862, celebrated as Cinco de Mayo ever since. However, after his death, the city was lost in early 1863, following a renewed French attack which penetrated as far as Mexico City, forcing Juárez to organize an itinerant government.

Benito Juarez, important figure of Mexican history

Napoleon III of France, Emperor of France, returned Maximillian as Emperor of Mexico from 1864 to 1867. In mid-1867, following repeated losses in battle to the Republican Army, Maximilian was captured and murdered by Juárez's soldiers, along with his last loyal generals, in Querétaro. From then on, Juárez remained in office until his death in 1872.

After Juárez's death, Mexico experienced economic growth under the liberal and pro-European rule of Porfirio Díaz. Foreign investment allowed the development of the oil industry and the construction of a railroad system across the country. This period of relative peace and prosperity is known as the "Porfiriato". His mandate, however, was mostly undemocratic and benefited the middle and upper classes, while the Amerindian indigenous population continued to live in precarious conditions. Growing social inequalities, restricted freedom of the press, and his insistence to be reelected for a fifth term led to massive protests. His fraudulent victory in the 1910 elections sparked the Mexican Revolution. Revolutionary forces defeated the federal army, but were left with internal struggles, leaving the country in conflict for two more decades. The creation of the National Revolutionary Party (which later became the Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI), in 1929 ended the struggles, uniting all generals and combatants of the revolution.

During the next four decades, Mexico experienced impressive economic growth, and historians call this period "El Milagro Mexicano", the Mexican Miracle. This was in spite of falling foreign confidence in investment, first through the assumption of mineral rights and subsequent nationalisation of the oil industry into Pemex during the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas del Río. However the management of the economy collapsed several times afterwards. Accused many times of fraud, the PRI's candidates held almost all public offices until the end of the 20th century. It was not until the 1980s that the PRI lost the first state governorship, an event that marked the beginning of the party's loss of hegemony. Through the electoral reforms started by president Carlos Salinas de Gortari and consolidated by president Ernesto Zedillo, by the mid 1990s the PRI had lost its majority in Congress. In 2000, after seventy years, the PRI lost a presidential elections to a candidate of the National Action Party (PAN), Vicente Fox.

On January 1, 1994, Mexico became a full member of the North American Free Trade Agreement, joining the United States of America and Canada in a large and prosperous economic bloc. On March 23, 2005, the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America was signed by the elected leaders of those countries.

Government and politics

Vicente Fox is the current president of Mexico

Mexico’s political model has much in common with that of the United States. The 1917 Constitution provides for a federal republic with powers separated into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Historically, the executive is the dominant branch, with power vested in the [[President of Mexico|president who promulgates and executes the laws of the Congress. Congress has played an increasingly important role since 1997, when opposition parties first formed a majority in the legislature. The president also legislates by executive decree in certain economic and financial fields, using powers delegated from Congress. The president is elected by universal adult suffrage for a six-year term and may not hold office a second time. There is no vice-president in the republic.

After it was founded in 1929, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) monopolized all the political branches. The PRI did not lose a senate seat until 1988 or a gubernatorial race until 1989.[1] It wasn't until July 2, 2000, that Vicente Fox of the opposition "Alliance for Change" coalition, headed by the National Action Party (PAN), was elected president. Fox began his six-year term on December 1, 2000. His victory ended the Institutional Revolutionary Party's 71-year hold on the presidency.

The three most important political parties in Mexico are the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the National Action Party (PAN), and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD).

Political divisions

Mexico is divided into 31 states (estados) and a federal district. Each state has its own constitution and its citizens elect a governor as well as representatives to their respective state congresses.

States of Mexico (excluding the islands)


The Federal District is a special political division in Mexico, where the national capital, Mexico City, is located. It enjoys more limited local rule than the nation's "free and sovereign states": only since 1997 have its citizens been able to elect a Head of Government, whose powers are still more curtailed than those of a state governor. Much of the capital city's metropolitan area overflows the limits of the Federal District.

Major cities

The following is a list of the biggest Metropolitan Areas of Mexico in order of population:

  1. Mexico City, Distrito Federal (22.0 million)
  2. Guadalajara, Jalisco (4.7 million)
  3. Monterrey, Nuevo León (3.6 million)
  4. Puebla, Puebla (2.6 million)
  5. Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (1.8 million)
  6. Tijuana, Baja California (1.5 million)
  7. León, Guanajuato (1.2 million)
  8. Toluca, México (1.2 million)
  9. Torreón, Coahuila (1.1 million)
  10. San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (0.8 million)
  11. Mérida, Yucatán (0.8 million)
  12. Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro (0.8 million)
  13. Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes (0.7 million)
  14. Cuernavaca, Morelos (0.7 million)
  15. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (0.7 million)

Geography

Copper Canyon in the state of Chihuahua Mexico's topography

Main article: Geography of Mexico

Situated in the southwestern part of mainland North America and roughly triangular in shape, Mexico stretches more than 3000 km from northwest to southeast. Its width is varied, from more than 2000 km in the north and less than 220 km at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south.

Mexico is bordered by the United States to the north, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. Baja California in the west is a 1,250-km peninsula and forms the Gulf of California. In the east are the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Campeche, which is formed by Mexico's other peninsula, the Yucatán. The center of Mexico is a great, high plateau, open to the north, with mountain chains on the east and west and with ocean-front lowlands lying outside of them. (See list of mountains in Mexico). Mexico is about one-fourth the size of the United States.

The terrain and climate vary from rocky deserts in the north to tropical rain forest in the south. Mexico's major rivers include the Río Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) and the Usumacinta on its northern and southern borders, respectively, together with the Grijalva, Balsas, Pánuco, and Yaqui in the interior.

On September 19, 1985, an earthquake measuring approximately 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Michoacán and inflicted severe damage on Mexico City. Estimates of the number of dead range from 6,500 to 30,000 (see 1985 Mexico City earthquake).

Economy

The Angel of Independence monument in the heart of Mexico City.


According to the World Bank, Mexico ranks 12th in the world in regard to GDP and has the highest per capita income in its region; and it is firmly established as an upper middle-income country. Since the economic crisis of 1994–1995 the country has made an impressive economic recovery. According to the director for Colombia and Mexico of the World Bank, the population below the poverty level has decreased from 24.2% to 17.6% in the general population and from 42% to 27.9% in rural areas from 2000-2004 [2].

Mexico has a free-market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico has fallen from more than 1,000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 1999. The administration of President Ernesto Zedillo (1994–2000) continued a policy of privatizing and expanding competition in sea ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas distribution, and airports which was initiated by his predecessors Miguel de la Madrid and Carlos Salinas.

A strong export sector helped to cushion the economy's decline in 1995 and led the recovery in 1996–1999. Private consumption became the leading driver of growth, accompanied by increased employment and higher wages. Mexico still needs to overcome many structural problems as it strives to modernize its economy and raise living standards. Income distribution is very unequal, with the top 20% of income earners accounting for 55% of income.

Following 6.9% growth in 2000, real GDP fell 0.3% in 2001, with the United States' economic slowdown appearing to be the principal cause. Positive developments in 2001 included a drop in inflation to 6.5%, a sharp fall in interest rates, and a strong peso that appreciated 5% against the U.S. dollar. Trade with the United States and Canada has tripled since NAFTA was implemented in 1994.

Mexico has opened its markets to free trade like few other countries have done, lowering its trade barriers with more than 40 countries in 12 Free Trade Agreements, including Japan and the European Union. However more than 85% of the trade is still done with the United States. Government authorities expect that by putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements with different countries Mexico will lessen its dependence on the United States. The government is seeking to sign an additional agreement with Mercosur.

Demographics

Beach in Cancún, Quintana Roo Zócalo, Oaxaca de Juárez Indigenous Mexicans on a Chiapas street

Main article: Demographics of Mexico
See also: Indigenous peoples of Mexico

With an estimated 2005 population of about 106.5 million, Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.

Mexico is ethnically and culturally diverse. According to the CIA World Factbook, about 60% of the population is mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white), another 30% is Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian. Some 9% is white (of European descent), the majority being from Spain, though there are also large numbers of people of German, Italian, French, Portuguese, British, Irish, Russian (Molokans), Dutch, Greek, and Scandinavian (particularly in Nueva Escandinavia, Chihuahua) ancestry. The remaining 1% includes Afro-Mexicans, Asians, Jews, and Middle Easterners. Mexico is also home for many other Latin American groups: mostly Argentines, but also Brazilians, Cubans, Nicaraguans, Colombians and Venezuelans. The PRI governments in power for most of the 20th century had a policy of granting asylum to fellow Latin Americans fleeing political persecution in their home countries. Mexico has a sizeable population of Asians numbering around 200,000, many of them Chinese and Japanese, the majority of which reside in Mexicali, Baja California. There are also a few Lebanese and Arabs. In Mexico the biggest foreign colonies are:

  1. Spanish
  2. German, Italian and French
  3. Argentinean
  4. American and Canadian
  5. East Asian
  6. Jewish
  7. Central American and South American
  8. Arab and Lebanese
  9. British, Irish, Dutch and Russian
  10. African

According to the Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas ("The National Council for the Development of Indigenous People") the Amerindian population in Mexico is approximately 12.7 million. However, the Mexican government does not collect racial information during censuses. In 2004, the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatic had estimated this figure to be 12,089,094 (~11.4% of Mexico's population) of indigenous people of which, more than one million do not speak Spanish and almost five million are bilingual (INEGI, 2004).

Judging by the proportion of people speaking indigenous languages, the states with the highest proportion of indigenous people are Yucatán (37.3%), Oaxaca (37.1%), Chiapas (24.6%) and Quintana Roo (23%). The states of Aguascalientes (0.2%), Coahuila (0.2%), Zacatecas (0.2%) and Nuevo León (0.5%) have the lowest proportion of speakers of indigenous languages ([INEGI, 2004]).

Mexico is the country where the greatest number of U.S citizens live outside the United States. This may be due to the growing economic and business interdependence of the two countries under NAFTA, and also that Mexico is considered an excellent choice for retirees. A clear example of the latter phenomenon is provided by San Miguel de Allende and many towns along the Baja California peninsula and around Guadalajara, Jalisco. The official figures for foreign-born citizens in Mexico are 493,000 (since 2004), with a majority (86.9%) of these born in the United States (with the exception of Chiapas, where the majority of immigrants are from Central America). The five states with more immigrants are Baja California (12.1% of total immigrants), Federal District (11.4%), Jalisco (9.9%), Chihuahua (9%) and Tamaulipas (7.3%). More than 54.6% of the immigrant population are 15 years old or younger, while 9% are 50 or older. 4.2% of male immigrants and 3.8% of female immigrants did not have formal education while 20.2% of male immigrants and 17.7% of female immigrants had a college degree [INEGI, 2004.

Life expectancy in Mexico increased from 34.7 for men and 33 years for women in 1930 to 72.1 for men and 77.1 years for women in 2002. The states with the highest life expectancy are Baja California (75.9 years) and Nuevo Leon (75.6 years). The Federal District has a life expectancy of the same level as Baja California. The lowest levels are found in Chiapas (72.9), Oaxaca (73.2) and Guerrero (73.2 years), although the first two have had the highest increase (19.9 and 22.3% respectively).

The mortality rate in 1970 was 9.7/1000 people and by 2001 the rate had dropped to 4.9/1000 for men and 3.8/1000 for women. The most common reasons for death in 2001 were heart problems (14.6% for men 17.6% for women) and Cancer (11% for men and 15.8% for women).

Religion

Basílica de la Soledad, Oaxaca, Oaxaca

Mexico is predominantly Roman Catholic (about 89% of the population). It is the second nation with the largest Catholic population, behind Brazil and before the United States. Also, 6% of the population adheres to various Protestant faiths (mostly Pentecostal), and the remaining 5% of the population adhering to other religions or professing no religion. Some of the country's Catholics (notably those of indigenous background) syncretize Catholicism with various elements of Aztec or Mayan religions. The Virgin of Guadalupe has long been a symbol enshrining the major aspirations of Mexican society. According to anthropologist Eric R. Wolf, the Guadalupe symbol links family, politics, and religion; the colonial past and the independent present; and the Indian and the Mexican. [3]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) has a growing presence in the major border cities of northeastern Mexico, and over 205,000 members nationwide[1]. Judaism has been practiced in Mexico for centuries, and there are estimated to be more than 45,000 Jews in Mexico today[2]. Islam is mainly practiced by members of the Arab, Turkish, and other expatriate communities, though there is a very small number of the indigenous population in Chiapas state that practice Islam.

Languages

Main article: Languages of Mexico

A stucco relief in the Palenque museum, Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico

Spanish is the official language of Mexico and is spoken by the majority of the population. About 7% of the population speak an Amerindian language. The government officially recognizes 62 Amerindian languages. Of these Nahuatl, and Maya are each spoken by 1.5 million, while others, such as Lacandon, are spoken by fewer than 100. The Mexican government has promoted and established bilingual education programs in indigenous rural communities.

Although Spanish is the official language of Mexico, English is widely used in business. As a result, English language skills are much in demand and can lead to an increase in the salary offered by a company. It is also spoken along the U.S. border, in big cities, and in beach resorts. Also, the majority of private schools in Mexico offer what they like to describe as "bilingual" education, both in Spanish and English. English is the main language spoken in U.S. expatriate communities such as those along the coast of Baja California and the town of San Miguel de Allende. There are also Mennonite colonies in Chihuahua where education is delivered in English.

With respect to other European languages brought by immigrants, the case of Chipilo, in the state of Puebla, is unique, and has been documented by several linguists like Carolyn McKay. The immigrants that founded the city of Chipilo in 1882 came from the Veneto region in northern Italy, and thus spoke a northern variant of the Venetian dialect. While other European immigrants assimilated into the Mexican culture, the people of Chipilo retained their language. Nowadays, most of the people who live in the city of Chipilo (and many of those who have migrated to other cities) still speak the unaltered Veneto dialect spoken by their great-grandparents making the Veneto dialect an unrecognized minority language in the city of Puebla. In Huatusco and Colonia Gonzalez, Veracruz, Veneto is still heard too. A similar case is that of the Plautdietsch language, spoken by the descendants of German and Dutch Mennonite immigrants in the states of Chihuahua and Durango. Other German communities lie in Puebla, Mexico City, Sinaloa and Chiapas, with the largest German school outside of Germany being in Mexico City (Alexander von Humboldt school), these represent the large German populations where they still try to preserve the German culture and language. Other strong German communities lie in Sinaloa (Mazatlan), Nuevo Leon, Chiapas (Tapachula) and other parts of Puebla (Nueva Necaxa) where the german culture and language have been preserved to different extents. French is also heard in Veracruz, Jicaltepec, San Rafael and Mentideros, where the architecture and food is also very French. These French immigrants came from Haute-Saône département in France, especially from Champittle and Borgonge. Another important French group were the "Barcelonettes" from the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, whom interestingly the whole town and surrounding towns immigrated specifically to Mexico to find jobs and work in merchendising, they are very notorious in Mexico City, Puebla, and Veracruz. Another important French village in Mexico is Santa Rosalía in Baja California Sur, where French language and culture/architecture are still found. Scandinavian languages and traditions can also be heard in Chihuahua, like Swedish and Norwegian in Nueva Escandinavia and other Scandinavian colonies in the north of the country.

Education

Mexico has made impressive improvements in education in the last two decades. In 2004, the literacy rate was at 92%, and the youth literacy rate (ages 15-24) was 96%. Primary and secondary education (9 years) is free and mandatory. Even though different bilingual education programs have existed since the 1960s for the indigenous communities, after a constitution reform in the late 1990s, these programs have had a new thrust, and free text books are produced in more than a dozen indigenous languages.

In the 1970's, Mexico became the first country to establish a system of "distance-learning" satellite secondary education, aimed for the little towns and rural communities. In 2005 this system included 30,000 connected schools, 3 million students and 300,000 teachers, who use televised lectures and education science programs, pre-recorded and transmitted through "EduSat", via satellite. Schools that use this system are known as telesecundarias in Mexico. The Mexican distance learning secondary education is also transmitted to some Central American countries and to Colombia, and it is used in some southern regions of the United States as a method of bilingual education.

The name

Mexico is named after its capital city, whose name comes from the Aztec city Mexico-Tenochtitlan that preceded it. The Mexi part of the name is from Mexitli, the war god, whose name was derived from metztli (the moon) and xictli (navel) and thus meant "navel (probably implying 'child') of the moon". So, Mexico is the home of the people of Mexitli (the Mexicas), co meaning "place" and ca meaning "people".

When the Spaniards encountered this people and transcribed their language, they naturally did so according to the spelling rules of the Castilian language of the time. The Nahuatl language had a /ʃ/ sound (like English "shop"), and this sound was written x in Spanish (e.g. Ximénez); consequently, the letter x was used to write down words like Mexitli. Meanwhile, the letter j (or, rather, the letter i when used as a consonant, since j had not been invented yet) was used for the /ʒ/ sound (as in "vision"), as was g before e or i. These old pronunciations of j and x are still found in Portuguese and Ladino.

Over the centuries, the pronunciation of Spanish changed. Words like Ximénez, exercicio, xabón and perplexo started to be pronounced with a /x/ (this phonetic symbol represents the sound in the word "loch"). The /ʒ/ sound also started to be pronounced this way. The coalescence of the two phonemes into a single new one encouraged scholars to use the same letter for the sound, regardless of its origin (Spanish scholars have always tried to keep the orthography of their language faithful to the spoken tongue). It was j/g that was chosen. So, modern Spanish has ejercicio, ejército, jabón, perplejo, etc. (Another example is the old spelling of Don Quixote which is now Don Quijote. The old pronunciation is maintained in French "Quichotte", and the English word "quixotic" maintains the spelling while pronouncing it with its English value.)

Proper nouns and their derivatives are optionally allowed to break this rule. Thus, although xabón is now incorrect and archaic, alongside many millions of people called "Jiménez", there also are plenty called "Giménez" or "Ximénez" — a matter of personal choice and tradition.

In Mexico, it has become almost a matter of national pride to maintain the otherwise archaic x spelling in the name of the country. It is regarded as more authentic and less jarring to the reader's eye. Mexicans have tended to demand that other Spanish-speakers use this spelling, rather than following the general rule, and the demand has largely been respected. The Real Academia Española states that both spellings are correct, and most dictionaries and guides recommend México first, and present Méjico as a variant. Today, even outside of the country, México is preferred over Méjico by ratios ranging from 10-to-1 (in Spain) to about 280-to-1 (in Costa Rica). Also, in the placenames "Oaxaca" and "Xalapa", the x is pronounced as /x/; in "Xochimilco", however, it sounds as a /ʃ/.

A cultural side-effect of the fact that Mexicans use México /'mexiko/ and Spaniards sometimes use Méjico is the occasional boiling-over of negative sentiment towards the old colonial oppressor. The mere act of using the j spelling is interpreted by some as a form of colonial aggression. On the other hand, some Peninsular scholars (such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal) prefer to apply the general spelling rule, arguing that the spelling with an x could encourage non-Mexicans to mispronounce México as /'meksiko/ (as is generally the case in the English-speaking world). Méjico on the other hand could easily be mispronounced as well, because the letter j stands for /ʒ/, /dʒ/ or /j/ in other languages.

In the Nahuatl language, from which the name originally derived, the name for Mexico is Mēxihco (International Phonetic Alphabet /meː.ɕiʔ.ko/).

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News stories from Wikinews. For details of extinct varieties of football invented and/or played during the Middle Ages in Europe, see the medieval football article.. In the Nahuatl language, from which the name originally derived, the name for Mexico is Mēxihco (International Phonetic Alphabet /meː.ɕiʔ.ko/). The different codes are listed below and are described more fully in their own articles. Méjico on the other hand could easily be mispronounced as well, because the letter j stands for /ʒ/, /dʒ/ or /j/ in other languages. In other countries or regions within them, the word "football" may refer to American football, Australian rules football, Canadian football, Gaelic football, or one of the two codes of rugby football: rugby league or rugby union. On the other hand, some Peninsular scholars (such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal) prefer to apply the general spelling rule, arguing that the spelling with an x could encourage non-Mexicans to mispronounce México as /'meksiko/ (as is generally the case in the English-speaking world). However, even in the countries where football is the official name of association football, this name may be at odds with common usage.

The mere act of using the j spelling is interpreted by some as a form of colonial aggression. Of the 48 national FIFA affiliates in which English is an official or primary language, only five — Canada, the Marshall Islands, New Zealand, Samoa and the United States — use soccer in their name, while the rest use football. A cultural side-effect of the fact that Mexicans use México /'mexiko/ and Spaniards sometimes use Méjico is the occasional boiling-over of negative sentiment towards the old colonial oppressor. In most English-speaking countries, the word "football" usually refers to Association football, also known as soccer (soccer originally being a slang abbreviation of Association). Also, in the placenames "Oaxaca" and "Xalapa", the x is pronounced as /x/; in "Xochimilco", however, it sounds as a /ʃ/. Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football, primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world. Today, even outside of the country, México is preferred over Méjico by ratios ranging from 10-to-1 (in Spain) to about 280-to-1 (in Costa Rica). The word "football", when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

The Real Academia Española states that both spellings are correct, and most dictionaries and guides recommend México first, and present Méjico as a variant. This situation endured until 1948, when at the instigation of the French league, the Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) was formed at a meeting in Bordeaux. Mexicans have tended to demand that other Spanish-speakers use this spelling, rather than following the general rule, and the demand has largely been respected. However the rules of professional rugby varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match. It is regarded as more authentic and less jarring to the reader's eye. In 1907, a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, and as a result the New South Wales Rugby League was formed. In Mexico, it has become almost a matter of national pride to maintain the otherwise archaic x spelling in the name of the country. Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in 1906, with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players, and the introduction of the play the ball (heeling the ball back after a tackle).

Thus, although xabón is now incorrect and archaic, alongside many millions of people called "Jiménez", there also are plenty called "Giménez" or "Ximénez" — a matter of personal choice and tradition. However, the number of deaths and injuries did gradually decline. Proper nouns and their derivatives are optionally allowed to break this rule. The changes did not immediately have the desired effect, and 33 American football players were killed during 1908 alone. The old pronunciation is maintained in French "Quichotte", and the English word "quixotic" maintains the spelling while pronouncing it with its English value.). The report of the meetings introduced many restrictions on tackling and two more divergences from rugby: the banning of mass formation plays, as well as the forward pass. (Another example is the old spelling of Don Quixote which is now Don Quijote. However, Harvard University had just built a concrete stadium, objected and proposed instead legalisation of the forward pass.

So, modern Spanish has ejercicio, ejército, jabón, perplejo, etc. One proposed change was a widening of the playing field. It was j/g that was chosen. The meetings are now considered to be the origin of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The coalescence of the two phonemes into a single new one encouraged scholars to use the same letter for the sound, regardless of its origin (Spanish scholars have always tried to keep the orthography of their language faithful to the spoken tongue). This occurred reputedly at the behest of President Theodore Roosevelt, who was considered to be a fancier of the game, but who had threatened to ban it, unless the rules were modified to reduce the numbers of deaths and disabilities. The /ʒ/ sound also started to be pronounced this way. Consequently, a series of meetings was held by 19 colleges in 1905-06.

Words like Ximénez, exercicio, xabón and perplexo started to be pronounced with a /x/ (this phonetic symbol represents the sound in the word "loch"). By the early 20th century in the USA, this had resulted in national controversy and American football was banned by a number of colleges. Over the centuries, the pronunciation of Spanish changed. Both forms of rugby and American football were noted at the time for serious injuries, as well as the deaths of a significant number of players. These old pronunciations of j and x are still found in Portuguese and Ladino. Eventually, to differentiate the two codes of rugby, the code played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB became known as Rugby Union. Meanwhile, the letter j (or, rather, the letter i when used as a consonant, since j had not been invented yet) was used for the /ʒ/ sound (as in "vision"), as was g before e or i. The separate Lancashire and Yorkshire competitions of the NRFU merged in 1901, forming the Northern Rugby League, the first time the name Rugby League was used officially.

Ximénez); consequently, the letter x was used to write down words like Mexitli. Within a few years the NRFU rules had started to diverge from the RFU, most notably with the abolition of the line out. The Nahuatl language had a /ʃ/ sound (like English "shop"), and this sound was written x in Spanish (e.g. In 1895 representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU), a professional competition. When the Spaniards encountered this people and transcribed their language, they naturally did so according to the spelling rules of the Castilian language of the time. In Britain, by the 1890s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries. So, Mexico is the home of the people of Mexitli (the Mexicas), co meaning "place" and ca meaning "people". Professionalism was beginning to creep into the various codes of football.

The Mexi part of the name is from Mexitli, the war god, whose name was derived from metztli (the moon) and xictli (navel) and thus meant "navel (probably implying 'child') of the moon". The International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) was founded in 1886, but rifts were beginning to emerge in the code. Mexico is named after its capital city, whose name comes from the Aztec city Mexico-Tenochtitlan that preceded it. The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule (an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football). The Mexican distance learning secondary education is also transmitted to some Central American countries and to Colombia, and it is used in some southern regions of the United States as a method of bilingual education. Davan's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise an Irish code of football distinct from Rugby and Association football. Schools that use this system are known as telesecundarias in Mexico. The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davan and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, 1887.

In 2005 this system included 30,000 connected schools, 3 million students and 300,000 teachers, who use televised lectures and education science programs, pre-recorded and transmitted through "EduSat", via satellite. The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject "foreign" (particularly English) imports. In the 1970's, Mexico became the first country to establish a system of "distance-learning" satellite secondary education, aimed for the little towns and rural communities. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in 1884. Even though different bilingual education programs have existed since the 1960s for the indigenous communities, after a constitution reform in the late 1990s, these programs have had a new thrust, and free text books are produced in more than a dozen indigenous languages. Caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which even allowed tripping. Primary and secondary education (9 years) is free and mandatory. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.

In 2004, the literacy rate was at 92%, and the youth literacy rate (ages 15-24) was 96%. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby (see the Developments in the 1850s section, above). Mexico has made impressive improvements in education in the last two decades. By the 1870s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. Scandinavian languages and traditions can also be heard in Chihuahua, like Swedish and Norwegian in Nueva Escandinavia and other Scandinavian colonies in the north of the country. "Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, and carrying the ball were all allowed. Another important French village in Mexico is Santa Rosalía in Baja California Sur, where French language and culture/architecture are still found. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and; the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary.

Another important French group were the "Barcelonettes" from the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, whom interestingly the whole town and surrounding towns immigrated specifically to Mexico to find jobs and work in merchendising, they are very notorious in Mexico City, Puebla, and Veracruz. One observer, Father W. These French immigrants came from Haute-Saône département in France, especially from Champittle and Borgonge. Main article: History of Gaelic football. In the mid-19th century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid, remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry. French is also heard in Veracruz, Jicaltepec, San Rafael and Mentideros, where the architecture and food is also very French. (The Canadian Rugby Union was not formed until 1965.) American football was also frequently described as "rugby" in the 1880s. Other strong German communities lie in Sinaloa (Mazatlan), Nuevo Leon, Chiapas (Tapachula) and other parts of Puebla (Nueva Necaxa) where the german culture and language have been preserved to different extents. For example, the Canadian Rugby Football Union, founded in 1884 was the forerunner of the Canadian Football League, rather than a Rugby Union body.

Other German communities lie in Puebla, Mexico City, Sinaloa and Chiapas, with the largest German school outside of Germany being in Mexico City (Alexander von Humboldt school), these represent the large German populations where they still try to preserve the German culture and language. One of these was that Canadian football, for many years, did not officially distinguish itself from rugby. A similar case is that of the Plautdietsch language, spoken by the descendants of German and Dutch Mennonite immigrants in the states of Chihuahua and Durango. Over the years Canadian football absorbed some developments in American football, but also retained many unique characteristics. In Huatusco and Colonia Gonzalez, Veracruz, Veneto is still heard too. successful tackles). Nowadays, most of the people who live in the city of Chipilo (and many of those who have migrated to other cities) still speak the unaltered Veneto dialect spoken by their great-grandparents making the Veneto dialect an unrecognized minority language in the city of Puebla. These were complemented in 1882 by another of Camp's innovations: a team had to surrender possession if they did not gain five yards after three downs (i.e.

While other European immigrants assimilated into the Mexican culture, the people of Chipilo retained their language. In 1880, Yale coach Walter Camp, devised a number of major changes to the American game, beginning with the reduction of teams from 15 to 11 players, followed by reduction of the field area by almost half, and; the introduction of the scrimmage, in which a player heeled the ball backwards, to begin a game. The immigrants that founded the city of Chipilo in 1882 came from the Veneto region in northern Italy, and thus spoke a northern variant of the Venetian dialect. US colleges did not generally return to soccer until the early twentieth century. With respect to other European languages brought by immigrants, the case of Chipilo, in the state of Puebla, is unique, and has been documented by several linguists like Carolyn McKay. Princeton, Rutgers and others continued to compete using soccer-based rules for a few years before switching to the rugby-based rules of Harvard and its competitors. There are also Mennonite colonies in Chihuahua where education is delivered in English. The convention decided that, in the US game, four touchdowns would be worth one goal; in the event of a tied score, a goal converted from a touchdown would take precedence over four touch-downs.

expatriate communities such as those along the coast of Baja California and the town of San Miguel de Allende. However, a touch-down (as it was also known in rugby football at the time) only counted toward the score if neither side kicked a field goal. English is the main language spoken in U.S. In 1876, at the Massasoit Convention, it was agreed by these universities to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules. Also, the majority of private schools in Mexico offer what they like to describe as "bilingual" education, both in Spanish and English. Within a few years, however, Harvard had both adopted McGill's rugby rules and had persuaded other US university teams to do the same. border, in big cities, and in beach resorts. This made it easy for Harvard to adapt to the rugby-based game played by McGill and the two teams alternated between their respective sets of rules.

It is also spoken along the U.S. At the time, Harvard students are reported to have played the "Boston Game" — a running code — rather than the FA-based kicking games favored by US universities. As a result, English language skills are much in demand and can lead to an increase in the salary offered by a company. Modern American football grew out of a match between McGill University of Montreal, and Harvard University in 1874. Although Spanish is the official language of Mexico, English is widely used in business. This is also often considered to be the first US game of college football, in the sense of a game between colleges (although the eventual form of American football would come from rugby, not soccer). The Mexican government has promoted and established bilingual education programs in indigenous rural communities. The first match generally said to have occurred under English FA (soccer) rules in the USA was a game between Princeton and Rutgers in 1869.

Of these Nahuatl, and Maya are each spoken by 1.5 million, while others, such as Lacandon, are spoken by fewer than 100. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded football club in Canada. The government officially recognizes 62 Amerindian languages. However, the first game of "rugby" in Canada is generally said to have taken place in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. About 7% of the population speak an Amerindian language. Bethune devised rules based on the Rugby School game. Spanish is the official language of Mexico and is spoken by the majority of the population. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A.

Main article: Languages of Mexico. In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Islam is mainly practiced by members of the Arab, Turkish, and other expatriate communities, though there is a very small number of the indigenous population in Chiapas state that practice Islam. The club may have invented the "Boston Game", a running code which was being played several years later in Massachusetts. Judaism has been practiced in Mexico for centuries, and there are estimated to be more than 45,000 Jews in Mexico today[2]. However, the rules that the Oneida club used are also unknown, and it was formed before the FA rules were formulated. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) has a growing presence in the major border cities of northeastern Mexico, and over 205,000 members nationwide[1]. It has often been said that this club was the first to play soccer outside Britain.

[3]. The first "football club" in the USA was the short-lived Oneida Football Club in Boston, Massachusetts, founded in 1862. Wolf, the Guadalupe symbol links family, politics, and religion; the colonial past and the independent present; and the Indian and the Mexican. A football club was formed at the university soon afterwards, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear: it is not known whether they played a kicking or handling game, or both, and its members mostly played against each other. According to anthropologist Eric R. The first documented football match in Canada was a game played at University College, University of Toronto on November 9, 1861. The Virgin of Guadalupe has long been a symbol enshrining the major aspirations of Mexican society. In 1827, a Harvard University student composed a humorous epic poem called The Battle of the Delta, one of the first accounts of football in American universities.

Some of the country's Catholics (notably those of indigenous background) syncretize Catholicism with various elements of Aztec or Mayan religions. By the 1820s, a game known as Ballown was being played at the College of New Jersey (later known as Princeton University) and Old Division Football was being played at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire. Also, 6% of the population adheres to various Protestant faiths (mostly Pentecostal), and the remaining 5% of the population adhering to other religions or professing no religion. As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students. It is the second nation with the largest Catholic population, behind Brazil and before the United States. (Ironically, Blackheath now lobbied to ban hacking.) The first official RFU rules were adopted in June 1871. Mexico is predominantly Roman Catholic (about 89% of the population). However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until 1871, when 21 clubs in England came together to form the Rugby Football Union (RFU).

The most common reasons for death in 2001 were heart problems (14.6% for men 17.6% for women) and Cancer (11% for men and 15.8% for women). There were also "rugby" clubs in Ireland, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The mortality rate in 1970 was 9.7/1000 people and by 2001 the rate had dropped to 4.9/1000 for men and 3.8/1000 for women. In Britain, by 1870, there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby School game, including Blackheath (founded in 1858 and arguably the world's oldest surviving, non-university rugby club). The lowest levels are found in Chiapas (72.9), Oaxaca (73.2) and Guerrero (73.2 years), although the first two have had the highest increase (19.9 and 22.3% respectively). These first FA rules still contained elements that are recognisable in other games for instance, a player could make a fair catch and claim a mark and if a player touched the ball behind the opponents' goal line, his side was entitled to a free kick at the goal 15 yards from the goal line. The Federal District has a life expectancy of the same level as Baja California. After the final meeting on 8 December the FA published the "Laws of Football", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association football (or, colloquially, soccer).

The states with the highest life expectancy are Baja California (75.9 years) and Nuevo Leon (75.6 years). The motion was carried nonetheless but at the final meeting, Campbell withdrew his club from the FA. Life expectancy in Mexico increased from 34.7 for men and 33 years for women in 1930 to 72.1 for men and 77.1 years for women in 2002. He said, "hacking is the true football". 4.2% of male immigrants and 3.8% of female immigrants did not have formal education while 20.2% of male immigrants and 17.7% of female immigrants had a college degree [INEGI, 2004. Campbell, the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected strongly. More than 54.6% of the immigrant population are 15 years old or younger, while 9% are 50 or older. W.

The five states with more immigrants are Baja California (12.1% of total immigrants), Federal District (11.4%), Jalisco (9.9%), Chihuahua (9%) and Tamaulipas (7.3%). Most of the delegates were favourable to this suggestion but F. The official figures for foreign-born citizens in Mexico are 493,000 (since 2004), with a majority (86.9%) of these born in the United States (with the exception of Chiapas, where the majority of immigrants are from Central America). At the fifth meeting a motion was proposed that these two rules be expunged from the FA rules. A clear example of the latter phenomenon is provided by San Miguel de Allende and many towns along the Baja California peninsula and around Guadalajara, Jalisco. The two contentious draft rules were as follows:. This may be due to the growing economic and business interdependence of the two countries under NAFTA, and also that Mexico is considered an excellent choice for retirees. The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely 'running with the ball' and 'hacking' (kicking an opponent in the shins).

Mexico is the country where the greatest number of U.S citizens live outside the United States. At the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the fact that a number of newspapers had recently published the Cambridge Rules of 1863. The states of Aguascalientes (0.2%), Coahuila (0.2%), Zacatecas (0.2%) and Nuevo León (0.5%) have the lowest proportion of speakers of indigenous languages ([INEGI, 2004]). At the close of the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published that most of the delegates were happy to endorse, but this agreement was not to last. Judging by the proportion of people speaking indigenous languages, the states with the highest proportion of indigenous people are Yucatán (37.3%), Oaxaca (37.1%), Chiapas (24.6%) and Quintana Roo (23%). In total, six meetings were held between October and December 1863. In 2004, the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatic had estimated this figure to be 12,089,094 (~11.4% of Mexico's population) of indigenous people of which, more than one million do not speak Spanish and almost five million are bilingual (INEGI, 2004). Rugby, Eton and Winchester did not even reply.

However, the Mexican government does not collect racial information during censuses. With the exception of Thring at Uppingham, most schools declined. According to the Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas ("The National Council for the Development of Indigenous People") the Amerindian population in Mexico is approximately 12.7 million. The first meeting resulted in the issuing of a request for representatives of the public schools to join the association. In Mexico the biggest foreign colonies are:. The aim was to produce a single code of football that everybody could agree to and to set up a governing body for the regulation of the game. There are also a few Lebanese and Arabs. Charterhouse was the only school represented at that first meeting.

Mexico has a sizeable population of Asians numbering around 200,000, many of them Chinese and Japanese, the majority of which reside in Mexicali, Baja California. The meeting had been called, not by public school figures, but by members of several football clubs in the London Metropolitan area. The PRI governments in power for most of the 20th century had a policy of granting asylum to fellow Latin Americans fleeing political persecution in their home countries. It was the world's first official football body. Mexico is also home for many other Latin American groups: mostly Argentines, but also Brazilians, Cubans, Nicaraguans, Colombians and Venezuelans. On the evening of October 26, 1863 at the Freemason's Tavern in Great Queen Street, London, The Football Association (FA) met for the first time. The remaining 1% includes Afro-Mexicans, Asians, Jews, and Middle Easterners. This later revised version of the Cambridge Rules rules were to form the basis of what eventually became the rules adopted by The Football Association (FA).

Some 9% is white (of European descent), the majority being from Spain, though there are also large numbers of people of German, Italian, French, Portuguese, British, Irish, Russian (Molokans), Dutch, Greek, and Scandinavian (particularly in Nueva Escandinavia, Chihuahua) ancestry. In early October of 1863 a new revised set of Cambridge Rules rules were drawn up by a seven man committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster. According to the CIA World Factbook, about 60% of the population is mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white), another 30% is Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was now a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" (these are also known as the Uppingham Rules). Mexico is ethnically and culturally diverse. C. With an estimated 2005 population of about 106.5 million, Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. In 1862, J.

Main article: Demographics of Mexico
See also: Indigenous peoples of Mexico. The official name of the code is now Australian football. The government is seeking to sign an additional agreement with Mercosur. By 1866, however, several other clubs in the Colony of Victoria had agreed to play an updated version of the Melbourne FC rules, which were later known as "Victorian Rules" and/or "Australasian Rules". Government authorities expect that by putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements with different countries Mexico will lessen its dependence on the United States. Australian Rules is sometimes said to be the first form of football to be codified but — as was the case in all kinds of football at the time, there was no official body supporting the rules — and play varied from one club to another. However more than 85% of the trade is still done with the United States. The 1859 rules did not include some elements which would soon become important to the game, such as the requirement to bounce the ball while running.

Mexico has opened its markets to free trade like few other countries have done, lowering its trade barriers with more than 40 countries in 12 Free Trade Agreements, including Japan and the European Union. The club had a strong and long-standing association with the Melbourne Cricket Club and cricket ovals — which vary in size and are much larger than the fields used in other forms of football — became the standard playing field. Trade with the United States and Canada has tripled since NAFTA was implemented in 1994. However, running while holding the ball was allowed and although it was not specified in the rules, an oval ball (like those later used in rugby) was used. dollar. A free kick was awarded for a mark (clean catch). Positive developments in 2001 included a drop in inflation to 6.5%, a sharp fall in interest rates, and a strong peso that appreciated 5% against the U.S. These men had similar backgrounds to Wills and their code also had pronounced similarities to the Sheffield rules, most notably in the absence of an offside rule.

Following 6.9% growth in 2000, real GDP fell 0.3% in 2001, with the United States' economic slowdown appearing to be the principal cause. Harrison). Income distribution is very unequal, with the top 20% of income earners accounting for 55% of income. A. Mexico still needs to overcome many structural problems as it strives to modernize its economy and raise living standards. C. Private consumption became the leading driver of growth, accompanied by increased employment and higher wages. Thompson and Thomas Smith (some sources include H.

A strong export sector helped to cushion the economy's decline in 1995 and led the recovery in 1996–1999. B. The administration of President Ernesto Zedillo (1994–2000) continued a policy of privatizing and expanding competition in sea ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas distribution, and airports which was initiated by his predecessors Miguel de la Madrid and Carlos Salinas. Hammersley, J. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico has fallen from more than 1,000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 1999. J. Mexico has a free-market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. They were drawn up at the Parade Hotel, East Melbourne on May 17, by Wills, W.

According to the director for Colombia and Mexico of the World Bank, the population below the poverty level has decreased from 24.2% to 17.6% in the general population and from 42% to 27.9% in rural areas from 2000-2004 [2]. The club's rules of 1859 are the oldest surviving set of laws for Australian Rules. Since the economic crisis of 1994–1995 the country has made an impressive economic recovery. The Melbourne Football Club was also founded in 1858 and is the oldest surviving Australian football club, but the rules it used during its first season are unknown. According to the World Bank, Mexico ranks 12th in the world in regard to GDP and has the highest per capita income in its region; and it is firmly established as an upper middle-income country. It appears that Australian Rules also has some similarities to the Indigenous Australian game of Marn Grook (see above).
. There were pronounced similarities between Wills's game and Gaelic football (as it would be codified in 1887).

Estimates of the number of dead range from 6,500 to 30,000 (see 1985 Mexico City earthquake). The extent to which Wills was directly influenced by British and Irish football games is unknown, but there were similarities between some of them and his game. On September 19, 1985, an earthquake measuring approximately 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Michoacán and inflicted severe damage on Mexico City. Wills had been educated in England, at Rugby School and had played cricket for Cambridge University. Mexico's major rivers include the Río Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) and the Usumacinta on its northern and southern borders, respectively, together with the Grijalva, Balsas, Pánuco, and Yaqui in the interior. Tom Wills began to develop Australian Rules football in Melbourne during 1858. The terrain and climate vary from rocky deserts in the north to tropical rain forest in the south. (For more details see: Oldest football clubs.).

Mexico is about one-fourth the size of the United States. By the end of the 1850s, many clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. (See list of mountains in Mexico). In 1867 the Sheffield Football Association was formed by a number of clubs in the local area and the Sheffield clubs continued to play by their own rules until they decided to fall in line with the FA in 1878.). The center of Mexico is a great, high plateau, open to the north, with mountain chains on the east and west and with ocean-front lowlands lying outside of them. (How long this set of rules lasted is unclear, but by 1866, when Sheffield played a combined FA side, they were employing their own version of offside that differed from the FA rule. In the east are the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Campeche, which is formed by Mexico's other peninsula, the Yucatán. There were some similarities to the Cambridge Rules, but players were allowed to push or hit the ball with their hands, and there was no offside rule at all, so that players known as 'kick throughs' could be permanently positioned near the opponents' goal.

Baja California in the west is a 1,250-km peninsula and forms the Gulf of California. Creswick and Prest devised their own version of football: the Sheffield Rules. Mexico is bordered by the United States to the north, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. It was founded by former Harrow School pupils Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, in 1857. Its width is varied, from more than 2000 km in the north and less than 220 km at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south. Sheffield Football Club also has a claim to be the world's oldest football club, in the sense of a club not attached to a school or university. Situated in the southwestern part of mainland North America and roughly triangular in shape, Mexico stretches more than 3000 km from northwest to southeast. Dublin University Football Club — founded at Trinity College, Dublin in 1854 and later famous as a bastion of the Rugby School game — is arguably the world's oldest football club in any code.

Main article: Geography of Mexico. The increasing interest and development of the various English football games was shown in 1851, when William Gilbert, a shoemaker from Rugby, exhibited both round and oval-shaped balls at the Great Exhibition in London. The following is a list of the biggest Metropolitan Areas of Mexico in order of population:. However, the Cambridge Rules were not widely adopted. Much of the capital city's metropolitan area overflows the limits of the Federal District. Handling was only allowed for a player to take a clean catch entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal. It enjoys more limited local rule than the nation's "free and sovereign states": only since 1997 have its citizens been able to elect a Head of Government, whose powers are still more curtailed than those of a state governor. The rules clearly favour the kicking game.


The Federal District is a special political division in Mexico, where the national capital, Mexico City, is located. No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa 1856 is held in the library of Shrewsbury School. Each state has its own constitution and its citizens elect a governor as well as representatives to their respective state congresses. An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge Rules. Mexico is divided into 31 states (estados) and a federal district. Thring, who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School, called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury. The three most important political parties in Mexico are the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the National Action Party (PAN), and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). J.C.

His victory ended the Institutional Revolutionary Party's 71-year hold on the presidency. de Winton and Mr. Fox began his six-year term on December 1, 2000. H. The PRI did not lose a senate seat until 1988 or a gubernatorial race until 1989.[1] It wasn't until July 2, 2000, that Vicente Fox of the opposition "Alliance for Change" coalition, headed by the National Action Party (PAN), was elected president. In 1848 at Cambridge University, Mr. After it was founded in 1929, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) monopolized all the political branches. While local rules for athletics could be easily understood by visiting schools, it was nearly impossible for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules.

There is no vice-president in the republic. Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. The president is elected by universal adult suffrage for a six-year term and may not hold office a second time. The boom in rail transport in Britain during the 1840s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before. The president also legislates by executive decree in certain economic and financial fields, using powers delegated from Congress. This further assisted the spread of the Rugby game. Congress has played an increasingly important role since 1997, when opposition parties first formed a majority in the legislature. These were the first set of written rules (or code) for any form of football.

Historically, the executive is the dominant branch, with power vested in the [[President of Mexico|president who promulgates and executes the laws of the Congress. In 1845, three boys at Rugby School were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school. The 1917 Constitution provides for a federal republic with powers separated into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches. However, some have argued that this club is too poorly documented to be considered to have existed since that time. Mexico’s political model has much in common with that of the United States. The club is said to have played the Rugby School game. On March 23, 2005, the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America was signed by the elected leaders of those countries. For example, it is said that the world's first "football club" (that is one which was not part of a school or university), was the Guy's Hospital Football Club, founded in London in 1843.

On January 1, 1994, Mexico became a full member of the North American Free Trade Agreement, joining the United States of America and Canada in a large and prosperous economic bloc. During this period, the Rugby School rules appear to have spread at least as far, perhaps further, than the other schools' games. In 2000, after seventy years, the PRI lost a presidential elections to a candidate of the National Action Party (PAN), Vicente Fox. At Charterhouse and Westminster the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the cloisters making the rough and tumble of the handling game difficult. Through the electoral reforms started by president Carlos Salinas de Gortari and consolidated by president Ernesto Zedillo, by the mid 1990s the PRI had lost its majority in Congress. The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. It was not until the 1980s that the PRI lost the first state governorship, an event that marked the beginning of the party's loss of hegemony. Some favoured a game in which the ball could be carried (as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham), whilst others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted (as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse).

Accused many times of fraud, the PRI's candidates held almost all public offices until the end of the 20th century. Soon, two schools of thought about how football should be played had developed. However the management of the economy collapsed several times afterwards. However, by 1841 (some sources say 1842), running with the ball had become acceptable at Rugby, as long as a player gathered the ball on the full or from a bounce, he was not offside and he did not pass the ball. This was in spite of falling foreign confidence in investment, first through the assumption of mineral rights and subsequent nationalisation of the oil industry into Pemex during the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas del Río. In 1823 William Webb Ellis, a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "showed a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time" by picking up the ball and running to the opponents' goal, but the evidence for this bold act does not stand up to close examination. During the next four decades, Mexico experienced impressive economic growth, and historians call this period "El Milagro Mexicano", the Mexican Miracle. Each school drafted their own rules as they saw fit and they often varied widely and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils.

The creation of the National Revolutionary Party (which later became the Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI), in 1929 ended the struggles, uniting all generals and combatants of the revolution. Football had come to be adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. Revolutionary forces defeated the federal army, but were left with internal struggles, leaving the country in conflict for two more decades. These gradually evolved into the modern football games that we know today. His fraudulent victory in the 1910 elections sparked the Mexican Revolution. Thus the public school boys, who were free from constant toil, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules. Growing social inequalities, restricted freedom of the press, and his insistence to be reelected for a fifth term led to massive protests. Feast day football on the public highway was at an end.

His mandate, however, was mostly undemocratic and benefited the middle and upper classes, while the Amerindian indigenous population continued to live in precarious conditions. They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force. This period of relative peace and prosperity is known as the "Porfiriato". By the early 19th century, (before the Factory Act of 1850), most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day. Foreign investment allowed the development of the oil industry and the construction of a railroad system across the country. Frankland also mentions the "Football Fields" at Eton. After Juárez's death, Mexico experienced economic growth under the liberal and pro-European rule of Porfirio Díaz. Nugae Etonenses (1766) by T.

From then on, Juárez remained in office until his death in 1872. He describes how "...we may play quoits, or hand-ball, or bat-and-ball, or football; these games are innocent and lawful...". In mid-1867, following repeated losses in battle to the Republican Army, Maximilian was captured and murdered by Juárez's soldiers, along with his last loyal generals, in Querétaro. The first specific mention of football can be found in a Latin poem by Robert Matthew, a Winchester scholar from 1643 to 1647. Napoleon III of France, Emperor of France, returned Maximillian as Emperor of Mexico from 1864 to 1867. Horman had been headmaster at Eton College and Winchester and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde". However, after his death, the city was lost in early 1863, following a renewed French attack which penetrated as far as Mexico City, forcing Juárez to organize an itinerant government. The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Horman in 1519.

General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French Army (arguably the most powerful in the world at the time) at the city of Puebla on May 5, 1862, celebrated as Cinco de Mayo ever since. (The Duke also presented the ball before the match — a ritual that continues to this day.) In 1835, the British Highways Act banned the playing of football on public highways, with a maximum penalty of forty shillings. The Second Mexican Empire was then overthrown by President Benito Juárez, with diplomatic and logistical support from the United States and the military expertise of General Porfirio Díaz. In 1827, the annual Alnwick Shrove Tuesday game proceeded only after the Duke of Northumberland provided a field for the game to be played on. In the 1860s, the country again suffered a military occupation, this time by France, seeking to establish the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as Emperor of Mexico, with support from the Roman Catholic clergy and conservative criolloss. Even in the early modern era, efforts were made to ban football at a local level, and force it off the streets. Mexico was defeated by the United States, resulting in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo, where the United States purchased the remaining disputed territories for $15 million, from which were formed the modern states of California, Nevada, and Utah, and most of Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado (see Mexican-American War). Charles II of England gave the game royal approval in 1681 when he attended a fixture between the Royal Household and the Duke of Albemarle's servants.

This resulted in the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848. In the period following the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell had some success in suppressing football games, although they became even more popular following the Restoration, in 1660. Mexico declared war on 23 May. ("Spurn" literally means to kick away, thus implying that the game involved kicking a ball between players.). Polk requested a declaration of war and the US Congress voted in favor on 13 May 1846. Shakespeare also mentions the game in A Comedy of Errors (Act II Scene 1):. President James K. Shakespeare's play King Lear (which was first published in 1608) contains the line: "Nor tripped neither, you base football player" (Act I Scene 4).

Mexican troops then attacked and captured one of the American detachments near the Rio Grande. That same year, the modern spelling of the word "football" is first recorded, when it was used disapprovingly by William Shakespeare. Mexico saw this as an US intervention on internal affairs by supporting a rebel province. By 1608, the local authorities in Manchester were complaining that:. The US government sent troops to Texas in order to secure the territory ignoring the Mexican demands of withdrawal. All of these attempts failed to curb the people's desire to play the game. In 1845, voters in Texas approved to be annexed by the United States, and was passed by Congress and signed into law by President John Tyler. Despite evidence that Henry VIII of England played the game — in 1526, he ordered the first known pair of football boots — in 1540 Henry also attempted a ban.

Texas won its independence in 1836, further reducing the territory of the fledgling republic. In Scotland, football was banned by James I in 1424 and by James II in 1457. The inhabitants of Tejas, calling themselves Texans and led mainly by relatively recently-arrived English-speaking settlers, declared independence from Mexico at Washington-on-the-Brazos, giving birth to the Republic of Texas. In England, the outlawing of sport was attempted by Richard II in 1389 and Henry IV in 1401. While negotiations eventually brought Yucatán to again recognize Mexican sovereignty, Santa Anna's army turned to the northern rebellion. In France it was banned by Phillippe V in 1319, and again by Charles V in 1369. Both areas sought independence from the Mexican government. Football featured in similar attempts by monarchs to ban recreational sport across Europe.

As president, in 1834 Santa Anna abrogated the federal constitution, causing insurgencies in the southern state of Yucatán and the northernmost portion of the northern state of Coahuila y Tejas. The reasons for the ban by Edward III, on June 12, 1349, were explicit: football and other recreations distracted the populace from practicing archery, which was necessary for war, and after the great loss of life that had occurred during the Black Death, England needed as many archers as possible. The first Republic was formed with Guadalupe Victoria as its first president, followed in office by Santa Anna. King Edward II was so troubled by the unruliness of football in London that on April 13, 1314 he issued a proclamation banning it:. The Empire soon fell to rogue republican forces led by Antonio López de Santa Anna. Between 1324 and 1667, football was banned in England alone by more than 30 royal and local laws. It also forbade the importation of slaves, a condition that, like the others, was largely ignored. Numerous attempts have been made throughout history to ban football games, particularly the most rowdy and disruptive forms.

Soon after achieving its independence from Spain, the Mexican government, in an effort to populate its sparsely-settled hinterlands, awarded land grants in a remote area of the northernmost state of Coahuila y Tejas to hundreds of immigrant families from the United States, on the condition that the settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship. Calcio is still played, mostly as a tourist attraction. After independence, Spanish possessions in Central America which also proclaimed independence were all incorporated into Mexico from 1822 to 1823, with the exception of Chiapas. The game was not played between January 1739 and May 1930, when it was revived to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the match mentioned above. Then, as the war escalated, the objective change to independece from Spain. This is sometimes credited as the earliest known published rules of any football game. The initial intention of the movement then, was to be obtain independence from France, but still being part of Spain. In 1580, Count Giovanni de' Bardi di Vernio wrote Discorso sopra 'l giuoco del Calcio Fiorentino.

Actually, Hidalgo declared the independence from France, as José Bonaparte (Napoleon's brother), also known in Mexico as Pepe Botella (Spanish: Bottle Joe, as he had a fame of a heavy drinker), was ruling Spain at that time. While the troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor were besieging Florence, a game of calcio was organised as a show of defiance. On September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic priest in the small town of Dolores, causing a long war that eventually led to the official recognition of independence from Spain in 1821 and the creation of the First Mexican Empire. The most famous match took place on February 17, 1530. At the end of the 16th century, New Spain was an underpopulated country with abandoned cities, which would be the main cause of collapse of the Mesoamerican cultures. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise. Of the estimated 15 to 20 million of the original prehispanic population, less than two million survived. Blows below the belt were allowed.

There were three separate epidemics that decimated the population: Smallpox (1520-1521), measles ( 1545-1548) and typhus (1576-1581). For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. Most of the settlers had developed an immunity from childhood, but the indigenous peoples had not. The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football. Spanish settlers brought with them smallpox, typhus, and other diseases. In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game known as "o Calcio storico" ("kickball in costume") in the Piazza della Novere or the Piazza Santa Croce. Louis) and "Vera Cruz" ("True Cross"). (The earliest recorded football match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath, at Slane, in 1712.).

Numerous churches and other buildings were constructed in the Spanish style, and cities were named after various saints and objects of veneration, such as "San Luis Potosí" (after St. The first reference to football in Ireland occurs in the Statute of Galway of 1527, which allowed the playing of football and archery but banned "hokie' — the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves" as well as other sports. During the following centuries, under Spanish rule, a new culture developed that combined the customs and traditions of the indigenous peoples with that of Catholic Spain. However, the first clear reference to a ball being used did not occur until 1486.[3]. In modern México, mestizo has became more a cultural term, since a Native American that abandons his traditional ways is considered a mestizo, also most Afromexicans prefer to be considered mestizo, since they feel more identified with this group. In 1424, King James I of Scotland also attempted to ban the playing of "fute-ball". Mestizos, while they no longer have a separate legal status from other groups, comprise approximately 60% of the population. The first clear reference to football was not recorded until 1409, when King Henry IV of England issued an edict to ban it.

With independence, the caste system and slavery were abolished. This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked. Mestizos and criollos were not allowed in the upper levels of the government, and eventually they joined forces for the independence of México. Most of the early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball". Those who were wealthy enough also tried to have a Spanish wife, who was sent to give birth in Spain to prevent their children from becoming criollos. He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday. The Spanish "peninsulares" tried by all means to keep their status, even if they took native women. 1174-1183).

Mestizos and then mulattos were next, followed by the unmixed natives, zambos (amerindian mixed with black), and blacks, respectively. The first description of football in England was given by William FitzStephen (c. There were even two different kinds of whites, those born in Spain, or "peninsulares", and in a lower level, those born in America, or "criollos". Shrovetide games survive in a number of English towns (see below). Each different mix had a name and different privileges or prohibitions. A legend that these games in England evolved from a more ancient and bloody ritual of kicking the "Dane's head" is unlikely to be true. A system was created to keep each mix in a different social level: "El sistema de castas" (the caste system). These archaic forms of football would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams, who would clash in a heaving mass of people struggling to drag an inflated pig's bladder by any means possible to markers at each end of a town.

But even if mixes were allowed, the white population tried to keep their status. Reports of a game played in Brittany, Normandy and Picardy, known as Choule or Soule, suggest that some of these football games could have arrived in England as a result of the Norman Conquest. As a result of these unions, as well as concubinage, a vast class of people known as "Mestizos" and mulattos came into being. The game played in England at this time may have arrived with the Roman occupation, but there is little evidence to indicate this. However, they eventually mixed with the population resulting in only a few black communities left to date (see Afro-Mexican). The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England. After the native population was decimated by epidemics and forced labor, black slaves were imported, and for a time in certain areas they even outnumbered the white populations (few modern Mexicans are aware of or acknowledge this). However, the route towards the development of modern football games appears to lie in Western Europe and particularly England.

The first Spanish colonists were mainly only males, so they took native women, and although rarely, also black women. These games and others may well stretch far back into antiquity and have influenced football over the centuries. Unlike the English-speaking colonists of North America, the majority of the Spanish colonists married the natives, and were even encouraged to do so by Queen Isabella during the earliest days of colonization. The ancient Aztec game of ollamalitzli also involved kicking a ball, but it generally had more similarities to basketball. Bartolome later repented when he saw the treatment given to the black slaves. Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and then at a goal. Due to some horrifying instances of abuse against the indigenous peoples, Bishop Bartolome de las Casas suggested bringing black slaves to replace them. In northern Canada and/or Alaska, the Inuit (Eskimos) played a game on ice called Aqsaqtuk.

Although officially they could not become slaves, the system, known as encomienda, came to signify the oppression and exploitation of natives, although its originators did not set out with such intent. An 1878 book by Robert Brough-Smyth, The Aborigines of Victoria, quotes a man called Richard Thomas as saying, in about 1841, that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: "Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick a ball made from the skin of a possum and how other players leap into the air in order to catch it." It is widely believed that Marn Grook had an influence on the development of Australian Rules Football (see below). Eventually, the natives were declared minors, and forbidden to read and write, so they would always need a white man in charge of them to be responsible of their indoctrination. In Victoria, Australia, Indigenous Australians played a game called Marn Grook. The Mesoamerican sex education system was set aside and replaced by church education; even some foods associated with religion, like amaranto, were forbidden. For example, William Strachey of the Jamestown settlement is the first to record a game played by the Native Americans called Pahsaheman, in 1610. Hundreds of thousands of codices were destroyed, priests and teachers were persecuted, and the temples and statues of the gods were destroyed. There are a number of less well-documented references to prehistoric, ancient or traditional ball games, played by indigenous peoples all around the world.

As a result, a second wave of missionaries began a process attempting to completely erase the old beliefs, and thus wiped out many aspects of Mesoamerican culture. The game appears to have vaguely resembled rugby. While it was an important god, because it was the god of the conquerors,they did not see why they had to abandon their old beliefs. The Roman game of Harpastu is believed to have been adapted from a team game known as "επισκυρος" (episkyros) or pheninda that is mentioned by Greek playwright, Antiphanes (388-311BC) and later referred to by Clement of Alexandria. The colonists brought with them the Catholic faith, to which the population seemingly converted rapidly, but soon they found that the natives had adopted "the god of the heavens", as they called it, as just one of their gods. The Roman writer Cicero describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barbers shop. Particularly fierce were the "Chichimeca wars" in the north of Mexico (1576-1606). The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games some of which involved the use of the feet.

After the fall of Tenochtitlan, it would take decades of continuous war to pacify Mesoamerica. In 1903 in a bid to restore ancient traditions the game was revived and it can now be seen played for the benefit of tourists at a number of festivals. The arrival of the Spanish in the early 16th century and their defeat of the Mexica in 1521 marked the beginning of the 300 year-long colonial period of Mexico as New Spain. The game survived through many years but appears to have died out sometime before the mid 19th century. The small Spanish force was reinforced with thousands of indian allies, who were schooled on European warfare. In kemari several individuals stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground (much like keepie uppie). Tlaxcalteca and other nahuatl nations were forced into such wars, so they joined the Spaniard forces against the Aztec. This is known to have been played within the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto from about 600AD.

In order to acquire captives in time of peace, the Aztec resorted to ritual warfare, or flower war. Another Asian ball-kicking game, which may have been influenced by tsu chu, is kemari. This penchant for human sacrifice proved to be the undoing of the Aztecs, for when they confronted the Spaniards, who fought to the death, their less effective weapons made resistance difficult. It was not a game as such but more of a spectacle for the amusement of the Emperor and it may have been performed as long as 3000 years ago. As a result, Aztec warfare was conducted with an aim to only injure the enemy, so that he could later be sacrificed, and weapons were constructed with this in mind. It describes a practice known as tsu chu (Traditional Chinese:蹴鞠 or 蹴踘 ; Pinyin: cù jū) which involved kicking a leather ball through a hole in a piece of silk cloth strung between two 30 foot poles. This belief was common throughout nahuatl people. Documented evidence of what is possibly the oldest organized activity resembling football can be found in a Chinese military manual written during the Han Dynasty in about 2nd century BC.

The Aztecs' religious beliefs were based on a fear that the universe would cease functioning without a constant offering of human sacrifice. Football-like games predate recorded history in all parts of the world, though the earliest forms of football are not known. There were two types of schools: the telpochcalli, for practical and military studies, and the calmecac, for advanced learning in writing, astronomy, statesmanship, theology, and other areas. Throughout the history of mankind the urge to kick at stones and other such objects is thought to have led to many early activities involving kicking and/or running with a ball. The Mexica, one of the Aztec groups, were the first people in the world to practice mandatory education for all people, regardless of gender, rank, or station. . For them, highly-civilized arts, sculpture, architecture, engraving, feather-mosiac work, and the invention of the calendar were due to the former inhabitants of Tula, the Toltecs, who reached the height of their civilization in the tenth and eleventh centuries.
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Latecomers to Mexico's central plateau, the Mexica, or Aztec, as they were sometimes called in memory of Aztlán, the starting point of their tribes wanderings, never thought of themselves as anything but heirs of the brilliant civilizations that had preceded them. In all football games, the winning team is the one that has the most points or goals when a specified length of time has elapsed. Many made war with them, but almost all found themselves within these four spheres of influence. The object of all football games is to advance the ball by kicking, running with, or passing and catching, either to the opponent's end of the field where points or goals can be scored by, depending on the game, putting the ball across the goal line between posts and under a crossbar, putting the ball between upright posts (and possibly over a crossbar), or advancing the ball across the opponent's goal line while maintaining possession of the ball. Other regional power players made economic and political alliances with these four civilizations over the span of 4,000 years. Many of the modern games have their origins in England, but many peoples around the world have played games which involved kicking and/or carrying a ball since ancient times. They consolidated power and distributed influence in matters of trade, art, politics, technology, and theology. All football games involve scoring points with a spherical or ellipsoidal ball (itself called a football), by moving the ball into, onto, or over a goal area or line defended by the opposing team.

These four civilizations extended their reach across Mexico and beyond like no others. (See football (word) for more details.). While many city-states, kingdoms, and empires competed with one another for power and prestige, Mexico had four major, unifying civilizations: The Olmec, Teotihuacan, Toltec, and the Aztec. In some cases, the word football has been applied to games which have specifically outlawed kicking the ball. In turn, they radiated influence outwards onto neighboring cultures. While there is no conclusive evidence for this explanation, the word football has always implied a variety of games played on foot, not just those that involved kicking a ball. These cities, among several others, blossomed as centers of commerce, ideas, ceremonies, and theology. While it is widely believed that the word football, or "foot ball", originated in reference to the action of a foot kicking a ball, there is a rival explanation, which has it that football originally referred to a variety of games in medieval Europe, which were played on foot.[1] These games were usually played by peasants, as opposed to the horse-riding sports often played by aristocrats.

At different points in time, three different Mexican cities were the largest cities in the world: Teotihuacan, Tenochtitlan, and Cholula. (See also: Players who have converted from one football code to another.). In fact, the later Mexican civilizations would all carefully build their cities and ceremonial centers according to specific astronomical events. The English language word football is also applied to Rugby football (Rugby union and Rugby league), American football, Australian rules football, Gaelic football, and Canadian football. These very early and ancient count-markings were associated with astronomical events and underscore the influence that astronomical activities had upon Mexican natives, even before they possessed civilization. The most popular of these worldwide is Association football, which is called soccer in several countries. Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls all over northern Mexico (especially in the state of Nuevo León) demonstrate an early propensity for counting in Mexico. Football is the name given to a number of different, but related, team sports.

These indigenous civilizations are credited with many inventions: pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, writing, highly-accurate calendars, fine arts, intensive agriculture, engineering, an abacus, a complex theology, and the wheel. Williams, Graham (1994); The Code War; Yore Publications, ISBN 1874427658. For more than 3,000 years, Mexico was the site of several Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Aztec, the Olmec, Teotihuacan, the Toltec, Mixtec, Zapotec and the Mayan. Green, Geoffrey (1953); The History of the Football Association; Naldrett Press, London. and the beginning of intensive farming between 1800 and 1500 BC. Mandelbaum, Michael (2004); The Meaning of Sports; Public Affairs, ISBN 1586482521. Evidence shows the explosion of pottery works by 2300 B.C. Madden NFL.

Ancient Mexicans began to selectively breed corn plants around 8,000 B.C. Fantasy football (American). Hunter-Gatherer peoples are thought to have discovered and habitated its territory more than 28,000 years ago. Blood Bowl. . Based on American Football:

    . It is the northernmost and westernmost country in Latin America, and also the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. Paper football.

    The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered by the United States to the north, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. Based on Rugby:

      . ISBN 0844227838. Button football (also known as Futebol de Mesa; Jogo de Botões). "When in Mexico, Do as the Mexicans Do." In depth information about life in Mexico, including culture, history, economy, language and more in 176 comprehensive pages. Fantasy football (soccer). Kernecker, Herbert. Foosball (also known as table football/soccer, babyfoot, bar football or gettone).

      Beezley, editors, The Oxford History of Mexico, 736 pages, Oxford University Press 2000, ISBN 0195112288 – 20 essays, also covers cultural history. Blow football. Meyer, William H. Subbuteo. Michael C. Category:Football (soccer) computer and video games. Maciel, Mexico's Cinema: A Century of Film and Filmmakers, SR Books 1999, ISBN 0842026827 – comprehensive survey. Based on FA rules:

        .

        Joanne Hershfield, David R. Force em' Backs. Julia Preston and Samuel Dillon, Opening Mexico: The Making of a Democracy, Farrar Straus and Giroux, 2004, hardcover, 608 pages, ISBN 0374226687 – recent history since the Tlatelolco massacre of 1968 told by two journalists. Scuffleball. A history of Modern Mexico 1810-1996, 896 pages – Perennial 1998, ISBN 0060929170 - standard work by a renowned Mexican author. Based on Rugby:

          . Enrique Krauze, Mexico: Biography of Power. Triskelion.

          Cockcroft, Mexico's Hope: An Encounter with Politics and History, 320 pages, Monthly Review Press 1999, ISBN 0853459258 – leftist view of Mexican history. Three sided football. James D. Cubbies. Most information summarized from articles in Introduction to Comparative Politics, as part of an AP outline (sorry if some of the sources below have been removed). Based on FA rules:

            . African. Murder Ball.

            British, Irish, Dutch and Russian. Based on Medieval football:

              . Arab and Lebanese. Winchester Football. Central American and South American. Harrow Football. Jewish. Eton Wall Game.

              East Asian. Eton Field Game. American and Canadian. Calcio Fiorentino — a modern revival of Renaissance football from 16th century Florence. Argentinean. Outside the UK other Mediæval games include:

                . German, Italian and French. Kirkwall in the Orkney Islands.

                Spanish. Scone, Perthshire. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (0.7 million). Duns, Berwickshire. Cuernavaca, Morelos (0.7 million). In Scotland the Ba game ("Ball Game") is still popular around Christmas and Hogmanay at:

                  . Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes (0.7 million). Sedgefield in County Durham.

                  Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro (0.8 million). Hurling the Silver Ball takes place at St Columb Major in Cornwall. Mérida, Yucatán (0.8 million). Haxey in Lincolnshire (the Haxey Hood, actually played on Epiphany). San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (0.8 million). Corfe Castle in Dorset The Shrove Tuesday Football Ceremony of the Purbeck Marblers. Torreón, Coahuila (1.1 million). Atherstone in Warwickshire.

                  Toluca, México (1.2 million). Ashbourne in Derbyshire (known as Royal Shrovetide Football). León, Guanajuato (1.2 million). Alnwick in Northumberland. Tijuana, Baja California (1.5 million). Alternative names include mob football, Shrovetide football and folk football.

                    . Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (1.8 million). Traditional Shrove Tuesday matches in the UK — annual town- or village-wide football games with their own rules.

                    Puebla, Puebla (2.6 million). Marn Grook — a game played by some Australian Aboriginal communities, which is considered to have partly inspired Australian football. Monterrey, Nuevo León (3.6 million). International rules football — a compromise code used for games between Gaelic and Australian Rules players. Guadalajara, Jalisco (4.7 million). Gaelic football. Mexico City, Distrito Federal (22.0 million). Austus – a compromise between Australian rules and American football, invented in Melbourne during World War II.

                    Samoa Rules — localised version adapted to Samoan conditions, such as the use of rugby fields. Rec Footy — "Recreational Football", a modified non-contact touch variation of Australian rules, created by the AFL, which replaces tackles with tags. (Includes contact and non-contact varieties.). 9-a-side Footy — a more open, running variety of Australian rules, requiring 18 players in total and a proportionally smaller playing area.

                    Metro Footy (or Metro rules footy) — a modified version invented by the USAFL, for use on gridiron fields in North American cities (which often lack grounds large enough for conventional Australian rules matches). Auskick — a version of Australian rules designed by the AFL for young children. Often (erroneously) referred to as "AFL", which is the name of the main organising body.

                      . Australian rules football — now known officially as Australian football and informally as "Aussie rules" or "footy".

                      (Another game known as speedball is a combination of soccer and handball.). It has since been played occasionally on an experimental basis, but is not known to have had organised competitions amateur leagues. There is an coincidental resemblance to Gaelic football. Mitchell at the University of Michigan in 1912.

                      Speedball (American) — a combination of American football, soccer, and basketball, devised by Elmer D. Canadian flag football — non-tackle Canadian football. Canadian football — called simply "football" in Canada.

                        . Flag football — non-tackle American football, like touch football, in which a flag that is held by velcro on a belt tied around the waist is pulled by defenders to indicate a tackle.

                        Touch football — non-tackle American football.

                          . Arena football — an indoor version of American football. American football — called "football" in the United States, and "gridiron" in Australia and New Zealand.
                            . Quad Rugby.

                            Wheelchair Power Tag Rugby. Wheelchair Rugby

                              . Tag Rugby — a form of Touch Rugby, in which a velcro tag is taken to indicate a tackle. Touch Rugby — a form of rugby union without tackles.
                                .

                                Rugby Sevens. Rugby Union

                                  . OzTag — a form of Rugby League replacing tackles with tags. Touch football — usually known simply as "Touch".

                                  Rugby League

                                    . Rugby football
                                      . Beach soccer — football played on sand, also known as sand soccer. Paralympic Football — modified association football for disabled competitors.

                                      Indoor soccer — the six-a-side indoor game as played in North America. Futsal — the FIFA-approved Five-a-side indoor game. Five-a-side football - played throughout the world under various rules including:

                                        . Indoor varieties of Association football:
                                          .

                                          Association football, also known as soccer.

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