Mexico

The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered by the United States to the north, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. It is the northernmost and westernmost country in Latin America, and also the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.

Motto: none
Anthem: Mexicanos, al grito de guerra
Capital Mexico City
19°03′ N 99°22′ W
Largest city Mexico City
Official language(s) Spanish
Government  • President Federal Republic
Vicente Fox
Independence
 • Declared
 • Recognized
From Spain
September 16, 1810
September 27, 1821
Area
 • Total
 • Water (%)
 
1,964,375 km² (13th)
2.5%
Population
 • 2005 est.
 • 2000 census

 • Density
 
106,202,903 (11th)
97,483,412

54.3/km² (117th)
GDP (PPP)
 • Total
 • Per capita
2004 estimate
$1.005 trillion (13th)
$9,666 (66th)
HDI (2003) 0.814 (53rd) – high
Currency Peso (MXN)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
(UTC-8 to -6)
varies (UTC)
Internet TLD .mx
Calling code +52

History

Pre-Hispanic Times

Hunter-Gatherer peoples are thought to have discovered and habitated its territory more than 28,000 years ago. Ancient Mexicans began to selectively breed corn plants around 8,000 B.C. Evidence shows the explosion of pottery works by 2300 B.C. and the beginning of intensive farming between 1800 and 1500 BC.

For more than 3,000 years, Mexico was the site of several Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Aztec, the Olmec, Teotihuacan, the Toltec, Mixtec, Zapotec and the Mayan.

These indigenous civilizations are credited with many inventions: pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, writing, highly-accurate calendars, fine arts, intensive agriculture, engineering, an abacus, a complex theology, and the wheel.

Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls all over northern Mexico (especially in the state of Nuevo León) demonstrate an early propensity for counting in Mexico. These very early and ancient count-markings were associated with astronomical events and underscore the influence that astronomical activities had upon Mexican natives, even before they possessed civilization. In fact, the later Mexican civilizations would all carefully build their cities and ceremonial centers according to specific astronomical events.

At different points in time, three different Mexican cities were the largest cities in the world: Teotihuacan, Tenochtitlan, and Cholula. These cities, among several others, blossomed as centers of commerce, ideas, ceremonies, and theology. In turn, they radiated influence outwards onto neighboring cultures.

Mayan architecture at Uxmal An image of one of the pyramids in the upper level of Yaxchilán Atlantes at Tula, Hidalgo

While many city-states, kingdoms, and empires competed with one another for power and prestige, Mexico had four major, unifying civilizations: The Olmec, Teotihuacan, Toltec, and the Aztec. These four civilizations extended their reach across Mexico and beyond like no others. They consolidated power and distributed influence in matters of trade, art, politics, technology, and theology. Other regional power players made economic and political alliances with these four civilizations over the span of 4,000 years. Many made war with them, but almost all found themselves within these four spheres of influence.

Latecomers to Mexico's central plateau, the Mexica, or Aztec, as they were sometimes called in memory of Aztlán, the starting point of their tribes wanderings, never thought of themselves as anything but heirs of the brilliant civilizations that had preceded them. For them, highly-civilized arts, sculpture, architecture, engraving, feather-mosiac work, and the invention of the calendar were due to the former inhabitants of Tula, the Toltecs, who reached the height of their civilization in the tenth and eleventh centuries.

The Mexica, one of the Aztec groups, were the first people in the world to practice mandatory education for all people, regardless of gender, rank, or station. There were two types of schools: the telpochcalli, for practical and military studies, and the calmecac, for advanced learning in writing, astronomy, statesmanship, theology, and other areas.

The Aztecs' religious beliefs were based on a fear that the universe would cease functioning without a constant offering of human sacrifice. This belief was common throughout nahuatl people. As a result, Aztec warfare was conducted with an aim to only injure the enemy, so that he could later be sacrificed, and weapons were constructed with this in mind. This penchant for human sacrifice proved to be the undoing of the Aztecs, for when they confronted the Spaniards, who fought to the death, their less effective weapons made resistance difficult. In order to acquire captives in time of peace, the Aztec resorted to ritual warfare, or flower war. Tlaxcalteca and other nahuatl nations were forced into such wars, so they joined the Spaniard forces against the Aztec. The small Spanish force was reinforced with thousands of indian allies, who were schooled on European warfare.

The Spanish Era

The arrival of the Spanish in the early 16th century and their defeat of the Mexica in 1521 marked the beginning of the 300 year-long colonial period of Mexico as New Spain. After the fall of Tenochtitlan, it would take decades of continuous war to pacify Mesoamerica. Particularly fierce were the "Chichimeca wars" in the north of Mexico (1576-1606).

The colonists brought with them the Catholic faith, to which the population seemingly converted rapidly, but soon they found that the natives had adopted "the god of the heavens", as they called it, as just one of their gods. While it was an important god, because it was the god of the conquerors,they did not see why they had to abandon their old beliefs. As a result, a second wave of missionaries began a process attempting to completely erase the old beliefs, and thus wiped out many aspects of Mesoamerican culture. Hundreds of thousands of codices were destroyed, priests and teachers were persecuted, and the temples and statues of the gods were destroyed. The Mesoamerican sex education system was set aside and replaced by church education; even some foods associated with religion, like amaranto, were forbidden. Eventually, the natives were declared minors, and forbidden to read and write, so they would always need a white man in charge of them to be responsible of their indoctrination. Although officially they could not become slaves, the system, known as encomienda, came to signify the oppression and exploitation of natives, although its originators did not set out with such intent. Due to some horrifying instances of abuse against the indigenous peoples, Bishop Bartolome de las Casas suggested bringing black slaves to replace them. Bartolome later repented when he saw the treatment given to the black slaves.

Unlike the English-speaking colonists of North America, the majority of the Spanish colonists married the natives, and were even encouraged to do so by Queen Isabella during the earliest days of colonization. The first Spanish colonists were mainly only males, so they took native women, and although rarely, also black women. After the native population was decimated by epidemics and forced labor, black slaves were imported, and for a time in certain areas they even outnumbered the white populations (few modern Mexicans are aware of or acknowledge this). However, they eventually mixed with the population resulting in only a few black communities left to date (see Afro-Mexican). As a result of these unions, as well as concubinage, a vast class of people known as "Mestizos" and mulattos came into being. But even if mixes were allowed, the white population tried to keep their status. A system was created to keep each mix in a different social level: "El sistema de castas" (the caste system). Each different mix had a name and different privileges or prohibitions. There were even two different kinds of whites, those born in Spain, or "peninsulares", and in a lower level, those born in America, or "criollos". Mestizos and then mulattos were next, followed by the unmixed natives, zambos (amerindian mixed with black), and blacks, respectively. The Spanish "peninsulares" tried by all means to keep their status, even if they took native women. Those who were wealthy enough also tried to have a Spanish wife, who was sent to give birth in Spain to prevent their children from becoming criollos. Mestizos and criollos were not allowed in the upper levels of the government, and eventually they joined forces for the independence of México. With independence, the caste system and slavery were abolished.

Mestizos, while they no longer have a separate legal status from other groups, comprise approximately 60% of the population. In modern México, mestizo has became more a cultural term, since a Native American that abandons his traditional ways is considered a mestizo, also most Afromexicans prefer to be considered mestizo, since they feel more identified with this group.

During the following centuries, under Spanish rule, a new culture developed that combined the customs and traditions of the indigenous peoples with that of Catholic Spain. Numerous churches and other buildings were constructed in the Spanish style, and cities were named after various saints and objects of veneration, such as "San Luis Potosí" (after St. Louis) and "Vera Cruz" ("True Cross").

Spanish settlers brought with them smallpox, typhus, and other diseases. Most of the settlers had developed an immunity from childhood, but the indigenous peoples had not. There were three separate epidemics that decimated the population: Smallpox (1520-1521), measles ( 1545-1548) and typhus (1576-1581). Of the estimated 15 to 20 million of the original prehispanic population, less than two million survived. At the end of the 16th century, New Spain was an underpopulated country with abandoned cities, which would be the main cause of collapse of the Mesoamerican cultures.

Mexican Independence

Map of Mexico, 1847

On September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic priest in the small town of Dolores, causing a long war that eventually led to the official recognition of independence from Spain in 1821 and the creation of the First Mexican Empire. Actually, Hidalgo declared the independence from France, as José Bonaparte (Napoleon's brother), also known in Mexico as Pepe Botella (Spanish: Bottle Joe, as he had a fame of a heavy drinker), was ruling Spain at that time. The initial intention of the movement then, was to be obtain independence from France, but still being part of Spain. Then, as the war escalated, the objective change to independece from Spain.

After independence, Spanish possessions in Central America which also proclaimed independence were all incorporated into Mexico from 1822 to 1823, with the exception of Chiapas.

Soon after achieving its independence from Spain, the Mexican government, in an effort to populate its sparsely-settled hinterlands, awarded land grants in a remote area of the northernmost state of Coahuila y Tejas to hundreds of immigrant families from the United States, on the condition that the settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship. It also forbade the importation of slaves, a condition that, like the others, was largely ignored.

The Empire soon fell to rogue republican forces led by Antonio López de Santa Anna. The first Republic was formed with Guadalupe Victoria as its first president, followed in office by Santa Anna. As president, in 1834 Santa Anna abrogated the federal constitution, causing insurgencies in the southern state of Yucatán and the northernmost portion of the northern state of Coahuila y Tejas. Both areas sought independence from the Mexican government. While negotiations eventually brought Yucatán to again recognize Mexican sovereignty, Santa Anna's army turned to the northern rebellion. The inhabitants of Tejas, calling themselves Texans and led mainly by relatively recently-arrived English-speaking settlers, declared independence from Mexico at Washington-on-the-Brazos, giving birth to the Republic of Texas. Texas won its independence in 1836, further reducing the territory of the fledgling republic. In 1845, voters in Texas approved to be annexed by the United States, and was passed by Congress and signed into law by President John Tyler.

The US government sent troops to Texas in order to secure the territory ignoring the Mexican demands of withdrawal. Mexico saw this as an US intervention on internal affairs by supporting a rebel province. Mexican troops then attacked and captured one of the American detachments near the Rio Grande. President James K. Polk requested a declaration of war and the US Congress voted in favor on 13 May 1846. Mexico declared war on 23 May. This resulted in the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848. Mexico was defeated by the United States, resulting in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo, where the United States purchased the remaining disputed territories for $15 million, from which were formed the modern states of California, Nevada, and Utah, and most of Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado (see Mexican-American War).

In the 1860s, the country again suffered a military occupation, this time by France, seeking to establish the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as Emperor of Mexico, with support from the Roman Catholic clergy and conservative criolloss. The Second Mexican Empire was then overthrown by President Benito Juárez, with diplomatic and logistical support from the United States and the military expertise of General Porfirio Díaz. General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French Army (arguably the most powerful in the world at the time) at the city of Puebla on May 5, 1862, celebrated as Cinco de Mayo ever since. However, after his death, the city was lost in early 1863, following a renewed French attack which penetrated as far as Mexico City, forcing Juárez to organize an itinerant government.

Benito Juarez, important figure of Mexican history

Napoleon III of France, Emperor of France, returned Maximillian as Emperor of Mexico from 1864 to 1867. In mid-1867, following repeated losses in battle to the Republican Army, Maximilian was captured and murdered by Juárez's soldiers, along with his last loyal generals, in Querétaro. From then on, Juárez remained in office until his death in 1872.

After Juárez's death, Mexico experienced economic growth under the liberal and pro-European rule of Porfirio Díaz. Foreign investment allowed the development of the oil industry and the construction of a railroad system across the country. This period of relative peace and prosperity is known as the "Porfiriato". His mandate, however, was mostly undemocratic and benefited the middle and upper classes, while the Amerindian indigenous population continued to live in precarious conditions. Growing social inequalities, restricted freedom of the press, and his insistence to be reelected for a fifth term led to massive protests. His fraudulent victory in the 1910 elections sparked the Mexican Revolution. Revolutionary forces defeated the federal army, but were left with internal struggles, leaving the country in conflict for two more decades. The creation of the National Revolutionary Party (which later became the Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI), in 1929 ended the struggles, uniting all generals and combatants of the revolution.

During the next four decades, Mexico experienced impressive economic growth, and historians call this period "El Milagro Mexicano", the Mexican Miracle. This was in spite of falling foreign confidence in investment, first through the assumption of mineral rights and subsequent nationalisation of the oil industry into Pemex during the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas del Río. However the management of the economy collapsed several times afterwards. Accused many times of fraud, the PRI's candidates held almost all public offices until the end of the 20th century. It was not until the 1980s that the PRI lost the first state governorship, an event that marked the beginning of the party's loss of hegemony. Through the electoral reforms started by president Carlos Salinas de Gortari and consolidated by president Ernesto Zedillo, by the mid 1990s the PRI had lost its majority in Congress. In 2000, after seventy years, the PRI lost a presidential elections to a candidate of the National Action Party (PAN), Vicente Fox.

On January 1, 1994, Mexico became a full member of the North American Free Trade Agreement, joining the United States of America and Canada in a large and prosperous economic bloc. On March 23, 2005, the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America was signed by the elected leaders of those countries.

Government and politics

Vicente Fox is the current president of Mexico

Mexico’s political model has much in common with that of the United States. The 1917 Constitution provides for a federal republic with powers separated into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Historically, the executive is the dominant branch, with power vested in the [[President of Mexico|president who promulgates and executes the laws of the Congress. Congress has played an increasingly important role since 1997, when opposition parties first formed a majority in the legislature. The president also legislates by executive decree in certain economic and financial fields, using powers delegated from Congress. The president is elected by universal adult suffrage for a six-year term and may not hold office a second time. There is no vice-president in the republic.

After it was founded in 1929, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) monopolized all the political branches. The PRI did not lose a senate seat until 1988 or a gubernatorial race until 1989.[1] It wasn't until July 2, 2000, that Vicente Fox of the opposition "Alliance for Change" coalition, headed by the National Action Party (PAN), was elected president. Fox began his six-year term on December 1, 2000. His victory ended the Institutional Revolutionary Party's 71-year hold on the presidency.

The three most important political parties in Mexico are the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the National Action Party (PAN), and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD).

Political divisions

Mexico is divided into 31 states (estados) and a federal district. Each state has its own constitution and its citizens elect a governor as well as representatives to their respective state congresses.

States of Mexico (excluding the islands)


The Federal District is a special political division in Mexico, where the national capital, Mexico City, is located. It enjoys more limited local rule than the nation's "free and sovereign states": only since 1997 have its citizens been able to elect a Head of Government, whose powers are still more curtailed than those of a state governor. Much of the capital city's metropolitan area overflows the limits of the Federal District.

Major cities

The following is a list of the biggest Metropolitan Areas of Mexico in order of population:

  1. Mexico City, Distrito Federal (22.0 million)
  2. Guadalajara, Jalisco (4.7 million)
  3. Monterrey, Nuevo León (3.6 million)
  4. Puebla, Puebla (2.6 million)
  5. Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (1.8 million)
  6. Tijuana, Baja California (1.5 million)
  7. León, Guanajuato (1.2 million)
  8. Toluca, México (1.2 million)
  9. Torreón, Coahuila (1.1 million)
  10. San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (0.8 million)
  11. Mérida, Yucatán (0.8 million)
  12. Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro (0.8 million)
  13. Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes (0.7 million)
  14. Cuernavaca, Morelos (0.7 million)
  15. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (0.7 million)

Geography

Copper Canyon in the state of Chihuahua Mexico's topography

Main article: Geography of Mexico

Situated in the southwestern part of mainland North America and roughly triangular in shape, Mexico stretches more than 3000 km from northwest to southeast. Its width is varied, from more than 2000 km in the north and less than 220 km at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south.

Mexico is bordered by the United States to the north, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. Baja California in the west is a 1,250-km peninsula and forms the Gulf of California. In the east are the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Campeche, which is formed by Mexico's other peninsula, the Yucatán. The center of Mexico is a great, high plateau, open to the north, with mountain chains on the east and west and with ocean-front lowlands lying outside of them. (See list of mountains in Mexico). Mexico is about one-fourth the size of the United States.

The terrain and climate vary from rocky deserts in the north to tropical rain forest in the south. Mexico's major rivers include the Río Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) and the Usumacinta on its northern and southern borders, respectively, together with the Grijalva, Balsas, Pánuco, and Yaqui in the interior.

On September 19, 1985, an earthquake measuring approximately 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Michoacán and inflicted severe damage on Mexico City. Estimates of the number of dead range from 6,500 to 30,000 (see 1985 Mexico City earthquake).

Economy

The Angel of Independence monument in the heart of Mexico City.


According to the World Bank, Mexico ranks 12th in the world in regard to GDP and has the highest per capita income in its region; and it is firmly established as an upper middle-income country. Since the economic crisis of 1994–1995 the country has made an impressive economic recovery. According to the director for Colombia and Mexico of the World Bank, the population below the poverty level has decreased from 24.2% to 17.6% in the general population and from 42% to 27.9% in rural areas from 2000-2004 [2].

Mexico has a free-market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico has fallen from more than 1,000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 1999. The administration of President Ernesto Zedillo (1994–2000) continued a policy of privatizing and expanding competition in sea ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas distribution, and airports which was initiated by his predecessors Miguel de la Madrid and Carlos Salinas.

A strong export sector helped to cushion the economy's decline in 1995 and led the recovery in 1996–1999. Private consumption became the leading driver of growth, accompanied by increased employment and higher wages. Mexico still needs to overcome many structural problems as it strives to modernize its economy and raise living standards. Income distribution is very unequal, with the top 20% of income earners accounting for 55% of income.

Following 6.9% growth in 2000, real GDP fell 0.3% in 2001, with the United States' economic slowdown appearing to be the principal cause. Positive developments in 2001 included a drop in inflation to 6.5%, a sharp fall in interest rates, and a strong peso that appreciated 5% against the U.S. dollar. Trade with the United States and Canada has tripled since NAFTA was implemented in 1994.

Mexico has opened its markets to free trade like few other countries have done, lowering its trade barriers with more than 40 countries in 12 Free Trade Agreements, including Japan and the European Union. However more than 85% of the trade is still done with the United States. Government authorities expect that by putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements with different countries Mexico will lessen its dependence on the United States. The government is seeking to sign an additional agreement with Mercosur.

Demographics

Beach in Cancún, Quintana Roo Zócalo, Oaxaca de Juárez Indigenous Mexicans on a Chiapas street

Main article: Demographics of Mexico
See also: Indigenous peoples of Mexico

With an estimated 2005 population of about 106.5 million, Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.

Mexico is ethnically and culturally diverse. According to the CIA World Factbook, about 60% of the population is mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white), another 30% is Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian. Some 9% is white (of European descent), the majority being from Spain, though there are also large numbers of people of German, Italian, French, Portuguese, British, Irish, Russian (Molokans), Dutch, Greek, and Scandinavian (particularly in Nueva Escandinavia, Chihuahua) ancestry. The remaining 1% includes Afro-Mexicans, Asians, Jews, and Middle Easterners. Mexico is also home for many other Latin American groups: mostly Argentines, but also Brazilians, Cubans, Nicaraguans, Colombians and Venezuelans. The PRI governments in power for most of the 20th century had a policy of granting asylum to fellow Latin Americans fleeing political persecution in their home countries. Mexico has a sizeable population of Asians numbering around 200,000, many of them Chinese and Japanese, the majority of which reside in Mexicali, Baja California. There are also a few Lebanese and Arabs. In Mexico the biggest foreign colonies are:

  1. Spanish
  2. German, Italian and French
  3. Argentinean
  4. American and Canadian
  5. East Asian
  6. Jewish
  7. Central American and South American
  8. Arab and Lebanese
  9. British, Irish, Dutch and Russian
  10. African

According to the Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas ("The National Council for the Development of Indigenous People") the Amerindian population in Mexico is approximately 12.7 million. However, the Mexican government does not collect racial information during censuses. In 2004, the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatic had estimated this figure to be 12,089,094 (~11.4% of Mexico's population) of indigenous people of which, more than one million do not speak Spanish and almost five million are bilingual (INEGI, 2004).

Judging by the proportion of people speaking indigenous languages, the states with the highest proportion of indigenous people are Yucatán (37.3%), Oaxaca (37.1%), Chiapas (24.6%) and Quintana Roo (23%). The states of Aguascalientes (0.2%), Coahuila (0.2%), Zacatecas (0.2%) and Nuevo León (0.5%) have the lowest proportion of speakers of indigenous languages ([INEGI, 2004]).

Mexico is the country where the greatest number of U.S citizens live outside the United States. This may be due to the growing economic and business interdependence of the two countries under NAFTA, and also that Mexico is considered an excellent choice for retirees. A clear example of the latter phenomenon is provided by San Miguel de Allende and many towns along the Baja California peninsula and around Guadalajara, Jalisco. The official figures for foreign-born citizens in Mexico are 493,000 (since 2004), with a majority (86.9%) of these born in the United States (with the exception of Chiapas, where the majority of immigrants are from Central America). The five states with more immigrants are Baja California (12.1% of total immigrants), Federal District (11.4%), Jalisco (9.9%), Chihuahua (9%) and Tamaulipas (7.3%). More than 54.6% of the immigrant population are 15 years old or younger, while 9% are 50 or older. 4.2% of male immigrants and 3.8% of female immigrants did not have formal education while 20.2% of male immigrants and 17.7% of female immigrants had a college degree [INEGI, 2004.

Life expectancy in Mexico increased from 34.7 for men and 33 years for women in 1930 to 72.1 for men and 77.1 years for women in 2002. The states with the highest life expectancy are Baja California (75.9 years) and Nuevo Leon (75.6 years). The Federal District has a life expectancy of the same level as Baja California. The lowest levels are found in Chiapas (72.9), Oaxaca (73.2) and Guerrero (73.2 years), although the first two have had the highest increase (19.9 and 22.3% respectively).

The mortality rate in 1970 was 9.7/1000 people and by 2001 the rate had dropped to 4.9/1000 for men and 3.8/1000 for women. The most common reasons for death in 2001 were heart problems (14.6% for men 17.6% for women) and Cancer (11% for men and 15.8% for women).

Religion

Basílica de la Soledad, Oaxaca, Oaxaca

Mexico is predominantly Roman Catholic (about 89% of the population). It is the second nation with the largest Catholic population, behind Brazil and before the United States. Also, 6% of the population adheres to various Protestant faiths (mostly Pentecostal), and the remaining 5% of the population adhering to other religions or professing no religion. Some of the country's Catholics (notably those of indigenous background) syncretize Catholicism with various elements of Aztec or Mayan religions. The Virgin of Guadalupe has long been a symbol enshrining the major aspirations of Mexican society. According to anthropologist Eric R. Wolf, the Guadalupe symbol links family, politics, and religion; the colonial past and the independent present; and the Indian and the Mexican. [3]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) has a growing presence in the major border cities of northeastern Mexico, and over 205,000 members nationwide[1]. Judaism has been practiced in Mexico for centuries, and there are estimated to be more than 45,000 Jews in Mexico today[2]. Islam is mainly practiced by members of the Arab, Turkish, and other expatriate communities, though there is a very small number of the indigenous population in Chiapas state that practice Islam.

Languages

Main article: Languages of Mexico

A stucco relief in the Palenque museum, Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico

Spanish is the official language of Mexico and is spoken by the majority of the population. About 7% of the population speak an Amerindian language. The government officially recognizes 62 Amerindian languages. Of these Nahuatl, and Maya are each spoken by 1.5 million, while others, such as Lacandon, are spoken by fewer than 100. The Mexican government has promoted and established bilingual education programs in indigenous rural communities.

Although Spanish is the official language of Mexico, English is widely used in business. As a result, English language skills are much in demand and can lead to an increase in the salary offered by a company. It is also spoken along the U.S. border, in big cities, and in beach resorts. Also, the majority of private schools in Mexico offer what they like to describe as "bilingual" education, both in Spanish and English. English is the main language spoken in U.S. expatriate communities such as those along the coast of Baja California and the town of San Miguel de Allende. There are also Mennonite colonies in Chihuahua where education is delivered in English.

With respect to other European languages brought by immigrants, the case of Chipilo, in the state of Puebla, is unique, and has been documented by several linguists like Carolyn McKay. The immigrants that founded the city of Chipilo in 1882 came from the Veneto region in northern Italy, and thus spoke a northern variant of the Venetian dialect. While other European immigrants assimilated into the Mexican culture, the people of Chipilo retained their language. Nowadays, most of the people who live in the city of Chipilo (and many of those who have migrated to other cities) still speak the unaltered Veneto dialect spoken by their great-grandparents making the Veneto dialect an unrecognized minority language in the city of Puebla. In Huatusco and Colonia Gonzalez, Veracruz, Veneto is still heard too. A similar case is that of the Plautdietsch language, spoken by the descendants of German and Dutch Mennonite immigrants in the states of Chihuahua and Durango. Other German communities lie in Puebla, Mexico City, Sinaloa and Chiapas, with the largest German school outside of Germany being in Mexico City (Alexander von Humboldt school), these represent the large German populations where they still try to preserve the German culture and language. Other strong German communities lie in Sinaloa (Mazatlan), Nuevo Leon, Chiapas (Tapachula) and other parts of Puebla (Nueva Necaxa) where the german culture and language have been preserved to different extents. French is also heard in Veracruz, Jicaltepec, San Rafael and Mentideros, where the architecture and food is also very French. These French immigrants came from Haute-Saône département in France, especially from Champittle and Borgonge. Another important French group were the "Barcelonettes" from the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, whom interestingly the whole town and surrounding towns immigrated specifically to Mexico to find jobs and work in merchendising, they are very notorious in Mexico City, Puebla, and Veracruz. Another important French village in Mexico is Santa Rosalía in Baja California Sur, where French language and culture/architecture are still found. Scandinavian languages and traditions can also be heard in Chihuahua, like Swedish and Norwegian in Nueva Escandinavia and other Scandinavian colonies in the north of the country.

Education

Mexico has made impressive improvements in education in the last two decades. In 2004, the literacy rate was at 92%, and the youth literacy rate (ages 15-24) was 96%. Primary and secondary education (9 years) is free and mandatory. Even though different bilingual education programs have existed since the 1960s for the indigenous communities, after a constitution reform in the late 1990s, these programs have had a new thrust, and free text books are produced in more than a dozen indigenous languages.

In the 1970's, Mexico became the first country to establish a system of "distance-learning" satellite secondary education, aimed for the little towns and rural communities. In 2005 this system included 30,000 connected schools, 3 million students and 300,000 teachers, who use televised lectures and education science programs, pre-recorded and transmitted through "EduSat", via satellite. Schools that use this system are known as telesecundarias in Mexico. The Mexican distance learning secondary education is also transmitted to some Central American countries and to Colombia, and it is used in some southern regions of the United States as a method of bilingual education.

The name

Mexico is named after its capital city, whose name comes from the Aztec city Mexico-Tenochtitlan that preceded it. The Mexi part of the name is from Mexitli, the war god, whose name was derived from metztli (the moon) and xictli (navel) and thus meant "navel (probably implying 'child') of the moon". So, Mexico is the home of the people of Mexitli (the Mexicas), co meaning "place" and ca meaning "people".

When the Spaniards encountered this people and transcribed their language, they naturally did so according to the spelling rules of the Castilian language of the time. The Nahuatl language had a /ʃ/ sound (like English "shop"), and this sound was written x in Spanish (e.g. Ximénez); consequently, the letter x was used to write down words like Mexitli. Meanwhile, the letter j (or, rather, the letter i when used as a consonant, since j had not been invented yet) was used for the /ʒ/ sound (as in "vision"), as was g before e or i. These old pronunciations of j and x are still found in Portuguese and Ladino.

Over the centuries, the pronunciation of Spanish changed. Words like Ximénez, exercicio, xabón and perplexo started to be pronounced with a /x/ (this phonetic symbol represents the sound in the word "loch"). The /ʒ/ sound also started to be pronounced this way. The coalescence of the two phonemes into a single new one encouraged scholars to use the same letter for the sound, regardless of its origin (Spanish scholars have always tried to keep the orthography of their language faithful to the spoken tongue). It was j/g that was chosen. So, modern Spanish has ejercicio, ejército, jabón, perplejo, etc. (Another example is the old spelling of Don Quixote which is now Don Quijote. The old pronunciation is maintained in French "Quichotte", and the English word "quixotic" maintains the spelling while pronouncing it with its English value.)

Proper nouns and their derivatives are optionally allowed to break this rule. Thus, although xabón is now incorrect and archaic, alongside many millions of people called "Jiménez", there also are plenty called "Giménez" or "Ximénez" — a matter of personal choice and tradition.

In Mexico, it has become almost a matter of national pride to maintain the otherwise archaic x spelling in the name of the country. It is regarded as more authentic and less jarring to the reader's eye. Mexicans have tended to demand that other Spanish-speakers use this spelling, rather than following the general rule, and the demand has largely been respected. The Real Academia Española states that both spellings are correct, and most dictionaries and guides recommend México first, and present Méjico as a variant. Today, even outside of the country, México is preferred over Méjico by ratios ranging from 10-to-1 (in Spain) to about 280-to-1 (in Costa Rica). Also, in the placenames "Oaxaca" and "Xalapa", the x is pronounced as /x/; in "Xochimilco", however, it sounds as a /ʃ/.

A cultural side-effect of the fact that Mexicans use México /'mexiko/ and Spaniards sometimes use Méjico is the occasional boiling-over of negative sentiment towards the old colonial oppressor. The mere act of using the j spelling is interpreted by some as a form of colonial aggression. On the other hand, some Peninsular scholars (such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal) prefer to apply the general spelling rule, arguing that the spelling with an x could encourage non-Mexicans to mispronounce México as /'meksiko/ (as is generally the case in the English-speaking world). Méjico on the other hand could easily be mispronounced as well, because the letter j stands for /ʒ/, /dʒ/ or /j/ in other languages.

In the Nahuatl language, from which the name originally derived, the name for Mexico is Mēxihco (International Phonetic Alphabet /meː.ɕiʔ.ko/).

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News stories from Wikinews. House and Electronica Sounds from the Show's Soundtrack. In the Nahuatl language, from which the name originally derived, the name for Mexico is Mēxihco (International Phonetic Alphabet /meː.ɕiʔ.ko/). Irma at Sex and the City - Part 2 - Nightlife Session
April 19, 2004
Irma Records
2 Disc Set - Part of a 2 Part Collection. Méjico on the other hand could easily be mispronounced as well, because the letter j stands for /ʒ/, /dʒ/ or /j/ in other languages. Ambient and Chilled Sounds from the Show's Soundtrack. On the other hand, some Peninsular scholars (such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal) prefer to apply the general spelling rule, arguing that the spelling with an x could encourage non-Mexicans to mispronounce México as /'meksiko/ (as is generally the case in the English-speaking world). Irma at Sex and the City - Part 1 - Daylight Session
April 19, 2004
Irma Records
2 Disc Set - Part of a 2 Part Collection.

The mere act of using the j spelling is interpreted by some as a form of colonial aggression. Sex and the City - Official Soundtrack
March 1, 2004
Sony TV
2 Disc Set - 36 Hits. A cultural side-effect of the fact that Mexicans use México /'mexiko/ and Spaniards sometimes use Méjico is the occasional boiling-over of negative sentiment towards the old colonial oppressor. Sex and the City - Soundtrack [Import]
2001/2002
Sire Records
13 Chart Hits - Including the Main Theme from the Show. Also, in the placenames "Oaxaca" and "Xalapa", the x is pronounced as /x/; in "Xochimilco", however, it sounds as a /ʃ/. Cuomo. Today, even outside of the country, México is preferred over Méjico by ratios ranging from 10-to-1 (in Spain) to about 280-to-1 (in Costa Rica). The title theme song was written by Douglas J.

The Real Academia Española states that both spellings are correct, and most dictionaries and guides recommend México first, and present Méjico as a variant. The other two releases have little or no tracks that appear on the programme's actual soundtrack. Mexicans have tended to demand that other Spanish-speakers use this spelling, rather than following the general rule, and the demand has largely been respected. The two albums from Irma Records are seen to be the best because they contain tracks used in the show's actual soundtrack that are difficult to find elsewhere. It is regarded as more authentic and less jarring to the reader's eye. These releases span various record labels and some are even unofficial. In Mexico, it has become almost a matter of national pride to maintain the otherwise archaic x spelling in the name of the country. There have been several CD Albums released to accompany the series Sex and the City.

Thus, although xabón is now incorrect and archaic, alongside many millions of people called "Jiménez", there also are plenty called "Giménez" or "Ximénez" — a matter of personal choice and tradition. American and Canadian DVD's were released through the programme's original broadcasters, HBO. Proper nouns and their derivatives are optionally allowed to break this rule. In Europe, "Sex and the City" boxsets were released through Paramount Pictures - who own certain rights to the programme's broadcast as well. The old pronunciation is maintained in French "Quichotte", and the English word "quixotic" maintains the spelling while pronouncing it with its English value.). Thankfully, the Season 1 boxset is the only one to suffer from this problem, and all subsequent Region 2 DVD releases of the programme were appropriately transferred to PAL Video. (Another example is the old spelling of Don Quixote which is now Don Quijote. This caused some compatibility problems with some European television sets and DVD Players.

So, modern Spanish has ejercicio, ejército, jabón, perplejo, etc. Unfortunately, the show was not converted into a PAL video signal, and remained in its original American NTSC format. It was j/g that was chosen. As well as missing out on some Special Features, many fans in Europe had trouble with the Region 2 edition of the Season 1 DVD. The coalescence of the two phonemes into a single new one encouraged scholars to use the same letter for the sound, regardless of its origin (Spanish scholars have always tried to keep the orthography of their language faithful to the spoken tongue). Oceania's edition came packaged in a Beauty Case. The /ʒ/ sound also started to be pronounced this way. While Europe got a complete set that came with special "Shoebox" packaging (A reference to Sarah Jessica Parker's character's love for shoes in the show), the USA and Canada version came packaged in a more traditional fold-out suede case and with an additional Bonus DVD including many Special Features.

Words like Ximénez, exercicio, xabón and perplexo started to be pronounced with a /x/ (this phonetic symbol represents the sound in the word "loch"). Even these vary between Region 1 2 and 4. Over the centuries, the pronunciation of Spanish changed. In addition to standard single season DVD Boxsets of the show, Limited Edition Collectors Editions have also been released that include all 6 seasons in one complete set. These old pronunciations of j and x are still found in Portuguese and Ladino. Region 2 DVD's of "Sex and the City" have been criticised by some fans for having little or no special features, but Region 1 editions have included Director Commentary, Cast Interviews and more. Meanwhile, the letter j (or, rather, the letter i when used as a consonant, since j had not been invented yet) was used for the /ʒ/ sound (as in "vision"), as was g before e or i. In addition to their region encoding, releases vary depending on which region they were released in.

Ximénez); consequently, the letter x was used to write down words like Mexitli. They have been released officially on Region 1 (Americas), Region 2 (Europe) and Region 4 (Oceania) formats, but illegal bootleg editions have also surfaced for Region 3 (Korea, Thailand) as well as Region 0 (Universal) and can even be found on eBay. The Nahuatl language had a /ʃ/ sound (like English "shop"), and this sound was written x in Spanish (e.g. All six seasons of "Sex and the City" have been released commercially on DVD. When the Spaniards encountered this people and transcribed their language, they naturally did so according to the spelling rules of the Castilian language of the time. Others have charged that the ridiculing of men with small penises is wrong, contributing to body issues for men similar to that of young women over their weight or breast size. So, Mexico is the home of the people of Mexitli (the Mexicas), co meaning "place" and ca meaning "people". The frequent obsession with penis size by one character is taken to be atypical of women and more typical of a phallocentric male focus.

The Mexi part of the name is from Mexitli, the war god, whose name was derived from metztli (the moon) and xictli (navel) and thus meant "navel (probably implying 'child') of the moon". Some commentators criticized Sex and the City's distorted presentation of female sexuality, claiming the sexuality is more akin to that of the allegedly gay, male writers of the show. Mexico is named after its capital city, whose name comes from the Aztec city Mexico-Tenochtitlan that preceded it. When Sex and the City was run in syndication on TBS, some viewers organized boycotts of the station, arguing that this would put the program within access of young children. The Mexican distance learning secondary education is also transmitted to some Central American countries and to Colombia, and it is used in some southern regions of the United States as a method of bilingual education. Still others take issue with the show's depiction of New York City, pointing out that though New York is one of the most culturally diverse cities on the planet, the show rarely features any minority characters.[1]. Schools that use this system are known as telesecundarias in Mexico. Others have noted that the show tends to portray its main characters as shallow and superficial.

In 2005 this system included 30,000 connected schools, 3 million students and 300,000 teachers, who use televised lectures and education science programs, pre-recorded and transmitted through "EduSat", via satellite. Others claim in response that Sex and the City is an attempt to realistically – yet artistically – portray sexual behavior in the urban United States. In the 1970's, Mexico became the first country to establish a system of "distance-learning" satellite secondary education, aimed for the little towns and rural communities. The characters are also wealthy and unabashedly elitist, which raises further questions about the morality of the show. Even though different bilingual education programs have existed since the 1960s for the indigenous communities, after a constitution reform in the late 1990s, these programs have had a new thrust, and free text books are produced in more than a dozen indigenous languages. Additionally, they argued that it is at times mere pornography with a superficial plot. Primary and secondary education (9 years) is free and mandatory. Some commentators have criticized the television show as promoting immorality by encouraging a hedonistic lifestyle and treating women as sexual objects.

In 2004, the literacy rate was at 92%, and the youth literacy rate (ages 15-24) was 96%. HBO Romania also aired all seasons. Mexico has made impressive improvements in education in the last two decades. In Romania the show was aired by ProTv and later by the sister channels Acasa TV and Pro Cinema. Scandinavian languages and traditions can also be heard in Chihuahua, like Swedish and Norwegian in Nueva Escandinavia and other Scandinavian colonies in the north of the country. In Turkey it is broadcast by ComedyMax channel. Another important French village in Mexico is Santa Rosalía in Baja California Sur, where French language and culture/architecture are still found. In the Philippines, its reruns are being aired by RPN 9.

Another important French group were the "Barcelonettes" from the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, whom interestingly the whole town and surrounding towns immigrated specifically to Mexico to find jobs and work in merchendising, they are very notorious in Mexico City, Puebla, and Veracruz. In Denmark it is currently shown on TV3 as well. These French immigrants came from Haute-Saône département in France, especially from Champittle and Borgonge. In Latvia this serial can be seen on TV3. French is also heard in Veracruz, Jicaltepec, San Rafael and Mentideros, where the architecture and food is also very French. Sex and the City was banned in Singapore until July 2004, when the government allowed the television series to be aired on cable after being censored. Other strong German communities lie in Sinaloa (Mazatlan), Nuevo Leon, Chiapas (Tapachula) and other parts of Puebla (Nueva Necaxa) where the german culture and language have been preserved to different extents. Hong Kong's TVB Pearl also aired the show at midnight before.

Other German communities lie in Puebla, Mexico City, Sinaloa and Chiapas, with the largest German school outside of Germany being in Mexico City (Alexander von Humboldt school), these represent the large German populations where they still try to preserve the German culture and language. In Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong, India, and Pakistan the show airs on HBO Asia (season 1-6). A similar case is that of the Plautdietsch language, spoken by the descendants of German and Dutch Mennonite immigrants in the states of Chihuahua and Durango. In Japan, the show is aired by Lala.tv. In Huatusco and Colonia Gonzalez, Veracruz, Veneto is still heard too. Australian Cable and Digital channel W airs 2 episodes each weeknight. Nowadays, most of the people who live in the city of Chipilo (and many of those who have migrated to other cities) still speak the unaltered Veneto dialect spoken by their great-grandparents making the Veneto dialect an unrecognized minority language in the city of Puebla. It has now returned to Network Ten on Friday nights.

While other European immigrants assimilated into the Mexican culture, the people of Chipilo retained their language. Rerun rights were sold to Network Ten, where it was briefly shown on Monday nights before low ratings forced it off the air. The immigrants that founded the city of Chipilo in 1882 came from the Veneto region in northern Italy, and thus spoke a northern variant of the Venetian dialect. In Australia it was broadcast on the Nine Network. With respect to other European languages brought by immigrants, the case of Chipilo, in the state of Puebla, is unique, and has been documented by several linguists like Carolyn McKay. In Italy the show airs on La7. There are also Mennonite colonies in Chihuahua where education is delivered in English. In the Netherlands, the show is aired by NET 5, and in Sweden it is aired by TV3 and ZTV.

expatriate communities such as those along the coast of Baja California and the town of San Miguel de Allende. In Canada, the show airs on Bravo! Canada and Citytv Toronto, and in Germany it is shown on Pro7. English is the main language spoken in U.S. In the United Kingdom, Channel 4 and its digital sister channel E4 broadcast episodes of "Sex and the City", while older episodes are rerun on Paramount Comedy 1. Also, the majority of private schools in Mexico offer what they like to describe as "bilingual" education, both in Spanish and English. and who you want to spend it with.". border, in big cities, and in beach resorts. Kim Cattrall: "Being single used to mean that nobody wanted you, now it means you're pretty sexy and you're taking your time deciding how you want your life to be ..

It is also spoken along the U.S. David Eigenberg: "They were honest about sex, they were honest about the humor of sex.". As a result, English language skills are much in demand and can lead to an increase in the salary offered by a company. Kim Cattrall: "The show is a valentine to being single.". Although Spanish is the official language of Mexico, English is widely used in business. Sarah Jessica Parker: "What the show has to have, and has had to have in order to survive six years, is a soul.". The Mexican government has promoted and established bilingual education programs in indigenous rural communities. and basically the battlefield of trying to be in love – whether it be with another person or with yourself.".

Of these Nahuatl, and Maya are each spoken by 1.5 million, while others, such as Lacandon, are spoken by fewer than 100. and sex .. The government officially recognizes 62 Amerindian languages. and relationships .. About 7% of the population speak an Amerindian language. And then slowly over the years people start to see it's really about love .. Spanish is the official language of Mexico and is spoken by the majority of the population. Michael Patrick King, Executive Producer: "People thought, oh it's just about sex or it's just about fashion.

Main article: Languages of Mexico. The following are quotations from the TV special, Sex And The City: A Farewell, that aired introducing the final episode:. Islam is mainly practiced by members of the Arab, Turkish, and other expatriate communities, though there is a very small number of the indigenous population in Chiapas state that practice Islam. These include the following:. Judaism has been practiced in Mexico for centuries, and there are estimated to be more than 45,000 Jews in Mexico today[2]. As Sex and the City gained popularity, a number of celebrities had cameos on the show, some playing themselves and some playing characters. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) has a growing presence in the major border cities of northeastern Mexico, and over 205,000 members nationwide[1]. In most cases, these characters have played large roles in as many as two story arcs.

[3]. The main characters all went on dates or had sex with characters who appeared in only one episode, or small story arcs spanning two or three episodes, but the characters listed below are the focus of multiple episodes that form story arcs significant to the show's continuity. Wolf, the Guadalupe symbol links family, politics, and religion; the colonial past and the independent present; and the Indian and the Mexican. The twenty episodes of the final season, season six, aired in two parts: from June until September 2003 and during January and February 2004. According to anthropologist Eric R. Season five, truncated due to Parker's pregnancy, aired on HBO during the summer of 2002. The Virgin of Guadalupe has long been a symbol enshrining the major aspirations of Mexican society. Season four was broadcast in two parts: from June until August 2001 and then in January and February 2002.

Some of the country's Catholics (notably those of indigenous background) syncretize Catholicism with various elements of Aztec or Mayan religions. Season three aired from June until October 2000. Also, 6% of the population adheres to various Protestant faiths (mostly Pentecostal), and the remaining 5% of the population adhering to other religions or professing no religion. Season two was broadcast from June until October 1999. It is the second nation with the largest Catholic population, behind Brazil and before the United States. Season one of Sex and the City aired on HBO from June to August 1998. Mexico is predominantly Roman Catholic (about 89% of the population). These continued through season two; then they were phased out.

The most common reasons for death in 2001 were heart problems (14.6% for men 17.6% for women) and Cancer (11% for men and 15.8% for women). Each episode in season one featured a short montage of interviews that Carrie supposedly conducted while researching for her column. The mortality rate in 1970 was 9.7/1000 people and by 2001 the rate had dropped to 4.9/1000 for men and 3.8/1000 for women. The first season of the show is a free adaptation of its source material, but from the second season on, it took on a life of its own and went further than the book ever could. The lowest levels are found in Chiapas (72.9), Oaxaca (73.2) and Guerrero (73.2 years), although the first two have had the highest increase (19.9 and 22.3% respectively). Receiving consistent critical and popular acclaim, it was based on the book that was compiled from the New York Observer column "Sex and the City" by Candace Bushnell. The Federal District has a life expectancy of the same level as Baja California. The show became famous for shooting scenes on the streets and in the bars, in restaurants and clubs of New York City while pushing the envelope of fashion and shattering sexual taboos.

The states with the highest life expectancy are Baja California (75.9 years) and Nuevo Leon (75.6 years). Carrie Bradshaw and her three best girlfriends navigate the rocky terrain of being single, sexually active women in the new millennium. Life expectancy in Mexico increased from 34.7 for men and 33 years for women in 1930 to 72.1 for men and 77.1 years for women in 2002. . 4.2% of male immigrants and 3.8% of female immigrants did not have formal education while 20.2% of male immigrants and 17.7% of female immigrants had a college degree [INEGI, 2004. Sex and the City premiered on June 6, 1998, and the last original episode aired on February 22, 2004. More than 54.6% of the immigrant population are 15 years old or younger, while 9% are 50 or older. A sitcom with soap opera elements, the show often tackled socially relevant issues, such as the status of women in society.

The five states with more immigrants are Baja California (12.1% of total immigrants), Federal District (11.4%), Jalisco (9.9%), Chihuahua (9%) and Tamaulipas (7.3%). Set in New York City, the show focuses on the sex lives of four female best friends, three of whom are in their mid-to-late thirties, and one of whom, Samantha, is in her forties. The official figures for foreign-born citizens in Mexico are 493,000 (since 2004), with a majority (86.9%) of these born in the United States (with the exception of Chiapas, where the majority of immigrants are from Central America). It was originally broadcast on the HBO network from 1998 until 2004. A clear example of the latter phenomenon is provided by San Miguel de Allende and many towns along the Baja California peninsula and around Guadalajara, Jalisco. Sex and the City was an American cable television program based on the book of the same name. This may be due to the growing economic and business interdependence of the two countries under NAFTA, and also that Mexico is considered an excellent choice for retirees. Will Arnett as Jack, "La Douleur Exquise!".

Mexico is the country where the greatest number of U.S citizens live outside the United States. Tony Hale as Tiger, "The Real Me". The states of Aguascalientes (0.2%), Coahuila (0.2%), Zacatecas (0.2%) and Nuevo León (0.5%) have the lowest proportion of speakers of indigenous languages ([INEGI, 2004]). Valerie Harper as Wallis, "Shortcomings". Judging by the proportion of people speaking indigenous languages, the states with the highest proportion of indigenous people are Yucatán (37.3%), Oaxaca (37.1%), Chiapas (24.6%) and Quintana Roo (23%). Carole Bouquet as Juliette, "American Girl In Paris; Part Deux". In 2004, the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatic had estimated this figure to be 12,089,094 (~11.4% of Mexico's population) of indigenous people of which, more than one million do not speak Spanish and almost five million are bilingual (INEGI, 2004). Geri Halliwell as Phoebe, "Boy, Interrupted".

However, the Mexican government does not collect racial information during censuses. David Duchovny as Jeremy, "Boy, Interrupted". According to the Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas ("The National Council for the Development of Indigenous People") the Amerindian population in Mexico is approximately 12.7 million. Tatum O'Neal as Kyra, "A Woman's Right to Shoes". In Mexico the biggest foreign colonies are:. Jennifer Coolidge as Victoria, "The Perfect Present". There are also a few Lebanese and Arabs. Heather Graham as herself, "Critical Condition".

Mexico has a sizeable population of Asians numbering around 200,000, many of them Chinese and Japanese, the majority of which reside in Mexicali, Baja California. Candice Bergen as Enid Mead, "A 'Vogue' Idea". The PRI governments in power for most of the 20th century had a policy of granting asylum to fellow Latin Americans fleeing political persecution in their home countries. Lucy Liu as herself, "Coulda, Woulda, Shoulda". Mexico is also home for many other Latin American groups: mostly Argentines, but also Brazilians, Cubans, Nicaraguans, Colombians and Venezuelans. Molly Shannon as Lily Martin, "Cover Girl" etc. The remaining 1% includes Afro-Mexicans, Asians, Jews, and Middle Easterners. Ed Koch as himself, "The Real Me".

Some 9% is white (of European descent), the majority being from Spain, though there are also large numbers of people of German, Italian, French, Portuguese, British, Irish, Russian (Molokans), Dutch, Greek, and Scandinavian (particularly in Nueva Escandinavia, Chihuahua) ancestry. Heidi Klum as herself, "The Real Me". According to the CIA World Factbook, about 60% of the population is mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white), another 30% is Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian. Alan Cumming as O, "The Real Me". Mexico is ethnically and culturally diverse. Margaret Cho as Lynn Cameron, "The Real Me". With an estimated 2005 population of about 106.5 million, Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. Sarah Clarke as Melinda, "Politically Erect" (as Sarah Lively).

Main article: Demographics of Mexico
See also: Indigenous peoples of Mexico. Hugh Hefner as himself, "Sex and Another City". The government is seeking to sign an additional agreement with Mercosur. Carrie Fisher as herself, "Sex and Another City". Government authorities expect that by putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements with different countries Mexico will lessen its dependence on the United States. Sarah Michelle Gellar as Debbie, "Escape from New York". However more than 85% of the trade is still done with the United States. Vince Vaughn as Keith Travers, "Sex and Another City".

Mexico has opened its markets to free trade like few other countries have done, lowering its trade barriers with more than 40 countries in 12 Free Trade Agreements, including Japan and the European Union. Matthew McConaughey as himself, "Escape from New York". Trade with the United States and Canada has tripled since NAFTA was implemented in 1994. Alanis Morissette as Dawn, "Boy, Girl, Boy, Girl...". dollar. Jon Bon Jovi as Seth, "Games People Play". Positive developments in 2001 included a drop in inflation to 6.5%, a sharp fall in interest rates, and a strong peso that appreciated 5% against the U.S. Donald Trump as himself, "The Man, The Myth, The Viagra".

Following 6.9% growth in 2000, real GDP fell 0.3% in 2001, with the United States' economic slowdown appearing to be the principal cause. Amy Sedaris as Courteney Masterson, "Cover Girl" etc. Income distribution is very unequal, with the top 20% of income earners accounting for 55% of income. Nathan Lane as Bobby Fine, "I Love A Charade". Mexico still needs to overcome many structural problems as it strives to modernize its economy and raise living standards. In the final episode, Jerry tells her that he loves her, which she counters with "You mean more to me than any man I've ever known", which, for Samantha is a far greater statement. Private consumption became the leading driver of growth, accompanied by increased employment and higher wages. Just when she thinks Jerry's age and experiences aren't enough for her, he gives her unconditional support during her fight with breast cancer.

A strong export sector helped to cushion the economy's decline in 1995 and led the recovery in 1996–1999. He is a wannabe actor whose career Samantha jump starts using her PR connections, getting him a modelling job that turns into a film role. The administration of President Ernesto Zedillo (1994–2000) continued a policy of privatizing and expanding competition in sea ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas distribution, and airports which was initiated by his predecessors Miguel de la Madrid and Carlos Salinas. She tries to maintain her usual sex-only relationship with him, but he slowly pushes for something more. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico has fallen from more than 1,000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 1999. Jerry Jerrod (Jason Lewis) is a young waiter Samantha seduces in a trendy restaurant. Mexico has a free-market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Towards the end of the series, Richard re-surfaces, admitting that Samantha was the best thing that ever happened to him.

According to the director for Colombia and Mexico of the World Bank, the population below the poverty level has decreased from 24.2% to 17.6% in the general population and from 42% to 27.9% in rural areas from 2000-2004 [2]. In the end, Samantha still has her doubts about Richard, and breaks up with him. Since the economic crisis of 1994–1995 the country has made an impressive economic recovery. When she does catch him cheating, she breaks up with him, but eventually takes him back after he begs for her forgiveness. According to the World Bank, Mexico ranks 12th in the world in regard to GDP and has the highest per capita income in its region; and it is firmly established as an upper middle-income country. Eventually, they give in and attempt exclusivity, but, being a stranger to monogamy, Samantha is plagued by suspicion at every turn.
. He seduces her, and when their no-strings-attached sexual relationship begins to escalate, both parties struggle to keep their emotional distance.

Estimates of the number of dead range from 6,500 to 30,000 (see 1985 Mexico City earthquake). Richard Wright (James Remar) is a successful hotel magnate who doesn't believe in monogamy until he meets Samantha. On September 19, 1985, an earthquake measuring approximately 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Michoacán and inflicted severe damage on Mexico City. The two separate, after they have sex with a strap-on. Mexico's major rivers include the Río Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) and the Usumacinta on its northern and southern borders, respectively, together with the Grijalva, Balsas, Pánuco, and Yaqui in the interior. Unfortunately, Samantha begins to grow uncomfortable when the relationship talk starts to replace the sexual activity and Maria is equally uncomfortable with Samantha's sexual history. The terrain and climate vary from rocky deserts in the north to tropical rain forest in the south. At first, Samantha has a great time "getting an education" as Maria teaches her about lesbian sex and how to make an emotional connection while making love.

Mexico is about one-fourth the size of the United States. Maria is immediately attracted to her, but since Samantha doesn't believe in relationships they try to maintain a friendship, the chemistry proves to be too strong and it isn't too long before Samantha is introducing her lesbian lover to her stunned friends. (See list of mountains in Mexico). Maria Diego Raez (Sonia Braga) is a sensual lesbian artist that Samantha meets at a solo exhibit while admiring her work. The center of Mexico is a great, high plateau, open to the north, with mountain chains on the east and west and with ocean-front lowlands lying outside of them. She begins pulling away physically and cannot bring herself to tell him--until she is faced with the prospect of couples counseling. In the east are the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Campeche, which is formed by Mexico's other peninsula, the Yucatán. When they finally do have sex, she discovers that he is under-endowed to the point that she cannot enjoy herself.

Baja California in the west is a 1,250-km peninsula and forms the Gulf of California. James (James Goodwin) is a man Samantha meets while out by herself at a jazz club, she makes a conscious effort to not sleep with him until she gets to know him first. Mexico is bordered by the United States to the north, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. Robert and Miranda have lots of fun and great chemistry, but when the time comes, she is unable to declare her love for him. Its width is varied, from more than 2000 km in the north and less than 220 km at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south. He is the seemingly perfect man: successful, sexy, and utterly devoted to her. Situated in the southwestern part of mainland North America and roughly triangular in shape, Mexico stretches more than 3000 km from northwest to southeast. Robert Leeds (Blair Underwood) is a sports medicine doctor who moves into her building during season six.

Main article: Geography of Mexico. They decide to raise the child (Brady Hobbes) together, separately, but are back together towards the end of Season Six, they have a small intimate wedding ceremony and he convinces her to move to a house in Brooklyn. The following is a list of the biggest Metropolitan Areas of Mexico in order of population:. In season four, he opens his own bar, called Scout (alongside Aidan) and gets Miranda pregnant (despite losing a testicle to cancer and Miranda having only one functioning ovary). Much of the capital city's metropolitan area overflows the limits of the Federal District. Over the course of the show, Miranda puts Steve through the wringer quite a bit, but he looks beneath her cynical exterior and finds her softer side, while at the same time, choosing his battles carefully. It enjoys more limited local rule than the nation's "free and sovereign states": only since 1997 have its citizens been able to elect a Head of Government, whose powers are still more curtailed than those of a state governor. Their differences in income, aspirations and status, as well as their attitudes about living together and having kids are the catalysts for their break ups.


The Federal District is a special political division in Mexico, where the national capital, Mexico City, is located. Having been stood up by Carrie, she meets him unexpectedly at the bar at which he works, what she thinks is a one night stand but turns into dating. Each state has its own constitution and its citizens elect a governor as well as representatives to their respective state congresses. Steve Brady (David Eigenberg) is a bartender who has an unconventional on-again, off-again relationship with Miranda. Mexico is divided into 31 states (estados) and a federal district. They date for a short time, before Miranda breaks up with him due to "being in different places". The three most important political parties in Mexico are the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the National Action Party (PAN), and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). From the moment they meet, Skipper is enamored with her, but Miranda is unimpressed and irritated by him.

His victory ended the Institutional Revolutionary Party's 71-year hold on the presidency. Skipper Johnson (Ben Weber) is a geeky, sensitive twenty-something web designer whom Carrie introduces to Miranda. Fox began his six-year term on December 1, 2000. In the end, they are approved for a Chinese adoption. The PRI did not lose a senate seat until 1988 or a gubernatorial race until 1989.[1] It wasn't until July 2, 2000, that Vicente Fox of the opposition "Alliance for Change" coalition, headed by the National Action Party (PAN), was elected president. After her conversion to Judaism and one big argument that sends them in separate directions for a few weeks, the two marry and begin trying to have/adopt a child. After it was founded in 1929, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) monopolized all the political branches. She is not attracted to him, but tries to pursue a sex-only relationship with him, which leads to one of exclusivity and love.

There is no vice-president in the republic. Harry Goldenblatt (Evan Handler) is Charlotte's divorce lawyer who is incredibly attracted to her from the beginning. The president is elected by universal adult suffrage for a six-year term and may not hold office a second time. Eventually, their disagreements on whether or not to pursue in vitro fertilization leads to divorce. The president also legislates by executive decree in certain economic and financial fields, using powers delegated from Congress. After a brief separation, they reunite with a healthy sex life only to discover that Charlotte will have difficulty getting pregnant. Congress has played an increasingly important role since 1997, when opposition parties first formed a majority in the legislature. Trey MacDougal (Kyle MacLachlan) fits Charlotte's knight in shining armor archetype to a tee; a Scottish American heart surgeon from family money, their whirlwind engagement and a fairy tale wedding stop cold with a sexless honeymoon, brought on by Trey's impotence.

Historically, the executive is the dominant branch, with power vested in the [[President of Mexico|president who promulgates and executes the laws of the Congress. After spending some time there, she realizes that he will never reciprocate the level of emotional involvement that she offers because his life and career will always come first. The 1917 Constitution provides for a federal republic with powers separated into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches. When he's preparing to return to Paris for a solo exhibit he invites Carrie to come live with him, which she does, after several deliberations (and one fight) with her friends. Mexico’s political model has much in common with that of the United States. Her relationship with him brings up all sorts of questions in Carrie's mind about finding love past "a certain age" and whether or not she wants children. On March 23, 2005, the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America was signed by the elected leaders of those countries. He sweeps her off her feet with huge romantic gestures and shows her the foreign pockets of New York that she has never seen before.

On January 1, 1994, Mexico became a full member of the North American Free Trade Agreement, joining the United States of America and Canada in a large and prosperous economic bloc. Aleksandr Petrovsky (Mikhail Baryshnikov) is a famous Russian artist who becomes Carrie's lover in season six. In 2000, after seventy years, the PRI lost a presidential elections to a candidate of the National Action Party (PAN), Vicente Fox. Carrie learns, when it comes to relationships, Berger's talk is just that; after they agree to try and make things work, he breaks up with her through a post-it note. Through the electoral reforms started by president Carlos Salinas de Gortari and consolidated by president Ernesto Zedillo, by the mid 1990s the PRI had lost its majority in Congress. Theirs was a relationship of witty banter and common thoughts, but everything falls apart when his defeated attitude clashes with her contented state. It was not until the 1980s that the PRI lost the first state governorship, an event that marked the beginning of the party's loss of hegemony. Jack Berger (Ron Livingston) was Carrie's intellectual counterpart, a sardonic humorist writer whose career is cooling down just as Carrie's is heating up.

Accused many times of fraud, the PRI's candidates held almost all public offices until the end of the 20th century. It is revealed that Aidan married another furniture designer named Cathy. However the management of the economy collapsed several times afterwards. Carrie and Aidan unexpectedly see each other on the street; Aidan holding his baby son Tate. This was in spite of falling foreign confidence in investment, first through the assumption of mineral rights and subsequent nationalisation of the oil industry into Pemex during the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas del Río. In season three, Aidan ends "it" when she comes clean about the affair, they get back together a year later, eventually move in together and she accepts his marriage proposal before the break up for the second and final time. During the next four decades, Mexico experienced impressive economic growth, and historians call this period "El Milagro Mexicano", the Mexican Miracle. At first, Carrie is put-off by their seemingly perfect relationship and over time works through her issues of emotional unavailability, but ultimately, she cannot meet his needs and they break up for good.

The creation of the National Revolutionary Party (which later became the Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI), in 1929 ended the struggles, uniting all generals and combatants of the revolution. Big's emotional opposite. Revolutionary forces defeated the federal army, but were left with internal struggles, leaving the country in conflict for two more decades. He is a sweet, good natured furniture designer and Mr. His fraudulent victory in the 1910 elections sparked the Mexican Revolution. Aidan Shaw (John Corbett) is Carrie's other long-term boyfriend. Growing social inequalities, restricted freedom of the press, and his insistence to be reelected for a fifth term led to massive protests. At the conclusion, we discover that Big's name is actually John.

His mandate, however, was mostly undemocratic and benefited the middle and upper classes, while the Amerindian indigenous population continued to live in precarious conditions. In the end, the two prepare for an open, honest relationship in New York. This period of relative peace and prosperity is known as the "Porfiriato". He doesn't give up, and, after the blessing of Charlotte, Samantha and Miranda, tries to re-claim her love one last time in Paris. Foreign investment allowed the development of the oil industry and the construction of a railroad system across the country. In the end of the series, he returns to tell Carrie he is ready to commit to her, but is brutally rebuffed. After Juárez's death, Mexico experienced economic growth under the liberal and pro-European rule of Porfirio Díaz. He eventually moves to the Napa Valley in California, but is visited once by Carrie, while on her book tour and he returns to New York a year after that for an angioplasty.

From then on, Juárez remained in office until his death in 1872. After divorcing Natasha, Big and Carrie become friends, with their sexual history always lying just beneath the surface. In mid-1867, following repeated losses in battle to the Republican Army, Maximilian was captured and murdered by Juárez's soldiers, along with his last loyal generals, in Querétaro. Within seven months of his marriage he begins to pine after Carrie and starts to have an affair with her, until Carrie breaks it off. Napoleon III of France, Emperor of France, returned Maximillian as Emperor of Mexico from 1864 to 1867. Big marries a twenty-something socialite Ralph Lauren executive named Natasha (Bridget Moynahan). However, after his death, the city was lost in early 1863, following a renewed French attack which penetrated as far as Mexico City, forcing Juárez to organize an itinerant government. After two years of commitment issues and emotional unavailibility, Mr.

General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French Army (arguably the most powerful in the world at the time) at the city of Puebla on May 5, 1862, celebrated as Cinco de Mayo ever since. Carrie and Big's on again, off again relationship begins and ends in season one and then a second time in season two. The Second Mexican Empire was then overthrown by President Benito Juárez, with diplomatic and logistical support from the United States and the military expertise of General Porfirio Díaz. A wealthy financier (Samantha calls him "the next Donald Trump" in the pilot), who is based on New York publisher, Ron Galotti. In the 1860s, the country again suffered a military occupation, this time by France, seeking to establish the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as Emperor of Mexico, with support from the Roman Catholic clergy and conservative criolloss. Big (Chris Noth), referred to by Carrie and her friends simply as "Big", both excites and eludes Carrie throughout the run of the show, as she always believes he is the man for her, but many times, he's not able to fulfill her emotional needs. Mexico was defeated by the United States, resulting in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo, where the United States purchased the remaining disputed territories for $15 million, from which were formed the modern states of California, Nevada, and Utah, and most of Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado (see Mexican-American War). Mr.

This resulted in the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848. It's good for a woman to make pies.") and intrusive (replacing her vibrator with a statuette of The Virgin Mary). Mexico declared war on 23 May. Her attempts to push traditional marriage/motherhood attitudes on Miranda are both subtle (buying her a rolling pin "To make pies. Polk requested a declaration of war and the US Congress voted in favor on 13 May 1846. Magda (Lynn Cohen), the Ukrainian housekeeper-cum-nanny who was introduced in the third season becomes an ersatz mother figure and a thorn in Miranda's side. President James K. (Upon hearing that she hadn't had sex since her divorce, he exclaims; "if you don't put something 'in there' soon it'll grow over!").

Mexican troops then attacked and captured one of the American detachments near the Rio Grande. He is not self-effacing like Stanford and freely presents no-nonsense (often bawdy) advice to Charlotte. Mexico saw this as an US intervention on internal affairs by supporting a rebel province. Anthony Marentino (Mario Cantone) is an event planner who becomes close to Charlotte after styling her first wedding - he goes on to style Charlotte's H&G photo shoot, her second wedding and Carrie's book release party. The US government sent troops to Texas in order to secure the territory ignoring the Mexican demands of withdrawal. In the last two seasons of the show, he is partnered with Broadway dancer, Marcus Adente. In 1845, voters in Texas approved to be annexed by the United States, and was passed by Congress and signed into law by President John Tyler. The only supporting character to receive his own storylines (occasionally), he represents the show's most constant gay point of view to sex on the show; generally based around the physical insecurities and inadequacies of someone who doesn't "have that gay look".

Texas won its independence in 1836, further reducing the territory of the fledgling republic. A gay talent agent with a sense of style parallel only to Carrie's, you get the impression that they have a long standing relationship built within their younger, wilder days on the New York City club and bar scene. The inhabitants of Tejas, calling themselves Texans and led mainly by relatively recently-arrived English-speaking settlers, declared independence from Mexico at Washington-on-the-Brazos, giving birth to the Republic of Texas. Stanford Blatch (Willie Garson), often referred to as the show's "Fifth Lady", is Carrie's best friend outside of the three women. While negotiations eventually brought Yucatán to again recognize Mexican sovereignty, Santa Anna's army turned to the northern rebellion. Fuck me badly twice, shame on me.". Both areas sought independence from the Mexican government. Defining statement: "Fuck me badly once, shame on you.

As president, in 1834 Santa Anna abrogated the federal constitution, causing insurgencies in the southern state of Yucatán and the northernmost portion of the northern state of Coahuila y Tejas. Over the course of the show, she does have a handful of real relationships, including one with a woman. The first Republic was formed with Guadalupe Victoria as its first president, followed in office by Santa Anna. In Season 3, she moves from her full-service Upper East Side apartment to an expensive loft in the then-burgeoning Meatpacking District. The Empire soon fell to rogue republican forces led by Antonio López de Santa Anna. She believes that she has had "hundreds" of soulmates and insists that her sexual partners leave "an hour after I climax". It also forbade the importation of slaves, a condition that, like the others, was largely ignored. A seductress who avoids emotional involvement at all costs while satisfying every possible carnal desire imagineable.

Soon after achieving its independence from Spain, the Mexican government, in an effort to populate its sparsely-settled hinterlands, awarded land grants in a remote area of the northernmost state of Coahuila y Tejas to hundreds of immigrant families from the United States, on the condition that the settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship. Samantha Jones (Kim Cattrall), the oldest and most promiscuous of the group, she is an independent publicist whose relationship pattern could be considered stereotypically masculine. After independence, Spanish possessions in Central America which also proclaimed independence were all incorporated into Mexico from 1822 to 1823, with the exception of Chiapas. I could barely find time to schedule this abortion.". Then, as the war escalated, the objective change to independece from Spain. Defining statement: "I can't have a baby. The initial intention of the movement then, was to be obtain independence from France, but still being part of Spain. In the final season, Miranda and Steve marry and relocate to Brooklyn in order to make room for their growing family.

Actually, Hidalgo declared the independence from France, as José Bonaparte (Napoleon's brother), also known in Mexico as Pepe Botella (Spanish: Bottle Joe, as he had a fame of a heavy drinker), was ruling Spain at that time. Of the four women, she is the first to purchase an apartment (an indicator of her success). On September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic priest in the small town of Dolores, causing a long war that eventually led to the official recognition of independence from Spain in 1821 and the creation of the First Mexican Empire. In the early seasons, she is portrayed as masculine and borderline misandric, but this image softens over the years, particularly after becoming pregnant by her on again-off again boyfriend, Steve Brady. At the end of the 16th century, New Spain was an underpopulated country with abandoned cities, which would be the main cause of collapse of the Mesoamerican cultures. A Harvard University graduate from Philadelphia, she is Carrie's best friend, confidante, and voice of reason. Of the estimated 15 to 20 million of the original prehispanic population, less than two million survived. Miranda Hobbes (Cynthia Nixon) is a career-minded lawyer with extremely cynical views on relationships and men.

There were three separate epidemics that decimated the population: Smallpox (1520-1521), measles ( 1545-1548) and typhus (1576-1581). Where is he!?". Most of the settlers had developed an immunity from childhood, but the indigenous peoples had not. Defining statement: "I've been dating since I was fifteen, I'm exhausted. Spanish settlers brought with them smallpox, typhus, and other diseases. She is a graduate of Smith College. Louis) and "Vera Cruz" ("True Cross"). She eventually remarries to her less than perfect, but good hearted, divorce lawyer, Harry Goldenblatt (after converting to Judaism).

Numerous churches and other buildings were constructed in the Spanish style, and cities were named after various saints and objects of veneration, such as "San Luis Potosí" (after St. She gives up her career shortly after her first marriage, divorces upon irreconcilable differences around in vitro fertilization and receives a Park Avenue apartment in the divorce settlement. During the following centuries, under Spanish rule, a new culture developed that combined the customs and traditions of the indigenous peoples with that of Catholic Spain. Despite her conservative outlook, she has been known to make concessions (while married) that even surprise her sexually freer girlfriends (such as her level of dirty talk, oral sex in public and "tookus-lingus"). In modern México, mestizo has became more a cultural term, since a Native American that abandons his traditional ways is considered a mestizo, also most Afromexicans prefer to be considered mestizo, since they feel more identified with this group. Often scoffing at the lewder, more libertine antics that the show presents (primarily in Samantha), in her own way, she presents a more straight forward attitude about relationships, usually based around "the rules" of love and dating. Mestizos, while they no longer have a separate legal status from other groups, comprise approximately 60% of the population. She is the most conservative and traditional of the group, the one who places the most emphasis on emotional love as opposed to lust, and is always searching for her "knight in shining armor".

With independence, the caste system and slavery were abolished. Charlotte York (Kristin Davis) is an art dealer with a Connecticut blue-blooded upbringing. Mestizos and criollos were not allowed in the upper levels of the government, and eventually they joined forces for the independence of México. Defining statement: "I like my money right where I can see it - hanging in my closet.". Those who were wealthy enough also tried to have a Spanish wife, who was sent to give birth in Spain to prevent their children from becoming criollos. Big during her relationship with Aidan. The Spanish "peninsulares" tried by all means to keep their status, even if they took native women. Her blemishes include having had an abortion after a one-night stand (ten years prior to the show's continuity) and an affair with a married Mr.

Mestizos and then mulattos were next, followed by the unmixed natives, zambos (amerindian mixed with black), and blacks, respectively. Another source of her New York pride is her apartment, a one-bedroom place in an Upper East Side brownstone, it is her home for the entire run of the series, which she purchases in the fourth season. There were even two different kinds of whites, those born in Spain, or "peninsulares", and in a lower level, those born in America, or "criollos". (Though she has been known to wear Christian Louboutin and Jimmy Choo as well.) Often meeting "her credit card limit" in one shopping trip, it is unclear how the modest income of a newspaper columnist could support such an addiction, but in later seasons, her essays are collected as a book and she begins taking assignments from Vogue and New York Magazine. Each different mix had a name and different privileges or prohibitions. A self proclaimed shoe fetishist, she focuses most of her attention, and bank account, on designer footwear, primarily Manolo Blahniks. A system was created to keep each mix in a different social level: "El sistema de castas" (the caste system). A member of the New York glitterati, she is a club/bar/restaurant staple who is known for her unique fashion sense; violently yoking together various styles into one outfit (it is not uncommon for her to pair inexpensive vintage pieces with high-end couture).

But even if mixes were allowed, the white population tried to keep their status. Carrie Bradshaw (Sarah Jessica Parker) is the literal voice of the show as each episode is structured around her train of thought while writing her weekly column, "Sex and the City" for the fictitious newspaper, The New York Star. As a result of these unions, as well as concubinage, a vast class of people known as "Mestizos" and mulattos came into being. However, they eventually mixed with the population resulting in only a few black communities left to date (see Afro-Mexican). After the native population was decimated by epidemics and forced labor, black slaves were imported, and for a time in certain areas they even outnumbered the white populations (few modern Mexicans are aware of or acknowledge this).

The first Spanish colonists were mainly only males, so they took native women, and although rarely, also black women. Unlike the English-speaking colonists of North America, the majority of the Spanish colonists married the natives, and were even encouraged to do so by Queen Isabella during the earliest days of colonization. Bartolome later repented when he saw the treatment given to the black slaves. Due to some horrifying instances of abuse against the indigenous peoples, Bishop Bartolome de las Casas suggested bringing black slaves to replace them.

Although officially they could not become slaves, the system, known as encomienda, came to signify the oppression and exploitation of natives, although its originators did not set out with such intent. Eventually, the natives were declared minors, and forbidden to read and write, so they would always need a white man in charge of them to be responsible of their indoctrination. The Mesoamerican sex education system was set aside and replaced by church education; even some foods associated with religion, like amaranto, were forbidden. Hundreds of thousands of codices were destroyed, priests and teachers were persecuted, and the temples and statues of the gods were destroyed.

As a result, a second wave of missionaries began a process attempting to completely erase the old beliefs, and thus wiped out many aspects of Mesoamerican culture. While it was an important god, because it was the god of the conquerors,they did not see why they had to abandon their old beliefs. The colonists brought with them the Catholic faith, to which the population seemingly converted rapidly, but soon they found that the natives had adopted "the god of the heavens", as they called it, as just one of their gods. Particularly fierce were the "Chichimeca wars" in the north of Mexico (1576-1606).

After the fall of Tenochtitlan, it would take decades of continuous war to pacify Mesoamerica. The arrival of the Spanish in the early 16th century and their defeat of the Mexica in 1521 marked the beginning of the 300 year-long colonial period of Mexico as New Spain. The small Spanish force was reinforced with thousands of indian allies, who were schooled on European warfare. Tlaxcalteca and other nahuatl nations were forced into such wars, so they joined the Spaniard forces against the Aztec.

In order to acquire captives in time of peace, the Aztec resorted to ritual warfare, or flower war. This penchant for human sacrifice proved to be the undoing of the Aztecs, for when they confronted the Spaniards, who fought to the death, their less effective weapons made resistance difficult. As a result, Aztec warfare was conducted with an aim to only injure the enemy, so that he could later be sacrificed, and weapons were constructed with this in mind. This belief was common throughout nahuatl people.

The Aztecs' religious beliefs were based on a fear that the universe would cease functioning without a constant offering of human sacrifice. There were two types of schools: the telpochcalli, for practical and military studies, and the calmecac, for advanced learning in writing, astronomy, statesmanship, theology, and other areas. The Mexica, one of the Aztec groups, were the first people in the world to practice mandatory education for all people, regardless of gender, rank, or station. For them, highly-civilized arts, sculpture, architecture, engraving, feather-mosiac work, and the invention of the calendar were due to the former inhabitants of Tula, the Toltecs, who reached the height of their civilization in the tenth and eleventh centuries.

Latecomers to Mexico's central plateau, the Mexica, or Aztec, as they were sometimes called in memory of Aztlán, the starting point of their tribes wanderings, never thought of themselves as anything but heirs of the brilliant civilizations that had preceded them. Many made war with them, but almost all found themselves within these four spheres of influence. Other regional power players made economic and political alliances with these four civilizations over the span of 4,000 years. They consolidated power and distributed influence in matters of trade, art, politics, technology, and theology.

These four civilizations extended their reach across Mexico and beyond like no others. While many city-states, kingdoms, and empires competed with one another for power and prestige, Mexico had four major, unifying civilizations: The Olmec, Teotihuacan, Toltec, and the Aztec. In turn, they radiated influence outwards onto neighboring cultures. These cities, among several others, blossomed as centers of commerce, ideas, ceremonies, and theology.

At different points in time, three different Mexican cities were the largest cities in the world: Teotihuacan, Tenochtitlan, and Cholula. In fact, the later Mexican civilizations would all carefully build their cities and ceremonial centers according to specific astronomical events. These very early and ancient count-markings were associated with astronomical events and underscore the influence that astronomical activities had upon Mexican natives, even before they possessed civilization. Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls all over northern Mexico (especially in the state of Nuevo León) demonstrate an early propensity for counting in Mexico.

These indigenous civilizations are credited with many inventions: pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, writing, highly-accurate calendars, fine arts, intensive agriculture, engineering, an abacus, a complex theology, and the wheel. For more than 3,000 years, Mexico was the site of several Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Aztec, the Olmec, Teotihuacan, the Toltec, Mixtec, Zapotec and the Mayan. and the beginning of intensive farming between 1800 and 1500 BC. Evidence shows the explosion of pottery works by 2300 B.C.

Ancient Mexicans began to selectively breed corn plants around 8,000 B.C. Hunter-Gatherer peoples are thought to have discovered and habitated its territory more than 28,000 years ago. . It is the northernmost and westernmost country in Latin America, and also the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.

The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered by the United States to the north, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. ISBN 0844227838. "When in Mexico, Do as the Mexicans Do." In depth information about life in Mexico, including culture, history, economy, language and more in 176 comprehensive pages. Kernecker, Herbert.

Beezley, editors, The Oxford History of Mexico, 736 pages, Oxford University Press 2000, ISBN 0195112288 – 20 essays, also covers cultural history. Meyer, William H. Michael C. Maciel, Mexico's Cinema: A Century of Film and Filmmakers, SR Books 1999, ISBN 0842026827 – comprehensive survey.

Joanne Hershfield, David R. Julia Preston and Samuel Dillon, Opening Mexico: The Making of a Democracy, Farrar Straus and Giroux, 2004, hardcover, 608 pages, ISBN 0374226687 – recent history since the Tlatelolco massacre of 1968 told by two journalists. A history of Modern Mexico 1810-1996, 896 pages – Perennial 1998, ISBN 0060929170 - standard work by a renowned Mexican author. Enrique Krauze, Mexico: Biography of Power.

Cockcroft, Mexico's Hope: An Encounter with Politics and History, 320 pages, Monthly Review Press 1999, ISBN 0853459258 – leftist view of Mexican history. James D. Most information summarized from articles in Introduction to Comparative Politics, as part of an AP outline (sorry if some of the sources below have been removed). African.

British, Irish, Dutch and Russian. Arab and Lebanese. Central American and South American. Jewish.

East Asian. American and Canadian. Argentinean. German, Italian and French.

Spanish. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (0.7 million). Cuernavaca, Morelos (0.7 million). Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes (0.7 million).

Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro (0.8 million). Mérida, Yucatán (0.8 million). San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (0.8 million). Torreón, Coahuila (1.1 million).

Toluca, México (1.2 million). León, Guanajuato (1.2 million). Tijuana, Baja California (1.5 million). Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (1.8 million).

Puebla, Puebla (2.6 million). Monterrey, Nuevo León (3.6 million). Guadalajara, Jalisco (4.7 million). Mexico City, Distrito Federal (22.0 million).

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