Mappy

Mappy is a 1983 arcade game by Namco. In the U.S. it was manufactured and distributed by Bally/Midway. Mappy is a side-scrolling platformer that features cute cartoony characters. It was re-released as part of the Famicom Mini Series in 2004, only in Japan. Mappy runs on Namco Super Pac-Man hardware.

History

However, MGM/UA sued Namco over copyright violations, claiming that Mappy was a copy of Tom and Jerry. If victorious, this lawsuit would have crushed Namco of America, and the history of videogames would have been drastically altered. Namco's lawyer, Howard Lincoln, who would go on to become a Senior Vice President of the company, discovered that MGM didn't own the copyright to Tom and Jerry either, and was able to not only win the lawsuit, but got MGM to pay the legal costs. Ironically, it was MGM/UA that previously won a lawsuit declaring Tom and Jerry was in the public domain. This incident was selected as #2 "MGM Goes Cop" in GameSpy's The 25 Dumbest Moments in Gaming.

Game play

The player guides Mappy the police mouse through the mansion of the cats called Mewkies (Meowky in the U.S. version) to retrieve stolen goods. The mansion has six floors of long hallways in which the items are stashed. Mappy and the Mewkies can move between the floors by jumping on trampolines at the ends and middle of the hallways, and landing on a floor on the way up (but not on the way down). In addition to the Mewkies, there is also the boss cat Nyamco (Goro in the U.S. version) on every level. If Mappy tarries too long, the fearsome ancestral cat coin (Gosenzo) shows up. A level is completed when all the loot is retrieved.

Many of the hallways have doors which Mappy can slam open or shut to temporarily knock out the Mewkies or Nyamco. Some of these are special "microwave doors" which release a wave which sweeps away any cat in its path (even off the edge of the screen).

If Mappy gets caught by the Mewkies or Nyamco in the hallways he dies. However, he can safely pass them in the air while jumping on the trampolines. If Mappy bounces on a trampoline four consecutive times without landing on a floor, it breaks, and he dies unless there is another trampoline underneath.

The third level and every fourth level after that is a bonus round. Mappy, unbothered by the cats, must bounce across a series of trampolines, popping suspended balloons along the way. A bonus is awarded if all the balloons are popped before the music ends.

The player uses a left-right joystick to move Mappy and a single button to operate the doors.

Ports and Sequels

A Japan-only port of the game was released for the Famicom (Japanese version of the NES) in 1984. This was followed by a console-only sequel called Mappy Land in 1986 (released in the U.S. by Taxan). In the late 90s, it was released as part of Microsoft's Revenge of the Arcade PC collection. Also, Mappy had several Japan-only sequels, including Hopping Mappy in 1986 for the arcades and Mappy Kids for the Famicom in the late 1980s. There is also a version called Mappy Arrangement which was released in 1995 as part of Namco Classic Collection vol.1 for the arcade.

Trivia

  • "Mappy" is likely derived from mappo, a Japanese slang term (slightly insulting) for a policeman.
  • "Nyamco", besides being a play on "Namco", comes from nyanko, the Japanese equivalent of "kitty cat".
  • Nyamco was renamed "Goro" in the U.S. release.
  • Mappy's hat is an equippable item in Namco x Capcom
  • In Ridge Racer, there are two cars that share the racing team name of this game. The blue car is named "RT Blue Mappy" while the pink car is named "RT Pink Mappy". They were used in Ridge Racer, Ridge Racer 2, Rave Racer, Ridge Racer Revolution, and Ridge Racer 64.
  • In R4: Ridge Racer Type 4, there is a racing team that uses this game's name, and in Ridge Racer 64 there is a car that shares this game sponsor used in R4: Ridge Racer Type 4. In R4: Ridge Racer Type 4, "Micro Mouse Mappy" is a racing team that can be selected from the get-go, but Ridge Racer 64 requires that you win Stage 4 (the novice "EXTRA" courses) and beat the car in a Car Attack on Ridge Racer Novice EXTRA.

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There is also a version called Mappy Arrangement which was released in 1995 as part of Namco Classic Collection vol.1 for the arcade. Poland has also had a strong influence on the countries surrounding it. Also, Mappy had several Japan-only sequels, including Hopping Mappy in 1986 for the arcades and Mappy Kids for the Famicom in the late 1980s. Today, we can see these influences in Polish architecture, folklore and art. In the late 90s, it was released as part of Microsoft's Revenge of the Arcade PC collection. Polish culture has a rich thousand-year history influenced from both west and east. by Taxan). [6].

This was followed by a console-only sequel called Mappy Land in 1986 (released in the U.S. The rest of the population consists mainly of Eastern Orthodox (about 509 500), Jehovah's Witnesses (about 123 034) and various Protestant (about 86 880 in the largest Evangelical-Augsburg Church and about as many in smaller churches) religious minorities. A Japan-only port of the game was released for the Famicom (Japanese version of the NES) in 1984. Most Poles adhere to the Roman Catholic faith and 95% count as practising Catholics. The player uses a left-right joystick to move Mappy and a single button to operate the doors. The Polish language, a member of the West Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, functions as the official language of Poland. A bonus is awarded if all the balloons are popped before the music ends. The officially recognised ethnic minorities include: Germans, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Jews and Belarusians.

Mappy, unbothered by the cats, must bounce across a series of trampolines, popping suspended balloons along the way. 774,900 people (2.03%) didn't declare any nationality. The third level and every fourth level after that is a bonus round. Today 36,983,700 people, or 96.74% of the population considers itself Polish (Census 2002), 471,500 (1.23%) declared another nationality. If Mappy bounces on a trampoline four consecutive times without landing on a floor, it breaks, and he dies unless there is another trampoline underneath. However, the outcome of World War II and the following shift westwards to the area between the Curzon line and the Oder-Neisse line gave Poland an appearance of homogeneity. However, he can safely pass them in the air while jumping on the trampolines. Poland formerly played host to many languages, cultures, and religions.

If Mappy gets caught by the Mewkies or Nyamco in the hallways he dies. Nevertheless, despite high expenditures for telecom infrastructure (the coverage increased from 78 users per 1000 inhabitants in 1989 to 282 in 2000)
the coverage mobile cellular is 660 users per 1000 people (2005). Some of these are special "microwave doors" which release a wave which sweeps away any cat in its path (even off the edge of the screen). The share of the telecom sector in the GDP is 4.4% (end of 2000 figure), compared to 2.5% in 1996. Many of the hallways have doors which Mappy can slam open or shut to temporarily knock out the Mewkies or Nyamco. In total, there are around 91,000 scientists in Poland today. A level is completed when all the loot is retrieved. There are also around 300 research and development institutes, with about 10,000 more researchers.

If Mappy tarries too long, the fearsome ancestral cat coin (Gosenzo) shows up. Today, Poland has more than a hundred tertiary education instutions; traditional universities to be found in its major cities of Gdańsk, Bydgoszcz, Katowice, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź, Poznań, Rzeszów, Warsaw and Wrocław as well as technical, medical, economic institutions elsewhere, employing around 61,000 workers. version) on every level. In 1773 King Stanisław August Poniatowski established his Commission on National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej), the world's first state ministry of education. In addition to the Mewkies, there is also the boss cat Nyamco (Goro in the U.S. In 1364, in Kraków, the Jagiellonian University, founded by King Kazimierz Wielki, became one of Europe's great early universities. Mappy and the Mewkies can move between the floors by jumping on trampolines at the ends and middle of the hallways, and landing on a floor on the way up (but not on the way down). The library catalog of the Cathedral Chapter of Kraków dating back to 1110 shows that already in the early 12th century Polish intellectuals had access to the European literature.

The mansion has six floors of long hallways in which the items are stashed. The education of Polish society was a goal of rulers as early as the 12th century. version) to retrieve stolen goods. Poland produces: clothes, electronics, cars (including luxury car Leopard), buses (Autosan, Jelcz SA, Solaris, Solbus) helicopters (PZL Świdnik), planes (PZL Mielec), ships, military engineering (including tanks), medicines (Polpharma, Polfa, etc), food, chemical products etc. The player guides Mappy the police mouse through the mansion of the cats called Mewkies (Meowky in the U.S. Since joining the European Union, many young Polish people have left their country to work in other EU countries because of high unemployment rate (about 17%). This incident was selected as #2 "MGM Goes Cop" in GameSpy's The 25 Dumbest Moments in Gaming. For now, Poland is preparing to make the Euro its official currency (as other countries of the European Union), and the Złoty will eventually be abolished from the modern Polish economy.

Ironically, it was MGM/UA that previously won a lawsuit declaring Tom and Jerry was in the public domain. There is much speculation as to just when Poland might be ready to join the Eurozone, although the best guess estimates put the entry date somewhere between 2009 and 2013. Namco's lawyer, Howard Lincoln, who would go on to become a Senior Vice President of the company, discovered that MGM didn't own the copyright to Tom and Jerry either, and was able to not only win the lawsuit, but got MGM to pay the legal costs. The most notable task on the horizon is the preparation of the economy (through continuing deep structural reforms) to allow Poland to meet the strict economic criteria for entry into the European Single Currency. If victorious, this lawsuit would have crushed Namco of America, and the history of videogames would have been drastically altered. Although the Polish economy is currently undergoing an economic boom there are many challenges ahead. However, MGM/UA sued Namco over copyright violations, claiming that Mappy was a copy of Tom and Jerry. Annual growth rates broken down by quarters:.

. Forecasted GDP for 2006 is 4.3%. Mappy runs on Namco Super Pac-Man hardware. In 2004 GDP growth equalled 5.4%, and in 2005 3.3%. It was re-released as part of the Famicom Mini Series in 2004, only in Japan. The prospect of closer integration with the European Union has put the economy back on track, with growth of 3.7% annually in 2003, a rise from 1.4% annually in 2002. Mappy is a side-scrolling platformer that features cute cartoony characters. GDP growth had been strong and steady from 1993 to 2000 with only a short slowdown from 2001 to 2002.

it was manufactured and distributed by Bally/Midway. Warsaw leads Central Europe in foreign investment and allegedly needs a continued large inflow. In the U.S. Structural reforms in health care, education, the pension system, and state administration have resulted in larger-than-expected fiscal pressures. Mappy is a 1983 arcade game by Namco. Challenges remain, especially under-investment. In R4: Ridge Racer Type 4, "Micro Mouse Mappy" is a racing team that can be selected from the get-go, but Ridge Racer 64 requires that you win Stage 4 (the novice "EXTRA" courses) and beat the car in a Car Attack on Ridge Racer Novice EXTRA. Poland has a large agricultural sector of private farms, that could be a leading producer of food in the European Union now that Poland is a member.

In R4: Ridge Racer Type 4, there is a racing team that uses this game's name, and in Ridge Racer 64 there is a car that shares this game sponsor used in R4: Ridge Racer Type 4. The biggest privatisations so far were a sale of Telekomunikacja Polska, a national telecom to France Telecom (2000) and an issue of 30% shares of the biggest Polish bank, PKO BP, on the Polish stockmarket (2004). They were used in Ridge Racer, Ridge Racer 2, Rave Racer, Ridge Racer Revolution, and Ridge Racer 64. Restructuring and privatisation of "sensitive sectors" (e.g., coal, steel, railways, and energy) has begun. The blue car is named "RT Blue Mappy" while the pink car is named "RT Pink Mappy". The privatisation of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms have allowed for the rapid development of an aggressive private sector, followed by a development of consumer rights organisations later on. In Ridge Racer, there are two cars that share the racing team name of this game. Since its return to democracy, Poland has steadfastly pursued a policy of liberalising the economy and today stands out as one of the most successful and open examples of the transition from a partially state-capitalist market economy to a primarily privately owned market economy.

Mappy's hat is an equippable item in Namco x Capcom. Lower levels of administrative division are:. release. Poland is subdivided into sixteen administrative regions known as voivodships (województwa, singular - województwo):. Nyamco was renamed "Goro" in the U.S. Poland enjoys a temperate climate, with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters and mild summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. "Nyamco", besides being a play on "Namco", comes from nyanko, the Japanese equivalent of "kitty cat". Remains of the ancient forests survive: see list of forests in Poland.

"Mappy" is likely derived from mappo, a Japanese slang term (slightly insulting) for a policeman. Masuria (Mazury) forms the largest and most-visited lake district in Poland. Poland also contains over 9,300 lakes, predominantly in the north of the country. Several large rivers cross the plains; for instance, the Vistula (Wisła), Oder (Odra), Warta the (Western) Bug. The Polish landscape consists almost entirely of the lowlands of the North European Plain, at an average height of 173 metres (568 ft), though the Sudetes (including the Karkonosze) and the Carpathian Mountains (including the Tatra mountains, where one also finds Poland's highest point, Rysy, at 2,499 m or 8,199 ft) form the southern border.

The Ombudsman has the duty of guarding the observance and implementation of the rights and liberties of the human being and of the citizen, the law and principles of community life and social justice. The Sejm (on approval of the Polish Senate) appoints the Ombudsman or the Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich) for a five-year term. Its major institutions include the Supreme Court (Sąd Najwyższy), the Supreme Administrative Court (Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny) (judges appointed by the president of the republic on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an indefinite period), the Constitutional Tribunal (Trybunał Konstytucyjny) (judges chosen by the Sejm for nine-year terms) and the Tribunal of State (Trybunał Stanu) (judges chosen by the Sejm for for the current term of office of the Sejm, except for the position of chairperson which is held by the First President of the Supreme Court). The judicial branch plays a minor role in decision-making.

Only the first kind has occurred to date. The National Assembly is formed on three occasions: Taking the oath of office by a new president, bringing an indictment against the President of the Republic to the Tribunal of State, and declaration of a President's permanent incapacity to exercise their duties due to the state of their health. When sitting in joint session, members of the Sejm and Senate form the National Assembly, (Polish Zgromadzenie Narodowe). With the exception of ethnic minority parties, only candidates of political parties receiving at least 5% of the total national vote can enter the Sejm.

The Senate, on the other hand, is elected under a rare plurality bloc voting method where several candidates with the highest support are elected from each electorate. The Sejm is elected under a proportional representation electoral system using the d'Hondt method similar to that used in many parliamentary political systems. Polish voters elect a two house parliament, consisting of a 460 member lower house Sejm and a 100 member Senate (Senat). The current president is Lech Kaczyński.

The president, elected by popular vote every five years, serves as the head of state. The president appoints the cabinet according to the proposals of the prime minister, typically from the majority coalition in the bicameral legislature's lower house (the Sejm). The government structure centres on the Council of Ministers, led by a prime minister. Its current constitution dates from 1997.

Poland is a democratic republic. Poland joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. Polish voters then said yes to the EU in a referendum in June 2003. Poland joined the NATO alliance in 1999 along with the Czech Republic and Hungary.

Poland was the first post-communist country to regain pre-1989 GDP levels. Despite a temporary slump in social and economic standards, there were numerous improvements in other human rights (free speech, functioning democracy and the like). A shock therapy program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. The Solidarity movement greatly contributed to the soon-following collapse of Communism all over Eastern Europe.

It eroded the dominance of the Communist Party; by 1989 it had triumphed in parliamentary elections, and Lech Wałęsa, a Solidarity candidate, eventually won the presidency in 1990. Labour turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union, "Solidarity", which over time became a political force. It was a time when the economy was more modern, and the government had large credits. In 1970 the government was changed.

In 1956 the régime became more liberal, freeing many people from prison and expanding some personal freedoms. The People's Republic of Poland (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa) was officially proclaimed in 1952. In 1948 a turn towards Stalinism brought in the beginning of the next period of totalitarian rule. Military alignment within the Warsaw Pact throughout the Cold War was also part of this change.

The Soviet Union instituted a new communist government in Poland, analogous to much of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. The largest number of ethnic Poles outside of the country can be found in the United States. A Polish minority is still present in neighbouring countries of Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania, as well as in other countries (see Poles article for the population numbers). As a result of these events, Poland became, for the first time in history, an ethnically unified country.

The shift forced the migration of millions of people – Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, Jews. After the shift, Poland emerged 20% smaller by 77,500 km² (29,900 mi²); although the important cities of Gdańsk (Danzig), Szczecin (Stettin) and Wrocław (Breslau) were all incorporated into its post-war borders. On the other hand, the western border of Poland was moved to the Oder-Neisse line. The second aggressor, the Soviet Union, was given the right to occupy former Polish territory in negotiations, which means that the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was partially confirmed.

At its conclusion, Poland's borders were shifted westwards, pushing the eastern border to the Curzon line, even though the defense of Poland was the reason that France and the United Kingdom had declared war on Germany. Of all the countries involved in the war, Poland lost the highest percentage of its citizens: over 6 million perished, half of them Polish Jews. The eastern part of the German occupied zone was transformed into the General Government area, and the western part was just incorporated to German Reich. Warsaw surrendered on September 28, 1939.

The 1926 May Coup of Józef Piłsudski turned the Second Polish Republic into Sanacja that lasted until the start of World War II when Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland. It was established after a series of military conflicts, like the 1919-1921 Polish-Soviet War. Shortly after the surrender of Germany in November 1918, Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic (II Rzeczpospolita Polska). During World War I all the Allies agreed on the restitution of Poland that United States President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed in point 13 of his Fourteen Points.

Later in the 19th century, Austrian-ruled Galicia became the oasis of Polish freedom. However, the tsars soon reduced Polish freedoms and Russia eventually de facto annexed the country. The eastern part was ruled by the Russian tsar as a Congress Kingdom, and possessed a liberal constitution. Napoleon recreated a Polish state, the Duchy of Warsaw, but after the Napoleonic wars, Poland was split again by the Allies at the Congress of Vienna.

Poles resented their shrinking freedoms and several times rebelled against their oppressors (see List of Polish Uprisings). The process of reforms ceased with the partitions of Poland between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793 and 1795 which ultimately dissolved the country. The Enlightenment in Poland fostered a growing national movement to repair the state, resulting in what is claimed to be the first modern written constitution in Europe, the Constitution of May 3 in 1791. Russian tsars took advantage of this unique political vulnerability by offering money to Parliamentary traitors, who in turn would consistently and subversively block necessary reforms and new solutions.

In Polish Democracy every member of parliament was able to break any work or project by shouting 'Liberum Veto' during the session. During the following 80 years, the waning of the central government and deadlock of the institutions weakened the nation, leading to anarchistic tendencies and a growing dependency on Russia. Numerous wars against the Ottoman Empire, Russia, Cossacks, Transylvania and Brandenburg-Prussia ultimately came to an end in 1699. In the mid-17th century a Swedish invasion rolled through the country in the turbulent time known as "The Deluge" (potop).

Poles often call themselves the nation of the free people. Since that time Poles have regarded freedom as their most important value. Landowners gained almost unlimited ownership over serfs. The citizens of Poland took pride in their ancient freedoms and Sejm parliamentary system, although the szlachta monopolised most of the benefits as most of Poles since the middle of the fourteenth century were serfs.

A golden age occurred in the 16th century during its union (Lublin Union) with Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Under the Jagiellon dynasty, Poland forged an alliance with its neighbour Lithuania. Teeple, ISBN 0-7894-8926-0 www.dk.com Dorling Kindersley). The only areas which escaped were Milan, Poland, Belgium, eastern Germany and part of southwest France." (Page 235 of "Timelines of World History" by John B.

Their fortress there had been besieged by Mongol invaders who had suddenly begun to die of a disease that caused black, blood-oozing swellings and immense pain....By 1351, it had spread over most of Europe. Luckily, the Black Death which affected most parts of Europe from 1347 to 1351 did not come to Poland: "One of the greatest calamities in European history began in 1347 when bubonic plague struck, brought to Italy, it is thought, by a group of Genoese returning home through Sicily and Pisa from Kaffa in the Crimea. His son Kazimierz Wielki repaired the Polish economy, built new castles and won the war against the Russian dukedom (Lwów became a Polish City). In 1320 Władysław I became the King of the reunified Poland.

In the 12th century Poland fragmented into several smaller states, which were later ravaged by the Mongol armies of the Golden Horde in 1241. Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I, was baptized in 966, adopting Catholic Christianity as the country's new official religion, to which the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next century. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. It gave rise to an alternative name for "Pole": Lęch, Lęchowie in Old Church Slavonic, Lechia, Lechites in Latin, Lach in Ruthenian, Lyakh in Russian, as well as to old German Lechien, Hungarian Lengyelorszag, Lengyel, Lithuanian Lenkija, lenkas and Turkish Lechistan (from Persian Lehestan).

Parallel to this terminology, another one, Lechia, came into use, thought to derive from the tribe name Lędzianie. This is because the Polanie could be descendants of West-Slavs from the South like Serbs, as the above source states. From the source, listed above, there is shown a connection between the people of the South-West Slavic group (such as Serbs) and Poles. Poles belong as a separate category in the Lechitic subgroup of the West-Slavic people.

In the tenth century their king was converted to Christianity." To be accurate we must confess, that ruler which was first converted to Christianity wasn't a king at all - it is said he was only a prince (we are talking about Mieszko I). The text reads that "...In the seventh and eighth centuries AD, Slavic peoples from the south-known as Polonie, or plain-dwellers-occupied most of Poland. ISBN 1-55192-413-7. The quoted text is taken from "Geographica's Pocket: World Reference" located on page 549.

This is an informative source as to the origins of the name Poland, in Polish: Polska. In old Latin chronicles the terms terra Poloniae (land of Poland) or Regnum Poloniae (kingdom of Poland) appear. The conventional etymology of the ethnic name of the Poles relates it to these Polish Polanie, "dwellers of the field"; pole, "field", analogous to Russian polyî, "open land", from Indo-European pelè-, "flat" + -anie, "inhabitants", analogous to Latin -anus, "originating from" (please compare Yuriev-Polsky). Common opinion holds that the name Polska comes from the Slavic Polanie tribe who established the Polish state in the 10th century (Greater Poland).

Their name derives from the tribal name Polanie - people living around Lake Gopło - the cradle of Poland mentioned as Glopeani having 400 strongholds circa 845 (Bavarian Geographer). The names of the country, Polska, and of the nationality, the Poles, are of Slavic origin. Poland's official name in Polish is Rzeczpospolita Polska. .

In 1999 Poland acceded to NATO, and in 2004 it joined the European Union. The current Third Polish Republic was established, followed a few years later by the drafting of a new constitution in 1997. In 1989 the first partially-free elections in Poland's post-World War II history concluded the Solidarity (Solidarność) movement's struggle for freedom and resulted in the defeat of Poland's communist rulers. Following the Second World War it became a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union known as the People's Republic of Poland.

It regained independence in 1918 in the aftermath of the First World War as the Second Polish Republic. Soon afterwards, the country ceased to exist after being partitioned by its neighbours Russia, Austria, and Prussia. In 1791 the Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth adopted the Constitution of May 3, Europe's first modern codified constitution, and the second in the world after the Constitution of the United States. The Polish state was formed over 1,000 years ago under the Piast dynasty, and reached its golden age near the end of the 16th century under the Jagiellonian dynasty, when Poland was one of the largest, wealthiest, and most powerful countries in Europe.

The Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska) is a country located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north. Index of Economic Freedom 2005: Rank 41st out of 155 countries. Reporters Without Borders world-wide press freedom index 2004: Rank 32nd out of 167 countries. Human Development Index 2005: Rank 36th out of 177 countries.

Słowiński Park Narodowy (highest sand hills). Gothic Wooden Chruches in Subcarpathian and Lesser Poland Voivodships. Białowieża Forest (National Park - largest remaining primeval forest in Europe). Kalwaria Zebrzydowska (Pilgrim´s Place).

Świdnica (Baroque Peace Chruch). Jawor (Baroque Peace Church). Oświęcim (Auschwitz concentration camp). Toruń (Gothic Town).

Zamość (Renaissance Town). Malbork (Biggest Brick Stone Castle). Wieliczka (Salt mine). Kraków (Old Town).

Warszawa (Old Town). The principal ports and harbours are: Port of Gdańsk, Port of Gdynia, Port of Szczecin, Port of Świnoujście, Port of Ustka, Port of Kolobrzeg, Gliwice, Warsaw, Wrocław. The merchant marine consists of 114 ships, with an additional 100 ships registered outside the country. Marine: The total length of navigable rivers and canals is 3,812 kilometres (2,369 mi).

The number of passengers at Polish airports has consistently increased since 1991. Air: Poland has eight major airports (in decreasing order of traffic: Warsaw, Kraków, Katowice, Gdańsk, Poznań, Wrocław, Szczecin, Bydgoszcz and Rzeszów), a total of 123 airports and airfields, as well as three heliports. There are a total of 9,283,000 registered passenger automobiles, as well as 1,762,000 registered trucks and buses (2000). The total length of expressways/highways is 364,657 kilometres (226,587 mi).

The Government has undertaken a programme to improve the standard of a number of significant national highways by 2013. Road: By Western European standards, Poland has a relatively poor infrastructure of expressways/highways. [5]. Refurbishment of the network has commenced to bring standards into line with western European railway networks.

Rail: The Polish State Railways (PKP) is one of the larger railway systems of central and western Europe, with 23,420 kilometres (14,552 mi) in its network (1998). Telephones - main lines in use: 12.5 million (Raport Telecom Team 2005). Telephones - mobile cellular: 25.3 million (Raport Telecom Team 2005). 2005: Q1 - 2.1% | Q2 - 2.8% | Q3 - 3.7% | Q4 - 4.4%.

2004: Q1 - 6.9% | Q2 - 6.1% | Q3 - 4.8% | Q4 - 4.9%. 2003: Q1 - 2.2% | Q2 - 3.8% | Q3 - 4.7% | Q4 - 4.7%. gminas (commune). powiats (counties).

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