Kiss

The Kiss by Francesco Hayez, 19th century.

A kiss (from Old English cyssan "to kiss", in turn from coss "a kiss", perhaps onomatopoeic) is the touching of the lips to some other thing, usually another person. Science of kissing is called Philematology.

Kissing is a learned behaviour, related to the grooming behaviour seen between other animals. Many non-human primates also exhibit kissing behaviour.

Kissing as affection

In modern Western culture, kissing is most commonly an expression of affection.

Between people of close acquaintance, a kiss, often reciprocal, is offered as a greeting or a good-bye. This kind of kiss is typically made by brief contact of puckered lips to the skin of the cheek or no contact at all, and merely performed in the air near the cheek with the cheeks touching. Such kissing is a common greeting in European and Latin American countries between a man and a woman or between two women. Relatives may kiss children to comfort them or show affection, and vice versa.

As an expression of romantic affection or sexual desire, kissing involves two people kissing one another on the lips, usually with much more intensity, and for a considerably longer period of time. In more passionate kissing couples may open their mouths, suck on each others' lips, or move their tongues into each others' mouths (see French kissing). Sexualized kissing may also involve one person kissing another on various parts of the body.

In romantic and sexual kissing, the physical sensations are often of primary importance.

Kissing as symbolism

A symbolic kiss

When not an expression of affection, a kiss is a largely symbolic gesture in that the purpose of the kiss is to convey a meaning, such as salutations or subordination, rather than to experience the physical sensations associated with kissing. Kisses on the cheek as salutations are traditional in many parts of continental Europe, and the number of kisses, alternating cheeks, depends on which region one comes from.

Kissing may also be used to signify reverence and subordination, as in kissing the ring of a king or pope. A kiss can also be rude or done for the sake of irritating or proving one's superiority. A rude kiss or a kiss with a smack is referred to, in the USA, as a buss.

A more ominous use of the kiss is as a symbol of condemnation as may be observed when a crime lord kisses an underling, in effect imposing a sentence of death upon that person, the ultimate "goodbye kiss" or the "kiss of death."

The term Kissing Hands is used to formally describe the appointment of the senior state figures to office by British monarchs. Though in the past, the monarch's hand was actually kissed, this is no longer so. When figures such as the British Prime Minister, cabinet members and diplomatics are formally appointed, they are said to have Kissed Hands. (Kissing the hand is still practised as a romantic flourish, especially in Latin countries.)

Man kissing boy
Miyagawa Isshô, ca. 1750; One of ten panels on shudo themes from a shunga-style painted hand scroll. Private collection.

Other uses

The term is also used for expressions of affection that do not involve the lips. The "Eskimo Kiss" is executed by the two individuals gently rubbing the tips of their noses together — in the Maori culture of New Zealand this is called a hongi. A "butterfly kiss" consists of two people putting their eyes close to each other and fluttering their eyelashes upon one another's.

A kiss can be "blown" using actions of the hand and the mouth. This is used to convey affection usually while parting, when the partners are physically distant but can view each other. Blown kisses are also used when a popular person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience.

The kiss does not exist in all cultures, as certain societies find it repugnant.

Young couple kiss in Minnesota, 1900

Asymmetry in kissing

In order to avoid clashing noses, a couple will often turn their faces to one side or another when kissing, so that their heads are at an angle from one another. Often, to make this more comfortable, one person, sitting upright, will support another, perhaps across their lap and in their arms, thus combining hugging and kissing. The person supporting the other is most likely taking the more active role in kissing the other. Writing in Nature, psychologist Oner Güntürkün observed couples kissing in public places such as airports and parks, and showed that the direction of turning is more frequently to the right than the left by a 2:1 ratio. Güntürkün ascribed this asymmetry to a neonatal right side preference.

(data from Nature 421, 711 (13 February 2003); doi:10.1038/421711a)

The anatomy of kissing

Kissing is a complex behaviour that requires significant coordination. The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle; it is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the kissing muscle. The tongue can also be an important part of the kiss.

The Kiss by Gustav Klimt.

Kisses in history, art and literature

  • In the gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss — a subversive use of the kiss, as it is a symbol of affection.
  • The last words of British naval commander Horatio, Lord Nelson, are said to have been 'Kiss me Hardy!' to one of his subordinates.
  • In the fairytale Sleeping Beauty and the Greek myth of Pygmalion and Galatea, a romantic kiss is used by a male to awaken or breathe life into a female, which feminist critics have interpreted as symbolising the suspect idea that women don't have much of a life unless their sexuality is awakened through the attention of men. The Matrix turns the tables on this motif when Trinity kisses the sleeping main character Neo, bringing him back to life at the end of the movie.
  • In the Frog Prince fairytale, it is the male who is transformed from frog to man by a romantic kiss.
  • Gustav Klimt painted a work entitled The Kiss.
  • The Turkish 1997 hit song Simarik has a chorus that ends with two kiss sounds. The Australian cover version is even titled Kiss Kiss.
  • Auguste Rodin created the sculpture The Kiss (Le Baiser).
  • In Lady and the Tramp, while Lady and Tramp were both eating the end of a noodle at the same time, their lips end up touching.

Trivia

  • The longest recorded kiss took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, on April 5, 1999, between Karmit Tsubera and Dror Orpaz. It lasted 30 hours and 45 minutes.

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The tongue can also be an important part of the kiss. The following is a list, divided in historical periods, of the greatest players in the history of Juventus. The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle; it is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the kissing muscle. In terms of league championships (called Albo d'Oro (palmarés) ), the club is the most successful in Italian football. Kissing is a complex behaviour that requires significant coordination. As of January 31, 2006. (data from Nature 421, 711 (13 February 2003); doi:10.1038/421711a). .

Güntürkün ascribed this asymmetry to a neonatal right side preference. The previous record holder was Giampiero Boniperti, who scored 182 goals for the club. Writing in Nature, psychologist Oner Güntürkün observed couples kissing in public places such as airports and parks, and showed that the direction of turning is more frequently to the right than the left by a 2:1 ratio. On January 10, 2006 Alessandro Del Piero became the all time leading goalscorer for Juventus when he scored three times in a match against Fiorentina and took his total goals for the club to 185. The person supporting the other is most likely taking the more active role in kissing the other. The sale of Zinedine Zidane to Real Madrid of Spain was the most expensive in football to date, costing the Spanish club over $64 million (US), which is accurately £48 million. Often, to make this more comfortable, one person, sitting upright, will support another, perhaps across their lap and in their arms, thus combining hugging and kissing. Juventus is now a corporation, listed on the Borsa Italiana.

In order to avoid clashing noses, a couple will often turn their faces to one side or another when kissing, so that their heads are at an angle from one another. In fact, Juventus won the Italian Championship 28 times, more than any other Italian club; no other club has won the championship over 20 times, but the closest one to that objective is AC Milan. The kiss does not exist in all cultures, as certain societies find it repugnant. The two stars on the Juventus shirt signify they have won the Scudetto over 20 times. Blown kisses are also used when a popular person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience. Most of its players remained with Juventus until the end of their careers; many still work for the club or for Fiat (or related companies). This is used to convey affection usually while parting, when the partners are physically distant but can view each other. Until recently, Juventus' players had to wear short (and regular) hair; the club also provided the team with official formal wear (made by famous tailors) and forced them to complete their educational studies.

A kiss can be "blown" using actions of the hand and the mouth. The club is also one of only four to have won all three major European trophies. A "butterfly kiss" consists of two people putting their eyes close to each other and fluttering their eyelashes upon one another's. They have won 28 Italian titles and nine Coppa Italias to date, both national records. The "Eskimo Kiss" is executed by the two individuals gently rubbing the tips of their noses together — in the Maori culture of New Zealand this is called a hongi. However, in 1999, due to their poor domestic season, they were forced into the ignominy of entering the UEFA Intertoto Cup in order to qualify for Europe. The term is also used for expressions of affection that do not involve the lips. Juventus also won the Cup Winners' Cup in 1984 and two more UEFA Cup (1990, 1993).

(Kissing the hand is still practised as a romantic flourish, especially in Latin countries.). Juventus repeated the success by winning the Champions League for a second time in 1996, and have not won it again since, the closest chance being when they lost to AC Milan in the 2003 final due to losing in a penalty shootout. When figures such as the British Prime Minister, cabinet members and diplomatics are formally appointed, they are said to have Kissed Hands. The height of European success was not reached until 1985, when they won the European Champions Cup, but this success was largely overshadowed by the Heysel disaster that had occurred during the final between Juventus and Liverpool. Though in the past, the monarch's hand was actually kissed, this is no longer so. Post-war the club was very successful domestically, winning its tenth championship in 1961, but did not win any European titles until 1977 with the UEFA Cup. The term Kissing Hands is used to formally describe the appointment of the senior state figures to office by British monarchs. In 1933, they began playing at the Stadio Comunale.

A more ominous use of the kiss is as a symbol of condemnation as may be observed when a crime lord kisses an underling, in effect imposing a sentence of death upon that person, the ultimate "goodbye kiss" or the "kiss of death.". From 1931, the club won five consecutive Italian league championships (Italian scudetto). A rude kiss or a kiss with a smack is referred to, in the USA, as a buss. In 1923, the Agnelli family (owners of Fiat) gained control of the club, and built a private stadium in Villar Perosa (near Turin) and a complete series of facilities and services. A kiss can also be rude or done for the sake of irritating or proving one's superiority. The team won a previous version of the national league titles as early as 1905, but did not win their second until 1926. Kissing may also be used to signify reverence and subordination, as in kissing the ring of a king or pope. was founded in November 1897 by students from Massimo D'Azeglio Lyceum, in a "legendary" bench in one of Turin's boulevard, Re Umberto boulevard.

Kisses on the cheek as salutations are traditional in many parts of continental Europe, and the number of kisses, alternating cheeks, depends on which region one comes from. Juventus F.C. When not an expression of affection, a kiss is a largely symbolic gesture in that the purpose of the kiss is to convey a meaning, such as salutations or subordination, rather than to experience the physical sensations associated with kissing. This arrangement will end after the 2004–05 season, when Torino Calcio will open a new ground of its own. In romantic and sexual kissing, the physical sensations are often of primary importance. The club's stadium is the 69,041-seat Stadio Delle Alpi, which it currently shares with Torino Calcio. Sexualized kissing may also involve one person kissing another on various parts of the body. When the club decided to change these, it was decided to import kits in the red of Nottingham Forest, but a mix-up by the supplier meant that the team got the Notts County black and white instead.

In more passionate kissing couples may open their mouths, suck on each others' lips, or move their tongues into each others' mouths (see French kissing). Originally the team played in pink shirts (pink being the cheapest material available) with a black tie. As an expression of romantic affection or sexual desire, kissing involves two people kissing one another on the lips, usually with much more intensity, and for a considerably longer period of time. The team gets its black-and-white striped kits from English side Notts County. Relatives may kiss children to comfort them or show affection, and vice versa. The team typically plays in black-and-white striped shirts and black shorts (but for decades in white shorts), and is nicknamed la Vecchia Signora (the Old Lady), bianconeri (black-and-white's), zebre (zebras), or deprecatively gobbi (humpbacks) by the opponents. Such kissing is a common greeting in European and Latin American countries between a man and a woman or between two women. Juventus are widely regarded as one of the world's top clubs.

This kind of kiss is typically made by brief contact of puckered lips to the skin of the cheek or no contact at all, and merely performed in the air near the cheek with the cheeks touching. It competes in Serie A. Between people of close acquaintance, a kiss, often reciprocal, is offered as a greeting or a good-bye. Juventus Football Club (Latin for Youth, pronounced yoo-VEHN-toos) is one of Italy's oldest and greatest football clubs, based in Turin, Piedmont. In modern Western culture, kissing is most commonly an expression of affection. Robert Kovac. . David Trézéguet.

Many non-human primates also exhibit kissing behaviour. Mauro Camoranesi. Kissing is a learned behaviour, related to the grooming behaviour seen between other animals. Lilian Thuram. Science of kissing is called Philematology. Fabio Cannavaro. A kiss (from Old English cyssan "to kiss", in turn from coss "a kiss", perhaps onomatopoeic) is the touching of the lips to some other thing, usually another person. Zlatan Ibrahimović.

It lasted 30 hours and 45 minutes. Pavel Nedvěd. The longest recorded kiss took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, on April 5, 1999, between Karmit Tsubera and Dror Orpaz. Patrick Vieira. In Lady and the Tramp, while Lady and Tramp were both eating the end of a noodle at the same time, their lips end up touching. Emerson. Auguste Rodin created the sculpture The Kiss (Le Baiser). Gianluca Zambrotta.

The Australian cover version is even titled Kiss Kiss. Gianluigi Buffon. The Turkish 1997 hit song Simarik has a chorus that ends with two kiss sounds. Alen Boksic. Gustav Klimt painted a work entitled The Kiss. Paolo Montero. In the Frog Prince fairytale, it is the male who is transformed from frog to man by a romantic kiss. Edgar Davids.

The Matrix turns the tables on this motif when Trinity kisses the sleeping main character Neo, bringing him back to life at the end of the movie. Filippo Inzaghi. In the fairytale Sleeping Beauty and the Greek myth of Pygmalion and Galatea, a romantic kiss is used by a male to awaken or breathe life into a female, which feminist critics have interpreted as symbolising the suspect idea that women don't have much of a life unless their sexuality is awakened through the attention of men. Christian Vieri. The last words of British naval commander Horatio, Lord Nelson, are said to have been 'Kiss me Hardy!' to one of his subordinates. Antonio Conte. In the gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss — a subversive use of the kiss, as it is a symbol of affection. Fabrizio Ravanelli.

Alessandro Del Piero. Angelo Di Livio. Roberto Baggio. Gianluca Vialli.

Zinédine Zidane. Didier Deschamps. Ciro Ferrara. Angelo Peruzzi.

Paolo Rossi. Marco Tardelli. Franco Causio. Gaetano Scirea.

Antonio Cabrini. Claudio Gentile. Dino Zoff. Andreas Möller.

Stefan Reuter. Thomas Häßler. Jürgen Kohler. Michael Laudrup.

Stefano Tacconi. Liam Brady. Michel Platini. Zbigniew Boniek.

Franco Causio. Pietro Anastasi. Giuseppe Furino. Fabio Capello.

Antonello Cuccureddu. Roberto Bettega. Roberto Boninsegna. Helmut Haller.

Luis Del Sol. José Altafini. John Charles. Omar Sivori.

Giampiero Boniperti. Ermes Muccinelli. Carlo Parola. Felice Borel.

Giovanni Ferrari. Luis Monti. Raimundo Orsi. Umberto Caligaris.

Virginio Rosetta. Giampiero Combi. First team in Europe to win Champions League/Cup Winners Cup/UEFA Cup. 1985, 1996.

Intercontinental Cups: 2

    . 1999. Intertoto Cups: 1
      . 1985, 1996.

      European Super Cups: 2

        . 1976-77, 1989-90, 1992-93. UEFA Cups: 3
          . 1983-84.

          Cup Winners' Cups: 1

            . 1984-85, 1995-96. European Cups: 2
              . 1995, 1997, 2002, 2003.

              Italian Supercups: 4

                . 1937-38, 1941-42, 1958-59, 1959-60, 1964-65, 1978-79, 1982-83, 1989-90, 1994-95. Italian Cups: 9
                  . 1905, 1925-26, 1930-31, 1931-32, 1932-33, 1933-34, 1934-35, 1949-50, 1951-52, 1957-58, 1959-60, 1960-61, 1966-67, 1971-72, 1972-73, 1974-75, 1976-77, 1977-78, 1980-81, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1994-95, 1996-97, 1997-98, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2004-05.

                  Italian Championships: 28

                    .

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