Kiss

The Kiss by Francesco Hayez, 19th century.

A kiss (from Old English cyssan "to kiss", in turn from coss "a kiss", perhaps onomatopoeic) is the touching of the lips to some other thing, usually another person. Science of kissing is called Philematology.

Kissing is a learned behaviour, related to the grooming behaviour seen between other animals. Many non-human primates also exhibit kissing behaviour.

Kissing as affection

In modern Western culture, kissing is most commonly an expression of affection.

Between people of close acquaintance, a kiss, often reciprocal, is offered as a greeting or a good-bye. This kind of kiss is typically made by brief contact of puckered lips to the skin of the cheek or no contact at all, and merely performed in the air near the cheek with the cheeks touching. Such kissing is a common greeting in European and Latin American countries between a man and a woman or between two women. Relatives may kiss children to comfort them or show affection, and vice versa.

As an expression of romantic affection or sexual desire, kissing involves two people kissing one another on the lips, usually with much more intensity, and for a considerably longer period of time. In more passionate kissing couples may open their mouths, suck on each others' lips, or move their tongues into each others' mouths (see French kissing). Sexualized kissing may also involve one person kissing another on various parts of the body.

In romantic and sexual kissing, the physical sensations are often of primary importance.

Kissing as symbolism

A symbolic kiss

When not an expression of affection, a kiss is a largely symbolic gesture in that the purpose of the kiss is to convey a meaning, such as salutations or subordination, rather than to experience the physical sensations associated with kissing. Kisses on the cheek as salutations are traditional in many parts of continental Europe, and the number of kisses, alternating cheeks, depends on which region one comes from.

Kissing may also be used to signify reverence and subordination, as in kissing the ring of a king or pope. A kiss can also be rude or done for the sake of irritating or proving one's superiority. A rude kiss or a kiss with a smack is referred to, in the USA, as a buss.

A more ominous use of the kiss is as a symbol of condemnation as may be observed when a crime lord kisses an underling, in effect imposing a sentence of death upon that person, the ultimate "goodbye kiss" or the "kiss of death."

The term Kissing Hands is used to formally describe the appointment of the senior state figures to office by British monarchs. Though in the past, the monarch's hand was actually kissed, this is no longer so. When figures such as the British Prime Minister, cabinet members and diplomatics are formally appointed, they are said to have Kissed Hands. (Kissing the hand is still practised as a romantic flourish, especially in Latin countries.)

Man kissing boy
Miyagawa Isshô, ca. 1750; One of ten panels on shudo themes from a shunga-style painted hand scroll. Private collection.

Other uses

The term is also used for expressions of affection that do not involve the lips. The "Eskimo Kiss" is executed by the two individuals gently rubbing the tips of their noses together — in the Maori culture of New Zealand this is called a hongi. A "butterfly kiss" consists of two people putting their eyes close to each other and fluttering their eyelashes upon one another's.

A kiss can be "blown" using actions of the hand and the mouth. This is used to convey affection usually while parting, when the partners are physically distant but can view each other. Blown kisses are also used when a popular person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience.

The kiss does not exist in all cultures, as certain societies find it repugnant.

Young couple kiss in Minnesota, 1900

Asymmetry in kissing

In order to avoid clashing noses, a couple will often turn their faces to one side or another when kissing, so that their heads are at an angle from one another. Often, to make this more comfortable, one person, sitting upright, will support another, perhaps across their lap and in their arms, thus combining hugging and kissing. The person supporting the other is most likely taking the more active role in kissing the other. Writing in Nature, psychologist Oner Güntürkün observed couples kissing in public places such as airports and parks, and showed that the direction of turning is more frequently to the right than the left by a 2:1 ratio. Güntürkün ascribed this asymmetry to a neonatal right side preference.

(data from Nature 421, 711 (13 February 2003); doi:10.1038/421711a)

The anatomy of kissing

Kissing is a complex behaviour that requires significant coordination. The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle; it is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the kissing muscle. The tongue can also be an important part of the kiss.

The Kiss by Gustav Klimt.

Kisses in history, art and literature

  • In the gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss — a subversive use of the kiss, as it is a symbol of affection.
  • The last words of British naval commander Horatio, Lord Nelson, are said to have been 'Kiss me Hardy!' to one of his subordinates.
  • In the fairytale Sleeping Beauty and the Greek myth of Pygmalion and Galatea, a romantic kiss is used by a male to awaken or breathe life into a female, which feminist critics have interpreted as symbolising the suspect idea that women don't have much of a life unless their sexuality is awakened through the attention of men. The Matrix turns the tables on this motif when Trinity kisses the sleeping main character Neo, bringing him back to life at the end of the movie.
  • In the Frog Prince fairytale, it is the male who is transformed from frog to man by a romantic kiss.
  • Gustav Klimt painted a work entitled The Kiss.
  • The Turkish 1997 hit song Simarik has a chorus that ends with two kiss sounds. The Australian cover version is even titled Kiss Kiss.
  • Auguste Rodin created the sculpture The Kiss (Le Baiser).
  • In Lady and the Tramp, while Lady and Tramp were both eating the end of a noodle at the same time, their lips end up touching.

Trivia

  • The longest recorded kiss took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, on April 5, 1999, between Karmit Tsubera and Dror Orpaz. It lasted 30 hours and 45 minutes.

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The tongue can also be an important part of the kiss. On return to his home soil in Australia, McLean's film was nominated for Best Sound Design (short film) for the prestigious AFI (Australian Film Institute) awards in 2002. The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle; it is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the kissing muscle. The short film took out the "Best Director" award in October 2001 at the International and Independent Film and Video festival in New York. Kissing is a complex behaviour that requires significant coordination. The relationship runs the gauntlet of intrigue through to the sinister. (data from Nature 421, 711 (13 February 2003); doi:10.1038/421711a). The film was described by its writer as a mystery/drama, and it concerns a man who while surfing the ICQ network comes across a woman whose acquaintance he could well have done without.

Güntürkün ascribed this asymmetry to a neonatal right side preference. A short film about ICQ was written in 2001 called ICQ and was written by Greg McLean, who later wrote Wolf Creek. Writing in Nature, psychologist Oner Güntürkün observed couples kissing in public places such as airports and parks, and showed that the direction of turning is more frequently to the right than the left by a 2:1 ratio. Users on ICQ are able to communicate with AIM users; however, such capability is in beta stages. The person supporting the other is most likely taking the more active role in kissing the other. AOL has recently begun making its ICQ software more AIM-like by adding AIM Smilies, as well as introducing cross AIM/ICQ communication. Often, to make this more comfortable, one person, sitting upright, will support another, perhaps across their lap and in their arms, thus combining hugging and kissing. AOL's OSCAR network protocol used by ICQ is proprietary, but a number of people have created more or less compatible third-party clients, including:.

In order to avoid clashing noses, a couple will often turn their faces to one side or another when kissing, so that their heads are at an angle from one another. Both programs are no longer available to download. The kiss does not exist in all cultures, as certain societies find it repugnant. Spinoffs of ICQ included a corporate version for the workplace (named ICQ Groupware), and ICQ Surf, which displayed a list of other ICQ users who also happened to be surfing on the same website as you were. Blown kisses are also used when a popular person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience. However, ever since AOL's involvement, development of ICQ Pro 2003 had effectively been left abandoned, to the disappointment of veteran users of ICQ. This is used to convey affection usually while parting, when the partners are physically distant but can view each other. ICQ Pro came about since the emergence of ICQ Lite to differentiate between the two available clients.

A kiss can be "blown" using actions of the hand and the mouth. Users have by and large migrated to the competition: MSN Messenger, Yahoo Messenger, AIM, and Skype. A "butterfly kiss" consists of two people putting their eyes close to each other and fluttering their eyelashes upon one another's. Although innovative at the start, the general trend of ICQ updates has been towards bloatware. The "Eskimo Kiss" is executed by the two individuals gently rubbing the tips of their noses together — in the Maori culture of New Zealand this is called a hongi. ICQ Lite was originally an idea to offer the lighter users of instant messaging an alternative client which was a smaller download and less resource-hungry for the (then) relatively slow computers. The term is also used for expressions of affection that do not involve the lips. ICQ 5, released on Monday, February 7, 2005, was an upgrade on ICQ Lite - a divergence from the main ICQ program that has an big addition - Xtraz, which now offers games and features appealing to the younger users of the internet.

(Kissing the hand is still practised as a romantic flourish, especially in Latin countries.). In June 2004 ICQ celebrated its 300 millionth download from download.com where it remained the most popular program for 7 consecutive years. When figures such as the British Prime Minister, cabinet members and diplomatics are formally appointed, they are said to have Kissed Hands. On December 19, 2002, AOL Time Warner announced that ICQ had been issued a United States patent for instant messaging. Though in the past, the monarch's hand was actually kissed, this is no longer so. America Online (AOL) acquired Mirabilis on June 8, 1998 for $287 million in cash. The term Kissing Hands is used to formally describe the appointment of the senior state figures to office by British monarchs. After AOL bought it, it was managed by Ariel Yarnitsky and Avi Shechter.

A more ominous use of the kiss is as a symbol of condemnation as may be observed when a crime lord kisses an underling, in effect imposing a sentence of death upon that person, the ultimate "goodbye kiss" or the "kiss of death.". ICQ was developed in 1996 by Mirabilis, the creators of the first fully functional internet-wide Instant messenger comprising presence, buddy list and rapid messaging was founded by four young Israelis: Yair Goldfinger, Arik Vardi, Sefi Vigiser and Amnon Amir. A rude kiss or a kiss with a smack is referred to, in the USA, as a buss. New users are now given a UIN of well over 300,000,000, and low numbers (six digits or fewer) have been auctioned on eBay by users who signed up in ICQ's early days. A kiss can also be rude or done for the sake of irritating or proving one's superiority. ICQ users are identified by numbers called UIN, distributed in sequential order (though it is rumored there are gaps in the sequence). Kissing may also be used to signify reverence and subordination, as in kissing the ring of a king or pope. Instead, they have targeted younger users with an avalanche of colors, avatars, and animations.

Kisses on the cheek as salutations are traditional in many parts of continental Europe, and the number of kisses, alternating cheeks, depends on which region one comes from. Even though such features have been available since around 2000, many of the main competitors such as AOL Instant Messenger, MSN Messenger and Yahoo! Messenger have failed to implement such power-user oriented features even to this day. When not an expression of affection, a kiss is a largely symbolic gesture in that the purpose of the kiss is to convey a meaning, such as salutations or subordination, rather than to experience the physical sensations associated with kissing. Other features included a searchable user directory and POP3 email support. In romantic and sexual kissing, the physical sensations are often of primary importance. ICQ allows the sending of text messages with offline support, URLs, multi-user character-by-character chats, resumable file transfers, SMSes, greeting cards and more. Sexualized kissing may also involve one person kissing another on various parts of the body. .

In more passionate kissing couples may open their mouths, suck on each others' lips, or move their tongues into each others' mouths (see French kissing). The name ICQ is a play on the phrase "I seek you". As an expression of romantic affection or sexual desire, kissing involves two people kissing one another on the lips, usually with much more intensity, and for a considerably longer period of time. patent office. Relatives may kiss children to comfort them or show affection, and vice versa. ICQ was awarded two major patents by the U.S. Such kissing is a common greeting in European and Latin American countries between a man and a woman or between two women. The program was first released in November 1996, and was the first all-internet instant messaging program.

This kind of kiss is typically made by brief contact of puckered lips to the skin of the cheek or no contact at all, and merely performed in the air near the cheek with the cheeks touching. ICQ is an instant messaging computer program, created by Mirabilis, an Israeli start-up company based in Tel-Aviv. Between people of close acquaintance, a kiss, often reciprocal, is offered as a greeting or a good-bye. &RQ (ICQ) - Support ICQ only , available in Russian and English only. In modern Western culture, kissing is most commonly an expression of affection. YSM - text-based. . Yeemp - supports ICQ, AIM, and Yeemp.

Many non-human primates also exhibit kissing behaviour. Trillian - supports ICQ, Yahoo!, AIM, MSN, IRC, Jabber and others. Kissing is a learned behaviour, related to the grooming behaviour seen between other animals. stICQ - supports ICQ, for Symbian OS. Science of kissing is called Philematology. Proteus - supports ICQ, Yahoo!, Yahoo Japan!, AIM, MSN, Jabber and iChat Rendezvous, for Mac OS X. A kiss (from Old English cyssan "to kiss", in turn from coss "a kiss", perhaps onomatopoeic) is the touching of the lips to some other thing, usually another person. For MS Windows only.

It lasted 30 hours and 45 minutes. Miranda IM - plugin based, supports ICQ, Yahoo!, AIM, MSN, IRC, Jabber, Gadu-Gadu, BNet, and others. The longest recorded kiss took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, on April 5, 1999, between Karmit Tsubera and Dror Orpaz. mICQ - text-based. In Lady and the Tramp, while Lady and Tramp were both eating the end of a noodle at the same time, their lips end up touching. Licq. Auguste Rodin created the sculpture The Kiss (Le Baiser). Kopete.

The Australian cover version is even titled Kiss Kiss. Jimm (J2ME client, previously "Mobicq"). The Turkish 1997 hit song Simarik has a chorus that ends with two kiss sounds. Jabber (Official site) / (*More competing Jabber-powered clients). Gustav Klimt painted a work entitled The Kiss. GnomeICU (previously GtkICQ). In the Frog Prince fairytale, it is the male who is transformed from frog to man by a romantic kiss. Gaim - supports ICQ, Yahoo!, AIM, MSN, IRC, Jabber, Gadu-Gadu and SILC.

The Matrix turns the tables on this motif when Trinity kisses the sleeping main character Neo, bringing him back to life at the end of the movie. Fire - supports ICQ, Yahoo!, AIM, MSN, IRC, and Jabber, for Mac OS X. In the fairytale Sleeping Beauty and the Greek myth of Pygmalion and Galatea, a romantic kiss is used by a male to awaken or breathe life into a female, which feminist critics have interpreted as symbolising the suspect idea that women don't have much of a life unless their sexuality is awakened through the attention of men. Easy Message (http://www.easymessage.net/) - Small instant messenger (250kb), supports MSN, AOL, ICQ, and Yahoo. The last words of British naval commander Horatio, Lord Nelson, are said to have been 'Kiss me Hardy!' to one of his subordinates. centericq - supports ICQ, Yahoo!, AIM, MSN, IRC and Jabber, text-based. In the gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss — a subversive use of the kiss, as it is a symbol of affection. Ayttm - supports ICQ, Yahoo!, AIM, MSN, IRC, and Jabber.

Adium - supports ICQ, Yahoo!, AIM, MSN and Jabber, for Mac OS X.

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