Kiss

The Kiss by Francesco Hayez, 19th century.

A kiss (from Old English cyssan "to kiss", in turn from coss "a kiss", perhaps onomatopoeic) is the touching of the lips to some other thing, usually another person. Science of kissing is called Philematology.

Kissing is a learned behaviour, related to the grooming behaviour seen between other animals. Many non-human primates also exhibit kissing behaviour.

Kissing as affection

In modern Western culture, kissing is most commonly an expression of affection.

Between people of close acquaintance, a kiss, often reciprocal, is offered as a greeting or a good-bye. This kind of kiss is typically made by brief contact of puckered lips to the skin of the cheek or no contact at all, and merely performed in the air near the cheek with the cheeks touching. Such kissing is a common greeting in European and Latin American countries between a man and a woman or between two women. Relatives may kiss children to comfort them or show affection, and vice versa.

As an expression of romantic affection or sexual desire, kissing involves two people kissing one another on the lips, usually with much more intensity, and for a considerably longer period of time. In more passionate kissing couples may open their mouths, suck on each others' lips, or move their tongues into each others' mouths (see French kissing). Sexualized kissing may also involve one person kissing another on various parts of the body.

In romantic and sexual kissing, the physical sensations are often of primary importance.

Kissing as symbolism

A symbolic kiss

When not an expression of affection, a kiss is a largely symbolic gesture in that the purpose of the kiss is to convey a meaning, such as salutations or subordination, rather than to experience the physical sensations associated with kissing. Kisses on the cheek as salutations are traditional in many parts of continental Europe, and the number of kisses, alternating cheeks, depends on which region one comes from.

Kissing may also be used to signify reverence and subordination, as in kissing the ring of a king or pope. A kiss can also be rude or done for the sake of irritating or proving one's superiority. A rude kiss or a kiss with a smack is referred to, in the USA, as a buss.

A more ominous use of the kiss is as a symbol of condemnation as may be observed when a crime lord kisses an underling, in effect imposing a sentence of death upon that person, the ultimate "goodbye kiss" or the "kiss of death."

The term Kissing Hands is used to formally describe the appointment of the senior state figures to office by British monarchs. Though in the past, the monarch's hand was actually kissed, this is no longer so. When figures such as the British Prime Minister, cabinet members and diplomatics are formally appointed, they are said to have Kissed Hands. (Kissing the hand is still practised as a romantic flourish, especially in Latin countries.)

Man kissing boy
Miyagawa Isshô, ca. 1750; One of ten panels on shudo themes from a shunga-style painted hand scroll. Private collection.

Other uses

The term is also used for expressions of affection that do not involve the lips. The "Eskimo Kiss" is executed by the two individuals gently rubbing the tips of their noses together — in the Maori culture of New Zealand this is called a hongi. A "butterfly kiss" consists of two people putting their eyes close to each other and fluttering their eyelashes upon one another's.

A kiss can be "blown" using actions of the hand and the mouth. This is used to convey affection usually while parting, when the partners are physically distant but can view each other. Blown kisses are also used when a popular person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience.

The kiss does not exist in all cultures, as certain societies find it repugnant.

Young couple kiss in Minnesota, 1900

Asymmetry in kissing

In order to avoid clashing noses, a couple will often turn their faces to one side or another when kissing, so that their heads are at an angle from one another. Often, to make this more comfortable, one person, sitting upright, will support another, perhaps across their lap and in their arms, thus combining hugging and kissing. The person supporting the other is most likely taking the more active role in kissing the other. Writing in Nature, psychologist Oner Güntürkün observed couples kissing in public places such as airports and parks, and showed that the direction of turning is more frequently to the right than the left by a 2:1 ratio. Güntürkün ascribed this asymmetry to a neonatal right side preference.

(data from Nature 421, 711 (13 February 2003); doi:10.1038/421711a)

The anatomy of kissing

Kissing is a complex behaviour that requires significant coordination. The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle; it is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the kissing muscle. The tongue can also be an important part of the kiss.

The Kiss by Gustav Klimt.

Kisses in history, art and literature

  • In the gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss — a subversive use of the kiss, as it is a symbol of affection.
  • The last words of British naval commander Horatio, Lord Nelson, are said to have been 'Kiss me Hardy!' to one of his subordinates.
  • In the fairytale Sleeping Beauty and the Greek myth of Pygmalion and Galatea, a romantic kiss is used by a male to awaken or breathe life into a female, which feminist critics have interpreted as symbolising the suspect idea that women don't have much of a life unless their sexuality is awakened through the attention of men. The Matrix turns the tables on this motif when Trinity kisses the sleeping main character Neo, bringing him back to life at the end of the movie.
  • In the Frog Prince fairytale, it is the male who is transformed from frog to man by a romantic kiss.
  • Gustav Klimt painted a work entitled The Kiss.
  • The Turkish 1997 hit song Simarik has a chorus that ends with two kiss sounds. The Australian cover version is even titled Kiss Kiss.
  • Auguste Rodin created the sculpture The Kiss (Le Baiser).
  • In Lady and the Tramp, while Lady and Tramp were both eating the end of a noodle at the same time, their lips end up touching.

Trivia

  • The longest recorded kiss took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, on April 5, 1999, between Karmit Tsubera and Dror Orpaz. It lasted 30 hours and 45 minutes.

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The tongue can also be an important part of the kiss. The exception to this is the controversy over the Teletubbies speech possibly harming the linguistic development of children which had wide media exposure, but ultimately nothing came of it. The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle; it is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the kissing muscle. In the show's native UK most of these controversies either went by largely unnoticed, and indeed reports of the controversies of Tinky Winky's alleged homosexuality and the alleged psychedelic nature of the programme from other countries were met with amusement by the media. Kissing is a complex behaviour that requires significant coordination. Their antennas were hard plastic and understandably a jabbing concern in a slippery, wet tub. (data from Nature 421, 711 (13 February 2003); doi:10.1038/421711a). He was put on a 10 most dangerous toy list, later joined by the Laa-Laa bath toy.

Güntürkün ascribed this asymmetry to a neonatal right side preference. A Boston lawyer once accused Dipsy, as a bath toy, of child endangerment. Writing in Nature, psychologist Oner Güntürkün observed couples kissing in public places such as airports and parks, and showed that the direction of turning is more frequently to the right than the left by a 2:1 ratio. The owners of the series have also been extremely strict in the protection of their copyright and, as such, have refused to allow the Teletubbies characters to be used in school plays or any production outside those commercially controlled by the production company. The person supporting the other is most likely taking the more active role in kissing the other. Other commentators have complained about the "psychedelic" nature of the program, claiming that parts of some episodes resemble drug-induced hallucinations: one episode in which a character is crushed by a falling letter E was taken to be a direct reference to the drug ecstasy. Often, to make this more comfortable, one person, sitting upright, will support another, perhaps across their lap and in their arms, thus combining hugging and kissing. Some parents as a result have forbidden their children to watch the programme; others do allow this but with direct supervision to ensure the children identify only with the 'straight' characters.

In order to avoid clashing noses, a couple will often turn their faces to one side or another when kissing, so that their heads are at an angle from one another. At least one young children's teacher in Brazil conducted experiments involving children's reaction to some episodes, and found they experienced problems with the gender roles of the characters and their own identification with them. The kiss does not exist in all cultures, as certain societies find it repugnant. The most wide-ranging controversy is (as mentioned) the alleged gender confusion caused by Tinky Winky's supposedly homosexual traits. Blown kisses are also used when a popular person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience. In Retarded Animal Babies Bunny brings costumes of his favorite TV show characters, the Telef***ies. This is used to convey affection usually while parting, when the partners are physically distant but can view each other. In the Family Guy episode "A Hero Sits Next Door", Stewie is momentarily hypnotised by the Teletubbies.

A kiss can be "blown" using actions of the hand and the mouth. In the British sitcom The Vicar of Dibley, Alice Tinker has her bridesmaids dressed in Teletubbie costumes for her wedding in the episode Love And Marriage. A "butterfly kiss" consists of two people putting their eyes close to each other and fluttering their eyelashes upon one another's. Notable episodes include Wild Barts Can't Be Broken where Milhouse not only watches the show but owns a pair of Teletubbies underpants, Missionary: Impossible as part of an angry mob who work for PBS, Days of Wine and D'oh'ses where a character called Gaa Gaa says "hurt everyone" which goes unnoticed because of the character's "cute name", and in Lisa the Treehugger the couch gag has The Simpsons as the Teletubbies. The "Eskimo Kiss" is executed by the two individuals gently rubbing the tips of their noses together — in the Maori culture of New Zealand this is called a hongi. Several episodes of The Simpsons contain references to the Teletubbies. The term is also used for expressions of affection that do not involve the lips. At the height of the show's popularity it was heavily parodied.

(Kissing the hand is still practised as a romantic flourish, especially in Latin countries.). The fact that the Teletubbies are in full-body costumes throughout the show made this change, with the exception of the bag, unnoticeable. When figures such as the British Prime Minister, cabinet members and diplomatics are formally appointed, they are said to have Kissed Hands. The producers of the show never conceded that they replaced him because of the controversy regarding the original actor's sexual orientation. Though in the past, the monarch's hand was actually kissed, this is no longer so. Eventually the actor playing Tinky Winky was replaced with another, and the bag was removed. The term Kissing Hands is used to formally describe the appointment of the senior state figures to office by British monarchs. However some of those who knew about the "fai dee, fai dee" in the Cantonese community (people from Southern China and Hong Kong), were still outraged, believing that it created an "overly optimistic" stereotype.

A more ominous use of the kiss is as a symbol of condemnation as may be observed when a crime lord kisses an underling, in effect imposing a sentence of death upon that person, the ultimate "goodbye kiss" or the "kiss of death.". However, this did not stop people from wrongly interpreting the sounds that the original version of the Talking Po doll produced as "faggot faggot," or "fatty fatty," when in fact they were "fai dee, fai dee" (Cantonese for "faster, faster"). A rude kiss or a kiss with a smack is referred to, in the USA, as a buss. To think we would be putting sexual innuendo in a children's show is kind of outlandish.". A kiss can also be rude or done for the sake of irritating or proving one's superiority. It's a children's show, folks. Kissing may also be used to signify reverence and subordination, as in kissing the ring of a king or pope. "The fact that he carries a magic bag doesn't make him gay.

Kisses on the cheek as salutations are traditional in many parts of continental Europe, and the number of kisses, alternating cheeks, depends on which region one comes from. A spokesman for Itsy Bitsy Entertainment Co., who licenses the characters in the United States, said it was just a magic bag. When not an expression of affection, a kiss is a largely symbolic gesture in that the purpose of the kiss is to convey a meaning, such as salutations or subordination, rather than to experience the physical sensations associated with kissing. A February, 1999 article in the National Liberty Journal, published by Jerry Falwell, warned parents that Tinky could be a hidden gay symbol, saying "[h]e is purple—the gay pride color, and his antenna is shaped like a triangle—the gay pride symbol." In one episode, Tinky Winky is also seen trying on some form of skirt. In romantic and sexual kissing, the physical sensations are often of primary importance. One of the Teletubbies, Tinky Winky, was the focus of a still hinted-at controversy in 1999 due to his carrying a bag that looks much like a woman's handbag (although he was first "outed" by the academic and cultural critic Andy Medhurst in a letter of July 1997 to The Face). Sexualized kissing may also involve one person kissing another on various parts of the body. Wash wash wash").

In more passionate kissing couples may open their mouths, suck on each others' lips, or move their tongues into each others' mouths (see French kissing). Tubby, Tubby, Tubby, Tubby. As an expression of romantic affection or sexual desire, kissing involves two people kissing one another on the lips, usually with much more intensity, and for a considerably longer period of time. Wash, wash, wash. Relatives may kiss children to comfort them or show affection, and vice versa. The central console is also home to the Tubby Sponges ("Wash, wash, wash. Such kissing is a common greeting in European and Latin American countries between a man and a woman or between two women. The dome's central console has a battery of knobs and levers with which a Tubby often chooses to amuse themselves ("Adjustments!"), although the outcome is normally limited to a variety of loud and surprising noises being generated.

This kind of kiss is typically made by brief contact of puckered lips to the skin of the cheek or no contact at all, and merely performed in the air near the cheek with the cheeks touching. The Tubby Toaster is notoriously unreliable, and routinely either leaves a Tubby without their toast or buries them under a deluge of rounds. Between people of close acquaintance, a kiss, often reciprocal, is offered as a greeting or a good-bye. Although non-sentient, the other dome appliances also play a major role in many episodes. In modern Western culture, kissing is most commonly an expression of affection. The Teletubbies always win, and give Noo-Noo a 'big-hug'. . The Noo-Noo does not share the Teletubbies' enthusiasm for big hugs, resulting in Benny Hill style chase sequences around the dome when the Tubbies try to express their gratitude, during which the Noo-Noo does a fine impression of a Formula 1 car engine in full flight.

Many non-human primates also exhibit kissing behaviour. It has been shown that Noo-Noo has extraordinarily large storage capacity and the ability to regurgitate any contents, often things that it should not have consumed in the first place such as the Tubbies' blankets or Dipsy's hat ("Naughty Noo-Noo!"). Kissing is a learned behaviour, related to the grooming behaviour seen between other animals. Noo-Noo is the Teletubbies' sentient automated vacuum cleaner who cleans up after the Teletubbies ("Noo-Noo tidy up!"). Science of kissing is called Philematology. The show also features the voices of Toyah Willcox and Eric Sykes, and occasionally Sandra Dickinson and Penelope Keith, all of whom provide narration; the only (semi)regular physical cast member is Tamzin Griffin, [2] who plays the manic "Funny Lady". A kiss (from Old English cyssan "to kiss", in turn from coss "a kiss", perhaps onomatopoeic) is the touching of the lips to some other thing, usually another person. Loves attention.

It lasted 30 hours and 45 minutes. Of all the Teletubbies, Po usually becomes most involved with the audience. The longest recorded kiss took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, on April 5, 1999, between Karmit Tsubera and Dror Orpaz. Tomboy type. In Lady and the Tramp, while Lady and Tramp were both eating the end of a noodle at the same time, their lips end up touching. Problem solver and best "spider-fighter". Auguste Rodin created the sculpture The Kiss (Le Baiser). Bilingual: Speaks (broadcasting country's language) and Cantonese.

The Australian cover version is even titled Kiss Kiss. Favourite thing: scooter. The Turkish 1997 hit song Simarik has a chorus that ends with two kiss sounds. (Pui Fan Lee): Female, red, circular antenna. Gustav Klimt painted a work entitled The Kiss. "Drama queen", party-girl and mother type. In the Frog Prince fairytale, it is the male who is transformed from frog to man by a romantic kiss. Thinks she's the best singer.

The Matrix turns the tables on this motif when Trinity kisses the sleeping main character Neo, bringing him back to life at the end of the movie. Very concerned with the welfare of all. In the fairytale Sleeping Beauty and the Greek myth of Pygmalion and Galatea, a romantic kiss is used by a male to awaken or breathe life into a female, which feminist critics have interpreted as symbolising the suspect idea that women don't have much of a life unless their sexuality is awakened through the attention of men. Favourite thing: orange ball. The last words of British naval commander Horatio, Lord Nelson, are said to have been 'Kiss me Hardy!' to one of his subordinates. (Nikky Smedley): Female, yellow, curly antenna. In the gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss — a subversive use of the kiss, as it is a symbol of affection. This is the least liked Teletubby, according to a nationwide British poll.

In later episodes, Dipsy had a notably darker face than the other Teletubbies, possibly an attempt by the producers to add ethnic diversity to the line-up. He once lost his hat and Laa-Laa found it, but instead of simply returning Dipsy's hat to the stricken Dipsy, she ran around it for about ten minutes shouting "Dipsy hat, Dipsy hat." A "nature boy", he likes to be with the rabbits. He likes his black and white furry top hat. Robert Debter): He is the green Teletubby, with a straight antenna (like a car's dipstick).

(John Simmit) (a.k.a. These claims have caused some conservative Christians to regard Falwell's views as ridiculous. Falwell cited the Teletubby's purple color, "purse", and triangle antenna as symbolic of homosexuality. Falwell issued an attack in his National Liberty Journal, citing a Washington Post "In/Out" column which stated that lesbian comedian Ellen DeGeneres was "out" as the chief national gay representative—while trendy Tinky Winky was "in".

Tinky Winky aroused the interest of Jerry Falwell in 1997 when Falwell alleged that the character was a "gay role model". (Dave Thompson, Mark Heenehan, Simon Shelton): He is the largest of the Teletubbies, is covered in purple terrycloth, has a triangular antenna on his head, and is notable for the red luggage (described by the show as a "magic bag", but often perceived as a handbag) he always seems to have at hand, also considered by some as a homosexual. It was reported that by 2002 the set had become overgrown, and pending the 2003 lease expiration it was expected to become farmland again. In real life the Teletubbies' landscape was an outdoor set located in rural Warwickshire, England, at Sweet Knowle Farm, Redhill Bank Rd, Whimpstone, CV37 8NR (between Stratford upon Avon and Shipston on Stour, close to the River Stour; Google map [1]).

Since the four years of production had exceeded the target audience's range of ages, it was deemed that continuance was unnecessary, and the existing 365 episodes will be played in re-runs for years to come. It is reported that this was due to substantial pay rise demands by the previously anonymous actors portraying the Teletubbies. In 2001 production was cancelled and it was announced that no new episodes would be produced. Fortunately one of their companions is the Noo-Noo, a sentient, self-propelled vacuum cleaner.

They are spectacularly messy eaters. The Teletubbies' diet seems to consist exclusively of Tubby Custard (which is sucked through a spiral straw bowl) and Tubby Toast (circular toast with a smiley face on it). To adults the laughter does not seem to be in response to any stimulus or humorous developments in the plotline of the episode. The baby in the sun occasionally laughs out loud in short bursts.

A prominent feature of each episode is a radiant sun that has an image of a smiling baby superimposed upon it. The surreal environment is an evocation of a toddler's perception of the world, where they are ordered about and told to go to sleep, whilst wonderful and mysterious things happen without explanation. Perhaps the most common exclamation, however, is "Big hugs!" which one or more of the Teletubbies will invariably call for during the course of an episode, resulting in an enthusiastic group hug ("Teletubbies love each other very much", confirms the narrator). Laa-Laa, when flustered, will explode with "Bibberly cheese!", which is as angry as they get.

The Teletubbies' catch-phrases are Eh-oh (hello), as in: Eh-oh, Laa-Laa, to which Laa-Laa will respond, Eh-oh, [other Tubby's name]; "Uh-oh", a common toddler response to anything untowards; "Run away! Run away!", especially from Dipsy; and "Bye-bye" at least four times in a row. Tubbies are at the stage of understanding speech but not yet fully capable of articulating it, exactly like their target audience. The Teletubbies speak in a gurgling baby language which is the subject of some controversy amongst educationalists, some of whom argue that this supposedly made-up talk is not good for children (a similar complaint was made forty years previously about another children's series, The Flowerpot Men). The repeating of practically every word is familiar to everyone who has ever worked with young children.

The pacing and design of the show was developed by a cognitive psychologist, Andrew Davenport, who structured the show to fit the attention spans of the target audience. The Teletubbies have the bodily proportions, behaviour and language of toddlers. When the series is shown in different countries around the world, the film inserts are to be tailored to suit local audiences. These screens are used to segue into short film sequences, which are generally repeated at least once.

They are instead furry, and have metallic silver-azure rectangular "screens" adorning their abdomens. The costumes vaguely resemble bulky spacesuits, although the Tubbies appear not to wear clothes. The Teletubbies are played by actors encased in large costumes, although the sets are designed so as to give no sense of scale. The only natural fauna are rabbits (although birds are often heard, particularly blackcap and wren) and it is always sunny and pleasant save for one exception where puddles are required.

The environment is dotted with unusually talkative flowers and periscope-like "voice trumpets". The programme features four colourful tubby creatures: Tinky Winky, Dipsy, Laa-Laa and Po, who live within a futuristic dome (the "Tubbytronic Superdome"), set in a landscape of rolling grasslands. . Teletubbies was controversial for this reason, and also for a perception that it was insufficiently educational.

The mixture of bright colours, unusual designs, repetitive non-verbal dialogue, the ritualistic format and the occasional forays into physical comedy appealed to a demographic who perceived the show as having psychedelic connotations. Teletubbies say Eh-Oh, a single based around the show's theme song, reached #1 on the UK Singles Chart in December 1997 and remained in the top 100 for eight months, selling over a million copies. Although the show is aimed at children between the ages of one and four, the show was a substantial cult hit with older generations, particularly college students who bought the customary regulation T Shirts. He makes the teletubbies become terrorists, its sooooooo cooooolllll.

but there like all terrorists, havent you seen the episode with bin laden in it. The programme was a rapid critical and commercial success in Britain and abroad, particularly notable for its high production values; it won a BAFTA in 1998. It was created by Anne Wood CBE, Ragdoll's creative director, and Andrew Davenport, who wrote each of the show's 365 episodes. Teletubbies is a BBC children's television series, particularly aimed at babies and pre-school toddlers, produced from 1997 to 2001 by Ragdoll Productions.

09-05-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.