Kiss

The Kiss by Francesco Hayez, 19th century.

A kiss (from Old English cyssan "to kiss", in turn from coss "a kiss", perhaps onomatopoeic) is the touching of the lips to some other thing, usually another person. Science of kissing is called Philematology.

Kissing is a learned behaviour, related to the grooming behaviour seen between other animals. Many non-human primates also exhibit kissing behaviour.

Kissing as affection

In modern Western culture, kissing is most commonly an expression of affection.

Between people of close acquaintance, a kiss, often reciprocal, is offered as a greeting or a good-bye. This kind of kiss is typically made by brief contact of puckered lips to the skin of the cheek or no contact at all, and merely performed in the air near the cheek with the cheeks touching. Such kissing is a common greeting in European and Latin American countries between a man and a woman or between two women. Relatives may kiss children to comfort them or show affection, and vice versa.

As an expression of romantic affection or sexual desire, kissing involves two people kissing one another on the lips, usually with much more intensity, and for a considerably longer period of time. In more passionate kissing couples may open their mouths, suck on each others' lips, or move their tongues into each others' mouths (see French kissing). Sexualized kissing may also involve one person kissing another on various parts of the body.

In romantic and sexual kissing, the physical sensations are often of primary importance.

Kissing as symbolism

A symbolic kiss

When not an expression of affection, a kiss is a largely symbolic gesture in that the purpose of the kiss is to convey a meaning, such as salutations or subordination, rather than to experience the physical sensations associated with kissing. Kisses on the cheek as salutations are traditional in many parts of continental Europe, and the number of kisses, alternating cheeks, depends on which region one comes from.

Kissing may also be used to signify reverence and subordination, as in kissing the ring of a king or pope. A kiss can also be rude or done for the sake of irritating or proving one's superiority. A rude kiss or a kiss with a smack is referred to, in the USA, as a buss.

A more ominous use of the kiss is as a symbol of condemnation as may be observed when a crime lord kisses an underling, in effect imposing a sentence of death upon that person, the ultimate "goodbye kiss" or the "kiss of death."

The term Kissing Hands is used to formally describe the appointment of the senior state figures to office by British monarchs. Though in the past, the monarch's hand was actually kissed, this is no longer so. When figures such as the British Prime Minister, cabinet members and diplomatics are formally appointed, they are said to have Kissed Hands. (Kissing the hand is still practised as a romantic flourish, especially in Latin countries.)

Man kissing boy
Miyagawa Isshô, ca. 1750; One of ten panels on shudo themes from a shunga-style painted hand scroll. Private collection.

Other uses

The term is also used for expressions of affection that do not involve the lips. The "Eskimo Kiss" is executed by the two individuals gently rubbing the tips of their noses together — in the Maori culture of New Zealand this is called a hongi. A "butterfly kiss" consists of two people putting their eyes close to each other and fluttering their eyelashes upon one another's.

A kiss can be "blown" using actions of the hand and the mouth. This is used to convey affection usually while parting, when the partners are physically distant but can view each other. Blown kisses are also used when a popular person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience.

The kiss does not exist in all cultures, as certain societies find it repugnant.

Young couple kiss in Minnesota, 1900

Asymmetry in kissing

In order to avoid clashing noses, a couple will often turn their faces to one side or another when kissing, so that their heads are at an angle from one another. Often, to make this more comfortable, one person, sitting upright, will support another, perhaps across their lap and in their arms, thus combining hugging and kissing. The person supporting the other is most likely taking the more active role in kissing the other. Writing in Nature, psychologist Oner Güntürkün observed couples kissing in public places such as airports and parks, and showed that the direction of turning is more frequently to the right than the left by a 2:1 ratio. Güntürkün ascribed this asymmetry to a neonatal right side preference.

(data from Nature 421, 711 (13 February 2003); doi:10.1038/421711a)

The anatomy of kissing

Kissing is a complex behaviour that requires significant coordination. The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle; it is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the kissing muscle. The tongue can also be an important part of the kiss.

The Kiss by Gustav Klimt.

Kisses in history, art and literature

  • In the gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss — a subversive use of the kiss, as it is a symbol of affection.
  • The last words of British naval commander Horatio, Lord Nelson, are said to have been 'Kiss me Hardy!' to one of his subordinates.
  • In the fairytale Sleeping Beauty and the Greek myth of Pygmalion and Galatea, a romantic kiss is used by a male to awaken or breathe life into a female, which feminist critics have interpreted as symbolising the suspect idea that women don't have much of a life unless their sexuality is awakened through the attention of men. The Matrix turns the tables on this motif when Trinity kisses the sleeping main character Neo, bringing him back to life at the end of the movie.
  • In the Frog Prince fairytale, it is the male who is transformed from frog to man by a romantic kiss.
  • Gustav Klimt painted a work entitled The Kiss.
  • The Turkish 1997 hit song Simarik has a chorus that ends with two kiss sounds. The Australian cover version is even titled Kiss Kiss.
  • Auguste Rodin created the sculpture The Kiss (Le Baiser).
  • In Lady and the Tramp, while Lady and Tramp were both eating the end of a noodle at the same time, their lips end up touching.

Trivia

  • The longest recorded kiss took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, on April 5, 1999, between Karmit Tsubera and Dror Orpaz. It lasted 30 hours and 45 minutes.

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The tongue can also be an important part of the kiss. For lists of the best, consult the various web sites devoted to Bollywood, where critics list their choices or readers vote for their favorites. The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle; it is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the kissing muscle. Popularity is less open to debate. Kissing is a complex behaviour that requires significant coordination. These are not necessarily the best films produced by Bollywood; even attempting to make a list of the 'best' would be controversial. (data from Nature 421, 711 (13 February 2003); doi:10.1038/421711a). Foreigners interested in sampling Indian cinema may wish to consult this List of popular Bollywood films.

Güntürkün ascribed this asymmetry to a neonatal right side preference. However, filmmakers may be moving towards accepting some box-office segmentation, between films that appeal to rural Indians, and films that appeal to urban and overseas audiences. Writing in Nature, psychologist Oner Güntürkün observed couples kissing in public places such as airports and parks, and showed that the direction of turning is more frequently to the right than the left by a 2:1 ratio. It was believed that aiming for a broad spectrum would maximize box office receipts. The person supporting the other is most likely taking the more active role in kissing the other. The Indian film industry has preferred films that appeal to all segments of the audience (see below), and has resisted making films that target narrow audiences. Often, to make this more comfortable, one person, sitting upright, will support another, perhaps across their lap and in their arms, thus combining hugging and kissing. In the early 1990s, the pendulum swung back towards family-centric romantic musicals with the success of such films as Hum Aapke Hain Koun (1994) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995).

In order to avoid clashing noses, a couple will often turn their faces to one side or another when kissing, so that their heads are at an angle from one another. Amitabh Bachchan, the star known for his "angry young man" roles, rode the crest of this trend. The kiss does not exist in all cultures, as certain societies find it repugnant. In the 1970s and 1980s, romantic confections made way for gritty, violent, films about gangsters and bandits. Blown kisses are also used when a popular person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience. Lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. This is used to convey affection usually while parting, when the partners are physically distant but can view each other. In the late 1950s, Bollywood films moved from black-and-white to color.

A kiss can be "blown" using actions of the hand and the mouth. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. A "butterfly kiss" consists of two people putting their eyes close to each other and fluttering their eyelashes upon one another's. The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, and the violence of the Partition. The "Eskimo Kiss" is executed by the two individuals gently rubbing the tips of their noses together — in the Maori culture of New Zealand this is called a hongi. There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals; Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming. The term is also used for expressions of affection that do not involve the lips. The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931), was a super hit.

(Kissing the hand is still practised as a romantic flourish, especially in Latin countries.). By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per annum. When figures such as the British Prime Minister, cabinet members and diplomatics are formally appointed, they are said to have Kissed Hands. The movie industry was well established by 1920, producing an average of 27 films every year. Though in the past, the monarch's hand was actually kissed, this is no longer so. The first indigenous silent feature film was Raja Harishchandra, released in 1913 and directed by Dadasaheb Dhundiraj Govind Phalke, who is considered the father of Indian cinema. The term Kissing Hands is used to formally describe the appointment of the senior state figures to office by British monarchs. Following this, there were several attempts to film staged plays and imported films were shown in the first decade of the 20th century.

A more ominous use of the kiss is as a symbol of condemnation as may be observed when a crime lord kisses an underling, in effect imposing a sentence of death upon that person, the ultimate "goodbye kiss" or the "kiss of death.". Three years later, Harishchandra Bhatvadekar shot and exhibited two short films. A rude kiss or a kiss with a smack is referred to, in the USA, as a buss. Cinema first came to India in 1896, when the Lumiere Brothers’ Cinematographe showed six short films in the Watson Hotel. A kiss can also be rude or done for the sake of irritating or proving one's superiority. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India. Kissing may also be used to signify reverence and subordination, as in kissing the ring of a king or pope. The DFF screens not only Bollywood films, but films from all the other regional movie industries and independent/art films.

Kisses on the cheek as salutations are traditional in many parts of continental Europe, and the number of kisses, alternating cheeks, depends on which region one comes from. Since 1973, the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards, awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF). When not an expression of affection, a kiss is a largely symbolic gesture in that the purpose of the kiss is to convey a meaning, such as salutations or subordination, rather than to experience the physical sensations associated with kissing. Most of these award ceremonies are lavishly staged spectacles, featuring singing, dancing, and lots of stars and starlets. In romantic and sexual kissing, the physical sensations are often of primary importance. Some of the other popular awards are:. Sexualized kissing may also involve one person kissing another on various parts of the body. Lately, other companies, such as Stardust Magazine, Zee TV, etc have joined the movie award bandwagon.

In more passionate kissing couples may open their mouths, suck on each others' lips, or move their tongues into each others' mouths (see French kissing). Like the Oscars, they are frequently accused of bias towards commercial success, rather than artistic merit. As an expression of romantic affection or sexual desire, kissing involves two people kissing one another on the lips, usually with much more intensity, and for a considerably longer period of time. However, unlike the Oscars, voting is not restricted to members of a specific club or academy, but is open to all people. Relatives may kiss children to comfort them or show affection, and vice versa. Modeled after the poll-based merit format of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, individuals may submit their votes in seperate categories; The awards are presented at a glamorous, star-studded ceremony. Such kissing is a common greeting in European and Latin American countries between a man and a woman or between two women. The Indian screen magazine Filmfare started the first Filmfare Awards in 1953.

This kind of kiss is typically made by brief contact of puckered lips to the skin of the cheek or no contact at all, and merely performed in the air near the cheek with the cheeks touching. Surprisingly, the exposé resulted in insignificant public outrage. Between people of close acquaintance, a kiss, often reciprocal, is offered as a greeting or a good-bye. Those accused by the show vehemently denied these accusations, and most of the Bollywood establishment have supported them. In modern Western culture, kissing is most commonly an expression of affection. This ploy would not be, of course, unique to Bollywood moguls; film industry figures worldwide have long been rumored to subject actresses to the casting couch. . In 2005, the India's Most Wanted show on India TV ran an exposé that accused several Bollywood figures (including Shakti Kapoor and Aman Verma) of seeking sexual favors from young actresses.

Many non-human primates also exhibit kissing behaviour. Blatant plagiarism may have diminished -- however, there is no general agreement that it has. Kissing is a learned behaviour, related to the grooming behaviour seen between other animals. While copyright enforcement in South Asia is still hit or miss, Bollywood and Hollywood are much more aware of each other now, and Indian audiences are more familiar with foreign movies and music. Science of kissing is called Philematology. Audiences also may not have been aware of the plagiarism, since many in the Indian audience were unfamiliar with Western films and tunes. A kiss (from Old English cyssan "to kiss", in turn from coss "a kiss", perhaps onomatopoeic) is the touching of the lips to some other thing, usually another person. As for the Western sources, the Bollywood film industry was largely unknown to Westerners, who would not even be aware that their material was being copied.

It lasted 30 hours and 45 minutes. Copyright enforcement was lax in South Asia. The longest recorded kiss took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, on April 5, 1999, between Karmit Tsubera and Dror Orpaz. In past times, this could be done with impunity. In Lady and the Tramp, while Lady and Tramp were both eating the end of a noodle at the same time, their lips end up touching. They copy ideas, plot lines, tunes or riffs from sources close at hand (Pakistani [3] and Tamil films and songs) or far away (Hollywood and other Western movies, Western pop hits). Auguste Rodin created the sculpture The Kiss (Le Baiser). Constrained by rushed production schedules and small budgets, some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to resort to plagiarism.

The Australian cover version is even titled Kiss Kiss. The old hand-painted posters, once regarded as ephemera, are becoming increasingly collectible as folk art. The Turkish 1997 hit song Simarik has a chorus that ends with two kiss sounds. Now, the majority of the huge and ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are created with computer-printed vinyl. Gustav Klimt painted a work entitled The Kiss. Human labor was cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. In the Frog Prince fairytale, it is the male who is transformed from frog to man by a romantic kiss. Many Indian artists used to make a living hand-painting movie billboards and posters.

The Matrix turns the tables on this motif when Trinity kisses the sleeping main character Neo, bringing him back to life at the end of the movie. Bollywood sold 3.6 billion tickets and had total revenues (theater tickets, DVDs, television etc) of US$1.3 billion (USD), whereas Hollywood films sold 2.6 billion tickets and generated total revenues (again from all formats) of US$51 billion. In the fairytale Sleeping Beauty and the Greek myth of Pygmalion and Galatea, a romantic kiss is used by a male to awaken or breathe life into a female, which feminist critics have interpreted as symbolising the suspect idea that women don't have much of a life unless their sexuality is awakened through the attention of men. It shows tickets sold in 2002 and total revenue estimates. The last words of British naval commander Horatio, Lord Nelson, are said to have been 'Kiss me Hardy!' to one of his subordinates. For an interesting comparison of Hollywood and Bollywood financial figures, see this chart: [2]. In the gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss — a subversive use of the kiss, as it is a symbol of affection. 'Foreign' audiences—in Asian and Western countries—are also growing, if more slowly.

As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films. Balanced against this are the increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood is slowly getting noticed. In the past, most Bollywood films could make money; now fewer tend to do so. Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making huge inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market.

The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to the piracy problem. regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance, while consumer copying adds to the problem. and the U.K. Small convenience stores run by members of the Indian diaspora in the U.S.

Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by countless small cable TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. (In fact, bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies, since the Government of Pakistan has banned their sale, distribution and telecast). Besides catering to the homegrown market, demand for these copies is large amongst some sections of the Indian diaspora, too. Manufacturing of bootleg DVD, VCD, and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is a well established 'small scale industry' in parts of the Indian Subcontinent and South East Asia.

Often, bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before the prints are official released in movie theaters. Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. In 2001, the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of the movie Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the movie was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld. In January, 2000, Mumbai mafia hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan, film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan; It had been reported that he had rebuffed mob attempts to meddle with his film distribution.

The Mumbai underworld has been known to be involved in the production of several films, and are notorious for their patronization of several prominent film personalities; On occasion, they have known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals. As finances are not regulated, some funding also comes from illegitimate sources, such as the Mumbai underworld. However, this ban has now been lifted [1]. Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios.

Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. Nowadays, Indian producers are drawing in more and more funding for big-budget films shot within India as well, such as Lagaan, Devdas, and the recent production The Rising. Sequences shot overseas have proved a real box office draw, so Mumbai film crews are increasingly filming in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, continental Europe and elsewhere. But as Western films and television gain wider distribution in India itself, there is increasing pressure for Bollywood films to attain the same production levels.

Sets, costumes, special effects, and cinematography were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late 1990s. Bollywood budgets are usually modest by Hollywood standards. Notable film clans:. Some of the biggest stars, such as Dev Anand, Amitabh Bachchan, and Shah Rukh Khan, have succeeded despite total lack of show biz connections.

However, industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is brutal and if film industry scions don't succeed at the box office, their careers will falter. Bollywood can be clannish, and the relatives of film-industry insiders have an edge in getting coveted roles. Hence many stars make the most of their fame, once they become popular, by making several movies simultaneously. Directors compete to hire the most popular stars of the day, who are believed to guarantee the success of a movie (though this belief is not always supported by box-office results).

Very few people become national icons, who are unaffected by success or failure of their movies, like Amitabh Bachchan. The popularity of the stars can rise and fall rapidly, based on single movies. Stardom in the entertainment industry is very fickle, and Bollywood is no exception. Just as in Hollywood, very few succeed.

Models and beauty contestants, television actors, theatre actors and even common people come to Mumbai with the hope and dream of becoming a star. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses, all hoping for a break in the industry. Bollywood employs people from all parts of India. Many lyrics compare the singer to a devotee and the object of his or her passion to Krishna or Radha.

Another source for love lyrics is the long Hindu tradition of poetry about the mythological amours of Krishna, Radha, and the gopis. Here's a sample from the 1983 film Hero, written by the great lyricist Anand Bakshi:. Bollywood song lyrics, especially in the old movies, frequently use Urdu or Hindustani vocabulary which has many elegant and poetic Arabic and Persian loan-words. Song lyrics are usually about love.

This phenomenon is not unlike the pairings of American composers and songwriters that created old-time Broadway musicals (e.g., Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, or Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe). Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, to the point that the lyricist and composer are seen as a team. As an example, below is a dialogue from the 1975 film Deewar, between the gangster brother Vijay and his policeman brother Ravi:. Dialogues are often melodramatic and invoke God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice liberally.

Contemporary mainstream movies also make great use of English. The dialogues are mostly written in Hindi, with use of Urdu in situations which require poetic dialogues. The film script (frequently credited as "dialogues") and the song lyrics are often written by different people. In this case, the event is almost always two characters' falling in love.

Sometimes, a song is worked into the plot, so that a character has a reason to sing; other times, a song is an externalization of a character's thoughts, or presages an event that has not occurred yet in the plot of the movie. Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie, in several ways. Though considered by many to be one of India's most beautiful regions, Kashmir has been generally off-limits for quite some time due to violence. Switzerland has become a popular setting for these picturisations, largely because its Alpine valleys are reminiscent of Kashmir.

This staging is referred to as a picturisation. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a pas-de-deux (a dance and ballet term, meaning "dance of two"), it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings. The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers, usually of the same sex. In modern films, Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles (as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals), though it is not unusual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film.

The dancing in Bollywood films, especially older ones, is primarily modeled on Indian dance: classical dance styles, dances of historic northern Indian courtesans (tawaif), or folk dances. Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. The composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known. Most of the female songs in films from the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s were sung by Lata.

One of the most recorded of these playback singers is Lata Mangeshkar who, through the course a career spanning over six decades, has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies. Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favourites. These forays, while well-received at the time, have not led to real singing careers for either actor. Of late, a few actors have again tried singing for themselves:.

Saigal, Suraiyya and Noor Jehan were also known as both singers and actors. L. K. One notable exception was Kishore Kumar, who starred in several major films in the 1950s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer.

While most actors, especially today, are excellent dancers, few are also singers. Songs from Bollywood movies are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on-screen, often while dancing. Bollywood film music is called filmi music (from Hindi, meaning "of films"). Any fan of Bollywood movies will be able to list films that he/she regards as transcending the run-of-the-mill masala movie.

It should also be said that a fair number of films with mass-appeal are either estimable simply as well-crafted amusements or even artistic achievements in their own way. There is now a significant audience of young, educated, urban Indians who want to watch Indian films, but demand a different presentation. Current films are increasingly likely either to break the mold or to ironically subvert it. However, Bollywood is changing.

They often lost out at the box office to movies with more mass appeal. There have always been Indian films with more "artistic" aims and more sophisticated stories, both inside and outside the Bollywood tradition (for example, many of the films of Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen, Guru Dutt, Shyam Benegal, Hrishikesh Mukherjee, and Gulzar among others; see Indian art cinema). They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers and angry parents, love triangles, corrupt politicians, kidnappers, conniving villains, courtesans with hearts of gold, long-lost relatives and siblings separated by fate, dramatic reversals of fortune, and convenient coincidences. Plots tend to be melodramatic.

Like masalas, these movies are a mixture of many things. Such movies are called masala movies, after the Hindi word for a spice mixture, masala. Songs and dances, love triangles, comedy and dare-devil thrills—all are mixed up in a three-hour-long extravaganza with an intermission. Indian audiences expect full value for their money, with a good entertainer generally referred to as paisa vasool, (literally, "money's worth").

However, they do not fit easily in the "musical" category as defined by Hollywood movies; they usually contain a great deal more in the way of plot and action than is found in the typical Hollywood musical. Few movies are made without at least one song-and-dance number. Most Bollywood films would be classified as musicals. .

A few movies are also made in two or even three languages (either using subtitles, or several soundtracks). It is not uncommon to see movies which feature dialogues with English words and phrases, even whole sentences. This is a political debate; see the articles on the various languages/dialects.) There has been a growing presence of English in dialogues and songs as well. (Linguists would call both Hindi and Urdu variants of Hindustani.

Bollywood is also commonly referred to as "Hindi cinema", even though use of poetic Urdu words is fairly common. Bollywood is a strong part of popular culture of not only India and the rest of the Indian subcontinent, but also of the Middle East, parts of Africa, parts of Southeast Asia, and among the South Asian diaspora worldwide. Bollywood and the other major cinematic hubs (Tamil - Kollywood, Telugu - Tollywood, Bengali - also called Tollywood, Kannada, and Malayalam) constitute the broader Indian film industry, whose output is the largest in the world in terms of number of films produced and in number of tickets sold. Though some purists deplore the name (arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood), it seems likely to persist and now has its own entry in the Oxford English Dictionary.

The name is a conflation of Bombay, the old name of Mumbai, and Hollywood, the center of the United States film industry. Bollywood is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi language film industry in India. Apsara Awards. IIFA Awards.

Stardust awards. Star Screen Awards. Zee Cine Awards. the Mangeshkar sisters (Hridayanath Mangeshkar, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhonsle, Usha Mangeshkar).

the Ganguly brothers (Ashok Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Anup Kumar). the Khan-Roshan clan (Roshan, Rakesh Roshan, Rajesh Roshan, Hrithik Roshan, Suzanne Khan (Hrithik's wife), Sanjay Khan (Suzanne's father), Zayed Khan, Feroz Khan, Fardeen Khan). the Pataudis (Sharmila Tagore, Saif Ali Khan (her son), Soha Ali Khan (her daughter)). the Mukherjee-Samarth family (Shobhana Samarth, Debashree Roy, Sashadhar Mukherjee, Joy Mukherjee, Deb Mukherjee, Sharbani Mukherjee, Nutan, Tanuja, Mohnish Behl, Tanisha, Kajol, Ram Mukherjee, Rani Mukherjee).

the Khans (Salim Khan, Helen, Salman Khan, Arbaaz Khan, Sohail Khan, Malaika Arora). the Hussains (Nasir Hussain, Tahir Hussain, Aamir Khan, Mansoor Khan, Faisal Khan). the Dutts (Nargis and Sunil Dutt (wife and husband), Sunjay Dutt (their son)). the Vinod Khanna family (Vinod Khanna, Akshaye Khanna and Rahul Khanna (his sons)).

the Rajesh Khanna family (Rajesh Khanna, Dimple Kapadia (his wife), Twinkle Khanna (his daughter), Akshay Kumar (his son-in-law) and Rinke Khanna (his younger daughter)). the Bachchans (Amitabh Bachchan, Abhishek Bachchan, Jaya Bachchan). the Deols (Dharmendra, Hema Malini, Sunny Deol, Bobby Deol, Esha Deol, Abhay Deol). the Kapoors (Prithviraj Kapoor, Raj Kapoor, Shammi Kapoor, Shashi Kapoor, Randhir Kapoor, Rishi Kapoor, Rajiv Kapoor, Babita Kapoor, Neetu Singh, Karisma Kapoor, Kareena Kapoor, Ranbir Kapoor, Riddhima Kapoor, Shivani Kapoor).

Aamir Khan took a turn singing "Kya Bolti Tu" in Ghulam but only because "the character had attitude that only Aamir could do justice to", according to director Vikram Bhatt. Amitabh Bachchan, sang "Mere Angane Mein" in "Lawaaris" in the mid-80's, and has also sung in "Silsila", "Mahaan" "Toofan", Baghban, and Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gham, as well as doing a duet with Adnan Sami in the song Kabhi Nahin (Never).

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