A kiss (from Old English cyssan "to kiss", in turn from coss "a kiss", perhaps onomatopoeic) is the touching of the lips to some other thing, usually another person. Science of kissing is called Philematology.
Kissing is a learned behaviour, related to the grooming behaviour seen between other animals. Many non-human primates also exhibit kissing behaviour.
Kissing as affection
In modern Western culture, kissing is most commonly an expression of affection.
Between people of close acquaintance, a kiss, often reciprocal, is offered as a greeting or a good-bye. This kind of kiss is typically made by brief contact of puckered lips to the skin of the cheek or no contact at all, and merely performed in the air near the cheek with the cheeks touching. Such kissing is a common greeting in European and Latin American countries between a man and a woman or between two women. Relatives may kiss children to comfort them or show affection, and vice versa.
As an expression of romantic affection or sexual desire, kissing involves two people kissing one another on the lips, usually with much more intensity, and for a considerably longer period of time. In more passionate kissing couples may open their mouths, suck on each others' lips, or move their tongues into each others' mouths (see French kissing). Sexualized kissing may also involve one person kissing another on various parts of the body.
In romantic and sexual kissing, the physical sensations are often of primary importance.
Kissing as symbolismA symbolic kiss
When not an expression of affection, a kiss is a largely symbolic gesture in that the purpose of the kiss is to convey a meaning, such as salutations or subordination, rather than to experience the physical sensations associated with kissing. Kisses on the cheek as salutations are traditional in many parts of continental Europe, and the number of kisses, alternating cheeks, depends on which region one comes from.
Kissing may also be used to signify reverence and subordination, as in kissing the ring of a king or pope. A kiss can also be rude or done for the sake of irritating or proving one's superiority. A rude kiss or a kiss with a smack is referred to, in the USA, as a buss.
A more ominous use of the kiss is as a symbol of condemnation as may be observed when a crime lord kisses an underling, in effect imposing a sentence of death upon that person, the ultimate "goodbye kiss" or the "kiss of death."
The term Kissing Hands is used to formally describe the appointment of the senior state figures to office by British monarchs. Though in the past, the monarch's hand was actually kissed, this is no longer so. When figures such as the British Prime Minister, cabinet members and diplomatics are formally appointed, they are said to have Kissed Hands. (Kissing the hand is still practised as a romantic flourish, especially in Latin countries.)Man kissing boy
Miyagawa Isshô, ca. 1750; One of ten panels on shudo themes from a shunga-style painted hand scroll. Private collection.
The term is also used for expressions of affection that do not involve the lips. The "Eskimo Kiss" is executed by the two individuals gently rubbing the tips of their noses together — in the Maori culture of New Zealand this is called a hongi. A "butterfly kiss" consists of two people putting their eyes close to each other and fluttering their eyelashes upon one another's.
A kiss can be "blown" using actions of the hand and the mouth. This is used to convey affection usually while parting, when the partners are physically distant but can view each other. Blown kisses are also used when a popular person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience.
The kiss does not exist in all cultures, as certain societies find it repugnant.Young couple kiss in Minnesota, 1900
Asymmetry in kissing
In order to avoid clashing noses, a couple will often turn their faces to one side or another when kissing, so that their heads are at an angle from one another. Often, to make this more comfortable, one person, sitting upright, will support another, perhaps across their lap and in their arms, thus combining hugging and kissing. The person supporting the other is most likely taking the more active role in kissing the other. Writing in Nature, psychologist Oner Güntürkün observed couples kissing in public places such as airports and parks, and showed that the direction of turning is more frequently to the right than the left by a 2:1 ratio. Güntürkün ascribed this asymmetry to a neonatal right side preference.
(data from Nature 421, 711 (13 February 2003); doi:10.1038/421711a)
The anatomy of kissing
Kissing is a complex behaviour that requires significant coordination. The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle; it is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the kissing muscle. The tongue can also be an important part of the kiss.The Kiss by Gustav Klimt.
Kisses in history, art and literature
This page about kiss includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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The tongue can also be an important part of the kiss. However, according to a Microsoft SEC Filing on June 30, 2005, it acknowledged that browsers such as Mozilla are competitive threats to Internet Explorer: "Competitors such as Mozilla offer software that competes with the Internet Explorer Web browsing capabilities of our Windows operating system products.". The most important muscle involved is the orbicularis oris muscle; it is used to pucker the lips and informally known as the kissing muscle. Vamos stated that he himself never used it personally. Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates has used Firefox, but he has commented that "so much software gets downloaded all the time, but do people actually use it?". Kissing is a complex behaviour that requires significant coordination. Despite Firefox's apparent gains on Internet Explorer, Microsoft head of Australian operations, Steve Vamos, stated that he did not see Firefox as a threat and that there was not significant demand for the featureset of Firefox amongst Microsoft's users. (data from Nature 421, 711 (13 February 2003); doi:10.1038/421711a). There is even interest in the Pocket PC community about having Firefox as an option for web browsing.
Güntürkün ascribed this asymmetry to a neonatal right side preference. A number of applications are already using Portable Firefox Live to deliver a browser and HTML-based content from CD. Writing in Nature, psychologist Oner Güntürkün observed couples kissing in public places such as airports and parks, and showed that the direction of turning is more frequently to the right than the left by a 2:1 ratio. Haller has also started development work on Portable Firefox Live, which aims to run on CD-R or other read-only media. The person supporting the other is most likely taking the more active role in kissing the other. It also uses compression (courtesy of UPX and 7-Zip) to reduce the overall footprint and increase speed. Often, to make this more comfortable, one person, sitting upright, will support another, perhaps across their lap and in their arms, thus combining hugging and kissing. It includes a specialized launcher that adjusts extensions and themes to work as they are moved from computer to computer.
In order to avoid clashing noses, a couple will often turn their faces to one side or another when kissing, so that their heads are at an angle from one another. Haller released the first packaged version and then led development from there. The kiss does not exist in all cultures, as certain societies find it repugnant. John T. Blown kisses are also used when a popular person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience. It arose out of a mozillaZine thread in June of 2004. This is used to convey affection usually while parting, when the partners are physically distant but can view each other. Portable Firefox is a repackaged version of Firefox designed to run from a USB flash drive, iPod, external hard drive or any other portable media.
A kiss can be "blown" using actions of the hand and the mouth. And a start-up, Flock (formerly Round Two, MozSource and more formerly E-Flo), plans to build enhancements for Firefox. Firefox is also used by the 3B browser, which browses the web as a 3D city of web sites or a 3D store. A "butterfly kiss" consists of two people putting their eyes close to each other and fluttering their eyelashes upon one another's. The current version of Netscape, known as Netscape Browser or Netscape 8, combines the functionalities of Firefox and Internet Explorer. The "Eskimo Kiss" is executed by the two individuals gently rubbing the tips of their noses together — in the Maori culture of New Zealand this is called a hongi. A number of commercialized versions of the Firefox browser have developed outside the not-for-profit Mozilla Foundation. The term is also used for expressions of affection that do not involve the lips. Google released two new Google Extensions for Firefox on December 14, 2005, further affirming the company's interest in Firefox.
(Kissing the hand is still practised as a romantic flourish, especially in Latin countries.). Search engine companies including Google, Yahoo! and A9.com now also offer Firefox extensions for accessing their services, in addition to their original Internet-Explorer add-ons. When figures such as the British Prime Minister, cabinet members and diplomatics are formally appointed, they are said to have Kissed Hands. also recommends Firefox as the browser for its Blogger.com weblog service. On May 18, 2005, eBay announced support for Firefox for its eBay Picture Manager.. Though in the past, the monarch's hand was actually kissed, this is no longer so. (Link prefetching involves a standards-compliant optimization technique that utilizes the browser's idle time to download or prefetch documents that the user might visit in the near future.) Google, Inc. The term Kissing Hands is used to formally describe the appointment of the senior state figures to office by British monarchs. Since March 30, 2005, the Google search engine has utilized the link prefetching feature of Firefox for faster searching.
A more ominous use of the kiss is as a symbol of condemnation as may be observed when a crime lord kisses an underling, in effect imposing a sentence of death upon that person, the ultimate "goodbye kiss" or the "kiss of death.". Since the pre-1.0 stages, a number of well-known websites and web applications, including Gmail, have supported (and in some cases, required) the use of Firefox. A rude kiss or a kiss with a smack is referred to, in the USA, as a buss. . A kiss can also be rude or done for the sake of irritating or proving one's superiority. In December 2005, it was announced that Dell UK were to start shipping the Firefox browser pre-installed on their PCs. Kissing may also be used to signify reverence and subordination, as in kissing the ring of a king or pope. The Networking Services and Information Technology department of the University of Chicago started to include both Firefox and Thunderbird in its connectivity package for all incoming students on the third quarter of 2005..
Kisses on the cheek as salutations are traditional in many parts of continental Europe, and the number of kisses, alternating cheeks, depends on which region one comes from. IBM encourages its employees to use Firefox as the company's standard web browser, with support from the company's help desk staff. When not an expression of affection, a kiss is a largely symbolic gesture in that the purpose of the kiss is to convey a meaning, such as salutations or subordination, rather than to experience the physical sensations associated with kissing. According to a CNET article published on May 12, 2005, about 30,000 of IBM's staff (about 10% of the total) already use Firefox. In romantic and sexual kissing, the physical sensations are often of primary importance. Those companies remained reluctant to publicize the migration, due to in-house concerns that this might damage their relationship with Microsoft.. Sexualized kissing may also involve one person kissing another on various parts of the body. During the FOSDEM 2005 conference, Tristan Nitot, the president of Mozilla Europe, said that he knew "a few companies" that had deployed the Firefox browser or the Thunderbird mail client across a million seats.
In more passionate kissing couples may open their mouths, suck on each others' lips, or move their tongues into each others' mouths (see French kissing). From time to time, the SFX team or SFX members launch marketing events organized at the Spread Firefox website. As an expression of romantic affection or sexual desire, kissing involves two people kissing one another on the lips, usually with much more intensity, and for a considerably longer period of time. The site lists the top 250 referrers. Relatives may kiss children to comfort them or show affection, and vice versa. The portal enhanced the "Get Firefox" button program, giving users "referrer points" as an incentive. Such kissing is a common greeting in European and Latin American countries between a man and a woman or between two women. On September 14, 2004, a community-marketing portal dubbed "Spread Firefox" (SFX) debuted along with the Firefox Preview Release, creating a centralized space for the discussion of various marketing techniques.
This kind of kiss is typically made by brief contact of puckered lips to the skin of the cheek or no contact at all, and merely performed in the air near the cheek with the cheeks touching. For example, Blake Ross and Asa Dotzler organized a series of events dubbed "marketing week". Between people of close acquaintance, a kiss, often reciprocal, is offered as a greeting or a good-bye. The rapid adoption of Firefox apparently accelerated in part due to a series of aggressive community-marketing campaigns since 2004. In modern Western culture, kissing is most commonly an expression of affection. It should be noted that a download count is not a user count, as a single download can be installed over many machines, or one person can download the software multiple times. . The download counter is available as an RSS feed, so that the Firefox download can be added on websites to keep track of the number of downloads in near-realtime.
Many non-human primates also exhibit kissing behaviour. These download counts did not include downloads using software updates and downloads from third-party websites. Kissing is a learned behaviour, related to the grooming behaviour seen between other animals. None of the Mozilla Foundation's previous product releases experienced that kind of growth. Science of kissing is called Philematology. In other words, the download rate remained fairly stable. A kiss (from Old English cyssan "to kiss", in turn from coss "a kiss", perhaps onomatopoeic) is the touching of the lips to some other thing, usually another person. Cumulative downloads increased in a near-linear fashion during the first quarter of 2005.
It lasted 30 hours and 45 minutes. Europe, according to a study released by the firm XiTi on 2006-01-08, generally had higher percentages of Firefox use, with an average of 20%. The longest recorded kiss took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, on April 5, 1999, between Karmit Tsubera and Dror Orpaz. According to several sources (as listed in statistics reference), by November 2005, Firefox had around 9.4% of global market share, and 10% for North America. In Lady and the Tramp, while Lady and Tramp were both eating the end of a noodle at the same time, their lips end up touching. Web-surfers have adopted Firefox rapidly, despite the dominance of Internet Explorer in the browser market. Auguste Rodin created the sculpture The Kiss (Le Baiser). This is rarely a Firefox-specific problem, and is usually caused by the respective websites using code that does not adhere to W3C standards—such as code specific to Internet Explorer's quirks—or utilizing ActiveX controls or VBScript scripts, which are not supported in Firefox.
The Australian cover version is even titled Kiss Kiss. Users switching from Internet Explorer sometimes find that certain websites do not render as expected in Firefox. The Turkish 1997 hit song Simarik has a chorus that ends with two kiss sounds.  Another known frequent cause of memory leaks is misbehaving extensions, most notably Adblock. Gustav Klimt painted a work entitled The Kiss. This has been reported as memory leaks ; Mozilla developers claim it is sometimes at least partially an effect of blazing fast backwards and forwards (FastBack) feature. In the Frog Prince fairytale, it is the male who is transformed from frog to man by a romantic kiss. Another mentioned criticism is that a small percentage of users complain of Firefox using much more memory than other browsers.
The Matrix turns the tables on this motif when Trinity kisses the sleeping main character Neo, bringing him back to life at the end of the movie. IE also launches faster than Firefox on Windows as some of its components are loaded at Windows startup. In the fairytale Sleeping Beauty and the Greek myth of Pygmalion and Galatea, a romantic kiss is used by a male to awaken or breathe life into a female, which feminist critics have interpreted as symbolising the suspect idea that women don't have much of a life unless their sexuality is awakened through the attention of men. Other Gecko-based browsers such as K-Meleon, which use platform-native user interface implementations, generally run faster than Firefox. The last words of British naval commander Horatio, Lord Nelson, are said to have been 'Kiss me Hardy!' to one of his subordinates. The non-Windows-native XUL implementation of the user interface may be the cause of this perceived delay. In the gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss — a subversive use of the kiss, as it is a symbol of affection. Some note that Firefox takes longer to launch than other browsers such as Internet Explorer or Opera on Windows.
This difference of opinion was one of the motivating factors behind the development of the Flock browser, which is a Firefox fork. However, not all users wish to install extensions for the features they want, preferring to see them included in the official software package. (The developers state in response that they intend for Firefox to be a fairly minimal browser in order to reduce software bloat and bugs, while retaining a high degree of extensibility.) Most of these features, and many others, exist as installable Firefox extensions, or third-party software. Many users observe that the developers have not implemented frequently requested features.
Firefox has at times attracted criticism for lacking features found in some other browsers. No publicly known attacks since its launch have been discovered. Another security source, SecurityFocus, reports no known vulnerabilities in Firefox 22.214.171.124, versus 65 unpatched vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer 6 on Microsoft Windows XP SP2. As of February 2006, Secunia has reported 2 unpatched vulnerabilities in Firefox 1.x (with the most serious one marked "less critical"), versus 21 for Internet Explorer (with the most serious one marked "highly critical").
While similar to other "responsible disclosure" policies operated by software vendors such as Microsoft, this policy falls short of the full disclosure principle favored by some security researchers. This approach aims to minimize the exploitation of publicly known vulnerabilities and to give the developers time to issue a patch. The Mozilla Foundation has implemented a policy on security bugs in order to help contributors to deal with security vulnerabilities. The policy restricts access to a security-related bug report to members of the security team until after Mozilla has shipped a fix for the problem. In addition, the Mozilla Foundation operates a "bug bounty" scheme: people who report a valid critical security bug receive a US$500 cash reward (for each report) and a Mozilla T-shirt. According to the Mozilla Foundation, this "bug bounty" system aims to "encourage more people to find and report security bugs in our products, so that we can make our products even more secure than they already are." Also, all users can have access to the source code of Mozilla Firefox, to the internal design documentation, to forum discussions, and to other materials that can help in finding bugs.
Once placed in the software, changes become visible for anyone else to consider, protest against, or improve.. At least one person besides the coder reviews proposed software changes, and typically yet another person carries out a "super-review". Open source advocates argue that an important characteristic of Firefox security lies in the fact that anyone can see its source code and that it therefore must rely upon sound security mechanisms rather than security through obscurity. Some of Firefox's key security features include the use of the sandbox security model, same origin policy and external protocol whitelisting .
By default, Firefox downloads all files to a user's desktop on Windows and Mac OS X or to the user's home directory on GNU/Linux, but users can easily configure it to prompt for a specific download location. Users can configure the browser to either open downloaded files automatically or save them directly to the disk. Firefox also includes a customizable download manager. However, use of web feeds (RSS/Atom) has grown tremendously recently, making RSS-support an essential feature for a growing number of people.
However, it may occasionally cause problems, especially with extensions. This functionality is useful for users who dual-boot their machines. Therefore, a profile may be used on multiple platforms, so long as all of the platforms can access the profile (e.g., the profile is stored on a FAT32 partition accessible from both Windows and GNU/Linux). Firefox uses the same format to store users' profiles (which contain their personal browser settings) even on different operating systems.
Builds for Windows XP Professional x64 Edition also exist. Operating systems not officially supported by the Mozilla developers, but known to run the browser include:. Since the Mozilla Foundation makes the Firefox source code available, users can also compile and run Firefox on a variety of other architectures and operating systems. Firefox does not officially support Windows 95, but reportedly functions properly after the application of a few tweaks..
Releases available on the primary distribution site support the following operating systems:. Mozilla Firefox runs on a wide variety of platforms. Some of the Mozilla standards like XBL are also making their way to open standards (via WHATWG). Also, work continues on implementing standards currently missing such as APNG and XForms and improving support for SVG.
The Mozilla Foundation takes pride in Firefox's compliance with existing standards, especially W3C web standards. Experimental features like HTTP pipelining often lurk hidden in the about:config menu. This mechanism enables features such as single-window mode and error pages, or speeding up page rendering by various tweaks. Additionally, Firefox stores many hidden preferences that users can access by typing about:config in the address bar.
A Firefox installation can keep all extensions and themes available on the Mozilla Update site up-to-date through Firefox's interface, which periodically checks for updates to installed themes and extensions. Beyond adding a new theme, users can customize Firefox's interface by moving and manipulating its various buttons, fields, and menus, and likewise by adding and deleting entire toolbars. The Mozilla Update web site offers many themes for downloading. Themes consist of packages of CSS and image files.
Firefox also supports a variety of themes/skins, which change its appearance. Occasionally, an extension becomes part of the official product (for example tabbed browsing, a feature which proved popular through the MultiZilla extension, eventually became part of standard Mozilla). One can view the extension system as a ground for experimentation, where one can test new functionalities. Many features formerly part of the Mozilla Suite, such as the ChatZilla IRC client and a calendar, have become Firefox extensions.
Wikipedia editors using Firefox v0.8-1.0.7 can even download a customised toolbar for Wikipedia editing. Through extensions (installed via XPInstall modules), users may activate new features, such as mouse gestures, advertisement blocking, proxy server switching, and debugging tools. The design of Firefox aims at high extensibility. When a user enters a keyword into the address bar that is not recognized by Firefox (for example, simply typing "apple"), it automatically redirects the user to the first result yielded by a Google search for the word (or words).
Custom keywords are provided "out of the box" for Google Search, Google Stock Search, Dictionary.com, Urban Dictionary and Wikipedia. For example, using a custom keyword, a user can type "google apple" into the address bar and be redirected to the results of a Google search for "apple". This feature allows users to access their bookmarks from the location bar using keywords (and an optional query parameter). Additionally, Firefox supports the "custom keyword" feature introduced by the Mozilla Suite.
Users may download more search plugins (including one for Wikipedia) from the Mycroft project or remove any unwanted ones. By default, Firefox allows users to search Google, Yahoo!, Amazon.com, Creative Commons, Dictionary.com, and eBay. Firefox also sports a built-in search toolbar with an extensible search engine listing. Also, if the user's exact query does not appear anywhere on the page, the "Find" box turns red.
As the user types more of the word, Firefox refines its search. With this feature enabled, a user can simply begin typing a word while viewing a web page, and Firefox automatically searches for it and highlights the first instance found. First, Firefox has an incremental find feature known as "find as you type". The browser has a number of features which help users find information.
Firefox 1.5 (Windows version) is also the first browser to meet US federal government requirements that software be easily accessible to users with physical impairments. It also supports various forms of keyboard navigation such as tabbing navigation and caret navigation (and in some builds, spatial navigation). Firefox also belongs in the group of browsers which were first to adopt customizable pop-up blocking. This feature originated in the Mozilla Suite, which in turn had borrowed the feature from the popular MultiZilla extension for Mozilla.
Firefox supports tabbed browsing, which allows users to open multiple web pages in the same browser window. The design of Firefox's option panels leaves many of the infrequently used options found in the Mozilla Suite not visible in Firefox. As a result, the interface appears less cluttered than that of many other internet suites. Developers put in a large amount of work towards simplifying Firefox's user interface.
Those interested can add (as extensions and plugins) many features not packaged with Firefox. The developers of Firefox aim to produce a browser that "just works" for most casual users. Mozilla Firefox 1.5 and future releases of Camino will also include the Java Embedding plugin, which allow Mac OS X users to run Java applets with the latest 1.4 and 5.0 versions of Java (the default Java software shipped by Apple is not compatible with any browser, except its own Safari). Likely goals for Firefox include:.
. Mozilla is developing versions 2.0 and 3.0 simultaneously in order to ship front-end innovation in version 2.0 built on a more stable back-end, while completing major architectural changes for version 3.0. Development for version 2.0 will occur on the 1.8 branch from which version 1.5 was released, with release coming off of the yet-to-be-created 1.8.1 branch, while development on version 3.0 occurs simultaneously on the Mozilla trunk. According to the roadmap, future Firefox development will include version 2.0 and version 3.0.
Some of the changes:. On November 29, 2005, Firefox 1.5 was officially released. In an attempt to dissuade end-users from downloading the preview versions, "Deer Park" versions do not use the standard Mozilla Firefox branding. However, Mozilla Foundation decided to change the version number of the next major release from "1.1" to "1.5", since it contained more new features than originally planned.
"Deer Park" was originally destined to become Firefox 1.1. I was riding LIRR a few weeks ago and saw the name go by and I thought it sounded nice." Therefore, this name probably references Deer Park, New York, a CDP on Long Island. According to Goodger, "Deer Park is not Deer Park, Victoria, but just a symbolic name. Several builds codenamed "Deer Park" were released in 2005.
The other codenames included in the Firefox roadmap derive from an actual roadmap of a journey through California to Phoenix, Arizona.. Ben Goodger, the lead developer of Firefox, who grew up in Auckland, chose these codenames. These have a basis in real locations, with codenames such as Three Kings, Royal Oak, One Tree Hill, Mission Bay, and Greenlane all referencing suburbs in Auckland, New Zealand, and the name Whangamata coming from a small seaside town on the Coromandel Peninsula, southeast of Auckland in New Zealand. Throughout its development, Firefox versions have had internal codenames.
Pre-1.0 releases suffered many issues with extensions, as the code for handling them changed from version to version. Firefox has developed considerably since its first release as Phoenix on September 23, 2002. For this reason, software distributors who distribute patched or modified versions of Firefox cannot use the Firefox icon. Although Firefox uses open source core software, free licensing does not extend to the artwork.
The Firefox icon functions as a trademark used to designate the official Mozilla build of the Firefox software. The logo depicts a stylized fox, since the Red Panda (to which the term "Firefox" was originally referred) did not "conjure up the right imagery" for Hicks. The specific logo won selection because it makes an impression, while still not "shouting" with overdone artwork. Jon Hicks designed the icon for Firefox 0.8 and up. The release of Firefox 0.8 in February 2004 saw the introduction of new branding efforts, including new icons.
Such opinion held that the early releases of Firefox sported "reasonable" visual designs, but did not regard them as of a standard equivalent to many "professionally" released software packages. Some people have noted that free software frequently suffers from poor icon and user interface design and from a lack of a strong visual identity. The adoption of a new visual identity marks one of Firefox's most visible enhancements from its previous versions. To avoid any potential further name changes, the Mozilla Foundation began the process of registering Firefox as a trademark with the United States Patent and Trademark Office in December 2003. As "Firefox" already existed as a registered trademark in the United Kingdom, the Mozilla Foundation licensed the name from the trademark's owner.
The Mozilla Foundation chose the name "Firefox" for its similarity to "Firebird", but also for its uniqueness in the computing industry. However, continuing pressure from the FLOSS community forced another change, and on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox (or Firefox for short). In late April, following an apparent name change to Firebird browser for a few hours, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser should always bear the name Mozilla Firebird in order to avoid confusion with the Firebird database server. The new name, Firebird, provoked mixed reactions, particularly since the free database software Firebird uses the same name.
The Phoenix name survived until April 14, 2003, when it changed due to trademark issues with the BIOS manufacturer, Phoenix Technologies (who produce a BIOS-based browser called Phoenix FirstWare Connect). When sufficiently developed, binaries for public testing appeared in September 2002 under the name Phoenix. The project which became Firefox started as an experimental branch of the Mozilla Suite called m/b (or mozilla/browser). The Mozilla Foundation will continue giving support (such as CVS hosting) for the Mozilla community developers.
These community releases will be called SeaMonkey, and will start out at version 1.0 to avoid any possible confusion for organizations or people still wanting to use the original Mozilla Suite. The Mozilla community (as opposed to the Foundation) will release the next version. The Foundation continues to maintain the 1.7.x branch because of its continued use by many corporate users, and because makers of other software still often bundle the product. On March 10, 2005, the Foundation announced that official releases of Mozilla would cease with the 1.7.x series.
The Mozilla Foundation had intended to make the Mozilla Suite obsolete and to replace it with Firefox. Initially, these add-ons raised security concerns, so with the release of Firefox 0.9, the Mozilla Foundation opened Mozilla Update, a website containing themes and extensions "approved" as not harmful. Through Firefox's support of XUL, users may extend their browser's capabilities by applying themes and extensions. Mozilla Firefox retains the cross-platform nature of the original Mozilla browser by using the XUL user interface markup language.
To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a pared-down browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. They believed that the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser. Dave Hyatt and Blake Ross began working on the Firefox project as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project. .
As of November 2005, estimates suggest that Firefox's usage share is around 9.4% of overall browser usage (See market adoption below), with its highest usage in Finland (nearly 40% as of January 2006). Firefox has attracted attention as an alternative to other browsers such as Microsoft Internet Explorer. Although other browsers have introduced these features, Firefox became the first such browser to achieve wide adoption. Firefox includes an integrated pop-up blocker, tabbed browsing, live bookmarks, support for open standards, and an extension mechanism for adding functionality.
Before its 1.0 release, Firefox had already gained acclaim from numerous media outlets, including Forbes and the Wall Street Journal. With over 25 million downloads in the 99 days after the initial 1.0 release, Firefox became one of the most downloaded free and open source applications, especially among home users. On October 19, 2005, Firefox had its 100 millionth download, just 344 days after the release of version 1.0. Firefox 1.5 was released on November 29, 2005, with more than 2 million downloads within the first 36 hours. Mozilla Firefox is a free, cross-platform, graphical web browser developed by the Mozilla Corporation and hundreds of volunteers. The browser began as a fork of the Navigator component of the Mozilla Application Suite; Firefox has since become the foundation's main development focus (along with its Thunderbird mail and news client), and has replaced the Mozilla Suite as their official main software release. BBC News. The assault on software giant Microsoft.
Weber, Tim (May 9, 2005). New York Times. The Fox Is in Microsoft's Henhouse (and Salivating). Stross, Randall (December 19, 2004).
Mozilla's security concept is not invincible c't magazine 14/2005, page 202. Chrome-plated holes. Schmidt, Jürgen (July 13, 2005). Wall Street Journal.
How to Protect Yourself From Vandals, Viruses If You Use Windows. (September 16, 2004). Mossberg, Walter S. Hacking for Christ.
Firefox Language Coverage. Markham, Gervase (November 30, 2004). Forbes. Hesseldahl, Arik (September 29, 2004).Better Browser Now the Best.
Retrieved September 22, 2004. Mozilla Firefox Development Charter. Goodger, Ben (2004). O'Reilly (2005), ISBN 0-9752402-4-2.
Firefox Secrets: A Need-To-Know Guide. Yeow, Cheah Chu. Wiley (2005), ISBN 0-7645-9650-0. Hacking Firefox : More Than 150 Hacks, Mods, and Customizations.
Reyes, Mel. O'Reilly (2005), ISBN 0-596-00928-3. Firefox Hacks. McFarlane, Nigel.
Prentice Hall PTR (2005), ISBN 0131870041. Firefox and Thunderbird Garage. Hofmann, Chris, Marcia Knous, & John Hedtke. O'Reilly (2005), ISBN 0-596-00939-9.
Don't Click on the Blue E!: Switching to Firefox. Granneman, Scott. MozillaZine. ^ Firefox a threat.
BBC News. ^ The assault on software giant Microsoft. ZDNet. ^ Microsoft: Firefox does not threaten IE's market share.
MozillaNews. ^ Round Two looks to launch enhanced Firefox. eBay. ^ eBay Picture Manager Enhancements.
^ Where can I upgrade my browser? Blogger Help. blakeross.com. ^ Firefox shipping on Dell UK. Inside Aebrahim's Head.
^ UChicago to Distribute Firefox and Thunderbird. ZDNet UK. ^ Firefox sneaks into the enterprise. Mozilla.org Bugzilla.
^ Bug 319262 - Significant memory leak. InternetWeek. ^ Firefox 1.5: Not Ready For Prime Time?. Mozilla.org.
^ Handling Mozilla Security Bugs. Mozilla.org. ^ Mozilla Security Bug Bounty FAQ. Mozilla.org.
^ Mozilla Security Bug Bounty Program. Mozilla.org. ^ Hacking Mozilla. Neil Turner's weblog.
^ External Protocol Whitelisting. After installation, they have full access to the operating system (with the user's privilege level) via XPCOM-interfaces. ^ Extensions, however, are not sandboxed at all. ^ Firefox Port to RISC OS project page.
freshports.org. ^ FreshPort entry on Firefox. Mozilla.org. ^ Firefox release notes for the 1.x series.
Details a procedure to install Firefox on Windows 95 and the original release of Windows 98. Source: John Haller's website. ^ Run Firefox in Windows 95 (and Windows 98 original release). Mozilla.org.
^ Firefox System Requirements. We have certainly heard the clear feedback from the web design community that per-pixel alpha is a really important feature.". We've actually had this on our radar for a long time, and have had it supported in the code for a while now. In the blog entry, Chris Wilson said that Microsoft would soon "[s]upport the alpha channel in PNG images [in Internet Explorer 7].
Source: Internet Explorer weblog. ^ IE7 beta 1 – A few details… (April 22, 2005). MozillaZine. ^ Mozilla to include Java Embedding plugin.
A document that describes the product requirements for Firefox 2, and also anticipates an interim milestone marker for Firefox 1.5. . ^ Mozilla Wiki. Source: Asa Dotzler's weblog.
^ 1.8 alpha 6 around the corner (December 26, 2004). ^ Ben Goodger discusses the Firefox update system (May 2, 2005). ^ Mozilla Firefox Roadmap (see also: Mozilla Firefox 1.0 Roadmap). John Hicks' weblog.
^ Branding Firefox. Mozilla.org. ^ Mozilla Firefox - Brand Name Frequently Asked Questions. ^ Firefox trademark, USPTO.
^ Mozilla Firefox Download Counts. (Your children in college are already using it.)". The article states that "With Firefox, open-source software moves from back-office obscurity to your home, and to your parents', too. December 19, 2004.
^ Stross, New York Times. It's not only more secure but also more modern and advanced, with tabbed browsing, which allows multiple pages to be open on one screen, and a better pop-up ad blocker than the belated one Microsoft recently added to IE.". I recommend instead Mozilla Firefox, which is free at www.mozilla.org. Walter Mossberg wrote : "I suggest dumping Microsoft's Internet Explorer Web browser, which has a history of security breaches.
^ Wall Street Journal, September 16, 2004. ^ Forbes, September 29, 2004. ^ Mozilla contributors list, Mozilla.org. RISC OS (ARM).
SkyOS. BeOS. OpenBSD. NetBSD.
PC-BSD. FreeBSD. AIX. OS/2 and its successor, eComStation.
Solaris (x86 and SPARC). Many Linux distributions come with Mozilla Firefox already installed. Linux-based operating systems using X.Org Server or XFree86. At the 2005 WWDC, Apple programmers created a Firefox version for Mac OS X on the Intel platform, which worked well.
Mac OS X. A version for USB Smart Drives exists (see "Portable Firefox" below). Various versions of Microsoft Windows, including 98, 98SE, Me, NT 4.0, 2000, XP, and Server 2003. Anti-phishing features.
Improvements to the search service. Download resuming across browser sessions, detection of signed executables. Accessibility compliance. Find Toolbar, Software Update, Search enhancements.
Extension system enhancements. Specific options per site. Tabbed Browsing improvements. New "Places" interface for Bookmark and History.
Firefox 1.5 also includes a backlog of bug fixes that were fixed between the 0.9 and the 1.0 release which were previously unavailable due to branching from the trunk around the 0.9 release. Gecko 1.8, an updated version of Firefox's rendering engine. Users will have the option of clearing all privacy-related settings simply by exiting the browser or by using a keyboard shortcut, depending on their settings. A "Clear Private Data" action to allow a person to clear their privacy related information without manually clicking the "Clear All" button.
A new, reorganized options dialog box for changing settings of the browser. Support for the non-standard HTML canvas element. See Firefox 1.5's SVG status page, or to see SVG in action visit the SVG repository. This move makes Firefox the second major browser to support some form of SVG natively (Opera 8.0, released on April 19, 2005 supports most of the SVG 1.1 Tiny Specification).
Partial support for SVG 1.1 Full Specification. An improved Software Update System that will ease distribution of important security patches and help keep users up-to-date..