Juventus F.C.

Juventus Football Club (Latin for Youth, pronounced yoo-VEHN-toos) is one of Italy's oldest and greatest football clubs, based in Turin, Piedmont. It competes in Serie A. Juventus are widely regarded as one of the world's top clubs.

The team typically plays in black-and-white striped shirts and black shorts (but for decades in white shorts), and is nicknamed la Vecchia Signora (the Old Lady), bianconeri (black-and-white's), zebre (zebras), or deprecatively gobbi (humpbacks) by the opponents. The team gets its black-and-white striped kits from English side Notts County. Originally the team played in pink shirts (pink being the cheapest material available) with a black tie.

When the club decided to change these, it was decided to import kits in the red of Nottingham Forest, but a mix-up by the supplier meant that the team got the Notts County black and white instead. The club's stadium is the 69,041-seat Stadio Delle Alpi, which it currently shares with Torino Calcio. This arrangement will end after the 2004–05 season, when Torino Calcio will open a new ground of its own.

Juventus F.C. was founded in November 1897 by students from Massimo D'Azeglio Lyceum, in a "legendary" bench in one of Turin's boulevard, Re Umberto boulevard. The team won a previous version of the national league titles as early as 1905, but did not win their second until 1926. In 1923, the Agnelli family (owners of Fiat) gained control of the club, and built a private stadium in Villar Perosa (near Turin) and a complete series of facilities and services.

From 1931, the club won five consecutive Italian league championships (Italian scudetto). In 1933, they began playing at the Stadio Comunale. Post-war the club was very successful domestically, winning its tenth championship in 1961, but did not win any European titles until 1977 with the UEFA Cup.

The height of European success was not reached until 1985, when they won the European Champions Cup, but this success was largely overshadowed by the Heysel disaster that had occurred during the final between Juventus and Liverpool. Juventus repeated the success by winning the Champions League for a second time in 1996, and have not won it again since, the closest chance being when they lost to AC Milan in the 2003 final due to losing in a penalty shootout.

Juventus also won the Cup Winners' Cup in 1984 and two more UEFA Cup (1990, 1993). However, in 1999, due to their poor domestic season, they were forced into the ignominy of entering the UEFA Intertoto Cup in order to qualify for Europe. They have won 28 Italian titles and nine Coppa Italias to date, both national records. The club is also one of only four to have won all three major European trophies.

Until recently, Juventus' players had to wear short (and regular) hair; the club also provided the team with official formal wear (made by famous tailors) and forced them to complete their educational studies. Most of its players remained with Juventus until the end of their careers; many still work for the club or for Fiat (or related companies).

The two stars on the Juventus shirt signify they have won the Scudetto over 20 times. In fact, Juventus won the Italian Championship 28 times, more than any other Italian club; no other club has won the championship over 20 times, but the closest one to that objective is AC Milan.

Juventus is now a corporation, listed on the Borsa Italiana. The sale of Zinedine Zidane to Real Madrid of Spain was the most expensive in football to date, costing the Spanish club over $64 million (US), which is accurately £48 million.

On January 10, 2006 Alessandro Del Piero became the all time leading goalscorer for Juventus when he scored three times in a match against Fiorentina and took his total goals for the club to 185. The previous record holder was Giampiero Boniperti, who scored 182 goals for the club.

The previous Juventus logo

Current first team squad

As of January 31, 2006

Team honours

In terms of league championships (called Albo d'Oro (palmarés) ), the club is the most successful in Italian football.

Greatest players

The following is a list, divided in historical periods, of the greatest players in the history of Juventus.

The champions of the years 1931-1935

The '50s and '60s

The period of Boniperti and Trapattoni

The 1982 world champions

The Lippi era

The present


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The following is a list, divided in historical periods, of the greatest players in the history of Juventus. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005, and many others. In terms of league championships (called Albo d'Oro (palmarés) ), the club is the most successful in Italian football. The importance of blind tasting is demonstrated in the historic Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, the Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981, the St. As of January 31, 2006. This is done because knowing the identity of a wine easily prejudices tasters for or against it because of its geographic origin, price, reputation, or other considerations. . Blind tasting of wine involves tasting and evaluating wines without any knowledge of their identities.

The previous record holder was Giampiero Boniperti, who scored 182 goals for the club. The quantity of sulfites in a glass of wine is the same as a serving of dried apricots. On January 10, 2006 Alessandro Del Piero became the all time leading goalscorer for Juventus when he scored three times in a match against Fiorentina and took his total goals for the club to 185. Many consumers who have adverse reactions to wine, such as headaches or hangovers, blame added sulfites but are probably reacting instead to naturally-occurring histamines. The sale of Zinedine Zidane to Real Madrid of Spain was the most expensive in football to date, costing the Spanish club over $64 million (US), which is accurately £48 million. In the USA nearly all commercially produced wine, including that with no added sulfites, is required to state on the label "contains sulfites." In other countries they do not have to be declared on the label, leading to a common mistaken belief that only wine from the USA contains sulfites. Juventus is now a corporation, listed on the Borsa Italiana. They can trigger a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction in a small percentage of consumers, primarily asthmatics.

In fact, Juventus won the Italian Championship 28 times, more than any other Italian club; no other club has won the championship over 20 times, but the closest one to that objective is AC Milan. Sulfites (or sulphites) are chemicals that occur naturally in grapes and also are added to wine as a preservative. The two stars on the Juventus shirt signify they have won the Scudetto over 20 times. Trace amounts of resveratrol exist in grapes, white wine and peanuts. Most of its players remained with Juventus until the end of their careers; many still work for the club or for Fiat (or related companies). Sinclair of Harvard University and others claim that resveratrol is the active molecule responsible for the significant difference in lowering cancer risks and that the required amounts are only found in red wine. Until recently, Juventus' players had to wear short (and regular) hair; the club also provided the team with official formal wear (made by famous tailors) and forced them to complete their educational studies. Dr.

The club is also one of only four to have won all three major European trophies. However, recent studies show that only red wine reduces the risk of contracting several types of cancer where beer and other alcoholic beverages show no change. They have won 28 Italian titles and nine Coppa Italias to date, both national records. Other studies have shown that similar beneficial effects on the heart can be obtained from drinking beer, and distilled spirits. However, in 1999, due to their poor domestic season, they were forced into the ignominy of entering the UEFA Intertoto Cup in order to qualify for Europe. With excessive consumption, however, any health benefits are offset by the increased rate of various alcohol-related diseases, primarily cancers of mouth, upper respiratory tract, and ultimately, cirrhosis of liver. Juventus also won the Cup Winners' Cup in 1984 and two more UEFA Cup (1990, 1993). Red wine also contains a significant amount of flavonoids and red anthocyanin pigments that act as antioxidants.

Juventus repeated the success by winning the Champions League for a second time in 1996, and have not won it again since, the closest chance being when they lost to AC Milan in the 2003 final due to losing in a penalty shootout. One particularly interesting polyphenol found in red wine is resveratrol, to which numerous beneficial effects have been attributed. The height of European success was not reached until 1985, when they won the European Champions Cup, but this success was largely overshadowed by the Heysel disaster that had occurred during the final between Juventus and Liverpool. Compounds, known as polyphenols, are found in larger amounts in red wine, and there is some evidence that these are especially beneficial. Post-war the club was very successful domestically, winning its tenth championship in 1961, but did not win any European titles until 1977 with the UEFA Cup. Originally, the effect was observed with red wine. In 1933, they began playing at the Stadio Comunale. It now seems clear that regular consumption of up to 1-2 drinks a day (1 standard drink is approximately equal to 5 oz, or 125 ml, of 13% wine) does reduce mortality, due to 10%–40% lower risk of coronary heart disease, for those over the age of 35 or so (see Alcohol consumption and health).

From 1931, the club won five consecutive Italian league championships (Italian scudetto). In the USA, a boom in red wine consumption was touched off in the 1990s by '60 Minutes', and other news reports on the French paradox. In 1923, the Agnelli family (owners of Fiat) gained control of the club, and built a private stadium in Villar Perosa (near Turin) and a complete series of facilities and services. The health effects of wine (and alcohol in general) are the subject of considerable ongoing debate and study. The team won a previous version of the national league titles as early as 1905, but did not win their second until 1926. 9:20-21) Wine remains an essential part of the Eucharistic rites in the Orthodox, Catholic, Lutheran and Anglican denominations of Christianity. was founded in November 1897 by students from Massimo D'Azeglio Lyceum, in a "legendary" bench in one of Turin's boulevard, Re Umberto boulevard. (Gen.

Juventus F.C. The New Testament even states that Jesus' very first miracle was to turn water into wine (John 2:1-11), and the Old Testament states that the fermentation of grapes was first discovered by Noah after the great flood described in Genesis. This arrangement will end after the 2004–05 season, when Torino Calcio will open a new ground of its own. Wine is also used in religious ceremonies in many cultures and the wine trade is of historical importance for many regions. The club's stadium is the 69,041-seat Stadio Delle Alpi, which it currently shares with Torino Calcio. If in doubt, it is better to err on the side of too little aeration than too much. When the club decided to change these, it was decided to import kits in the red of Nottingham Forest, but a mix-up by the supplier meant that the team got the Notts County black and white instead. As a general rule, younger white wines normally require no more than 15-30 minutes of aeration while younger red wines should be no more than 30-60 minutes.

Originally the team played in pink shirts (pink being the cheapest material available) with a black tie. It should then be tasted every 15 minutes until the wine is, according to individual preference, ready to drink. The team gets its black-and-white striped kits from English side Notts County. In general, wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it may be aerated, if at all. The team typically plays in black-and-white striped shirts and black shorts (but for decades in white shorts), and is nicknamed la Vecchia Signora (the Old Lady), bianconeri (black-and-white's), zebre (zebras), or deprecatively gobbi (humpbacks) by the opponents. Breathing, however, does not benefit all wines, and should not therefore be taken to the extreme. Juventus are widely regarded as one of the world's top clubs. Wines that are older generally fade (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration.

It competes in Serie A. During aeration, the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavours and makes them taste slightly smooth and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Juventus Football Club (Latin for Youth, pronounced yoo-VEHN-toos) is one of Italy's oldest and greatest football clubs, based in Turin, Piedmont. "Older", on the other hand, refers to the last one third of their lives. Robert Kovac. For most white wines, "younger" means up to one to two years, while for red wines, they could mean as little as a few months, for a Beaujolais Nouveau, up to ten years for a hearty Barossa Shiraz. David Trézéguet. The word, "younger", refers to the first one third of a wine’s life, which varies from wine type to wine type and from wine to wine.

Mauro Camoranesi. Generally, younger wines benefit from some aeration, while older wines do not. Lilian Thuram. 'Breathing' means allowing a wine to aerate before drinking. Fabio Cannavaro. to "breathe"), while other wines are recommended to be drunk as soon as they are opened. Zlatan Ibrahimović. The labels on certain bottles of wine suggest that they need to be set aside for an hour before drinking (ie.

Pavel Nedvěd. Although there are many classes of dinner wines, they can be categorized under six specific classes as follows:. Patrick Vieira. The apéritif and dessert wines contain 14-20% alcohol, and are fortified to make them richer and sweeter than the light wines. Emerson. Red, white and sparkling wines are the most popular, and are also known as light wines, because they only contain approximately 10-14% alcohol. Gianluca Zambrotta. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex.

Gianluigi Buffon. Use of the term Meritage is protected by licensing agreements by The Meritage Association. Alen Boksic. For example, Meritage is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, and may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Paolo Montero. Some blended wine names are marketing terms, and the use of these names is governed by trademark or copyright law, rather than a specific wine law or a patent on the actual varietal blend or process used to achieve it. Edgar Davids. Thus, the finest sparkling wines from California will be labeled "sparkling wine", while some less expensive sparkling wines from California as well as states, such as Ohio and New York, may bear the name "Champagne".

Filippo Inzaghi. For example, makers of American sparkling wines now generally find it to be of no advantage in the marketplace to use the name "Champagne" because the quality of their products is widely recognized. Christian Vieri. Generally only less expensive, mass-produced wines (or vin ordinaire) make use of these place names as semi-generic wine names. Antonio Conte. Some European producers protest the practice for fear that it causes loss of sales, although only the most unsophisticated consumer would be confused or mislead by the practice. Fabrizio Ravanelli. winemakers to apply these terms to their wines even though the product does not come from these specific places.

Alessandro Del Piero. While most countries restrict the use of these place names, there exists a legal definition called semi-generic in the United States that enables U.S. Angelo Di Livio. All of these are names of specific regions in Europe. Roberto Baggio. However, in the United States (except Oregon), the following European appellations are allowed to be used as generic wine names: Asti, Burgundy, Chablis, Champagne, Chianti, Madeira, Marsala, and Moselle. Gianluca Vialli. For example, in most of the world, wine labeled Champagne must be made from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France and fermented using a certain method, based on the international trademark agreements included in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.

Zinédine Zidane. The inconsistent application of historical European designations can be confusing. Didier Deschamps. New World wines are known primarily by their varietal content, and not by their region. Ciro Ferrara. The AVA designations do not restrict the type of grape used. Angelo Peruzzi. The appellation system is strongest in the European Union, but a related system, the American Viticultural Area, restricts the use of certain regional labels in America, such as Napa Valley, Santa Barbara and Willamette Valley.

Paolo Rossi. These naming conventions or "appellations" (as they are known in France) dictate not only where the grapes in a wine were grown, but also which grapes went into the wine and how they were vinified. Marco Tardelli. Historically, wines have been known by names reflecting their origin, and sometimes style: Bordeaux, Rioja, Mosel and Chianti are all legally defined names, reflecting the traditional wines produced in the named region. Franco Causio. The taste of a wine depends not only on the grape species and varietal blend, but also on the ground and climate (known as terroir) where it is cultivated. Gaetano Scirea. To accommodate market demands, an increasing number of French wine makers are labeling their bottles with the variety or varieties of grapes included, as permitted by law.

Antonio Cabrini. Within Europe, a major exception to the no-grape rule is with German wines, for which it is not uncommon to find this information on the front label. Claudio Gentile. This is understandable; the many systems of geographic nomenclature with their precise meanings and implications are highly complex.[4]. Dino Zoff. For example, 72% of French adults report that they have difficulty understanding wine labels. Andreas Möller. However, to the typical or even to the well informed wine consumer, the system can be confusing if not impenetrable.

Stefan Reuter. This is not the case with most European wines because tradition and legal restrictions enable a well trained connoisseur or other expert to know what variety of grape is in the bottle. Thomas Häßler. Examples of recognized locales include:Napa Valley, Russian River Valley, Willamette Valley, Sonoma, Walla Walla, etc., Still, though, the grape variety is almost invariably present on the label. Jürgen Kohler. More and more, however, market recognition of particular regions and wineries is leading to their increased prominence on New World wine labels. Michael Laudrup. New World wines (those from everywhere except Europe) are generally named for the grape variety.

Stefano Tacconi. Generally speaking, Old World (European) wines are named for the place of production, with the grapes used often not appearing on the label. Liam Brady. Wines are usually named either by their grape variety or by their place of production. Michel Platini. Instead of labels, the bottles (red, as well as white) had printing in gold on them, as seen in the illustration. Zbigniew Boniek. An example is the Mildara Rhine Riesling produced in 1973 to mark the opening of the Sydney Opera House.

Franco Causio. Some wines, produced to mark significant events in a country or region, can also become collectible because of labelling design. Pietro Anastasi. False labeling is another dishonest practice commonly used. Giuseppe Furino. Like any investment, proper research is essential before investing. Fabio Capello. Wine fraud scams often work by charging excessively high prices for the wine, while representing that it is a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.

Antonello Cuccureddu. Also investment in fine wine has attracted a number of fraudsters who have played on fine wine's exclusive image, and their clients' ignorance of this sector of the wine market. Roberto Bettega. Many wine writers have decried the trend, as it has pushed up prices to the point that few people will consider drinking such valuable commodities, and consequently they are kept in bottles undrunk where they eventually deteriorate into a substance very much like red wine vinegar in taste (and desirability). Roberto Boninsegna. The most common wines purchased for investment are Bordeaux and Port. Helmut Haller. Secondary markets for these wines have consequently developed, as well as specialised facilities for post-purchase storage for people to "invest" in wine.

Luis Del Sol. Exclusive wines come from all the best winemaking regions of the world. José Altafini. Some high-end wines are veblen goods (for conspicuous consumption). John Charles. For restaurateurs, serving old vintages is a risk that is compensated through elevated prices. Omar Sivori. This is for a reason: diners will often return wines that have spoilt and not bear the expense.

Giampiero Boniperti. Restaurants will often charge between two to five times the price of what a wine merchant may ask for an exceptional vintage. Ermes Muccinelli. Part of the expense associated with high-end wine comes from the number of bottles which must be discarded in order to produce a drinkable wine. Carlo Parola. On the other hand, they may spoil after such long storage periods, unbeknownst to the drinker about to open the bottle. Felice Borel. Such wines are often at their best years, or sometimes decades, after bottling.

Giovanni Ferrari. Red wines, at least partly because of their ability to form more complex subtleties, are typically the most expensive. Luis Monti. At the highest end, rare, super-premium wines are amongst the most expensive of all foodstuffs, and outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle. Raimundo Orsi. It can sometimes profit from aging 2-3 years and some Prestige Cuvées even much longer. Umberto Caligaris. French Champagne is often non-vintage, but still expensive.

Virginio Rosetta. There are exceptions though. Giampiero Combi. Conversely, wines such as White Zinfandel, which don't age well, are made to be drunk immediately and may not be labeled with a vintage year. First team in Europe to win Champions League/Cup Winners Cup/UEFA Cup. Some vintage wines are only made in better-than-average years. 1985, 1996. Superior vintages, from reputable producers and regions, will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages.

Intercontinental Cups: 2

    . Whilst vintage wines are generally made in a single batch so that each and every bottle will have a similar taste, climatic factors can have a dramatic impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. 1999. They are therefore more expensive than non-vintage wines. Intertoto Cups: 1
      . For most types of wine, the best-quality grapes and the most care in wine-making are employed on vintage wines. 1985, 1996. These wines often improve in flavor as they age, and wine enthusiasts will occasionally save bottles of a favorite vintage wine for future consumption.

      European Super Cups: 2

        . "Vintage wines" are made from grapes of a single year's harvest, and are accordingly dated. 1976-77, 1989-90, 1992-93. Wines may be classified by the year in which the grapes are harvested, known as the "vintage". UEFA Cups: 3
          . Specific flavors may also be sensed, at least by an experienced taster, due to the highly complex mix of organic molecules, such as esters, that a fully vinted wine contains. 1983-84. Dry wine, for example, has only a tiny amount of residual sugar.

          Cup Winners' Cups: 1

            . The sweetness of wines can be measured in brix, at harvest, but is in actuality determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. 1984-85, 1995-96. Wines may be described as 'dry' (meaning they are without sugar), off-dry, fruity, or sweet, for example. European Cups: 2
              . Different grape varieties are associated with the aromas and tastes of different compounds. 1995, 1997, 2002, 2003. They are made up of chemical compounds which are similar to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices.

              Italian Supercups: 4

                . Wines may be also classified by their primary impression on the drinker's palate. 1937-38, 1941-42, 1958-59, 1959-60, 1964-65, 1978-79, 1982-83, 1989-90, 1994-95. Grappa is a dry colorless brandy, distilled from fermented grape pomace, the pulpy residue of grapes, stems and seeds that were pressed for the winemaking process. Italian Cups: 9
                  . Brandy is a distilled wine. 1905, 1925-26, 1930-31, 1931-32, 1932-33, 1933-34, 1934-35, 1949-50, 1951-52, 1957-58, 1959-60, 1960-61, 1966-67, 1971-72, 1972-73, 1974-75, 1976-77, 1977-78, 1980-81, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1994-95, 1996-97, 1997-98, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2004-05. Fortified wines are often sweeter, always more alcoholic wines that have had their fermentation process stopped by the addition of a spirit, such as brandy.

                  Italian Championships: 28

                    . In most countries except the United States, champagne is legally defined as sparkling wine originating from a region in France. Other international denominations of sparkling wine include Sekt or Schaumwein (Germany), Cava (Spain), Spumante or Prosecco (Italy). In France, wines that gain their carbonation from the traditional method of bottle fermentation are called Méthode Traditionnelle. To have this effect, the wine is fermented twice, once in an open container to allow the carbon dioxide to escape into the air, and a second time in a sealed container, where the gas is caught and remains in the wine.

                    They vary from just a slight bubbliness to the classic Champagne. Sparkling wines, such as champagne, are those with carbon dioxide, either from fermentation or added later. Rosé wines are a compromise between reds and whites: the skin of red grapes is left in for a short time during fermentation, or a small amount of red wine is blended with a white wine. A white wine made from a very dark grape may appear pink or 'blush'.

                    White wine can be made from any colour of grape as the skin is separated from the juice during fermentation. Red wine is made from red (or black) grapes, but its red colour is bestowed by the skin being left in contact with the juice during fermentation. Grapes with colored juice are known as teinturiers, such as alicante bouchet. The colour of wine is not determined by the juice of the grape, which is almost always clear, but rather by the presence or absence of the grape skin during fermentation.

                    These include classifications such as sparkling, still, fortified, rosé, and blush. Wines may be classified by vinification methods. Their producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes, hide any hint of often-unremarkable "terroirs", or climatically under-performing harvest years, by:. However, flavor differences are not necessarily a desirable quality for large producers of table wine or more affordable wines, where consistency is more important for mass-market wine brands.

                    Many small producers use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. The variety of grape(s), aspect (direction of slope), elevation, and topography of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, the climate and seasonal conditions under which grapes are grown, the local yeast cultures altogether form the concept of "terroir." The range of possibilities lead to great variety among wine products, which is extended by the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country of the World except for Chile, which has yet to be exposed to the bug. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera.

                    Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. Hybrids are not to be confused with the practice of grafting. Although generally prohibited by law in traditional wine regions, hybrids are planted in substantial numbers in cool-climate viticultural areas. Concord wine (Vitis labrusca species).

                    Vitis labrusca, Vitis aestivalis, Vitis muscadinia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes, usually grown for eating in fruit form or made into grape juice, jam, or jelly, but sometimes made into wine, eg. Wine can also be made from other species or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. Blended wines are in no way inferior to varietal wines; indeed, some of the world's most valued and expensive wines from the Bordeaux, Rioja or Tuscany regions, are a blend of several grape varieties of the same vintage. When one of these varieties, such as Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, or Merlot, for example, is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75 or 85%) the result is a varietal, as opposed to a blended wine.

                    Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species, Vitis vinifera. In 2000, Great Britain imported more wine from Australia than from France for the first time in history. The leaders in export volume by market share in 2003 were:. The vineyards of Algeria used to produce many fine wines, especially during and immediately after the era of French colonization, but civil strife since the 1970s has greatly reduced this industry.

                    In the United States, California accounts for the largest share of wine producers, including Napa Valley, Sonoma Valley, Monterey, Paso Robles, and Santa Ynez. The 13 largest export nations (2005 dates) – Italy, France, Spain, Australia, Chile, the United States of America, Germany, South Africa, Portugal, Moldova, Hungary, Croatia and Argentina. Grapevines prefer a relatively long growing season of 100 days or more with warm daytime temperatures (no greater than 95°F/35°C) and cool nights (a difference of 40°F/23°C or more). The world's most southerly vineyards are in the South Island of New Zealand near the 45th parallel.

                    Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the Equator. The advent of wine in Europe was the work of the Greeks who spread the art of grape-growing and winemaking in Ancient Greek and Roman times. By the end of the Old Kingdom, five wines, all probably produced in the Delta, constitute a canonical set of provisions, or fixed "menu," for the afterlife. Winemaking scenes on tomb walls, and the offering lists that accompanied them, included wine that was definitely produced at the deltaic vineyards.

                    The industry was most likely the result of trade between Egypt and Canaan during the Early Bronze Age, commencing from at least the Third Dynasty (2650 – 2575 BC), the beginning of the Old Kingdom period (2650 – 2152 BC). 3000 BC. A thriving royal winemaking industry was established in the Nile Delta following the introduction of grape cultivation from the Levant to Egypt c. In Ancient Egypt, wine played an important part in ceremonial life.

                    None of these areas can be singled out, despite persistent suggestions that Georgia is the birthplace of wine[3]. Wild grapes grow in the northern Levant, coastal and southeastern Turkey, the Caspian coast of Iran, Armenia, and Georgia. However, the first large-scale production of wine must have been in the region where grapes were first domesticated, the Near East. It could have been anywhere in the vast region, stretching from Spain to Central Asia, where wild grapes grow.

                    Exactly where wine was first made will probably never be known. The identifications have not yet been replicated in other laboratories. These identifications are regarded with caution by some biochemists because of the risk of false positives, particularly where complex mixtures of organic materials, and degradation products, may be present. The identifications are based on the identification of tartaric acid and tartrate salts using a form of infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

                    Records include jars from the Pottery Neolithic (5400-5000 BC) site of Hajji Firuz Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of present-day Iran and from Late Uruk (3500-3100 BC) occupation at the site of Uruk, in Mesopotamia[2]. Wine residue has been identified by Patrick McGovern's team at the University Museum, Pennsylvania, in ancient pottery jars. There is scanty evidence for earlier domestication of grape, in the form of grape pips from Chalcolithic Tell Shuna in Jordan, but this evidence remains unpublished. Grapes were, of course, also an important food.

                    There is also increasingly abundant evidence for wine making in Sumeria and Egypt in the third millennium BC. Domesticated grapes were abundant in the Near East from the beginning of the Early Bronze Age, starting in 3200 BC. It is unlikely they could have been the basis of a wine industry. However, wild grapes are small and sour, and relatively rare at archaeological sites.

                    This would have been easier following the development of pottery vessels in the later Neolithic of the Near East, about 9000 years ago. It is plausible that early foragers and farmers made alcoholic beverages from wild fruits, including wild grapes (Vitis sylvestris). Little is known of the prehistory of wine. [1].

                    Some believe this word was derived from the Georgian ghvino while still others have also argued that it originated from the Arabic "Wine" " which means grape. The word wine comes from the Old English win, which derives from the Proto-Germanic *winam which was an early borrowing from the Latin vinum (related to Greek οἶνος), which can mean either the "wine" or the "vine" . . The English word wine and its equivalents in other languages are protected by law in many jurisdictions.

                    However, in such cases a qualifier is often legally required (e.g., "elderberry wine"). Wine-like beverages can be produced by the fermentation of other fruits and flowers (fruit or country wines), barley (barley wine), rice (sake), and even honey (mead). Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of grapes and grape juice. The series was very popular and a wine named Falcon Crest even went on the market.

                    Falcon Crest, USA 1981-1990: A CBS primetime soap opera about the fictional Falcon Crest winery and the family who owned it, set in the fictional Tuscany Valley of California. In search of themselves., in which wine, particularly Pinot Noir, plays a central role. In search of women. Sideways, 2004: A comedy/drama film, directed by Alexander Payne, with the tagline: In search of wine.

                    Mondovino, USA/France 2004: A documentary film directed by American film maker, Jonathan Nossiter, explaining the impact of globalization on the various wine-producing regions. Yellow Tail A vineyard based in Australia. Trefethen Vineyards Winner of first place among Chardonnays at Wine Olympics. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005.

                    Thirty Benches Wines: Selected for St. The Wine Group: Third largest wine company in the world. Sterling Vineyards Winner of first place in Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981. Stag's Leap Wine Cellars: Winner of first place in Paris Wine Tasting of 1976; winner of first place in San Francisco Wine Tasting of 1978.

                    Spring Mountain Vineyard: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. Puligny-Montrachet Les Pucelles Domaine Leflaive Selected for Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. Massaya: Wine from Lebanon. Marchesi Antinori.

                    Royal Wine Company: Also known as "Kedem", is a U.S.-incorporated Kosher food manufacturing and distribution corporation, run by the Herzog family since 1848; holds exclusive United States distribution rights for several Israeli wines and spirits, and is especially known for the Baron Herzog Varietals line of wines. Ridge Vineyards: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986 and Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986. Remick Ridge Vineyards: A California-based vineyard and winery, owned and operated by the Smothers Brothers. Penfolds Grange: Won first place in Shiraz/Sirah at Wine Olympics.

                    Meursault Charmes Roulot: Selected for the New York Wine Tasting of 1973. Mayacamas Vineyards: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986, and French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. KWV (Koöperatiewe Winjnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika): The name of the company, formed in 1997, from the former winemakers cooperative in South Africa. Heitz Wine Cellars: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976 and Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981; won first place in Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986.

                    Grgich Hills Cellar. Freemark Abbey Winery: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976 and Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981. E & J Gallo Winery: Second largest wine company in the world. Douglas Green Bellingham (DGB).

                    Distell. David Bruce Winery: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. Constellation Brands: Largest wine company in the world. Cloudy Bay Vineyards: A noted producer of Sauvignon Blanc.

                    Clos Du Val Winery: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976; winner of first place in French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. Château Rauzan-Gassies: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 2005. Château Pontet-Canet: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 2005. Château Pichon Longueville Baron: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 2005.

                    Château Pétrus: A vineyard of the Pomerol wine region in Bordeaux. Selected for Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981, Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986, and French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. The first estate to begin complete chateau bottling of the harvest. Château Mouton Rothschild: Located at Bordeaux, France.

                    Château Montrose: Selected for Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986, and French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. Chateau Montelena: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976; winner of first place in New York Wine Tasting of 1973. Château Margaux: Selected for both Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981 and Berlin Wine Tasting of 2004. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005.

                    Chateau Lynch-Moussas: Selected for St. Château Leoville Las Cases: Selected for Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986 and French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. Château Latour: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981. Château Lascombes: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 2005.

                    Château Lafite-Rothschild: Selected for both Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981 and Berlin Wine Tasting of 2004. Château Haut-Brion: Selected for Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981, Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986, and French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005. Chateau Haut-Bages Liberal: Selected for St.

                    Château Ducru-Beaucaillou : selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981. Château Cheval Blanc: A vineyard in Saint-Émilion, France. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005. Chateau de Camensac: Selected for St.

                    Château Brane-Cantenac: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 2005. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005. Château Branaire-Ducru: Selected for St. Chalone Vineyard: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976.

                    Beaune Clos des Mouches Joseph Drouhin: Selected for both the New York Wine Tasting of 1973 and the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. Beaulieu Vineyard: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981. Batard-Montrachet Ramonet-Prudhon: Selected for Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. Often referred to as a winemaker.

                    Oenologist: A wine scientist. Winemaker: A person that makes wine. Sommelier: A waiter in a restaurant who specializes in wine. Vintner: A wine merchant or producer.

                    Négociant: A wine merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers, and sells them under his own name. Cooper: Someone who makes wooden barrels, casks, and other similar wooden objects. Wine stopper: An accessory, used to close leftover wine bottles because it is hard to put the original cork back into the bottleneck. Wine-press: A device, comprising two vats or receptacles, one for trodding and bruising grapes, and the other for collecting the juice.

                    Wine label: The label on a wine bottle that must provide at least the minimum amount of information prescribed by law. Wine glass: Glasses used to drink wine from. Wine cooler: An accessory, such as an ice bucket, for cooling wine. Wine collar: This accoutrement slips over the neck of a wine bottle and absorbs any drips that may run down the bottle after pouring - preventing stains to table cloths, counter tops or other surfaces.

                    Wine bottle: A small container, with a neck that is narrower than the body, that allows long-term aging of wine when combined with a high-quality stopper, such as a cork. Also called a "Stelvin". Screwcap: An alternative to cork for sealing wine bottles, comprising a metal cap that screws onto threads on the neck of a bottle. Napkin is used around a bottleneck to stop drops running on bottle surface after pouring wine to glasses.

                    But unlike wine collars it is elastic and can accommodate many sizes of bottles. Drip dickey: Like a wine collar this accoutrement slips over the neck of a wine bottle and absorbs any drips that may run down the bottle after pouring - preventing stains to table cloths, counter tops or other surfaces. Corkscrew: A tool, comprising a pointed metallic helix attached to a handle, for drawing stopping corks from bottles. Cork (material): Tissue material, harvested from the Cork oak tree, and very suitable as a material for bottle stoppers.

                    Butt: An old English unit of wine casks, equivalent to about 477 litres (126 US gallons/105 imperial gallons). Barrel: A hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wood staves, used for fermenting and aging wine. Amphora: A type of ceramic vase, used for transporting and storing wine. Aging barrel: A barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits.

                    Non-alcoholic wine. Rebujito: A mixture of manzanilla wine, mixed with a soft drink like Sprite or 7 Up. Zurracapote: A popular Spanish alcoholic drink comprising mainly of red wine, spirit, fruit juice, sugar and cinnamon. Wine cooler: An alcoholic beverage made from wine and fruit juice, often in combination with a carbonated beverage and sugar.

                    Spritzer: A tall, chilled drink, usually made of white wine and soda water. Sangria Spanish: A wine punch, comprising red wine, chopped fruits, sugar, and a small amount of brandy or other spirits. Mulled wine (known in Scandinavia as Glögg and in Germany as Glühwein): A red wine, combined with spices, and usually served hot. Calimocho: A cheap alcoholic drink, comprising 50% red wine and 50% cola drink.

                    Brandy: A general term for distilled wine. List of cocktails with wine. (Note, however, that most cooking authorities advise against cooking with any wine one would find unacceptable to drink.). Cooking wines: Typically containing a significant quantity of salt, cooking wine is wine of such poor quality that it is unpalatable and intended for use only in cooking.

                    Among these are port wine, sweet sherry, Tokay, and muscatel. Dessert wines: Ranging from medium-sweet to sweet, these wines are classified under dessert wines only because they are sometimes served with desserts. As such, unless a wine has more than 14 percent alcohol, or it has bubbles, it is a table wine or a light wine. In Europe, light wine must be within 8.5 percent and 14 percent alcohol by volume.

                    standards of identity, table wines may have an alcohol content that is no higher than 14 percent. According to U.S. Table wine: Table wine is not bubbly, although some have a very slight carbonation, the amount of which is not enough to disqualify them as table wines. The most common sparkling wines are Champagne (white) and sparkling Burgundy (red).

                    Sparkling wines: Usually served at any meal with any course, these wines are most frequently served at banquets, formal dinners and weddings. They include Rhine wines, Chablis, sauterne, and wine made from different grape varieties such as Chardonnay and White Riesling. White dinner wines: Usually either very dry or rather sweet, these wines should be served chilled, and go well with white meats, seafood, and fowl. Pink dinner wines (also called "rose wines"), a special class of red wines, can be served with almost any dish, but are considered best with cold meats, pork, and curries.

                    The most popular red dinner wines are claret, Burgundy, Chianti, and Cabernet Sauvignon. They should be served at a cool room temperature to bring out their aroma. Red dinner wines: These wines are usually dry and go extremely well with such main-course dishes as red meats, spaghetti, and highly-seasoned foods. Apéritif (or better known as "appetizer wines"): include dry sherry, Madeira, Vermouth, and other flavored wines, made to be consumed before eating a meal.

                    using flavor additives. pasteurizing the grape juice in order to kill indigenous yeasts (to be replaced with "choice" cultivated yeasts); and. blending harvests of various years and vineyards;. Germany 4%.

                    Portugal 4%. United States, 5%. Chile, 6%. Australia, 8%.

                    Spain, 16%. Italy, 20%. France, 22%.

08-04-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.