Juventus F.C.

Juventus Football Club (Latin for Youth, pronounced yoo-VEHN-toos) is one of Italy's oldest and greatest football clubs, based in Turin, Piedmont. It competes in Serie A. Juventus are widely regarded as one of the world's top clubs.

The team typically plays in black-and-white striped shirts and black shorts (but for decades in white shorts), and is nicknamed la Vecchia Signora (the Old Lady), bianconeri (black-and-white's), zebre (zebras), or deprecatively gobbi (humpbacks) by the opponents. The team gets its black-and-white striped kits from English side Notts County. Originally the team played in pink shirts (pink being the cheapest material available) with a black tie.

When the club decided to change these, it was decided to import kits in the red of Nottingham Forest, but a mix-up by the supplier meant that the team got the Notts County black and white instead. The club's stadium is the 69,041-seat Stadio Delle Alpi, which it currently shares with Torino Calcio. This arrangement will end after the 2004–05 season, when Torino Calcio will open a new ground of its own.

Juventus F.C. was founded in November 1897 by students from Massimo D'Azeglio Lyceum, in a "legendary" bench in one of Turin's boulevard, Re Umberto boulevard. The team won a previous version of the national league titles as early as 1905, but did not win their second until 1926. In 1923, the Agnelli family (owners of Fiat) gained control of the club, and built a private stadium in Villar Perosa (near Turin) and a complete series of facilities and services.

From 1931, the club won five consecutive Italian league championships (Italian scudetto). In 1933, they began playing at the Stadio Comunale. Post-war the club was very successful domestically, winning its tenth championship in 1961, but did not win any European titles until 1977 with the UEFA Cup.

The height of European success was not reached until 1985, when they won the European Champions Cup, but this success was largely overshadowed by the Heysel disaster that had occurred during the final between Juventus and Liverpool. Juventus repeated the success by winning the Champions League for a second time in 1996, and have not won it again since, the closest chance being when they lost to AC Milan in the 2003 final due to losing in a penalty shootout.

Juventus also won the Cup Winners' Cup in 1984 and two more UEFA Cup (1990, 1993). However, in 1999, due to their poor domestic season, they were forced into the ignominy of entering the UEFA Intertoto Cup in order to qualify for Europe. They have won 28 Italian titles and nine Coppa Italias to date, both national records. The club is also one of only four to have won all three major European trophies.

Until recently, Juventus' players had to wear short (and regular) hair; the club also provided the team with official formal wear (made by famous tailors) and forced them to complete their educational studies. Most of its players remained with Juventus until the end of their careers; many still work for the club or for Fiat (or related companies).

The two stars on the Juventus shirt signify they have won the Scudetto over 20 times. In fact, Juventus won the Italian Championship 28 times, more than any other Italian club; no other club has won the championship over 20 times, but the closest one to that objective is AC Milan.

Juventus is now a corporation, listed on the Borsa Italiana. The sale of Zinedine Zidane to Real Madrid of Spain was the most expensive in football to date, costing the Spanish club over $64 million (US), which is accurately £48 million.

On January 10, 2006 Alessandro Del Piero became the all time leading goalscorer for Juventus when he scored three times in a match against Fiorentina and took his total goals for the club to 185. The previous record holder was Giampiero Boniperti, who scored 182 goals for the club.

The previous Juventus logo

Current first team squad

As of January 31, 2006

Team honours

In terms of league championships (called Albo d'Oro (palmarés) ), the club is the most successful in Italian football.

Greatest players

The following is a list, divided in historical periods, of the greatest players in the history of Juventus.

The champions of the years 1931-1935

The '50s and '60s

The period of Boniperti and Trapattoni

The 1982 world champions

The Lippi era

The present


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The following is a list, divided in historical periods, of the greatest players in the history of Juventus. In his late work Conjugal Love he describes, that a soul of a man and a soul of a woman are united by the marriage in heaven to become an angel. In terms of league championships (called Albo d'Oro (palmarés) ), the club is the most successful in Italian football. The Christian mystic Emanuel Swedenborg has a similar imagination. As of January 31, 2006. The Sufi mystic Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi wrote in his poem Masnavi:. . When the human body dies, a soul could become an angel.

The previous record holder was Giampiero Boniperti, who scored 182 goals for the club. Some mystics believe, that a soul is growing in steps from minerals, plants and animals to men. On January 10, 2006 Alessandro Del Piero became the all time leading goalscorer for Juventus when he scored three times in a match against Fiorentina and took his total goals for the club to 185. Crowley felt that attaining Knowledge and Conversation was so important, that he staked the claim that any other magical operation was, in a sense, evil. The sale of Zinedine Zidane to Real Madrid of Spain was the most expensive in football to date, costing the Spanish club over $64 million (US), which is accurately £48 million. For Crowley, this event was the single most important goal of any adept:. Juventus is now a corporation, listed on the Borsa Italiana. According to most Thelemites, the single most important goal is to consciously connect with one’s HGA, a process termed “Knowledge and Conversation.” By doing so, the magician becomes fully aware of his own True Will.

In fact, Juventus won the Italian Championship 28 times, more than any other Italian club; no other club has won the championship over 20 times, but the closest one to that objective is AC Milan. Citing Crowley, people have linked the term with the Genius of the Golden Dawn, the Augoeides of Iamblichus, the Atman of Hinduism, and the Daemon of the gnostics.Guardian Angel. The two stars on the Juventus shirt signify they have won the Scudetto over 20 times. Within the system of Thelema, the Holy Guardian Angel is representative of one’s truest divine nature. Most of its players remained with Juventus until the end of their careers; many still work for the club or for Fiat (or related companies). Aleister Crowley, tried to teach people to attain what he called "the Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel". Until recently, Juventus' players had to wear short (and regular) hair; the club also provided the team with official formal wear (made by famous tailors) and forced them to complete their educational studies. Note that if a particular deva has a widespread cult, like Vishnu or Shiva, he is believed not to be an ordinary deva but equated to Ishvara by his followers.

The club is also one of only four to have won all three major European trophies. Examples of such devas are Indra, Mitra, Ashvins, Varuna, etc. They have won 28 Italian titles and nine Coppa Italias to date, both national records. Buddhism and Jainism also believe in the existance of such devas. However, in 1999, due to their poor domestic season, they were forced into the ignominy of entering the UEFA Intertoto Cup in order to qualify for Europe. They grant material benefits to humans upon praying and sacrificing to them, though they don't carry the message of Ishvara to the humans as in Abrahamic religions (a category of such beings also exit, called "devaduta" or "duta"). Juventus also won the Cup Winners' Cup in 1984 and two more UEFA Cup (1990, 1993). They are celestial beings with supernatural powers, but also weaknesses.

Juventus repeated the success by winning the Champions League for a second time in 1996, and have not won it again since, the closest chance being when they lost to AC Milan in the 2003 final due to losing in a penalty shootout. The Devas may be better translated as angels or demigods. The height of European success was not reached until 1985, when they won the European Champions Cup, but this success was largely overshadowed by the Heysel disaster that had occurred during the final between Juventus and Liverpool. Many Hindus now say that this is a poor practice, because the best word for God in Sanskrit is Ishvara (the Supreme Lord). Post-war the club was very successful domestically, winning its tenth championship in 1961, but did not win any European titles until 1977 with the UEFA Cup. In English, the Sanskrit word Deva is exclusively translated as "god", which certainly gives a polytheistic appearance to Hinduism. In 1933, they began playing at the Stadio Comunale. Also, angel-like beings called Tennin and Tenshi appear in Japanese mythology.

From 1931, the club won five consecutive Italian league championships (Italian scudetto). In Zoroastrianism, the Amesha Spentas have often been regarded as angels, but this is not strictly correct since they don´t convey messages, but are rather emanations of Ahura Mazda ("Wise Lord", God); they appear in an abstract fashion in the religious thought of Zarathustra and then later (during the Achaemenid period of Zoroastrianism) became personalized, associated with an aspect of the divine creation (fire, plants, water...). In 1923, the Agnelli family (owners of Fiat) gained control of the club, and built a private stadium in Villar Perosa (near Turin) and a complete series of facilities and services. Angels are also a part of New Age beliefs. The team won a previous version of the national league titles as early as 1905, but did not win their second until 1926. Michael the archangel was Adam (the first man) when he was mortal, and Gabriel lived on the earth as Noah (the one who built the ark). was founded in November 1897 by students from Massimo D'Azeglio Lyceum, in a "legendary" bench in one of Turin's boulevard, Re Umberto boulevard. Names of some known angels who appeared are Moroni, Nephi, Peter, James, John, John the Baptist.

Juventus F.C. Although Cowdery, Whitmer, and Harris all eventually became disaffected with Smith and left the church, none of them retracted their statement that they had seen and conversed with an angel of the Lord, and indeed, even defended their claim of angelic visitation to their deaths. This arrangement will end after the 2004–05 season, when Torino Calcio will open a new ground of its own. People who claimed to have received a visit by an angel include Joseph Smith, Jr., Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, Martin Harris. The club's stadium is the 69,041-seat Stadio Delle Alpi, which it currently shares with Torino Calcio. described his first angelic encounter thus (Joseph Smith History 1:31-33):. When the club decided to change these, it was decided to import kits in the red of Nottingham Forest, but a mix-up by the supplier meant that the team got the Notts County black and white instead. Joseph Smith, Jr.

Originally the team played in pink shirts (pink being the cheapest material available) with a black tie. According to the official doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, (Bible Dictionary entry on "Angels"):. The team gets its black-and-white striped kits from English side Notts County. Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism), and several of his associates, claimed that they were visited by angels on multiple occasions and for a variety of purposes in conjunction with the restoration of the gospel of Jesus. The team typically plays in black-and-white striped shirts and black shorts (but for decades in white shorts), and is nicknamed la Vecchia Signora (the Old Lady), bianconeri (black-and-white's), zebre (zebras), or deprecatively gobbi (humpbacks) by the opponents. Humans do not turn into angels upon death, rather they are physically ressurected in body and soul and judged by God on judgement day (and that should they end up in Jannah (heaven), they are given perfect bodies). Juventus are widely regarded as one of the world's top clubs. Every human being is assigned two angels to scribe a record of all actions done by the individual throughout their life, which will be used in evidence for or against the person by Allah on the day of judgement.

It competes in Serie A. There are eight massive angels that support the Throne of God (Surat Al-Haaqqa, 69:17). Juventus Football Club (Latin for Youth, pronounced yoo-VEHN-toos) is one of Italy's oldest and greatest football clubs, based in Turin, Piedmont. The angels Nakir and Munkar are assigned to interrogate the dead before judgement day; and there are nineteen angels over-seeing the punishments of hell unflinchingly (Surat Al-Muddaththir, 74:30). Robert Kovac. Other angels include Michael (Mikaeel) who discharges control of vegetation and rain, Sarafiel (Israfil) who will blow the trumpet on Yaum al Qiyamah (the day of resurrection), and Azrael (Izra'il), the angel of death. David Trézéguet. The archangel Jibril is attributed with sending the message of Allah to all the Prophets (including the Psalms, Torah, Bible and Qur'an.

Mauro Camoranesi. Angels, unlike the fiery nature of jinn, are beings of goodness and cannot choose to disobey God, nor do they possess the ability to do evil. Lilian Thuram. He was one of the jinn..." (Surat Al-Kahf, 18:50). Fabio Cannavaro. Scholars cite the following Quranic ayat (verse), "And when We said to the Angels; "Prostrate yourselves unto Adam." So they prostrated themselves except Iblis. Zlatan Ibrahimović. According to the majority of Islamic scholars, angels are incapable of commiting sin, and therefore cannot fall from grace, excluding Iblis who chose to do evil because he had free-will and is not considered as a fallen angel, but a separate entity made of fire called jinn.

Pavel Nedvěd. As such, angels do not eat, procreate or commit sin as humans do. Patrick Vieira. They can take on human form, but only in appearance. Emerson. Angels are described as being excessively beautiful and have different numbers of wings (for example, Gabriel is attributed as having six-hundred wings in his natural form). Gianluca Zambrotta. They are completely devoted to the worship of God (Allah) and carry out certain functions on His command, such as recording every human being's actions, placing a soul in a newborn child, maintaining certain environmental conditions of the planet (such as nurturing vegetation and distributing the rain) and taking the soul at the time of death.

Gianluigi Buffon. In Islam, angels are benevolent beings created from light and do not possess free will. Alen Boksic. Angels are thus the ministers of God, as well as the agents of revelation in Islam. Paolo Montero. The belief in angels is central to the religion of Islam, beginning with the belief that the Qur'an was dictated to the Prophet Muhammad by the chief of all angels, the archangel Jibril (Gabriel). Edgar Davids. Official doctrines of most Christian churches teach that the virtuous are resurrected in the end of times, having a physical body again, unlike angels (see Swedenborgianism for a church that does officially and systematically teach that people enter heaven immediately after death).

Filippo Inzaghi. The statement of 1Cor 11:10 could be interpreted, as if male angels could be vulnerable to the female attractiveness of worshipping woman. Christian Vieri. (Zechariah 5,9) could be interpreted, that there are also female angels. Antonio Conte. male and female. Fabrizio Ravanelli. Flavius Josephus (Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades, VI) teaches of ressurected men and woman, i.e.

Alessandro Del Piero. The Bible does state that at the resurrection, people will be like the angels with regard to marriage and immortality (Luke 20:35-36), and teaches such a transformation for instance at 1Cor 15:51; it states that the saints (all believers) will judge angels (1 Cor 6:3). Angelo Di Livio. In many informal folk beliefs among Christians concerning the afterlife, the souls of the virtuous dead ascend into Heaven to be converted into angels. Roberto Baggio. Satan and the demons are thought by Christians to be angels who rebelled against God and were expelled from Heaven. Gianluca Vialli. However, for all practical purposes most Christian lay people know little or nothing of these views, and do not accept them.

Zinédine Zidane. Today, these views of angels are still technically acceptable within many mainstream Christian denominations. Didier Deschamps. Some medieval Christian philosophers were influenced by the views of Maimonides, and accepted his view of angels. Ciro Ferrara. Certain Christian traditions, especially the Reformed tradition within Protestantism hold that references to the "Angel of the Lord" are references to pre-Incarnation appearances of Jesus. Angelo Peruzzi. In the story of the 40 martyrs of Sebaste, in which 40 Christian Roman soldiers were made to stand naked on a frozen lake in the snow until they renounced their faith, angels were seen descending from Heaven placing the crowns of martyrs on their heads.

Paolo Rossi. Each consecrated altar has at least one angel always present offering up prayers, and a number of angels join the congregation when they meet to pray. Marco Tardelli. For instance, each Christian may be assigned a guardian angel at their baptism (although never defined by the Catholic or Orthodox churches, nevertheless it is personally held by many church members and most theologians). Franco Causio. Some Christian traditions also hold that angels play a variety of specific roles in the lives of believers. Gaetano Scirea. For example the verse in Paul "our struggle is not with earthly things but with principalities and powers" (meaning according to most theologians the fallen angels of those choirs, used as an example of all the fallen angels).

Antonio Cabrini. Many of these names come from verses in the bible which would appear at first to be referencing a literal thing, although retroactively suggesting that they really mention angels can also make sense in the context. Claudio Gentile. In this hierarchy, the Cherubim and Seraphim are typically closest to God, while the Angels and Archangels are most active in human affairs. Dino Zoff. The Celestial Hierarchy is the source of the names that have become part of tradition: Angels, Archangels, Principalities, Powers, Virtues, Dominions, Thrones, Cherubim, and Seraphim. Andreas Möller. Some Christian traditions hold that angels are organized into three major hierarchies which are subdivided into orders called "Choirs", and list as many as ten orders of angels.

Stefan Reuter. The principle of continuity, however, seems to require the existence of beings intermediate between man and God. Thomas Häßler. The creeds and confessions do not formulate any authoritative doctrine of angels; and modern rationalism has tended to deny the existence of such beings, or to regard the subject as one on which we can have no certain knowledge. Jürgen Kohler. Religious thought about the angels during the middle ages was much influenced by the theory of the angelic hierarchy set forth in The Celestial Hierarchy, a work of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, an unknown 5th century author or authors writing in the style of Dionysius the Areopagite. Michael Laudrup. Furthermore, there are more angels than there are anything else in the universe (although when first written this would have probably not included atoms since atomic structure was not known).

Stefano Tacconi. Angels possess the beatific vision, or the unencumbered understanding of God (the essence of the pleasure of heaven). Liam Brady. They also teach that angels are intermediaries to some forces that would otherwise be natural forces of the universe, such as the rotation of planets and the motion of stars. Michel Platini. Scholastic theologians teach that angels are able to reason instantly, and to move instantly. Zbigniew Boniek. Starting with the end of the 4th century, angels were depicted with wings, presumably to give an easy explanation for them travelling to and from heaven.

Franco Causio. (Hence the frequently recounted tale of Scholastics arguing about how many angels could fit on a pinhead; if angels possess physical bodies, the answer is "at most a finite number", if they do not, then we rule out any finite number greater than zero as the answer.) Seraphim are often depicted as six wings radiating from a center — either concealing a body, or without a body. Pietro Anastasi. Angels are frequently depicted as human in appearance, though many theologians have argued that they have no physical existence. Giuseppe Furino. Indeed, the term "angel" frequently appears to describe not beings of power, but simply announcers of events. Fabio Capello. An interpretation of the angels in the gospels is that angels are simply humans carrying a divine message.

Antonello Cuccureddu. Among other things, they are seen gathered around the Throne of God singing the thrice-holy hymn. Roberto Bettega. Angels fill a number of different roles in the Book of Revelation. Roberto Boninsegna. When Peter was imprisoned, an angel put his guards to sleep, released him from his chains, and led him out of the prison. Helmut Haller. Two angels witnessed Jesus' ascent into Heaven and prophesied his return.

Luis Del Sol. Alternately, in Mark 16:5 the angel is not seen until the women enter the already-opened tomb, and he is described simply as "a young man." In Luke's version of the resurrection tale (Luke 24:4), two angels suddenly apparate next to the women within the tomb; they are described as being clothed in "dazzling apparel." This is most similar to the version in John 20:12, where Mary alone speaks to "two angels in white" within the tomb of Jesus. José Altafini. 28:2, an angel appeared at Jesus' tomb, frightened the Roman guards, rolled away the stone from the tomb, and later told the myrrh-bearing women of Jesus' resurrection. John Charles. In Matt. Omar Sivori. The archangel Gabriel appeared to Mary in the traditional role of messenger to inform her that her child would be the Messiah, and other angels were present to herald his birth.

Giampiero Boniperti. There seems, however, no parallel to such a use of "angel", and it is doubtful whether the monarchical government of churches was fully developed when the Apocalypse was written. Ermes Muccinelli. A less likely view is that the "angels" are the human representatives of the churches, the bishops or chief presbyters. Carlo Parola. These are probably guardian angels, standing to the churches in the same relation that the "princes" in Daniel stand to the nations; practically the "angels" are personifications of the churches. Felice Borel. we meet with the "Angels" of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor.

Giovanni Ferrari. 1-3. Luis Monti. In Rev. Raimundo Orsi. Angels occur in groups of four or seven (Rev 7:1). Umberto Caligaris. 2:10), thrones and dominions (Col 1:16).

Virginio Rosetta. 8:38; Col. Giampiero Combi. 9:11); ranks are implied, archangels (Michael, Jude 9), principalities and powers (Rom. First team in Europe to win Champions League/Cup Winners Cup/UEFA Cup. The distinction of good and bad angels is recognized; we have names, Gabriel (Luke 1:19), and Michael (Daniel 12:1), and the evil angels Beelzebub, (Mark 3:22) and Satan (Mark 1:13); while the allegiance of some angels are more ambiguous, such as Abaddon or Apollyon (Rev. 1985, 1996. The New Testament takes little interest in the idea of the angelic hierarchy, but there are traces of the doctrine.

Intercontinental Cups: 2

    . Naturally angels are most prominent in the Apocalypse. 1999. (to Jesus), Luke 1:26 (to Mary), Acts 12:7 (to Peter)); and Jesus speaks of angels as fulfilling such functions (E.g. Mark 8:38, 13:27), implying in one saying that they neither marry nor are given in marriage (Mark 12:25). Intertoto Cups: 1
      . In the New Testament angels appear frequently as the ministers of God and the agents of revelation (E.g. Matthew 1:20 (to Joseph), 4:11. 1985, 1996. Others might perhaps view Maimonides's statements as being perfectly in keeping with the continued evolvement of Jewish thought over a period of several millennia.

      European Super Cups: 2

        . One can perhaps say that Maimonides thus presents a virtual rejection of the "classical" Jewish view of miracles; he and others substitute a rationalism that seems more appropriate for 20th and 21st century religious rationalists. 1976-77, 1989-90, 1992-93. This is explained in his Guide of the Perplexed II:4 and II:6. UEFA Cups: 3
          . Instead, he says, the wise man sees that what the Bible and Talmud refer to as "angels" are actually metaphors for the various laws of nature, or the principles by which the physical universe operates, or kinds of platonic eternal forms. 1983-84. Even this can be highly misleading: Maimonides harshly states that the average person's understanding of the term "angel" is ignorant in the extreme.

          Cup Winners' Cups: 1

            . Rather, all such interactions are by way of angels. 1984-85, 1995-96. The rationalist view of angels, as held by Maimonides, Gersonides, Samuel Ibn Tibbon, etc., states that God's actions are never mediated by a violation of the laws of nature. European Cups: 2
              . In the Middle Ages, some Jews developed a rationalist view of angels that is still accepted by many Jews today. 1995, 1997, 2002, 2003. Gabriel and Michael are mentioned in the book of Daniel, Raphael in the book of Tobit (from the Protestant Apocrypha or Catholic and Orthodox Deuterocanon) and the remaining four in the book of Enoch from the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox).

              Italian Supercups: 4

                . The archangels named in post-exile Judaism are Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel, Raguel, Sariel, and Jerahmeel. 1937-38, 1941-42, 1958-59, 1959-60, 1964-65, 1978-79, 1982-83, 1989-90, 1994-95. Such a differing perspective on angels is discovered in the Book of Ezekiel, where these angels bear no relation whatsoever to the former understanding of what an angel was. Italian Cups: 9
                  . Later biblical books in the Tanakh present a stunningly different view of angels, as the Jewish beliefs about such things developed over the many years covered in the Bible. 1905, 1925-26, 1930-31, 1931-32, 1932-33, 1933-34, 1934-35, 1949-50, 1951-52, 1957-58, 1959-60, 1960-61, 1966-67, 1971-72, 1972-73, 1974-75, 1976-77, 1977-78, 1980-81, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1994-95, 1996-97, 1997-98, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2004-05. The earliest Biblical books present angels as heavenly beings created by God, some of whom apparently are endowed with free will.

                  Italian Championships: 28

                    . Traditional Jewish biblical commentators have a variety of ways of explaining what an angel is. Many Bible chapters mention an "angry God" who sends His angel to smite the enemies of the Israelites. These include the warning to Lot of the imminent destruction of Sodom. Angels appear in several Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) stories, in addition to the ones previously mentioned above.

                    2). ix. 10) may have been affected by the representation of the seven archangels and also possibly by the seven amesha spentas of Zoroastrianism (compare Ezek. 9, iv.

                    iii. The notion of the seven eyes (Zech. More than three hundred years before the Book of Daniel was written, Zechariah graded the angels according to their rank, but did not name them. Michael is Israel's representative in Heaven, where other nations—the Persians, for instance—were also represented by angelic princes.

                    In Daniel, however, there occur the names Michael and Gabriel. 30, the angels, when questioned, refuse to give their names. xxxii. 18, and Gen.

                    Consequently, they did not individualize or denominate them; and in Judges, xiii. The earlier Biblical writings did not speculate about them; simply regarding them, in their relations to man, as God's agents. 7). 26; Job, xxxviii.

                    i. In some places, it is implied that angels existed before the Creation (Gen. 18, an angel brought the divine word to the prophet. It is noteworthy that in I Kings, xiii.

                    Thus the prophet Haggai was called God's messenger (angel); and it is known that "Malachi" is not a real name, but means "messenger" or "angel". In the prophetic books, angels appear as representatives of the prophetic spirit, and bring to the prophets God's word. 7). vi.

                    This conception was developed after the Exile; and in the Zechariah, angels of various shapes are delegated "to walk to and fro through the earth" in order to find out and report what happens (Zech. 7). 2; Job, xxxviii. xxxiii.

                    They accompany God as His attendants, when He appears to man (Deut. "assembly of the saints"). V. V.; A.

                    7, R. lxxxix. 1); hence they are called His "council of the holy ones" (Ps. 6, ii.

                    19; Job, i. They constitute God's court, sitting in council with Him (I Kings, xxii. 2 et seq.). vi.

                    2; compare Isa. 20, cxlviii. 1, ciii. xxix.

                    They glorify God, whence the term "glorifying angels" comes (Ps. "Evil" is here to be taken in the causative sense, as "producing evil"; for, as stated above, angels are generally considered to be by nature beneficent to man. 49 are to be regarded as personifications of this kind. lxxviii.

                    It would seem that the pestilence was personified, and that the "evil angels" mentioned in Ps. 15, who annihilates thousands. xxiv. Avenging angels are mentioned, such as the one in II Sam.

                    5, 6). xxxv. 9); the enemy is scattered before the angel like chaff (Ps. xxx.

                    35); messengers go forth from God "in ships to make the careless Ethiopians afraid" (Ezek. There are angels militant, one of whom smites in one night the whole Assyrian army of 185,000 men (II Kings, xix. 11). 7, xci.

                    xxxiv. 5); and as God watched over Jacob, so is every pious person protected by an angel, who cares for him in all his ways (Ps. An angel brought Elijah meat and drink (I Kings, xix. 1), a human messenger of God is meant—addressed the whole people, swearing to bring them to the promised land.

                    iii. 13, Mal. i. 19, Ḥag.

                    xlii. 1) an angel of the Lord—unless here and in the preceding instances (compare Isa. In Judges (ii. 20.16).

                    23.20, Num. God sent an angel to protect the Hebrew people after their exodus from Egypt, to lead them to the promised land, and to destroy the hostile tribes in their way (Ex. Guardian angels were mentioned, but not, as was later the case, as guardian spirits of individuals and nations. Angels foretold to Abraham the birth of Isaac, to Manoah the birth of Samson, and to Abraham the destruction of Sodom.

                    Angels reveal themselves to individuals as well as to the whole nation, in order to announce events, either good or bad, affecting humans. In the Bible, angels are a medium of God's power; they exist to execute God's will. 10]; certainly in Daniel), and there came to be various kinds of angels; some even being provided with names, as will be shown below. 9, iv.

                    In post-Biblical times, the heavenly hosts became more highly organized (possibly as early as Zechariah [iii. 5 et seq.) and ofanim as heavenly beings who carry God's throne. i. 2) as having six wings; and Ezekiel describes the ḥayyot (Ezek.

                    The seraphim are described by Isaiah (vi. 24). iii. 2, Gen.

                    lxxx. 4, Ps. iv. God is described as riding on the cherubim and as "the Lord of hosts, who dwelleth between the cherubim"; while the latter guard the way of the Tree of Life (I Sam.

                    When, however, the heavenly host is regarded in its most comprehensive aspect, a distinction may be made between cherubim, seraphim, ḥayyot ("living creatures"), ofanim ("wheels"), and arelim (another name for Thrones). V.). 49, R. lxxviii.

                    9; Ps. lxiii. 1; Isa. iii.

                    16; Mal. xxiv. 23; II Sam. 16; Job, xxxiii.

                    xlviii. Angels are referred to in connection with their special missions as, for instance, the "angel which hath redeemed," "an interpreter," "the angel that destroyed," "messenger of the covenant," "angel of his presence," and "a band of angels of evil" (Gen. The inference, however, is not to be drawn that God Himself or one particular angel was designated: the expression was given simply to God's power to accomplish through but one angel any deed, however wonderful. Though the older writings usually mention one angel of the Lord, embassies to men as a rule comprised several messengers.

                    3): "Is there any number of his armies?" In the book of Revelation, the number is "a thousand thousands, and many tens of thousands". The general conception is the one of Job (xxv. 23). 6; Job, xxxiii.

                    lxxxix. 1; Ps. 6, ii. 19; Job, i.

                    14, 15; I Kings, xxii. v. 2; Josh. xxxii.

                    Jacob meets a host of angels; Joshua sees the "captain of the host of the Lord"; God sits on His throne, "all the host of heaven standing by Him on His right hand and on his left"; the sons of God come "to present themselves before the Lord" (Gen. The number of angels is enormous. 2). 18, xxv.

                    5; Job, iv. xiv. 28; Zech. 17, 20, xix.

                    xiv. 25; II Sam. 20, lxxviii. ciii.

                    When their duties are not punitive, angels are beneficent to man (Ps. Angels are portrayed as powerful and dreadful, endowed with wisdom and with knowledge of all earthly events, correct in their judgment, holy, but not infallible: they strive against each other, and God has to make peace between them. The use of wings suggests an original artistic convention merely intended to denote the figure as a spirit. Images of angels in Christian art are identical to prior depictions of gods such as Zeus, Eos, Eros, Thanatos and Nike, in pre-Christian classical art, and some divine beings in Mesopotamian art.

                    They are commonly depicted with halos. 21), as they are described in the Bible, and depicted in Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian art. ix. Angels are thought to possess wings (Dan.

                    This imagery is very similar to the description of Jesus in the book of Revelation. 5, 6). x. In the Book of Daniel, reference is made to an angel "clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz: his body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in color to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude" (Dan.

                    16, 30, as standing "between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand". xxi. A terrible angel is the one mentioned in I Chron. It is worth noting that these angels carry items that are contempory to the time in which they visit (perhaps angels are bound by the technology which humans have achieved).

                    8 et seq.). i. 2, Zech. ix.

                    13, Ezek. v. 23, Josh. xxii.

                    Angels bear drawn swords or other destroying weapons in their hands—one carries an ink-horn by his side—and ride on horses (Num. Gradually, and especially in post-Biblical times, angels came to be bodied forth in a form corresponding to the nature of the mission to be fulfilled—generally, however, the human form. Though superhuman, angels can assume human form; this is the earliest conception. V.): "Who makes winds his messengers; his ministers a flaming fire." Some verses in the Apographya depict angels wearing blue or red robes but no such refrence occurs in the Protestant books.

                    4, R. civ. 15), as the Psalmist said (Ps. They are described as pure and bright as Heaven; consequently, they are said to be formed of fire, and encompassed by light (Job, xv.

                    2). iii. 11; Ex. 21, 22; II Kings, ii.

                    13; Judges, vi. xvi. Angels, or the Angel, appeared in the flames of the thorn bush (Gen. 9); some fly through the air; some become invisible; sacrifices touched by them are consumed by fire; and they may disappear in sacrificial fire, like Elijah, who rode to heaven in a fiery chariot.

                    xxix. 6; II Sam. 17, xiii. 5; Judges, vi.

                    2, xix. xviii. In the Hebrew Bible, angels often appear to people in the shape of humans of extraordinary beauty, and often are not immediately recognized as angels (Gen. In Jewish apocalypses especially, the imagination ran riot on the rank, classes and names of angels; and such works as the various books of Enoch and the Ascension of Isaiah supply much information on this subject.

                    100. The development of the doctrine of an organized hierarchy of angels belongs to the Jewish literature of the period 200 BC to A.D. The guardian angels of the nations in Daniel probably represent the gods of the heathen, and we have there the first step of the process by which these gods became evil angels, an idea expanded by Milton in Paradise Lost. above), but they belong to a different order of thought from the angels of Judaism and of Christian doctrine; and the passage in no way suggests that the bne Elohim suffered any loss of status through their act.

                    It is true that the bnē Elohim of that chapter are subordinate superhuman beings (cf. 6:2, as interpreted by the Book of Enoch. The Fall of the Angels is not properly a scriptural doctrine, though it is based on Gen. But in Tobit, we find Asmodeus the evil demon, τὸ πονηρὸν δαιμόνιον, who strangles Sarah's husbands, and also a general reference to "a devil or evil spirit", πνεῦμα (Tobit 3:8, 17; 6:7).

                    In Daniel, the princes, or guardian angels, of the heathen nations oppose Michael, the guardian angel of Judah. The statement (Job 4:18) that God "charged his angels with folly" applies to all angels. In the canonical Hebrew/Aramaic scriptures, angels may inflict suffering as ministers of God, and Satan may act as accuser or tempter; but they appear as subordinates to God, fulfilling His will, and not as independent, morally evil agents. In Tobit, too, we find the idea of the demon or evil angel.

                    12:15.). (Tob. Again in Tobit a leading part is played by Raphael, "one of the seven holy angels". 8:16; 10:13, 20-21), he is the guardian of Israel's leading Kingdom of Judah.

                    160 BC, 71 angels, usually spoken of as "men" or "Angel-princes", appear as guardians or champions of the individual nations, defending them as God sits in council with them over the world; grades are implied, there are "princes" and "chief" or "great princes"; and the names of some angels are known, Gabriel, Michael; the latter is pre-eminent (Dan. In Daniel, c. During the Persian and Greek periods, the doctrine of angels underwent a great development, partly, at any rate, under foreign influences. 400 BC, there is no reference to angels, apart from the possible suggestion in the plural in Genesis 1:26.

                    In the Priestly Code, c. The latter have been connected by Ewald and others with the later doctrine of seven chief angels (Tobit 12:15; Revelations 8:2), parallel to and influenced by the Ameshaspentas (Amesha Spenta), or seven great spirits of the Persian mythology. The seven angels of Ezekiel may be compared with the seven eyes of Yahweh in Zecharias 3:9, 4:10. In Psalms 78:49 the "evil angels" of the Authorized Version conveys a false impression; it should be "angels of evil", i.e. angels who inflict chastisement as ministers of God.

                    91:11, 103:20 &c.); they appear as ministers of God. Occasional references to "angels" occur in the Psalter (Pss. I Chronicles 21:1). Cf.

                    Similarly in the Job the bne Elohim, sons of God, appear as attendants of God, and amongst them, Satan (Hebrew ha satan), again in the role of public prosecutor, the defendant being Job (Job 1, 2. The Satan also appears to prosecute (so to speak) the High Priest before the divine tribunal (Zecharias 3:1). Somewhat later, in the visions of Zechariah, angels play a great part; they are sometimes spoken of as "men", sometimes as mal'akh, and the Mal'akh Yahweh seems to hold a certain primacy among them (Zecharias 1:11). As in Genesis, they are styled "men"; mal'akh, for "angel", does not occur in Ezekiel.

                    Ezekiel 9 gives elaborate descriptions of cherubim (a class, or type of angels); and in one of his visions, he sees seven angels execute the judgment of God upon Jerusalem. Ezekiel, as a prophet of the Exile, may have been influenced by the hierarchy of supernatural beings in the Babylonian religion, and perhaps even by the angelology of Zoroastrianism (it is not, however, certain that these doctrines of Zoroastrianism were developed at so early a date). Once the doctrine of monotheism was formally expressed, in the period immediately before and during the Exile (Deuteronomy 6:4-5 and Isaiah 43:10), we find angels prominent in the Book of Ezekiel. Nevertheless we may well suppose that polytheists in ancient Israel believed in superhuman beings other than Yahweh, but that the inspired writers have mostly suppressed references to them as unedifying.

                    7, or the passage, at any rate in its present form, may be exilic or post-exilic. An angel of I Kings 13:18 might be the Mal'akh Yahweh, as in 19:5, cf. Thus, the pre-exilic literature rarely mentions angels, or other superhuman beings other than Yahweh and manifestations of Yahweh; the pre-exilic prophets hardly mention angels. In Isaiah 6 the seraphim, superhuman beings with six wings, appear as the attendants of Yahweh.

                    Similarly the "man" who wrestles with Jacob at Peniel is identified with God (Genesis 32:24, 30). In all these cases the angels, like the Mal'akh Yahweh, are connected with or represent a theophany. At Bethel, Jacob sees the angels of God on the ladder (Genesis 28:12), and later on they appear to him at Mahanaim (Genesis 32:1). 18:1 with 18:2, and note change of number in 19:17).

                    (J) the appearance of Yahweh to Abraham and Lot is connected with three, afterwards two, men or messengers; but possibly in the original form of the story Yahweh appeared alone (Cf. In Genesis 18, 19. There are the cherubim who guard Garden of Eden. However, there are a few passages which speak of subordinate superhuman beings other than the Mal'akh Yahweh or Elohim.

                    In earlier literature the Mal'akh Yahweh or Elohim is almost the only angel mentioned. Christians think that this foreshadows the doctrine of the Trinity, whereas Kabbalist Jews would show how it developed into kabbalistic theological thought and imagery. The identification of the Mal'akh Yahweh with the Logos, or Second Person of the Trinity, is not indicated by the references in the Hebrew scriptures; but the idea of a Being partly identified with God, and yet in some sense distinct from him, illustrates a tendency of Jewish religious thought to distinguish persons within the unity of the deity. The phrase Mal'akh Yahweh may have been originally a courtly circumlocution for the Divine King; but it readily became a means of avoiding anthropomorphism, and later on, when angels were classified, the Mal'akh Yahweh meant an angel of distinguished rank.

                    The Mal'akh Yahweh (or Elohim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leads the Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud (Exodus 3:2). Those who see the Mal'akh Yahweh say they have seen God (Genesis 32:30; Judges 13:22). Exodus 3:2, with 3:4; 13:21 with 14:19). The Mal'akh Yahweh is an appearance or manifestation of Yahweh in the form of a man, and the term Mal'akh Yahweh is used interchangeably with Yahweh (cf.

                    Prior to the emergence of monotheism in Israel the idea of an angel was the Mal'akh Yahweh, Angel of the Lord, or Mal'akh Elohim, Angel of God. The New Testament often speaks of "spirits," πνεύματα (Revelation 1:4). It is probable that the "hosts" were also identified with the armies of Israel, whether this army is human, or angelic. However, YHWH is very jealous of the distinction between Himself and angels, and consequently, the Hebrews were forbidden by Moses to worship the "host of heaven".

                    The identification of the "hosts" with the stars comes to the same thing; the stars were thought of as being closely connected with angels. The "hosts," צבאות Sebaoth in the title Yahweh Sebaoth (alternatively, Adonai Tzivo'ot), Lord of Hosts, were probably at one time identified with the angels. They are spoken of as the "host of heaven" (Deuteronomy 17:3) or of "Yahweh" (Joshua 5:14). Angels are referred to as "holy ones" (Zechariah 14:5) and "watchers" (Daniel 4:13).

                    See also: Names of God in Judaism. Genesis 6:2; Job 1:6; Psalms 8:5). Hence they came to be used collectively of super-human beings, distinct from Yahweh and, therefore, inferior and ultimately subordinate (e.g. judges or alternately, some kind of super powerful human beings).

                    members of the class of divine beings) were general terms for beings with great power (i.e. According to Jewish interpretation, 'Elohim is almost entirely reserved for the one true God; but at times 'Elohim (powers), bnē 'Elohim, bnē Elim (sons of gods)(i.e. 6, 8). 1]) and "the Holy Ones" (Psalms lxxxix.

                    v. V. 6 [R. 4; Job, i.

                    Other appellations are "Sons of God", (Genesis vi. 8). xii. The Biblical name for angel, מלאך ('malakh"), obtained the further signification of "angel" only through the addition of God's name, as "angel of the Lord," or "angel of God" (Zech.

                    "Angel" is also used in the English Version of the Bible for the following three Hebrew words:. The closest Hebrew word for angel is מלאך, mal'ach Hebrew word #4397 in Strong's, also meaning "messenger". The English word originated from Latin, angelus, which is itself derived from the Greek ἄγγελος, ángelos, meaning "messenger" (double gamma "γγ" is pronounced "ng" in Greek). .

                    An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God or the gods. the obscure שנאן, shin'an Hebrew word #8136 in Strong's, in Psalms 68:17. אלהים, Elohim Hebrew word #430 in Strong's, Psalms 8:5. "mighty").

                    אביר, abbir Hebrew word #47 in Strong's, Psalms 78:25 (lit.

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