Japanese cuisine

One course of a multi course Kaiseki meal, showing a careful arrangement of the foods

There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. Many think of sushi or the elegant stylized formal kaiseki meals that originated as part of the Japanese tea ceremony. Many Japanese think of the everyday food of the Japanese people--especially that existing before the end of the Meiji Era (1868 - 1912) or before World War II.

Food individual to the country

Barrels of sake, a traditional Japanese alcoholic drink

Traditional Japanese cuisine is dominated by white rice (hakumai, 白米), and few meals would be complete without it. Anything else served during a meal--fish, meat, vegetables, tsukemono (pickles)--is considered a side dish, known as okazu.

Traditional Japanese meals are named by the number of side dishes that accompany the rice and soup that are nearly always served. The simplest Japanese meal, for example, consists of ichijū-issai (一汁一菜; "one soup, one side" or "one dish meal"). This means soup, rice, and one accompanying side dish--usually a pickled vegetable like daikon. A traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, usually consists of miso soup, rice, and a pickled vegetable. The most common meal, however, is called ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜; "one soup, three sides"), or soup, rice, and three side dishes, each employing a different cooking technique. The three side dishes are usually raw fish (sashimi), a grilled dish, and a simmered (sometimes called boiled in translations from Japanese) dish -- although steamed, deep fried, vinegared, or dressed dishes may replace the grilled or simmered dishes. Ichijū-sansai often finishes with pickles such as umeboshi and green tea.

This Japanese view of a meal is reflected in the organization of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Chapters are organized according to cooking techniques: fried foods, steamed foods, and grilled foods, for example, and not according to particular ingredients (e.g., chicken or beef) as are western cookbooks. There may also be chapters devoted to soups, sushi, rice, noodles, and sweets.

Since Japan is an island nation, its people consume much seafood including fish, shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, lobsters, shrimp and seaweed. Although not known as a meat eating country, very few Japanese consider themselves vegetarians. Beef and chicken are commonly eaten and have become part of everyday cuisine.

Noodles, originating from China, have become an essential part of Japanese cuisine. There are two traditional types of noodle, soba and udon. Made from buckwheat flour, soba (蕎麦) is a thin, brown noodle. Made from wheat flour, udon (うどん) is a thick, white noodle. Both are generally served in a soy-flavored fish broth with various vegetables. A more recent import from China, dating to the early 19th century, is ramen (ラーメン; Chinese wheat noodles), which has become extremely popular. Ramen is served in a variety of soup stocks ranging from soy sauce/fish stock to butter/pork stock.

Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, there are a couple of exceptions. In some regions, grasshoppers (inago) and bee larvae (hachinoko) are not uncommon dishes. Salamander is eaten as well in places.

Traditional Japanese table settings

The traditional Japanese table setting has varied considerably over the centuries, depending primarily on the type of table common during a given era. Before the 19th century, small individual box tables (hakozen, 箱膳) or flat floor trays were set before each diner. Larger low tables (chabudai, ちゃぶ台) that accommodated entire families were becoming popular by the beginning of the 20th century, but these gave way to western style dining tables and chairs by the end of the 20th century.

Traditional table settings are based on the ichijū-sansai formula. Typically, five separate bowls and plates are set before the diner. Nearest the diner are the rice bowl on the left and the soup bowl on the right. Behind these are three flat plates to hold the three side dishes, one to far back left (on which might be served a simmered dish), one at far back right (on which might be served a grilled dish), and one in the center of the tray (on which might be served boiled greens). Pickled vegetables are often served as well, and eaten at the end of the meal, but are not counted as part of three side dishes.

Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed ends facing left and supported by a chopstick holder, or hashioki (箸置き).

Dishes for special occasions

In Japanese tradition some dishes are strongly tied to a festival or event. Major such combinations include:

  • Osechi - New Year.
  • Chirashizushi, clear soup of crumbs and amazake - Hinamatsuri.
  • botamochi (sticky rice dumpling with sweet azuki paste) - Spring equinox.
  • Chimaki (steamed sweet rice cake) - Tango no Sekku and Gion Festival.
  • Hamo (a kind of fish) and somen - Gion Festival.
  • Sekihan, cooked rice with adzuki - celebration in general.
  • Soba - New Year's Eve. This is called toshi koshi soba (年越しそば) (literally "year crossing soba").

In some regions every 1st and 15th day of the month people eat a mixture of rice and adzuki (azuki meshi).

Japanese ingredients

  • Rice
    • Short or medium grain white rice
    • Mochi rice (glutinous rice)
  • Vegetables:
    • nira (Chinese chives),
    • spinach,
    • cucumber,
    • eggplant,
    • gobo (burdock),
    • daikon,
    • sweet potato,
    • renkon (lotus root),
    • takenoko (bamboo shoots),
    • negi (Welsh onion),
    • fuki (butterbur),
    • moyashi (mung or soybean sprouts)
    • Sansai (wild vegetables)
    • Konnyaku (shirataki)
  • Mushrooms:
    • shiitake,
    • matsutake,
    • enokitake,
    • nameko,
    • shimeji.
  • Tsukemono (pickled vegetables)
  • seaweed:
    • nori,
    • konbu,
    • wakame,
    • hijiki,
    • others; see Category:Sea vegetables
  • Processed seafood:
    • chikuwa,
    • niboshi,
    • dried cuttlefish,
    • kamaboko,
    • Satsuma-age.
  • Noodles (udon, soba, somen, ramen)
  • Eggs (chicken, quail)
  • Meats (pork, beef, chicken, horse), sometimes as minchi (minced meat)
  • Beans (soy, adzuki)
  • Bean products:
    • Edamame,
    • Miso,
    • Soy sauce (light, dark, tamari),
    • Tofu (tofu, agedōfu),
    • Yuba
  • Fruits:
    • persimmon,
    • chestnut,
    • nashi pear,
    • loquat
  • Citrus fruits:
    • daidai,
    • iyokan,
    • kabosu,
    • kumquat,
    • mikan,
    • natsumikan (amanatsu),
    • sudachi,
    • yuzu.
  • Katakuri flour, kudzu flour, rice powder, soba flour, wheat flour
  • Fu (wheat gluten)

See also Category:Japanese ingredients.

Japanese flavorings

It is not generally thought possible to make authentic Japanese food without shō-yu (soy sauce), miso and dashi.

  • Shō-yu (Soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake.
  • Kombu, katsuobushi, niboshi.
  • Negi (welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (garlic chives), rakkyo (a type of scallion)
  • Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress.
  • Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), mustard, red pepper, ginger, shiso (or beefsteak) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba).

Famous Japanese foods and dishes

Deep-Fried dishes (Agemono)

  • Korokke (croquette) - breaded and deep-fried balls of mashed potato with creamy vegetable, seafood, or meat-flavored fillings.
  • Kushiage - meat deep fried on a skewer.
  • Tempura - battered and deep-fried vegetables, seafood, and meat.
  • Tonkatsu - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions called chicken katsu).

Donburi

A one-bowl dish of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings

  • Katsudon - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chicken katsudon) or fish (e.g., magurodon)
  • Oyakodon - (Parent and Child) Usually chicken and egg but sometimes salmon and salmon roe
  • Gyūdon - seasoned beef
  • Tempuradon - battered, deep fried bite-sized foods

Grilled and pan-fried dishes (Yakimono)

  • Gyoza - Chinese dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables
  • Hamachi Kama - grilled yellow tail tuna jaw and cheek bone
  • Kushiyaki - meat and vegetable kebabs
  • Okonomiyaki - pan-fried batter cakes with various savory toppings (see also Okonomiyaki restaurants)
  • Omu-Raisu - i.e. "omelette rice", a fried ketchup-flavored rice sandwiched with a thinly spread beaten egg or covered with a plain egg omelette
  • Omu-Soba - an omelette with yakisoba as its filling
  • Takoyaki - a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside
  • Teriyaki - grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce
  • Unagi, including kabayaki - grilled and flavored eel
  • Yakisoba - Japanese style fried noodles
  • Yakitori - chicken kebabs

Nabemono (one pot cooking)

  • Sukiyaki - mixture of noodles, thinly sliced beef, egg and vegetables boiled in a special sauce made of fish broth, soy sauce, sugar and sake
  • Shabu-shabu - noodles, vegetables and shrimp or thinly sliced beef boiled in a thin stock and dipped in a soy or sesame sauce before eating
  • Motsunabe - cow intestine, hakusai (bok choi) and various vegetables are cooked in a light soup base
  • Kimuchinabe - similar to motsunabe, except with a kimuchi base and using thinly sliced pork. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish, but it has also become very popular in Japan, particularly in the southern island of Kyushu, which is situated closest to South Korea
  • Oden
  • Nikujaga, a Japanese version of beef stew.

Noodles (men-rui)

Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve ramen-rice combination sets.

  • Soba - thin brown buckwheat noodles served chilled with various toppings or in hot broth
  • Ramen - thin light yellow noodle served in hot broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan
  • Udon - thick wheat noodle served with various toppings or in a hot shoyu and dashi broth
  • Champon - yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students
  • Somen
  • Okinawa soba - a wheat-flour noodle often served with sōki, steamed pork

Other

  • Agedashi tofu - cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth
  • Bento or Obento - combination meal served in a wooden box
  • Hiyayakko - cold tofu dish
  • Osechi - traditional food eaten at the New Year
  • Natto - fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous amongst non-Japanese for its strong smell and slippery texture. Often eaten for breakfast. Typically popular in Kanto and less so in Kansai
  • Shiokara - salty fermented viscera
  • Chawan mushi - meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables boiled in egg custard

Rice (gohanmono)

  • Mochi - soft rice cake
  • Ochazuke - green tea poured over white rice, often flavored
  • Onigiri - Japanese rice balls
  • Sekihan - red rice with adzuki beans
  • Kamameshi - rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot
  • Kare Rice (see also curry) - Introduced from UK in the late 19th century, it became a staple food in Japan
  • Hayashi Rice - thick beef stew on rice; origin of the name is unknown, but may be "hashed rice"
  • Om-rice (Omu-raisu オムライス) - omelette filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tokyo

Sashimi

Sashimi is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish but can be almost anything including beef, horse and chicken.

  • Basashi - sliced horse meat, sometimes called Sakura
  • Fugu - sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty
  • Rebasashi - usually liver of beef
  • Shikasashi - sliced deer meat, a rare delicacy in certain parts of Japan

Soups (suimono and shirumono)

  • Tonjiru - similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients
  • Dangojiru - soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots
  • Miso soup - soup made with miso, dashi and seasonal ingredients like fish, kamaboko, onions, clams, potato, etc.
  • Sumashijiru - a clear soup made with dashi and seafood

Sushi

Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or seafood.

  • Nigirizushi - This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice.
  • Makizushi - Translated as "roll sushi," this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces.
  • Temaki - Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside.
  • Chirashi - Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish.

Sweets

  • Wagashi - Japanese-style sweets
    • Amanatto
    • Anmitsu- a traditional Japanese dessert
    • Anpan - bread with sweet bean paste in the center
    • Dango - rice dumpling
    • Ginbou
    • Hanabiramochi
    • Higashi
    • Hoshigaki - Dried persimmon fruit
    • Imagawayaki - also known as 'Taikoyaki' is a round Taiyaki and fillings are same
    • Kakigori - shaved ice with syrup topping.
    • Kompeito - crystal sugar candy
    • Manju - sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center
    • Matsunoyuki
    • Melonpan - a large, round, sweet, crusty bread that looks and tastes somewhat like a melon
    • Mochi - steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid mass
    • Oshiruko - a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi - rice cake
    • Uiro - a steamed cake made of rice flour
    • Taiyaki - a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an - red bean paste
  • Dagashi - Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets
    • Karumetou - Brown sugar cake. Also called Karumeyaki
    • Ramune - Sweet candy that melts in your mouth
    • Sosu Senbei - Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce
    • Umaibou - Puffed corn food with various flavors
  • Yogashi - Western-style sweets, but in Japan typically very light or spongy
    • Kasutera - "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake
    • Mirucurepu - "mille crepe" - layered crepe
  • Other Snack
    • Azuki Ice - vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans
    • Hello Panda
    • Macha Ice (Green tea ice cream) - green tea flavored ice cream
    • Pocky

Chinmi

  • Uni - Specifically salt-pickled uni
  • Karasumi
  • Konowata

Japanese influence on other cuisines

United States

Teppanyaki is said to be an American invention, as is the California roll (not to mention the Philadelphia roll), and while the former has been well received in Japan the latter has not and has, at worst, been termed not sushi by Japanese people. However thanks to some recent trends in American culture such as Iron Chef and Benihana, Japanese culinary culture is slowly fusing its way into American life. Japanese food, which had been quite exotic in the West as late as the 1970s, is now quite at home in parts of the continental United States, and has become an integral part of food culture in Hawaii.

Imported and adapted foods

A Japanese children's book. The food and utensils depicted, however, are Western.

Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas). Chinese, French, Italian and Spanish cuisine is of particular interest to Japanese people. Historically, foods such as castella and bread were originally imported from Portugal, and the name pan for bread is a loanword from Portuguese.

Many imported foods are made suitable for the Japanese palate by reducing the amount of spice used or changing a part of a recipe. For example, the Korean pickle kimchi, usually fermented in Korea, in Japan is instead often simply pickled, without a key Korean ingredient, fermented shrimp. Similarly, Japanese pizza may have toppings such as sliced boiled eggs, sweetcorn, shrimps, nori, and mayonnaise instead of tomato sauce.

Other examples of changed imported cuisine include:

  • Spaghetti with creamy shrimp, lobster, crab, Alaska pollock roe or sea urchin sauce, or a non-creamy light sauce topped with seaweed, or made with tomato ketchup, weiners, sliced onion and green pepper (called 'neapolitan')
  • Japanese-only "Chinese dishes" like Ebi Chili (shrimp in a tangy and slightly spicy sauce)
  • Korean barbecue that is unflavored and is dipped in sauce before eating for flavor
  • Korean Naengmyun with thicker noodles and a different broth

The Japanese often eat at hamburger chains such as McDonald's or Mos Burger, a popular competitor. Other fast-food establishments are similarly popular. These include doughnut and ice cream shops. Okinawa has a chain of A&W drive-in restaurants featuring the company's root beer. The Japanese also alter American-style fast-food, serving such items as green-tea milkshakes and fried shrimp burgers at chains like Lotteria.

In Tokyo, it is quite easy to find restaurants serving authentic foreign cuisine. However, in most of the country, in many ways, the variety of imported food is limited; for example, it is rare to find pasta that is not of the spaghetti or macaroni varieties in supermarkets or restaurants; bread is very rarely of any variety but white; and varieties of imported cereal are also very limited, usually either frosted or chocolate flavored. "Italian restaurants" also tend to only have pizza and pasta in their menus.

Washoku and yōshoku

Imported cuisines and foods from America and Europe are called yōshoku (洋食), a shortened form of seiyōshoku (西洋食) lit. Western cuisine. Japanese cuisine is called washoku (和食), lit. Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine is called Chūkaryōri (中華料理), lit. Chinese recipe.

A number of foreign dishes have been adapted to a degree that they are now considered Japanese, and are an integral part of any Japanese family menu. Yet, these are still categorized as yōshoku as they were imported. Perhaps the best example is curry rice, which was imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom, and vaguely resembles the original Indian dish. Another example is "Hamburg steak", which is a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Restaurants that serve these foods are called yōshokuya (洋食屋), lit. Western cuisine restaurants. However, yōshoku basically refers to Japanese-style foreign cuisine of a vague origin.

Tempura

One of the oldest imported dishes is tempura, although it has been so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. As such, it is considered washoku. Tempura came to Japan from Portuguese sailors in the 16th century as a technique for cooking fish. Since then, the Japanese have extended its ingredients to include almost every sort of seafood and vegetable. Shrimp, eggplant, squash, and carrots are typical ingredients today. Another food, like tempura, that is now considered washoku is sōmen.

Fusion foods

In a constant quest to adopt and expand Japanese cuisine, Japanese have made hundreds of recipes that are distinctly different from the original recipes but still retain the "air" (and basic taste) of their origins. For example, "curry" from India, imported via the United Kingdom, has fused with varieties of foods to make new recipes. Curry made with fish based dashi is poured over udon, making "Kare Udon". It is wrapped in dough and deep fried, making "Kare Pan", curry bread. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called Fukujinzuke or Rakkyo. Other recipes are so exotic by any standard that they remain a local cuisine. Anmitsu (あんみつ), a dish of cream, bean jam, ice cream, and fruits is often served as a dessert in restaurants.


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Anmitsu (あんみつ), a dish of cream, bean jam, ice cream, and fruits is often served as a dessert in restaurants. Prizes may include various baby related items such as baby formula, baby blankets, gift certificates to stores which specialize in baby related merchandise, and diapers. Other recipes are so exotic by any standard that they remain a local cuisine. These prizes are often donated by local businesses. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called Fukujinzuke or Rakkyo. People born on New Year's Day are commonly called New Year's Babies. Many hospitals give out prizes to the first baby born in that hospital in the new year. It is wrapped in dough and deep fried, making "Kare Pan", curry bread. In the United States, a common image used is that of an incarnation of Father Time (or the "Old Year") wearing a sash across his chest with the previous year printed on it passing on his duties to the Baby New Year (or the "New Year"), an infant wearing a sash with the new year printed on it.

Curry made with fish based dashi is poured over udon, making "Kare Udon". The adoption of the Gregorian calendar led eventually to the adoption of January 1 as New Year's Day in all countries using that calendar. For example, "curry" from India, imported via the United Kingdom, has fused with varieties of foods to make new recipes. In the Middle Ages, most European countries used the Julian calendar, but a variety of dates were used as the first day of the year; see New Year for details. In a constant quest to adopt and expand Japanese cuisine, Japanese have made hundreds of recipes that are distinctly different from the original recipes but still retain the "air" (and basic taste) of their origins. Among the 7th century druidic pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts at the New Year, a pagan custom deplored by Saint Eligius (died 659 or 660), who warned the Flemings and Dutchmen, "[Do not] make vetulas, [little figures of the Old Woman], little deer or iotticos or set tables [for the house-elf, compare Puck] at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks [another Yule custom]." The quote is from the vita of Eligius written by his companion Ouen. Another food, like tempura, that is now considered washoku is sōmen. The official reason that it is not a public holiday in Israel is due to the day's historic origins as a Christian religious holiday, although many other nations with non-Christian majorities have a public January 1 holiday.

Shrimp, eggplant, squash, and carrots are typical ingredients today. For many of those countries, if January 1 falls on a Saturday or Sunday, then the Friday before or the Monday after will be a public holiday. Since then, the Japanese have extended its ingredients to include almost every sort of seafood and vegetable. In all countries that use the Gregorian calendar, with the exception of Israel, New Year's Day is a public holiday. Tempura came to Japan from Portuguese sailors in the 16th century as a technique for cooking fish. It is also an occasion to make New Year resolutions, which they hope to fulfill in the coming Year; the most popular ones in the western world include to stop tobacco smoking or drinking, or to lose weight or get physically fit. As such, it is considered washoku. Depending on the country, individuals may be allowed to burn fireworks, even if it is forbidden the rest of the year.

One of the oldest imported dishes is tempura, although it has been so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. There are often fireworks at midnight. However, yōshoku basically refers to Japanese-style foreign cuisine of a vague origin. This day is traditionally a religious feast, but since the 1900s, has become an occasion for celebration on the night between December 31 and January 1, called New Year's Eve. Western cuisine restaurants. Often there are also articles on planned or expected changes in the coming year, such as the description of new laws that often take effect on January 1. Restaurants that serve these foods are called yōshokuya (洋食屋), lit. Common topics include politics, natural disasters, music and the arts, and the listing of significant individuals who died during the past year.

Another example is "Hamburg steak", which is a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Publications often have year-end articles that review the changes during the past year. Perhaps the best example is curry rice, which was imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom, and vaguely resembles the original Indian dish. January 1 marks the end of a period of remembrance of the passing year, especially on radio, television, and in newspapers, which usually starts right after Christmas Day. Yet, these are still categorized as yōshoku as they were imported. . A number of foreign dishes have been adapted to a degree that they are now considered Japanese, and are an integral part of any Japanese family menu. It is a holy day to many of those who still use the Julian calendar, which includes followers of some of the Eastern Orthodox churches, and is celebrated on January 14 of the Gregorian calendar due to differences between the two calendars.

Chinese recipe. In most countries, it is a holiday. Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine is called Chūkaryōri (中華料理), lit. In modern times, it is January 1. Japanese cuisine is called washoku (和食), lit.
New Year's Day is the first day of the year, in the Gregorian calendar. Western cuisine. In Australia, parties are had around the nation, esspecially in capital cities such as Sydney, where the worlds largest fireworks display draws 1-1.5 million people to the harbour.

Imported cuisines and foods from America and Europe are called yōshoku (洋食), a shortened form of seiyōshoku (西洋食) lit. In Davos, Switzerland, the final match of the Spengler Cup Ice Hockey Tournament is usually held on this day by tradition. "Italian restaurants" also tend to only have pizza and pasta in their menus. The Peach Drop in Underground Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. However, in most of the country, in many ways, the variety of imported food is limited; for example, it is rare to find pasta that is not of the spaghetti or macaroni varieties in supermarkets or restaurants; bread is very rarely of any variety but white; and varieties of imported cereal are also very limited, usually either frosted or chocolate flavored. Japanese New Year in Japan. In Tokyo, it is quite easy to find restaurants serving authentic foreign cuisine. For more information, see Hogmanay, the Scots name for the New Year celebration.

The Japanese also alter American-style fast-food, serving such items as green-tea milkshakes and fried shrimp burgers at chains like Lotteria. In Scotland, there are many special customs associated with the New Year. Okinawa has a chain of A&W drive-in restaurants featuring the company's root beer. Some mayors in North America hold New Year levees. These include doughnut and ice cream shops. Junkanoo parade, in Nassau, Bahamas. Other fast-food establishments are similarly popular. In South Korea, the most popular way of celebrating New Year's Day (1 January) is to travel to Jung dong jin, the place on the peninsula where the sun can first be seen each day.

The Japanese often eat at hamburger chains such as McDonald's or Mos Burger, a popular competitor. This day is also the occasion to make bonfires of discarded Christmas trees in some countries. Other examples of changed imported cuisine include:. In The Netherlands and other European countries, the New Year is greeted with massive private fireworks. Similarly, Japanese pizza may have toppings such as sliced boiled eggs, sweetcorn, shrimps, nori, and mayonnaise instead of tomato sauce. Other Ball Drops occur in Copacabana beach in Rio de Janeiro and Sydney Harbour. For example, the Korean pickle kimchi, usually fermented in Korea, in Japan is instead often simply pickled, without a key Korean ingredient, fermented shrimp. It is sometimes referred to as "the big apple" like the city itself; the custom derives from the time signal that used to be given at noon in harbors.

Many imported foods are made suitable for the Japanese palate by reducing the amount of spice used or changing a part of a recipe. In New York City, the world famous 1,070-pound, 6-foot-diameter Waterford crystal ball located high above Times Square is lowered starting at 11:59:00 PM and reaches the bottom of its tower at the stroke of midnight (12:00:00 AM) on January 1. Historically, foods such as castella and bread were originally imported from Portugal, and the name pan for bread is a loanword from Portuguese. In Australia Cricket Test Matches and AFL fixtures are played. Chinese, French, Italian and Spanish cuisine is of particular interest to Japanese people. In Philadelphia, the Mummers Parade is held on Broad Street. Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas). They have had groups of people enter the chilly surf since 1903.

Japanese food, which had been quite exotic in the West as late as the 1970s, is now quite at home in parts of the continental United States, and has become an integral part of food culture in Hawaii. The Coney Island Polar Bears Club in New York is the oldest cold-water swimming club in the United States. However thanks to some recent trends in American culture such as Iron Chef and Benihana, Japanese culinary culture is slowly fusing its way into American life. Polar Bear Clubs: In many cities near bodies of water, they will have a tradition of people plunging into the cold water on New Year's Day. Teppanyaki is said to be an American invention, as is the California roll (not to mention the Philadelphia roll), and while the former has been well received in Japan the latter has not and has, at worst, been termed not sushi by Japanese people. Vienna New Year Concert, in Austria. United States. The aforementioned Rose Bowl football game is one of several postseason bowl games played in college football in the United States (though in recent years it has not always fallen on New Year's Day).

Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or seafood. In Pasadena, California, United States, the Tournament of Roses is held on New Year's Day with revelers viewing the parade from the streets and watching on television, followed by the Rose Bowl football game. Sashimi is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish but can be almost anything including beef, horse and chicken. In Britain an extra round of Football fixtures are played. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve ramen-rice combination sets. Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal.

A one-bowl dish of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings. It is not generally thought possible to make authentic Japanese food without shō-yu (soy sauce), miso and dashi. See also Category:Japanese ingredients. In some regions every 1st and 15th day of the month people eat a mixture of rice and adzuki (azuki meshi).

Major such combinations include:. In Japanese tradition some dishes are strongly tied to a festival or event. Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed ends facing left and supported by a chopstick holder, or hashioki (箸置き). Pickled vegetables are often served as well, and eaten at the end of the meal, but are not counted as part of three side dishes.

Behind these are three flat plates to hold the three side dishes, one to far back left (on which might be served a simmered dish), one at far back right (on which might be served a grilled dish), and one in the center of the tray (on which might be served boiled greens). Nearest the diner are the rice bowl on the left and the soup bowl on the right. Typically, five separate bowls and plates are set before the diner. Traditional table settings are based on the ichijū-sansai formula.

Larger low tables (chabudai, ちゃぶ台) that accommodated entire families were becoming popular by the beginning of the 20th century, but these gave way to western style dining tables and chairs by the end of the 20th century. Before the 19th century, small individual box tables (hakozen, 箱膳) or flat floor trays were set before each diner. The traditional Japanese table setting has varied considerably over the centuries, depending primarily on the type of table common during a given era. Salamander is eaten as well in places.

In some regions, grasshoppers (inago) and bee larvae (hachinoko) are not uncommon dishes. Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, there are a couple of exceptions. Ramen is served in a variety of soup stocks ranging from soy sauce/fish stock to butter/pork stock. A more recent import from China, dating to the early 19th century, is ramen (ラーメン; Chinese wheat noodles), which has become extremely popular.

Both are generally served in a soy-flavored fish broth with various vegetables. Made from wheat flour, udon (うどん) is a thick, white noodle. Made from buckwheat flour, soba (蕎麦) is a thin, brown noodle. There are two traditional types of noodle, soba and udon.

Noodles, originating from China, have become an essential part of Japanese cuisine. Beef and chicken are commonly eaten and have become part of everyday cuisine. Although not known as a meat eating country, very few Japanese consider themselves vegetarians. Since Japan is an island nation, its people consume much seafood including fish, shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, lobsters, shrimp and seaweed.

There may also be chapters devoted to soups, sushi, rice, noodles, and sweets. Chapters are organized according to cooking techniques: fried foods, steamed foods, and grilled foods, for example, and not according to particular ingredients (e.g., chicken or beef) as are western cookbooks. This Japanese view of a meal is reflected in the organization of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Ichijū-sansai often finishes with pickles such as umeboshi and green tea.

The three side dishes are usually raw fish (sashimi), a grilled dish, and a simmered (sometimes called boiled in translations from Japanese) dish -- although steamed, deep fried, vinegared, or dressed dishes may replace the grilled or simmered dishes. The most common meal, however, is called ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜; "one soup, three sides"), or soup, rice, and three side dishes, each employing a different cooking technique. A traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, usually consists of miso soup, rice, and a pickled vegetable. This means soup, rice, and one accompanying side dish--usually a pickled vegetable like daikon.

The simplest Japanese meal, for example, consists of ichijū-issai (一汁一菜; "one soup, one side" or "one dish meal"). Traditional Japanese meals are named by the number of side dishes that accompany the rice and soup that are nearly always served. Anything else served during a meal--fish, meat, vegetables, tsukemono (pickles)--is considered a side dish, known as okazu. Traditional Japanese cuisine is dominated by white rice (hakumai, 白米), and few meals would be complete without it.

. Many Japanese think of the everyday food of the Japanese people--especially that existing before the end of the Meiji Era (1868 - 1912) or before World War II. Many think of sushi or the elegant stylized formal kaiseki meals that originated as part of the Japanese tea ceremony. There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine.

Korean Naengmyun with thicker noodles and a different broth. Korean barbecue that is unflavored and is dipped in sauce before eating for flavor. Japanese-only "Chinese dishes" like Ebi Chili (shrimp in a tangy and slightly spicy sauce). Spaghetti with creamy shrimp, lobster, crab, Alaska pollock roe or sea urchin sauce, or a non-creamy light sauce topped with seaweed, or made with tomato ketchup, weiners, sliced onion and green pepper (called 'neapolitan').

Konowata. Karasumi. Uni - Specifically salt-pickled uni. Pocky.

Macha Ice (Green tea ice cream) - green tea flavored ice cream. Hello Panda. Azuki Ice - vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans. Other Snack

    .

    Mirucurepu - "mille crepe" - layered crepe. Kasutera - "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake. Yogashi - Western-style sweets, but in Japan typically very light or spongy

      . Umaibou - Puffed corn food with various flavors.

      Sosu Senbei - Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce. Ramune - Sweet candy that melts in your mouth. Also called Karumeyaki. Karumetou - Brown sugar cake.

      Dagashi - Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets

        . Taiyaki - a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an - red bean paste. Uiro - a steamed cake made of rice flour. Oshiruko - a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi - rice cake.

        Mochi - steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid mass. Melonpan - a large, round, sweet, crusty bread that looks and tastes somewhat like a melon. Matsunoyuki. Manju - sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center.

        Kompeito - crystal sugar candy. Kakigori - shaved ice with syrup topping. Imagawayaki - also known as 'Taikoyaki' is a round Taiyaki and fillings are same. Hoshigaki - Dried persimmon fruit.

        Higashi. Hanabiramochi. Ginbou. Dango - rice dumpling.

        Anpan - bread with sweet bean paste in the center. Anmitsu- a traditional Japanese dessert. Amanatto. Wagashi - Japanese-style sweets

          .

          Chirashi - Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish. Temaki - Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside. Makizushi - Translated as "roll sushi," this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces. Nigirizushi - This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice.

          Sumashijiru - a clear soup made with dashi and seafood. Miso soup - soup made with miso, dashi and seasonal ingredients like fish, kamaboko, onions, clams, potato, etc. Dangojiru - soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots. Tonjiru - similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients.

          Shikasashi - sliced deer meat, a rare delicacy in certain parts of Japan. Rebasashi - usually liver of beef. Fugu - sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty. Basashi - sliced horse meat, sometimes called Sakura.

          Om-rice (Omu-raisu オムライス) - omelette filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tokyo. Hayashi Rice - thick beef stew on rice; origin of the name is unknown, but may be "hashed rice". Kare Rice (see also curry) - Introduced from UK in the late 19th century, it became a staple food in Japan. Kamameshi - rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot.

          Sekihan - red rice with adzuki beans. Onigiri - Japanese rice balls. Ochazuke - green tea poured over white rice, often flavored. Mochi - soft rice cake.

          Chawan mushi - meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables boiled in egg custard. Shiokara - salty fermented viscera. Typically popular in Kanto and less so in Kansai. Often eaten for breakfast.

          Natto - fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous amongst non-Japanese for its strong smell and slippery texture. Osechi - traditional food eaten at the New Year. Hiyayakko - cold tofu dish. Bento or Obento - combination meal served in a wooden box.

          Agedashi tofu - cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth. Okinawa soba - a wheat-flour noodle often served with sōki, steamed pork. Somen. Champon - yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students.

          Udon - thick wheat noodle served with various toppings or in a hot shoyu and dashi broth. Ramen - thin light yellow noodle served in hot broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan. Soba - thin brown buckwheat noodles served chilled with various toppings or in hot broth. Nikujaga, a Japanese version of beef stew.

          Oden. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish, but it has also become very popular in Japan, particularly in the southern island of Kyushu, which is situated closest to South Korea. Kimuchinabe - similar to motsunabe, except with a kimuchi base and using thinly sliced pork. Motsunabe - cow intestine, hakusai (bok choi) and various vegetables are cooked in a light soup base.

          Shabu-shabu - noodles, vegetables and shrimp or thinly sliced beef boiled in a thin stock and dipped in a soy or sesame sauce before eating. Sukiyaki - mixture of noodles, thinly sliced beef, egg and vegetables boiled in a special sauce made of fish broth, soy sauce, sugar and sake. Yakitori - chicken kebabs. Yakisoba - Japanese style fried noodles.

          Unagi, including kabayaki - grilled and flavored eel. Teriyaki - grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce. Takoyaki - a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside. Omu-Soba - an omelette with yakisoba as its filling.

          "omelette rice", a fried ketchup-flavored rice sandwiched with a thinly spread beaten egg or covered with a plain egg omelette. Omu-Raisu - i.e. Okonomiyaki - pan-fried batter cakes with various savory toppings (see also Okonomiyaki restaurants). Kushiyaki - meat and vegetable kebabs.

          Hamachi Kama - grilled yellow tail tuna jaw and cheek bone. Gyoza - Chinese dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables. Tempuradon - battered, deep fried bite-sized foods. Gyūdon - seasoned beef.

          Oyakodon - (Parent and Child) Usually chicken and egg but sometimes salmon and salmon roe. Katsudon - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chicken katsudon) or fish (e.g., magurodon). Tonkatsu - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions called chicken katsu). Tempura - battered and deep-fried vegetables, seafood, and meat.

          Kushiage - meat deep fried on a skewer. Korokke (croquette) - breaded and deep-fried balls of mashed potato with creamy vegetable, seafood, or meat-flavored fillings. Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), mustard, red pepper, ginger, shiso (or beefsteak) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba). Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress.

          Negi (welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (garlic chives), rakkyo (a type of scallion). Kombu, katsuobushi, niboshi. Shō-yu (Soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake. Fu (wheat gluten).

          Katakuri flour, kudzu flour, rice powder, soba flour, wheat flour. yuzu. sudachi,. natsumikan (amanatsu),.

          mikan,. kumquat,. kabosu,. iyokan,.

          daidai,. Citrus fruits:

            . loquat. nashi pear,.

            chestnut,. persimmon,. Fruits:

              . Yuba.

              Tofu (tofu, agedōfu),. Soy sauce (light, dark, tamari),. Miso,. Edamame,.

              Bean products:

                . Beans (soy, adzuki). Meats (pork, beef, chicken, horse), sometimes as minchi (minced meat). Eggs (chicken, quail).

                Noodles (udon, soba, somen, ramen). Satsuma-age. kamaboko,. dried cuttlefish,.

                niboshi,. chikuwa,. Processed seafood:

                  . others; see Category:Sea vegetables.

                  hijiki,. wakame,. konbu,. nori,.

                  seaweed:

                    . Tsukemono (pickled vegetables). shimeji. nameko,.

                    enokitake,. matsutake,. shiitake,. Mushrooms:

                      .

                      Konnyaku (shirataki). Sansai (wild vegetables). moyashi (mung or soybean sprouts). fuki (butterbur),.

                      negi (Welsh onion),. takenoko (bamboo shoots),. renkon (lotus root),. sweet potato,.

                      daikon,. gobo (burdock),. eggplant,. cucumber,.

                      spinach,. nira (Chinese chives),. Vegetables:

                        . Mochi rice (glutinous rice).

                        Short or medium grain white rice. Rice

                          . This is called toshi koshi soba (年越しそば) (literally "year crossing soba"). Soba - New Year's Eve.

                          Sekihan, cooked rice with adzuki - celebration in general. Hamo (a kind of fish) and somen - Gion Festival. Chimaki (steamed sweet rice cake) - Tango no Sekku and Gion Festival. botamochi (sticky rice dumpling with sweet azuki paste) - Spring equinox.

                          Chirashizushi, clear soup of crumbs and amazake - Hinamatsuri. Osechi - New Year.

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