Japanese cuisine

One course of a multi course Kaiseki meal, showing a careful arrangement of the foods

There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. Many think of sushi or the elegant stylized formal kaiseki meals that originated as part of the Japanese tea ceremony. Many Japanese think of the everyday food of the Japanese people--especially that existing before the end of the Meiji Era (1868 - 1912) or before World War II.

Food individual to the country

Barrels of sake, a traditional Japanese alcoholic drink

Traditional Japanese cuisine is dominated by white rice (hakumai, 白米), and few meals would be complete without it. Anything else served during a meal--fish, meat, vegetables, tsukemono (pickles)--is considered a side dish, known as okazu.

Traditional Japanese meals are named by the number of side dishes that accompany the rice and soup that are nearly always served. The simplest Japanese meal, for example, consists of ichijū-issai (一汁一菜; "one soup, one side" or "one dish meal"). This means soup, rice, and one accompanying side dish--usually a pickled vegetable like daikon. A traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, usually consists of miso soup, rice, and a pickled vegetable. The most common meal, however, is called ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜; "one soup, three sides"), or soup, rice, and three side dishes, each employing a different cooking technique. The three side dishes are usually raw fish (sashimi), a grilled dish, and a simmered (sometimes called boiled in translations from Japanese) dish -- although steamed, deep fried, vinegared, or dressed dishes may replace the grilled or simmered dishes. Ichijū-sansai often finishes with pickles such as umeboshi and green tea.

This Japanese view of a meal is reflected in the organization of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Chapters are organized according to cooking techniques: fried foods, steamed foods, and grilled foods, for example, and not according to particular ingredients (e.g., chicken or beef) as are western cookbooks. There may also be chapters devoted to soups, sushi, rice, noodles, and sweets.

Since Japan is an island nation, its people consume much seafood including fish, shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, lobsters, shrimp and seaweed. Although not known as a meat eating country, very few Japanese consider themselves vegetarians. Beef and chicken are commonly eaten and have become part of everyday cuisine.

Noodles, originating from China, have become an essential part of Japanese cuisine. There are two traditional types of noodle, soba and udon. Made from buckwheat flour, soba (蕎麦) is a thin, brown noodle. Made from wheat flour, udon (うどん) is a thick, white noodle. Both are generally served in a soy-flavored fish broth with various vegetables. A more recent import from China, dating to the early 19th century, is ramen (ラーメン; Chinese wheat noodles), which has become extremely popular. Ramen is served in a variety of soup stocks ranging from soy sauce/fish stock to butter/pork stock.

Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, there are a couple of exceptions. In some regions, grasshoppers (inago) and bee larvae (hachinoko) are not uncommon dishes. Salamander is eaten as well in places.

Traditional Japanese table settings

The traditional Japanese table setting has varied considerably over the centuries, depending primarily on the type of table common during a given era. Before the 19th century, small individual box tables (hakozen, 箱膳) or flat floor trays were set before each diner. Larger low tables (chabudai, ちゃぶ台) that accommodated entire families were becoming popular by the beginning of the 20th century, but these gave way to western style dining tables and chairs by the end of the 20th century.

Traditional table settings are based on the ichijū-sansai formula. Typically, five separate bowls and plates are set before the diner. Nearest the diner are the rice bowl on the left and the soup bowl on the right. Behind these are three flat plates to hold the three side dishes, one to far back left (on which might be served a simmered dish), one at far back right (on which might be served a grilled dish), and one in the center of the tray (on which might be served boiled greens). Pickled vegetables are often served as well, and eaten at the end of the meal, but are not counted as part of three side dishes.

Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed ends facing left and supported by a chopstick holder, or hashioki (箸置き).

Dishes for special occasions

In Japanese tradition some dishes are strongly tied to a festival or event. Major such combinations include:

  • Osechi - New Year.
  • Chirashizushi, clear soup of crumbs and amazake - Hinamatsuri.
  • botamochi (sticky rice dumpling with sweet azuki paste) - Spring equinox.
  • Chimaki (steamed sweet rice cake) - Tango no Sekku and Gion Festival.
  • Hamo (a kind of fish) and somen - Gion Festival.
  • Sekihan, cooked rice with adzuki - celebration in general.
  • Soba - New Year's Eve. This is called toshi koshi soba (年越しそば) (literally "year crossing soba").

In some regions every 1st and 15th day of the month people eat a mixture of rice and adzuki (azuki meshi).

Japanese ingredients

  • Rice
    • Short or medium grain white rice
    • Mochi rice (glutinous rice)
  • Vegetables:
    • nira (Chinese chives),
    • spinach,
    • cucumber,
    • eggplant,
    • gobo (burdock),
    • daikon,
    • sweet potato,
    • renkon (lotus root),
    • takenoko (bamboo shoots),
    • negi (Welsh onion),
    • fuki (butterbur),
    • moyashi (mung or soybean sprouts)
    • Sansai (wild vegetables)
    • Konnyaku (shirataki)
  • Mushrooms:
    • shiitake,
    • matsutake,
    • enokitake,
    • nameko,
    • shimeji.
  • Tsukemono (pickled vegetables)
  • seaweed:
    • nori,
    • konbu,
    • wakame,
    • hijiki,
    • others; see Category:Sea vegetables
  • Processed seafood:
    • chikuwa,
    • niboshi,
    • dried cuttlefish,
    • kamaboko,
    • Satsuma-age.
  • Noodles (udon, soba, somen, ramen)
  • Eggs (chicken, quail)
  • Meats (pork, beef, chicken, horse), sometimes as minchi (minced meat)
  • Beans (soy, adzuki)
  • Bean products:
    • Edamame,
    • Miso,
    • Soy sauce (light, dark, tamari),
    • Tofu (tofu, agedōfu),
    • Yuba
  • Fruits:
    • persimmon,
    • chestnut,
    • nashi pear,
    • loquat
  • Citrus fruits:
    • daidai,
    • iyokan,
    • kabosu,
    • kumquat,
    • mikan,
    • natsumikan (amanatsu),
    • sudachi,
    • yuzu.
  • Katakuri flour, kudzu flour, rice powder, soba flour, wheat flour
  • Fu (wheat gluten)

See also Category:Japanese ingredients.

Japanese flavorings

It is not generally thought possible to make authentic Japanese food without shō-yu (soy sauce), miso and dashi.

  • Shō-yu (Soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake.
  • Kombu, katsuobushi, niboshi.
  • Negi (welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (garlic chives), rakkyo (a type of scallion)
  • Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress.
  • Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), mustard, red pepper, ginger, shiso (or beefsteak) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba).

Famous Japanese foods and dishes

Deep-Fried dishes (Agemono)

  • Korokke (croquette) - breaded and deep-fried balls of mashed potato with creamy vegetable, seafood, or meat-flavored fillings.
  • Kushiage - meat deep fried on a skewer.
  • Tempura - battered and deep-fried vegetables, seafood, and meat.
  • Tonkatsu - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions called chicken katsu).

Donburi

A one-bowl dish of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings

  • Katsudon - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chicken katsudon) or fish (e.g., magurodon)
  • Oyakodon - (Parent and Child) Usually chicken and egg but sometimes salmon and salmon roe
  • Gyūdon - seasoned beef
  • Tempuradon - battered, deep fried bite-sized foods

Grilled and pan-fried dishes (Yakimono)

  • Gyoza - Chinese dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables
  • Hamachi Kama - grilled yellow tail tuna jaw and cheek bone
  • Kushiyaki - meat and vegetable kebabs
  • Okonomiyaki - pan-fried batter cakes with various savory toppings (see also Okonomiyaki restaurants)
  • Omu-Raisu - i.e. "omelette rice", a fried ketchup-flavored rice sandwiched with a thinly spread beaten egg or covered with a plain egg omelette
  • Omu-Soba - an omelette with yakisoba as its filling
  • Takoyaki - a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside
  • Teriyaki - grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce
  • Unagi, including kabayaki - grilled and flavored eel
  • Yakisoba - Japanese style fried noodles
  • Yakitori - chicken kebabs

Nabemono (one pot cooking)

  • Sukiyaki - mixture of noodles, thinly sliced beef, egg and vegetables boiled in a special sauce made of fish broth, soy sauce, sugar and sake
  • Shabu-shabu - noodles, vegetables and shrimp or thinly sliced beef boiled in a thin stock and dipped in a soy or sesame sauce before eating
  • Motsunabe - cow intestine, hakusai (bok choi) and various vegetables are cooked in a light soup base
  • Kimuchinabe - similar to motsunabe, except with a kimuchi base and using thinly sliced pork. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish, but it has also become very popular in Japan, particularly in the southern island of Kyushu, which is situated closest to South Korea
  • Oden
  • Nikujaga, a Japanese version of beef stew.

Noodles (men-rui)

Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve ramen-rice combination sets.

  • Soba - thin brown buckwheat noodles served chilled with various toppings or in hot broth
  • Ramen - thin light yellow noodle served in hot broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan
  • Udon - thick wheat noodle served with various toppings or in a hot shoyu and dashi broth
  • Champon - yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students
  • Somen
  • Okinawa soba - a wheat-flour noodle often served with sōki, steamed pork

Other

  • Agedashi tofu - cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth
  • Bento or Obento - combination meal served in a wooden box
  • Hiyayakko - cold tofu dish
  • Osechi - traditional food eaten at the New Year
  • Natto - fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous amongst non-Japanese for its strong smell and slippery texture. Often eaten for breakfast. Typically popular in Kanto and less so in Kansai
  • Shiokara - salty fermented viscera
  • Chawan mushi - meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables boiled in egg custard

Rice (gohanmono)

  • Mochi - soft rice cake
  • Ochazuke - green tea poured over white rice, often flavored
  • Onigiri - Japanese rice balls
  • Sekihan - red rice with adzuki beans
  • Kamameshi - rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot
  • Kare Rice (see also curry) - Introduced from UK in the late 19th century, it became a staple food in Japan
  • Hayashi Rice - thick beef stew on rice; origin of the name is unknown, but may be "hashed rice"
  • Om-rice (Omu-raisu オムライス) - omelette filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tokyo

Sashimi

Sashimi is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish but can be almost anything including beef, horse and chicken.

  • Basashi - sliced horse meat, sometimes called Sakura
  • Fugu - sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty
  • Rebasashi - usually liver of beef
  • Shikasashi - sliced deer meat, a rare delicacy in certain parts of Japan

Soups (suimono and shirumono)

  • Tonjiru - similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients
  • Dangojiru - soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots
  • Miso soup - soup made with miso, dashi and seasonal ingredients like fish, kamaboko, onions, clams, potato, etc.
  • Sumashijiru - a clear soup made with dashi and seafood

Sushi

Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or seafood.

  • Nigirizushi - This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice.
  • Makizushi - Translated as "roll sushi," this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces.
  • Temaki - Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside.
  • Chirashi - Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish.

Sweets

  • Wagashi - Japanese-style sweets
    • Amanatto
    • Anmitsu- a traditional Japanese dessert
    • Anpan - bread with sweet bean paste in the center
    • Dango - rice dumpling
    • Ginbou
    • Hanabiramochi
    • Higashi
    • Hoshigaki - Dried persimmon fruit
    • Imagawayaki - also known as 'Taikoyaki' is a round Taiyaki and fillings are same
    • Kakigori - shaved ice with syrup topping.
    • Kompeito - crystal sugar candy
    • Manju - sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center
    • Matsunoyuki
    • Melonpan - a large, round, sweet, crusty bread that looks and tastes somewhat like a melon
    • Mochi - steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid mass
    • Oshiruko - a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi - rice cake
    • Uiro - a steamed cake made of rice flour
    • Taiyaki - a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an - red bean paste
  • Dagashi - Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets
    • Karumetou - Brown sugar cake. Also called Karumeyaki
    • Ramune - Sweet candy that melts in your mouth
    • Sosu Senbei - Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce
    • Umaibou - Puffed corn food with various flavors
  • Yogashi - Western-style sweets, but in Japan typically very light or spongy
    • Kasutera - "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake
    • Mirucurepu - "mille crepe" - layered crepe
  • Other Snack
    • Azuki Ice - vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans
    • Hello Panda
    • Macha Ice (Green tea ice cream) - green tea flavored ice cream
    • Pocky

Chinmi

  • Uni - Specifically salt-pickled uni
  • Karasumi
  • Konowata

Japanese influence on other cuisines

United States

Teppanyaki is said to be an American invention, as is the California roll (not to mention the Philadelphia roll), and while the former has been well received in Japan the latter has not and has, at worst, been termed not sushi by Japanese people. However thanks to some recent trends in American culture such as Iron Chef and Benihana, Japanese culinary culture is slowly fusing its way into American life. Japanese food, which had been quite exotic in the West as late as the 1970s, is now quite at home in parts of the continental United States, and has become an integral part of food culture in Hawaii.

Imported and adapted foods

A Japanese children's book. The food and utensils depicted, however, are Western.

Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas). Chinese, French, Italian and Spanish cuisine is of particular interest to Japanese people. Historically, foods such as castella and bread were originally imported from Portugal, and the name pan for bread is a loanword from Portuguese.

Many imported foods are made suitable for the Japanese palate by reducing the amount of spice used or changing a part of a recipe. For example, the Korean pickle kimchi, usually fermented in Korea, in Japan is instead often simply pickled, without a key Korean ingredient, fermented shrimp. Similarly, Japanese pizza may have toppings such as sliced boiled eggs, sweetcorn, shrimps, nori, and mayonnaise instead of tomato sauce.

Other examples of changed imported cuisine include:

  • Spaghetti with creamy shrimp, lobster, crab, Alaska pollock roe or sea urchin sauce, or a non-creamy light sauce topped with seaweed, or made with tomato ketchup, weiners, sliced onion and green pepper (called 'neapolitan')
  • Japanese-only "Chinese dishes" like Ebi Chili (shrimp in a tangy and slightly spicy sauce)
  • Korean barbecue that is unflavored and is dipped in sauce before eating for flavor
  • Korean Naengmyun with thicker noodles and a different broth

The Japanese often eat at hamburger chains such as McDonald's or Mos Burger, a popular competitor. Other fast-food establishments are similarly popular. These include doughnut and ice cream shops. Okinawa has a chain of A&W drive-in restaurants featuring the company's root beer. The Japanese also alter American-style fast-food, serving such items as green-tea milkshakes and fried shrimp burgers at chains like Lotteria.

In Tokyo, it is quite easy to find restaurants serving authentic foreign cuisine. However, in most of the country, in many ways, the variety of imported food is limited; for example, it is rare to find pasta that is not of the spaghetti or macaroni varieties in supermarkets or restaurants; bread is very rarely of any variety but white; and varieties of imported cereal are also very limited, usually either frosted or chocolate flavored. "Italian restaurants" also tend to only have pizza and pasta in their menus.

Washoku and yōshoku

Imported cuisines and foods from America and Europe are called yōshoku (洋食), a shortened form of seiyōshoku (西洋食) lit. Western cuisine. Japanese cuisine is called washoku (和食), lit. Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine is called Chūkaryōri (中華料理), lit. Chinese recipe.

A number of foreign dishes have been adapted to a degree that they are now considered Japanese, and are an integral part of any Japanese family menu. Yet, these are still categorized as yōshoku as they were imported. Perhaps the best example is curry rice, which was imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom, and vaguely resembles the original Indian dish. Another example is "Hamburg steak", which is a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Restaurants that serve these foods are called yōshokuya (洋食屋), lit. Western cuisine restaurants. However, yōshoku basically refers to Japanese-style foreign cuisine of a vague origin.

Tempura

One of the oldest imported dishes is tempura, although it has been so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. As such, it is considered washoku. Tempura came to Japan from Portuguese sailors in the 16th century as a technique for cooking fish. Since then, the Japanese have extended its ingredients to include almost every sort of seafood and vegetable. Shrimp, eggplant, squash, and carrots are typical ingredients today. Another food, like tempura, that is now considered washoku is sōmen.

Fusion foods

In a constant quest to adopt and expand Japanese cuisine, Japanese have made hundreds of recipes that are distinctly different from the original recipes but still retain the "air" (and basic taste) of their origins. For example, "curry" from India, imported via the United Kingdom, has fused with varieties of foods to make new recipes. Curry made with fish based dashi is poured over udon, making "Kare Udon". It is wrapped in dough and deep fried, making "Kare Pan", curry bread. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called Fukujinzuke or Rakkyo. Other recipes are so exotic by any standard that they remain a local cuisine. Anmitsu (あんみつ), a dish of cream, bean jam, ice cream, and fruits is often served as a dessert in restaurants.


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Anmitsu (あんみつ), a dish of cream, bean jam, ice cream, and fruits is often served as a dessert in restaurants. Demonstration sports, in which contests were held but for which no medals were awarded, have also taken place. Other recipes are so exotic by any standard that they remain a local cuisine. Through the years, the number of sports and events conducted at the Winter Olympic Games has increased. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called Fukujinzuke or Rakkyo. [3] The host city for 2014 will be chosen in July 2007 in Guatemala City among the cities of: Almaty (Kazakhstan), Borjomi (Georgia), Jaca (Spain), PyeongChang (Republic of Korea), Salzburg (Austria), Sochi (Russia), Sofia (Bulgaria). It is wrapped in dough and deep fried, making "Kare Pan", curry bread. In a 2003 IOC vote, the 2010 Winter Olympics were awarded to Vancouver, allowing Canada to host its second Winter Olympics as well, but the first for the province of British Columbia.

Curry made with fish based dashi is poured over udon, making "Kare Udon". The opening ceremonies for the Olympics are the last ones to be held outdoors for a Winter Olympics until at least the 2014 Winter Olympics because the ones for the 2010 Winter Olympics will be held indoors. For example, "curry" from India, imported via the United Kingdom, has fused with varieties of foods to make new recipes. It is the second time Italy has hosted the Winter Olympic Games, after Cortina d'Ampezzo in 1956. In a constant quest to adopt and expand Japanese cuisine, Japanese have made hundreds of recipes that are distinctly different from the original recipes but still retain the "air" (and basic taste) of their origins. The Italian city of Turin (Torino) is hosting the 2006 Winter Olympics. Another food, like tempura, that is now considered washoku is sōmen. As of 2004 they had all been officially stripped of all medals won at the 2002 Games.

Shrimp, eggplant, squash, and carrots are typical ingredients today. Cross-country skiers accounted for a second scandal, as Johann Mühlegg (Spain) and Olga Danilova and Larissa Lazutina (both Russia), who had already medalled in earlier events, where shown to have used doping. Since then, the Japanese have extended its ingredients to include almost every sort of seafood and vegetable. Combined with several other referee decisions that came out negatively for Russian athletes, there was a brief threat by the Russians of withdrawing from the Games. Tempura came to Japan from Portuguese sailors in the 16th century as a technique for cooking fish. However, it was decided that a French jury member had favoured the winning Russian pair, and the IOC and the International Skating Union decided to award both pairs the gold medal, after much discussion. As such, it is considered washoku. Canadians Jamie Sale and David Pelletier initially placed second.

One of the oldest imported dishes is tempura, although it has been so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. A major scandal evolved around the pair figure skating contest. However, yōshoku basically refers to Japanese-style foreign cuisine of a vague origin. Alisa Camplin won Australia's second gold medal in freestyle skiing without the need for such incredible luck. Western cuisine restaurants. The phrase "to do a Bradbury" has since entered the Australian lexicon meaning to succeed through the failure of others. Restaurants that serve these foods are called yōshokuya (洋食屋), lit. Many Australians saw this as a painfully humorous example of the country's struggle for competitiveness in winter sports, being that it took for all other competitors to crash for an Aussie to win.

Another example is "Hamburg steak", which is a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Bradbury was able to avoid the pileup, becoming the first Winter Olympic gold medallist from the Southern Hemisphere. Perhaps the best example is curry rice, which was imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom, and vaguely resembles the original Indian dish. In the final, Bradbury was fifth going into the final lap, when another collision left him the last man standing. Yet, these are still categorized as yōshoku as they were imported. Australian Steven Bradbury, who would have been eliminated in the quarterfinals but for the disqualification of Marc Gagnon, advanced to the final when the four other competitors in his semifinal collided on the final lap. A number of foreign dishes have been adapted to a degree that they are now considered Japanese, and are an integral part of any Japanese family menu. The men's 1000 m short track speed skating event saw one of the unlikeliest results in sports history.

Chinese recipe. Great Britain won their first Winter Olympic gold medal since 1984; the ladies Curling team springing a surprise result by beating the highly fancied Canadians in the gold medal match. Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine is called Chūkaryōri (中華料理), lit. Canadians jubilated as both their men's and their women's hockey teams defeated the United States to win the gold; the men's team thus ended a medal drought that had lasted 50 years to the day. Japanese cuisine is called washoku (和食), lit. Jochem Uytdehaage broke three world records, winning two golds and a silver; Claudia Pechstein won the 5000 m for the third time in a row, while also winning the 3000 m. Western cuisine. In speed skating, the high altitude of the skating rink assured several new world records.

Imported cuisines and foods from America and Europe are called yōshoku (洋食), a shortened form of seiyōshoku (西洋食) lit. Simon Ammann won both individual ski jumping events, while Georg Hackl won his fifth consecutive medal in the same event (luge singles), a feat never before achieved by any Olympian. "Italian restaurants" also tend to only have pizza and pasta in their menus. Croatia's Janica Kostelic won four medals in alpine skiing, of which three were gold. However, in most of the country, in many ways, the variety of imported food is limited; for example, it is rare to find pasta that is not of the spaghetti or macaroni varieties in supermarkets or restaurants; bread is very rarely of any variety but white; and varieties of imported cereal are also very limited, usually either frosted or chocolate flavored. Ole Einar Bjørndalen won all four biathlon events, while Samppa Lajunen took all three Nordic combined medals. In Tokyo, it is quite easy to find restaurants serving authentic foreign cuisine. The Salt Lake City Olympics had many stars.

The Japanese also alter American-style fast-food, serving such items as green-tea milkshakes and fried shrimp burgers at chains like Lotteria. [2]. Okinawa has a chain of A&W drive-in restaurants featuring the company's root beer. Jacques Rogge, presiding over his first Olympics as IOC president, told the athletes of the host country that their nation was overcoming the "horrific tragedy" of that day and stands united with them in promoting the IOC's ideals. These include doughnut and ice cream shops. During the opening ceremonies, Dr. Other fast-food establishments are similarly popular. The Games were also the first Olympics since September 11, 2001, which meant Olympic games since then required a higher level of security to avoid any terrorist attack.

The Japanese often eat at hamburger chains such as McDonald's or Mos Burger, a popular competitor. Skeleton made its return on the Olympic podium after 54 years, while new events were added in biathlon, bobsleigh, cross-country skiing, Nordic combined and short track speed skating. Other examples of changed imported cuisine include:. Again, the programme was expanded. Similarly, Japanese pizza may have toppings such as sliced boiled eggs, sweetcorn, shrimps, nori, and mayonnaise instead of tomato sauce. This resulted in a change of the host city election procedures and several IOC members resigned or were punished. For example, the Korean pickle kimchi, usually fermented in Korea, in Japan is instead often simply pickled, without a key Korean ingredient, fermented shrimp. Prior to the opening of the Games, it was found that Salt Lake organisers had bribed several IOC members in order to be elected.

Many imported foods are made suitable for the Japanese palate by reducing the amount of spice used or changing a part of a recipe. The 19th Olympic Winter Games were held in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Historically, foods such as castella and bread were originally imported from Portugal, and the name pan for bread is a loanword from Portuguese. [1]. Chinese, French, Italian and Spanish cuisine is of particular interest to Japanese people. In 2006, a report ordered by the Nagano region's governor said the Japanese city provided millions of dollars in an "illegitimate and excessive level of hospitality" to IOC members, including $4.4 million spent on entertainment alone. Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas). Snowboarding's introduction into the Olympics did not come without a scandal, as gold medallist Ross Rebagliati (Canada) was initially disqualified for cannabis use, but his disqualification was overturned later.

Japanese food, which had been quite exotic in the West as late as the 1970s, is now quite at home in parts of the continental United States, and has become an integral part of food culture in Hawaii. Jonny Moseley won the first gold of the Nagano games for the United States, capturing first place in freestyle mogul skiing with a spectacular "360 mute grab.". However thanks to some recent trends in American culture such as Iron Chef and Benihana, Japanese culinary culture is slowly fusing its way into American life. German luger Georg Hackl won his third straight singles title, while Austria's Hermann Maier won two gold medals in alpine skiing, after a spectacular fall in the downhill event. Teppanyaki is said to be an American invention, as is the California roll (not to mention the Philadelphia roll), and while the former has been well received in Japan the latter has not and has, at worst, been termed not sushi by Japanese people. The Russian women swept the cross-country events, with Larisa Lazutina winning three titles. United States. Bjørn Dæhlie won three gold medals, bringing his all-time total to 12 medals, including 8 golds.

Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or seafood. Speed skating saw a wave of new world records thanks to the use of the revolutionary clap skate; Dutch skaters Gianni Romme and Marianne Timmer each won two golds. Sashimi is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish but can be almost anything including beef, horse and chicken. The US team then invited global scorn by vandalizing their rooms in the olympic athlete's village after completing their final game. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve ramen-rice combination sets. However, neither nation medalled and the Czech Republic, anchored by future NHL Hall of Fame goaltender Dominik Hasek, captured the gold instead. Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal. The men's ice hockey tournament was open to all players for the first time, making Canada and the United States favourites for the gold with their many NHL professionals.

A one-bowl dish of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings. Two new sports were conducted - snowboarding and curling - while women's ice hockey was also included. It is not generally thought possible to make authentic Japanese food without shō-yu (soy sauce), miso and dashi. For the first time, more than 2000 winter athletes competed in the Winter Olympics, Japan's second Winter Olympics, held in the city of Nagano. See also Category:Japanese ingredients. Both skaters competed in the Games, but neither of them won the gold medal, which went to Oksana Baiul, who won Ukraine's first Olympic title. In some regions every 1st and 15th day of the month people eat a mixture of rice and adzuki (azuki meshi). American skater Nancy Kerrigan had been injured some months before the Games in an assault planned by the ex-husband of opponent Tonya Harding.

Major such combinations include:. A lot of media attention, especially in the United States, went to the women's figure skating competition. In Japanese tradition some dishes are strongly tied to a festival or event. Another American speed skater, Dan Jansen, ended years of Olympic frustration by winning gold in the 1000 m. Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed ends facing left and supported by a chopstick holder, or hashioki (箸置き). US speed skater Bonnie Blair won the fourth and fifth gold medal of her career, including the third straight gold in the 500 m, while Canadian biathlete Myriam Bédard won both individual events in her sport. Pickled vegetables are often served as well, and eaten at the end of the meal, but are not counted as part of three side dishes. Italian cross-country skier Manuela di Centa won five medals out of five events, including two gold medals; Lyubov Yegorova won three gold medals in the same sport.

Behind these are three flat plates to hold the three side dishes, one to far back left (on which might be served a simmered dish), one at far back right (on which might be served a grilled dish), and one in the center of the tray (on which might be served boiled greens). Johann Olav Koss emulated Hjalmar Andersen's achievement of 1952, winning speed skating's three longest distances for his home audience - Koss set a new world record in each of the distances as well. Nearest the diner are the rice bowl on the left and the soup bowl on the right. After the split-up of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the Czech Republic and Slovakia made their Olympic debut in Lillehammer, as did several former Soviet republics. Typically, five separate bowls and plates are set before the diner. The event programme was again extended, adding two new events each in freestyle skiing and short track speed skating. Traditional table settings are based on the ichijū-sansai formula. The winter sports-minded Norwegians organised the Olympics extremely well, and many still consider them to be the best organised to date.

Larger low tables (chabudai, ちゃぶ台) that accommodated entire families were becoming popular by the beginning of the 20th century, but these gave way to western style dining tables and chairs by the end of the 20th century. The Lillehammer Games were the first Winter Olympics to be held in a different year. Before the 19th century, small individual box tables (hakozen, 箱膳) or flat floor trays were set before each diner. In 1986, the IOC decided to separate the Summer Games and Winter Games and reschedule them on four-year cycles two years apart. The traditional Japanese table setting has varied considerably over the centuries, depending primarily on the type of table common during a given era. New Zealand skier Annelise Coberger made history with a silver medal in the women's slalom, becoming the first Winter Olympic medallist from the Southern Hemisphere. Salamander is eaten as well in places. Finnish ski jumper Toni Nieminen made history by becoming the youngest male Winter Olympic champion.

In some regions, grasshoppers (inago) and bee larvae (hachinoko) are not uncommon dishes. Several athletes won two gold medals, such as Petra Kronberger (skiing), Bonnie Blair, Gunda Niemann (both speed skating) and Kim Ki-Hoon (short track). Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, there are a couple of exceptions. Norway won all cross-country events for men, with Bjørn Dæhlie and Vegard Ulvang each winning three gold medals. Ramen is served in a variety of soup stocks ranging from soy sauce/fish stock to butter/pork stock. The Soviet Union still competed as a single team, under the name of Unified Team, but the Baltic States made independent appearances, for the first time since World War II. A more recent import from China, dating to the early 19th century, is ramen (ラーメン; Chinese wheat noodles), which has become extremely popular. Germany competed as a single nation for the first time since the 1930s, and former Yugoslavian republics Croatia and Slovenia made their debut.

Both are generally served in a soy-flavored fish broth with various vegetables. Political changes of the time were reflected in the Olympic teams appearing in France. Made from wheat flour, udon (うどん) is a thick, white noodle. Curling, speed skiing and two freestyle skiing events were demonstrated. Made from buckwheat flour, soba (蕎麦) is a thin, brown noodle. Women's biathlon was also included for the first time. There are two traditional types of noodle, soba and udon. Two new sports, short track speed skating and freestyle skiing were on the programme.

Noodles, originating from China, have become an essential part of Japanese cuisine. They were held in the French Haute Savoie region; Albertville itself only hosted 18 events. Beef and chicken are commonly eaten and have become part of everyday cuisine. The 1992 Games were the last to be held in the same year as the Summer Games. Although not known as a meat eating country, very few Japanese consider themselves vegetarians. Not all athletes making the headlines were winning medals: British ski jumper Eddie 'the Eagle' Edwards, who came in last, and Jamaica's first ever bobsleigh team also received plenty of attention. Since Japan is an island nation, its people consume much seafood including fish, shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, lobsters, shrimp and seaweed. Other stars of the Games include flamboyant Italian skier Alberto Tomba, East German figure skater Katarina Witt and Swedish cross-country skier Gunde Svan.

There may also be chapters devoted to soups, sushi, rice, noodles, and sweets. Her total was equalled by Finnish ski jumper Matti Nykänen, who won all events in his sport. Chapters are organized according to cooking techniques: fried foods, steamed foods, and grilled foods, for example, and not according to particular ingredients (e.g., chicken or beef) as are western cookbooks. Dutch skater Yvonne van Gennip beat the favoured East German, winning three gold medals and setting two new world records. This Japanese view of a meal is reflected in the organization of traditional Japanese cookbooks. For the first time, the speed skating events were held indoor, on the Olympic Oval. Ichijū-sansai often finishes with pickles such as umeboshi and green tea. New events had been added in alpine skiing, ski jumping and speed skating, while future Olympic sports curling, short track speed skating and freestyle skiing made their appearance as demonstration sports.

The three side dishes are usually raw fish (sashimi), a grilled dish, and a simmered (sometimes called boiled in translations from Japanese) dish -- although steamed, deep fried, vinegared, or dressed dishes may replace the grilled or simmered dishes. The Canadian city of Calgary, Alberta hosted the first Winter Olympics to span 16 days. The most common meal, however, is called ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜; "one soup, three sides"), or soup, rice, and three side dishes, each employing a different cooking technique. In addition, Bill Johnson became the first American to win a medal in alpine skiing, winning the gold in the downhill event. A traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, usually consists of miso soup, rice, and a pickled vegetable. East German figure skater Katarina Witt also won many hearts with her gold performance and stunning beauty. This means soup, rice, and one accompanying side dish--usually a pickled vegetable like daikon. In figure skating, British ice dancers Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean were popular with the audience and the jury, who gave them perfect scores for their free dance programme.

The simplest Japanese meal, for example, consists of ichijū-issai (一汁一菜; "one soup, one side" or "one dish meal"). Enke also won two silver medals in the other two women's speed skating events, which where completely dominated by East Germany, winning all gold and silver medals. Traditional Japanese meals are named by the number of side dishes that accompany the rice and soup that are nearly always served. Other well scoring athletes were skaters Gaétan Boucher (Canada) and Karin Enke (East Germany), who both won two gold medals. Anything else served during a meal--fish, meat, vegetables, tsukemono (pickles)--is considered a side dish, known as okazu. She added a bronze in the relay event. Traditional Japanese cuisine is dominated by white rice (hakumai, 白米), and few meals would be complete without it. Finnish skier Marja-Liisa Hämäläinen took advantage of this new event, which allowed her to win three gold medals, winning all individual events.

. There was only one new event at the Sarajevo Games, a 20 km cross-country event for women. Many Japanese think of the everyday food of the Japanese people--especially that existing before the end of the Meiji Era (1868 - 1912) or before World War II. This gap was filled by alpine skier Jure Franko, who won a silver medal in the giant slalom. Many think of sushi or the elegant stylized formal kaiseki meals that originated as part of the Japanese tea ceremony. Sarajevo was quite a surprising choice for the Winter Olympics, as no Yugoslavian athlete had ever won an Olympic medal in the Winter Games. There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. In a match later dubbed the "Miracle on Ice", the home team upset the favoured Soviet Union, and went on to win the title.

Korean Naengmyun with thicker noodles and a different broth. For the Americans, however, the highlight of the Games was the Olympic ice hockey tournament. Korean barbecue that is unflavored and is dipped in sauce before eating for flavor. In alpine skiing, Liechtenstein's Hanni Wenzel won two gold medals, as did Ingemar Stenmark from Sweden. Japanese-only "Chinese dishes" like Ebi Chili (shrimp in a tangy and slightly spicy sauce). Additionally, Heiden set world records in each of the 5 events he competed in, another record. Spaghetti with creamy shrimp, lobster, crab, Alaska pollock roe or sea urchin sauce, or a non-creamy light sauce topped with seaweed, or made with tomato ketchup, weiners, sliced onion and green pepper (called 'neapolitan'). However, where Skoblikova won four, Heiden won five gold medals, which made him the first to ever win five gold medals in individual events during a single Olympics (a record equalled by Vitaly Scherbo in the 1992 Summer Olympics).

Konowata. Speed skater Eric Heiden equalled Lidia Skoblikova's achievement from 1964 by winning all speed skating events. Karasumi. Nordic combiner Ulrich Wehling and figure skater Irina Rodnina both won their third consecutive gold medals in the same event, while biathlete Aleksander Tikhonov won his fourth one in the relay. Uni - Specifically salt-pickled uni. Fortunately, there were also many sporting highlights. Pocky. The threat of the American boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics was also clouding these Olympics, as the decision to do so fell during the Games.

Macha Ice (Green tea ice cream) - green tea flavored ice cream. The Taiwanese refused, and thus became the only nation to boycott the Olympic Winter Games. Hello Panda. Because of this, the Republic of China (Taiwan) was forced by the IOC to compete under the name of Chinese Taipei. Azuki Ice - vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans. The People's Republic of China made its debut at the Winter Olympics. Other Snack

    . The Olympic Winter Games returned to Lake Placid, New York, which had earlier hosted the 1932 edition.

    Mirucurepu - "mille crepe" - layered crepe. Russian biathlete Nikolay Kruglov also won two golds. Kasutera - "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake. East German bobsledders Nehmer and Germeshausen collected two gold medals, winning both the 2- and 4-man events. Yogashi - Western-style sweets, but in Japan typically very light or spongy

      . Soviet cross-country skier Raisa Smetanina also won two golds and a silver, while her compatriot Tatyana Averina won two golds and two bronzes in speed skating. Umaibou - Puffed corn food with various flavors. West German alpine skier Rosi Mittermaier won two gold medals, and came within 12 hundredths of a second of winning a third.

      Sosu Senbei - Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce. No athlete managed to win three gold medals, but a few came close. Ramune - Sweet candy that melts in your mouth. New events on the programme were ice dancing and the men's 1000 m in speed skating. Also called Karumeyaki. Because it was the second time the Austrian town hosted the Games, two Olympic flames were lit. Karumetou - Brown sugar cake. Innsbruck, which still had the venues of 1964 in good shape, was chosen in 1973 to replace Denver.

      Dagashi - Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets

        . Originally, the 1976 Winter Games had been awarded to Denver, but in a 1972 plebiscite, the city's inhabitants voted against organising the Games. Taiyaki - a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an - red bean paste. After this, all top-level cross-country skiing would take place with the athletes using skis made mostly of fibreglass synthetics. Uiro - a steamed cake made of rice flour. On a historical note, the 1972 Games were the last Olympic Winter Games where a skier would win the gold medal using all-wooden skis. Oshiruko - a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi - rice cake. In alpine skiing, Spaniard Francisco Fernández Ochoa was the surprise winner of the slalom event.

        Mochi - steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid mass. In ski jumping, Wojciech Fortuna from Poland won his country first gold medal, while the host nation performed a clean sweep of the other ski jumping event, also winning its first Olympic winter gold. Melonpan - a large, round, sweet, crusty bread that looks and tastes somewhat like a melon. Sapporo also brought several surprising winners. Matsunoyuki. Switzerland's Marie Thérès Nadig and Vyacheslav Vedenin (USSR) both returned home with two Olympic gold medals. Manju - sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center. Schenk won three of the four skating events (falling in the 500 m), while Kulakova won all three events she entered.

        Kompeito - crystal sugar candy. Major stars of the Games were, without a doubt, Dutch speed skater Ard Schenk and Soviet cross-country skier Galina Kulakova. Kakigori - shaved ice with syrup topping. Also, the Canadian ice hockey team was absent, protesting the Eastern European "state amateurs", who, according to the Canadians, were in fact professionals. Imagawayaki - also known as 'Taikoyaki' is a round Taiyaki and fillings are same. Eventually, only Austrian star Karl Schranz, who earned most of all skiers, was not allowed to compete. Hoshigaki - Dried persimmon fruit. Three days before the Olympics, IOC president Avery Brundage threatened to bar a large number of top alpine skiers from competing because they did not comply with the amateurism rules.

        Higashi. The Games in Sapporo, Japan, were surrounded by several professionalism issues. Hanabiramochi. The 1972 Winter Games were the first to be held outside North America or Europe. Ginbou. Her male colleagues of Norway, Ole Ellefsæter and Harald Grønningen, also won two gold medals. Dango - rice dumpling. Other successful athletes were Italian bobsleigh driver Eugenio Monti, who won both bobsleigh events after a long Olympic career, and Toini Gustafsson of Sweden, who won both individual events in cross-country, and added a silver with the Swedish relay team.

        Anpan - bread with sweet bean paste in the center. The East German women had finished first, second and fourth, but were subsequently disqualified for heating their sledge's runners, which is illegal in lugeing. Anmitsu- a traditional Japanese dessert. Another controversy arose in the women's luge. Amanatto. The jury later ruled Schranz had missed a gate before the interruption, and disqualified him as a winner. Wagashi - Japanese-style sweets

          . He had been allowed to re-ski his second run after he was interrupted by spectators.

          Chirashi - Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish. Killy's third gold medal was slightly controversial however, as Austrian Karl Schranz was disqualified. Temaki - Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside. By winning all three alpine events, he equalled Toni Sailer's 1956 performance. Makizushi - Translated as "roll sushi," this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces. Alpine skier Jean-Claude Killy lead the home team's good performances. Nigirizushi - This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice. Another first in the Olympics were doping and sex tests.

          Sumashijiru - a clear soup made with dashi and seafood. One new event was added for the Grenoble Games: the 4 x 10 km relay in biathlon. Miso soup - soup made with miso, dashi and seasonal ingredients like fish, kamaboko, onions, clams, potato, etc. Until 1964, they had competed in a combined German team. Dangojiru - soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots. Held in the French town of Grenoble, the 1968 Winter Olympics were the first Olympic Games in which East and West Germany participated as separate countries. Tonjiru - similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients. Also remarkable was Eugenio Monti, who leant a spare part of his bobsleigh to British competitors Tony Nash and Robin Dixon, enabling them to win the gold medal in the 2-man event.

          Shikasashi - sliced deer meat, a rare delicacy in certain parts of Japan. The French sisters Marielle and Christine Goitschel took the first two places in both the slalom and the giant slalom event, each sister winning once. Rebasashi - usually liver of beef. Two other cross-country skiers, Eero Mäntyranta and Sixten Jernberg, took home two gold medals. Fugu - sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty. Speed skater Lidia Skoblikova swept all four women's events, while her compatriot Klavdia Boyarskikh did the same in women's cross-country, winning three golds. Basashi - sliced horse meat, sometimes called Sakura. Two Soviet athletes were very successful at these Games.

          Om-rice (Omu-raisu オムライス) - omelette filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tokyo. Luge was first contested in the Olympics, although the sport got bad publicity when a competitor was killed in a pre-Olympic training run. Hayashi Rice - thick beef stew on rice; origin of the name is unknown, but may be "hashed rice". Bobsleigh returned to the Olympics, while a new event was added to ski jumping and women's cross-country skiing. Kare Rice (see also curry) - Introduced from UK in the late 19th century, it became a staple food in Japan. Despite being a traditional winter sports resort, there was a lack of snow and ice during the Games, and the Austrian army was called in to bring snow and ice to the sport venues. Kamameshi - rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot. The Tyrolean city of Innsbruck was the host in 1964.

          Sekihan - red rice with adzuki beans. A surprise occurred in ice hockey, where the home team surprisingly defeated the favoured Soviets, Canadians and Czechs. Onigiri - Japanese rice balls. 35-year-old Veikko Hakulinen of Finland won a complete set of medals in these Games, including a narrow win in the 4 x 10 km relay. Ochazuke - green tea poured over white rice, often flavored. The men's 10000 m saw Knut Johannesen glide to the gold in a time 46 seconds under the world record. Mochi - soft rice cake. She would add four more titles in 1964.

          Chawan mushi - meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables boiled in egg custard. Fellow Russian Lidia Skoblikova won the two longest distances in the inaugural women's races. Shiokara - salty fermented viscera. Even more remarkable was that he again tied for the gold in the 1500, this time with Norwegian Roald Aas. Typically popular in Kanto and less so in Kansai. Yevgeni Grishin repeated his 1956 performance by winning both the 500 and 1500 m. Often eaten for breakfast. Only two athletes managed to win more than one gold medal in Squaw Valley, both Soviet speed skaters.

          Natto - fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous amongst non-Japanese for its strong smell and slippery texture. While bobsleighing was absent, biathlon was first contested at the Olympics, and women first took part in speed skating. Osechi - traditional food eaten at the New Year. The Games were held from February 18 to 28. Hiyayakko - cold tofu dish. There was a fear of lack of snow, but late snowfall prevented a disaster. Bento or Obento - combination meal served in a wooden box. The organising committee found it too expensive as only 9 nations would take part.

          Agedashi tofu - cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth. By 1960, this had changed, although there was no bobsleigh run. Okinawa soba - a wheat-flour noodle often served with sōki, steamed pork. At the time the Olympics were awarded to Squaw Valley, a resort town created by Alexander Cushing, near Lake Tahoe in California. Somen. Cross-country skier Sixten Jernberg won four medals for Sweden, but only one gold medal. Champon - yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students. He won all three alpine events, the first time this occurred in the Olympics.

          Udon - thick wheat noodle served with various toppings or in a hot shoyu and dashi broth. Star of the Games, however, was Austrian skier Toni Sailer. Ramen - thin light yellow noodle served in hot broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan. They ended Canada's dominance over the Olympic ice hockey tournament, and the first non-Nordic medallist in cross-country skiing was also a Russian. Soba - thin brown buckwheat noodles served chilled with various toppings or in hot broth. In speed skating, Soviet skaters won three out of four events, with Yevgeni Grishin winning the 500 and 1500 m (the latter shared with compatriot Yuri Sergeyev). Nikujaga, a Japanese version of beef stew. They immediately showed their potential by winning more medals than any other nation.

          Oden. Most important development was the debut of the Soviet Union at the Winter Olympics. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish, but it has also become very popular in Japan, particularly in the southern island of Kyushu, which is situated closest to South Korea. At the first Winter Games to be televised, the programme was extended with two events in cross-country skiing. Kimuchinabe - similar to motsunabe, except with a kimuchi base and using thinly sliced pork. After not being able to host the Games in 1944 due to the war, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy was able to organise the 1956 Winter Olympics, held from January 26 to February 5. Motsunabe - cow intestine, hakusai (bok choi) and various vegetables are cooked in a light soup base. Nineteen-year-old Andrea Mead Lawrence won two gold medals in alpine skiing, winning both the slalom and the giant slalom.

          Shabu-shabu - noodles, vegetables and shrimp or thinly sliced beef boiled in a thin stock and dipped in a soy or sesame sauce before eating. His 4-man crew weighed a record 472 kg, while the international bobsleigh federation had just decided before the Games that the weight limit would be 400 kg in the future. Sukiyaki - mixture of noodles, thinly sliced beef, egg and vegetables boiled in a special sauce made of fish broth, soy sauce, sugar and sake. German bobsledder Andreas Ostler steered his crews to two gold medals. Yakitori - chicken kebabs. Germany returned to the Olympic Games after 16 years, although only represented by West German athletes. Yakisoba - Japanese style fried noodles. Speed skater Hjalmar Andersen excited the home crowd by winning gold medals in three of the four speed skating events.

          Unagi, including kabayaki - grilled and flavored eel. Bandy, a popular sport in the Nordic countries, was held as a demonstration sport. Teriyaki - grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce. The programme in Oslo, from February 14 to February 25, was expanded with the first ever cross-country event for women, while the alpine combination was replaced with the giant slalom. Takoyaki - a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside. As a tribute, the Olympic Flame was lit in the fireplace of the home of skiing pioneer Sondre Nordheim. Omu-Soba - an omelette with yakisoba as its filling. In 1952, the Winter Games came to Norway, considered to be the birthplace of modern skiing.

          "omelette rice", a fried ketchup-flavored rice sandwiched with a thinly spread beaten egg or covered with a plain egg omelette. After the IOC threatened to annul the entire competition, the AHA team was removed from the standings and lost its fourth position. Omu-Raisu - i.e. The IOC voted to bar both teams from competing, but Swiss allowed the AHA team to compete anyway, while the AOC team marched in the opening ceremonies. Okonomiyaki - pan-fried batter cakes with various savory toppings (see also Okonomiyaki restaurants). Because of a dispute, two American ice hockey teams arrived in Sankt Moritz: one sanctioned by the American Olympic Committee (AOC), and one sanctioned by the American Hockey Association (AHA). Kushiyaki - meat and vegetable kebabs. A strange incident occurred in ice hockey.

          Hamachi Kama - grilled yellow tail tuna jaw and cheek bone. But the best Norwegian only placed 6th in 1948, and the title went to Heikki Hasu of Finland. Gyoza - Chinese dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables. This event had been dominated by Norway, which had won all medals from 1924 to 1936. Tempuradon - battered, deep fried bite-sized foods. A major upset occurred in the Nordic combined. Gyūdon - seasoned beef. Swedish cross-country skier Martin Lundström also won two golds.

          Oyakodon - (Parent and Child) Usually chicken and egg but sometimes salmon and salmon roe. Four new alpine skiing events were also held, allowing Frenchman Henri Oreiller to win three medals, including golds in the downhill and the combined event. Katsudon - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chicken katsudon) or fish (e.g., magurodon). The sport disappeared again after the Sankt Moritz games, returning again in 2002. Tonkatsu - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions called chicken katsu). Remarkably, American John Heaton won the silver, as he had done in 1928. Tempura - battered and deep-fried vegetables, seafood, and meat. Skeleton returned on the programme after 20 years.

          Kushiage - meat deep fried on a skewer. Twenty-Eight countries competed in Switzerland from January 30 to February 8, although athletes from Germany and Japan were not invited. Korokke (croquette) - breaded and deep-fried balls of mashed potato with creamy vegetable, seafood, or meat-flavored fillings. The Swiss town of Sankt-Moritz, untouched by the war because Switzerland remained neutral, became the first place to organize the Winter Olympics for the second time. Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), mustard, red pepper, ginger, shiso (or beefsteak) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba). The 1944 Winter Olympics, scheduled to take place in Cortina d'Ampezzo, were cancelled in the Summer of 1941. Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress. Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) stepped in to organise the Games again, but the Games were cancelled in November 1939, because Germany invaded Poland in September 1939.

          Negi (welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (garlic chives), rakkyo (a type of scallion). Moritz from the Games, because of quarrels with the Swiss organisation team. Kombu, katsuobushi, niboshi. Moritz (Switzerland) was chosen by the IOC to host the 1940 Winter Olympics, but three months later the IOC withdrew St. Shō-yu (Soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake. St. Fu (wheat gluten). The 1940 Winter Olympics had originally been awarded to Japan, and were supposed to be held in Sapporo, but Japan had to give the Games back in 1938, because of the Japanese invasion of China in the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).

          Katakuri flour, kudzu flour, rice powder, soba flour, wheat flour. The Second World War interrupted the celebration of the Winter Olympics. yuzu. However, most of the British players were born in, or lived in, Canada. sudachi,. An upset occurred in the ice hockey tournament, where Canada was defeated for the first time, and lost the gold medal to Great Britain. natsumikan (amanatsu),. He did win the ski jumping event, held one week later.

          mikan,. He led the alpine combined event after the downhill, but dropped to fourth place in the slalom. kumquat,. Another Norwegian, Birger Ruud attempted a rare double, competing in both ski jumping and alpine skiing. kabosu,. His compatriot, Sonja Henie won her third straight title, and turned professional after the Games. iyokan,. Norwegian Ivar Ballangrud dominated the speed skating events, winning three of them, and placing second in the fourth.

          daidai,. The cross-country relay was also held for the first time, while the military patrol and ice stock sport were demonstration sports. Citrus fruits:

            . This decision caused the Swiss and Austrian skiers to boycott the Olympics. loquat. Alpine skiing made its Olympic debut in Germany, but skiing teachers were barred from entering, as they were considered to be professionals. nashi pear,. The Bavarian twin towns of Garmisch and Partenkirchen joined to organise the 1936 edition of the Winter Games, held from February 6 to 16.

            chestnut,. As of 2004, he is the only Olympian to have won gold medals in both the Summer and Winter Olympics. persimmon,. One of the members of Fiske's gold medal-winning sled was Eddie Eagan, who had been an Olympic champion in boxing in 1920. Fruits:

              . Sonja Henie (figure skating) and Billy Fiske (bobsleigh) successfully defended their titles. Yuba. Swedish figure skater Gillis Grafström didn't manage to win his fourth straight Olympic gold, being defeated by Austria's Karl Schäfer.

              Tofu (tofu, agedōfu),. There were three demonstration sports in Lake Placid: sled dog racing, curling and women's speed skating. Soy sauce (light, dark, tamari),. (Bernt Evensen from Norway won silver on the 500 m., and his fellow countryman Ivar Ballangrud did the same on the 10000 m.) Jack Shea and Irving Jaffee shared the gold between them, winning two gold medals each. Miso,. This gave the American and Canadian skaters an advantage from which they benefited by winning all but two of the available skating medals. Edamame,. The two-man bobsleigh event was scheduled for the first time, while the speed skating events were conducted in mass start format, as was common in North America.

              Bean products:

                . The Games opened on February 4 and closed on February 15. Beans (soy, adzuki). On top of that, these games too were marred by warm weather, which eventually made it necessary to extend them for two more days. Meats (pork, beef, chicken, horse), sometimes as minchi (minced meat). However, fewer athletes participated than in 1928, as the journey to Lake Placid, New York was a long and expensive one for most competitors, and there was little money for sports in the midst of the Great Depression. Eggs (chicken, quail). For the first time, the Winter Olympics came to North America.

                Noodles (udon, soba, somen, ramen). The 10000 m speed skating was abandoned in the 5th pair, and the 50 km cross-country ended with a temperature of 77°F (25°C), forcing a third of the field to abandon competition. Satsuma-age. Warm weather conditions plagued the Olympics on the fourth day. kamaboko,. It would turn out this was also the first of three titles for her. dried cuttlefish,. His female counterpart was Norwegian Sonja Henie, only 15 years old at the time.

                niboshi,. Gillis Grafström won his third consecutive figure skating title. chikuwa,. Johan Grøttumsbråten also won two golds, winning the 18 km cross-country and the Nordic combined events. Processed seafood:

                  . Clas Thunberg won two more Olympic gold medals, bringing his total to five. others; see Category:Sea vegetables. The American Heaton brothers won first and second place.

                  hijiki,. Curling and military patrol were no longer medal sports (although the latter was demonstrated) while skeleton made its first Olympic appearance. wakame,. Moritz was appointed by the Swiss organizers to host the second Olympic Winter Games, held from February 11 to February 19 in 1928. konbu,. St. nori,. Their gold medal was upgraded from demonstration medal to official status.

                  seaweed:

                    . In 2006 a further change was made, the IOC reconsidered the case of the all-Scottish curling team of father and son Willie and Laurence Jackson, Robin Welsh and Tom Murray representing Great Britain. Tsukemono (pickled vegetables). Furthermore he placed third in the ski jumping contest, but 50 years later it was discovered that a counting error had been made and that the bronze should have been awarded to American Anders Haugen, who received it in a special ceremony at age 83. shimeji. He won both cross-country skiing events, as well as the Nordic combined. nameko,. Finnish speed skater Clas Thunberg won three gold medals, while Norwegian Thorleif Haug also won three golds.

                    enokitake,. Finnish and Norwegian athletes dominated the events. matsutake,. The first event on the programme was the 500 m speed skating, which was won by American Charlie Jewtraw, thereby becoming the first Winter Olympic champion. shiitake,. From January 25 to February 5, more than 200 athletes from 16 nations competed in 16 events. Mushrooms:

                      . The French town of Chamonix in the Haute-Savoie was the host of the first Olympic Winter Games.

                      Konnyaku (shirataki). speed skating. Sansai (wild vegetables). The 1924 events were retroactively designated as the first Winter Olympics at the 1926 IOC Session. moyashi (mung or soybean sprouts). This week proved a great success, and in 1925 the IOC decided to create separate Winter Olympic Games, not connected to the Summer Olympics. fuki (butterbur),. At the IOC Congress held the next year, it was decided that the organisers of the next Olympics (France) would also host a separate "International Winter Sports Week", under patronage of the IOC.

                      negi (Welsh onion),. The first Olympics after the war, the 1920 Games in Antwerp again featured figure skating, while ice hockey made its Olympic debut. takenoko (bamboo shoots),. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned, but the 1916 Olympics were cancelled after the outbreak of World War I. renkon (lotus root),. However, this same idea was again proposed for the 1916 Games, which were to be held in Berlin. sweet potato,. The organisers opposed this idea, wanting to promote the Nordic Games, a winter sports competition held every four years between competitors from the Nordic countries.

                      daikon,. Three years later, Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d'Usseaux proposed to the IOC to stage a week with winter sports as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm. gobo (burdock),. Ulrich Salchow (10-fold World champion) and Madge Syers (the first competitive woman figure skater) won the individual titles with ease. eggplant,. However, no skating was conducted at the Olympics until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, which featured four figure skating events. cucumber,. When the International Olympic Committee (IOC) was established in 1894, one of the sports proposed for the programme was ice skating.

                      spinach,.
                      . nira (Chinese chives),. . Vegetables:

                        . The Italian city of Turin (Torino) is currently hosting the Winter Olympics, followed by Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 2010. Mochi rice (glutinous rice). Most recently, the 2002 Games were held in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.

                        Short or medium grain white rice. The Winter Olympics are held every four years. Rice

                          . They feature winter sports held on ice or snow, such as ice skating and skiing. This is called toshi koshi soba (年越しそば) (literally "year crossing soba"). The Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics for short but more correctly The Olympic Winter Games, are the cold-weather counterpart to the Summer Olympic Games. Soba - New Year's Eve. Winter pentathlon, a variant to the modern pentathlon, was included as a demonstration event in 1948.

                          Sekihan, cooked rice with adzuki - celebration in general. Synchronized skating (2002). Hamo (a kind of fish) and somen - Gion Festival. Speed skiing (1992) (could return to Winter Olympic Games 2010). Chimaki (steamed sweet rice cake) - Tango no Sekku and Gion Festival. Snowshoeing (2002). botamochi (sticky rice dumpling with sweet azuki paste) - Spring equinox. Sled-dog racing contests were displayed in Lake Placid 1932.

                          Chirashizushi, clear soup of crumbs and amazake - Hinamatsuri. Skijöring, skiing behind horses, was a demonstration sport in Sankt Moritz 1928. Osechi - New Year. Ice stock sport, a German variant to curling, was demonstrated in 1936 and 1964. Bandy, a sport briefly described as "ice hockey with a ball", very popular in the Nordic countries, was demonstrated in 1952 (could return to Winter Olympic Games 2010). It was also demonstrated in 1928, 1936 and 1948, and in 1960 biathlon became an official sport.

                          Military patrol, a precursor to the biathlon, was a medal sport in 1924. The team pursuit event will make its debut in 2006. The all-round competition was only contested in 1924. Current events are the 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, 3000 m (women only), 5000 m and 10000 m (men only).

                          Women's events were not included until 1960, although they were demonstrated in 1932 and had been on the preliminary programme for 1940. Speed skating has been on the programme since 1924. The giant slalom was replaced by a parallel giant slalom for 2002, and in 2006 the snowboard cross event will be added. Snowboarding was first contested at the 1998 Olympics, with giant slalom and halfpipe events for both sexes.

                          This sport is only contested by men. A second event (large hill) was introduced in 1964, and a team event followed in 1988. Ski jumping has been an Olympic sport since 1924, with the normal hill event contested. It was not held again until it was included again in 2002, with individual events for both men and women.

                          Skeleton was included in both Olympics held in Sankt Moritz, the birthplace of the sport. The events are the same for both men and women: 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m and the relay (5000 m (men)/3000 m (women)). The programme was expanded from 4 in 1992 to 8 in 2002. Short track speed skating was a demonstration sport in 1988, and was included as a full sport four years later.

                          Only men compete in this sport. A third event, the sprint, made its debut in 2002. Until 1988, when a team event was added, there was only an individual event. Nordic combined, a combination of ski jumping and cross-country skiing, has been Olympic since 1924.

                          The latter is technically open for both men and women, but in practice, only men compete. It included a singles event for both men and women, and a doubles event. Luge first entered the Olympic programme in 1964, and the three events conducted then are still unchanged. A women's tournament was first conducted in 1998.

                          Ice hockey was already held at the 1920 Summer Olympics, and has been played in every celebration of the Winter Games. Both events are held for men and women. The aerials also received official status in 1994. The moguls event become Olympic in 1992, while ballet and aerials remained a demonstration event.

                          Freestyle skiing was first demonstrated in three disciplines in 1988. The special figures event for men was only conducted in 1908. The single events for men and women, and the pairs contest have been on the programme since 1908, ice dancing was first included in 1976. Figure skating was the first winter sport to be included in the Olympics, appearing in the programme of the Summer Olympics in 1908 and 1920.

                          Since then, separate tournaments for men and women have been held. It was demonstrated in 1932, 1988 and 1992, to be officially included in 1998. Curling was on the programme in 1924, but disappeared afterwards. The number of events has steadily grown over the years, being 12 in 2002: sprint (1.5 km), pursuit (10 km for men, 5 km for women), mass start (30 km (men)/15 km (women)), 10 km (women), 15 km (men), 30 km (women), 50 km (men), relay (4 x 10 km (men), 4 x 5 km (women)).

                          Nordic skiing has always been on the Olympic programme. Women didn't compete until 2002, when the two-woman race was included. The four-man event has been held since 1924, the two-man event was added in 1932. Bobsleighing has been included since 1924, although it was not held in 1960.

                          A mass start event will be added in 2006 (15 km (men)/12.5 km (women)). At present there are 4 events, conducted by both men and women: the sprint (10 km (men)/7.5 km (women)), the individual (20 km (men)/15 km (women)), the pursuit (12.5 km (men)/10 km (women)) and the relay (4 x 7.5 km). Women first participated in 1992. Only a single individual event for men was included in 1960, but events have been added over the years.

                          Biathlon was first included in 1960, although the very similar military patrol was contested in 1924. The current program features 10 events, with both men and women skiing the downhill, super g, giant slalom, slalom and combined events. It was not conducted in 1940 due to professionalism disputes, but it was on the program again in 1948. Alpine skiing was first included in 1936.

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