Japanese cuisine

One course of a multi course Kaiseki meal, showing a careful arrangement of the foods

There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. Many think of sushi or the elegant stylized formal kaiseki meals that originated as part of the Japanese tea ceremony. Many Japanese think of the everyday food of the Japanese people--especially that existing before the end of the Meiji Era (1868 - 1912) or before World War II.

Food individual to the country

Barrels of sake, a traditional Japanese alcoholic drink

Traditional Japanese cuisine is dominated by white rice (hakumai, 白米), and few meals would be complete without it. Anything else served during a meal--fish, meat, vegetables, tsukemono (pickles)--is considered a side dish, known as okazu.

Traditional Japanese meals are named by the number of side dishes that accompany the rice and soup that are nearly always served. The simplest Japanese meal, for example, consists of ichijū-issai (一汁一菜; "one soup, one side" or "one dish meal"). This means soup, rice, and one accompanying side dish--usually a pickled vegetable like daikon. A traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, usually consists of miso soup, rice, and a pickled vegetable. The most common meal, however, is called ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜; "one soup, three sides"), or soup, rice, and three side dishes, each employing a different cooking technique. The three side dishes are usually raw fish (sashimi), a grilled dish, and a simmered (sometimes called boiled in translations from Japanese) dish -- although steamed, deep fried, vinegared, or dressed dishes may replace the grilled or simmered dishes. Ichijū-sansai often finishes with pickles such as umeboshi and green tea.

This Japanese view of a meal is reflected in the organization of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Chapters are organized according to cooking techniques: fried foods, steamed foods, and grilled foods, for example, and not according to particular ingredients (e.g., chicken or beef) as are western cookbooks. There may also be chapters devoted to soups, sushi, rice, noodles, and sweets.

Since Japan is an island nation, its people consume much seafood including fish, shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, lobsters, shrimp and seaweed. Although not known as a meat eating country, very few Japanese consider themselves vegetarians. Beef and chicken are commonly eaten and have become part of everyday cuisine.

Noodles, originating from China, have become an essential part of Japanese cuisine. There are two traditional types of noodle, soba and udon. Made from buckwheat flour, soba (蕎麦) is a thin, brown noodle. Made from wheat flour, udon (うどん) is a thick, white noodle. Both are generally served in a soy-flavored fish broth with various vegetables. A more recent import from China, dating to the early 19th century, is ramen (ラーメン; Chinese wheat noodles), which has become extremely popular. Ramen is served in a variety of soup stocks ranging from soy sauce/fish stock to butter/pork stock.

Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, there are a couple of exceptions. In some regions, grasshoppers (inago) and bee larvae (hachinoko) are not uncommon dishes. Salamander is eaten as well in places.

Traditional Japanese table settings

The traditional Japanese table setting has varied considerably over the centuries, depending primarily on the type of table common during a given era. Before the 19th century, small individual box tables (hakozen, 箱膳) or flat floor trays were set before each diner. Larger low tables (chabudai, ちゃぶ台) that accommodated entire families were becoming popular by the beginning of the 20th century, but these gave way to western style dining tables and chairs by the end of the 20th century.

Traditional table settings are based on the ichijū-sansai formula. Typically, five separate bowls and plates are set before the diner. Nearest the diner are the rice bowl on the left and the soup bowl on the right. Behind these are three flat plates to hold the three side dishes, one to far back left (on which might be served a simmered dish), one at far back right (on which might be served a grilled dish), and one in the center of the tray (on which might be served boiled greens). Pickled vegetables are often served as well, and eaten at the end of the meal, but are not counted as part of three side dishes.

Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed ends facing left and supported by a chopstick holder, or hashioki (箸置き).

Dishes for special occasions

In Japanese tradition some dishes are strongly tied to a festival or event. Major such combinations include:

  • Osechi - New Year.
  • Chirashizushi, clear soup of crumbs and amazake - Hinamatsuri.
  • botamochi (sticky rice dumpling with sweet azuki paste) - Spring equinox.
  • Chimaki (steamed sweet rice cake) - Tango no Sekku and Gion Festival.
  • Hamo (a kind of fish) and somen - Gion Festival.
  • Sekihan, cooked rice with adzuki - celebration in general.
  • Soba - New Year's Eve. This is called toshi koshi soba (年越しそば) (literally "year crossing soba").

In some regions every 1st and 15th day of the month people eat a mixture of rice and adzuki (azuki meshi).

Japanese ingredients

  • Rice
    • Short or medium grain white rice
    • Mochi rice (glutinous rice)
  • Vegetables:
    • nira (Chinese chives),
    • spinach,
    • cucumber,
    • eggplant,
    • gobo (burdock),
    • daikon,
    • sweet potato,
    • renkon (lotus root),
    • takenoko (bamboo shoots),
    • negi (Welsh onion),
    • fuki (butterbur),
    • moyashi (mung or soybean sprouts)
    • Sansai (wild vegetables)
    • Konnyaku (shirataki)
  • Mushrooms:
    • shiitake,
    • matsutake,
    • enokitake,
    • nameko,
    • shimeji.
  • Tsukemono (pickled vegetables)
  • seaweed:
    • nori,
    • konbu,
    • wakame,
    • hijiki,
    • others; see Category:Sea vegetables
  • Processed seafood:
    • chikuwa,
    • niboshi,
    • dried cuttlefish,
    • kamaboko,
    • Satsuma-age.
  • Noodles (udon, soba, somen, ramen)
  • Eggs (chicken, quail)
  • Meats (pork, beef, chicken, horse), sometimes as minchi (minced meat)
  • Beans (soy, adzuki)
  • Bean products:
    • Edamame,
    • Miso,
    • Soy sauce (light, dark, tamari),
    • Tofu (tofu, agedōfu),
    • Yuba
  • Fruits:
    • persimmon,
    • chestnut,
    • nashi pear,
    • loquat
  • Citrus fruits:
    • daidai,
    • iyokan,
    • kabosu,
    • kumquat,
    • mikan,
    • natsumikan (amanatsu),
    • sudachi,
    • yuzu.
  • Katakuri flour, kudzu flour, rice powder, soba flour, wheat flour
  • Fu (wheat gluten)

See also Category:Japanese ingredients.

Japanese flavorings

It is not generally thought possible to make authentic Japanese food without shō-yu (soy sauce), miso and dashi.

  • Shō-yu (Soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake.
  • Kombu, katsuobushi, niboshi.
  • Negi (welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (garlic chives), rakkyo (a type of scallion)
  • Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress.
  • Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), mustard, red pepper, ginger, shiso (or beefsteak) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba).

Famous Japanese foods and dishes

Deep-Fried dishes (Agemono)

  • Korokke (croquette) - breaded and deep-fried balls of mashed potato with creamy vegetable, seafood, or meat-flavored fillings.
  • Kushiage - meat deep fried on a skewer.
  • Tempura - battered and deep-fried vegetables, seafood, and meat.
  • Tonkatsu - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions called chicken katsu).

Donburi

A one-bowl dish of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings

  • Katsudon - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chicken katsudon) or fish (e.g., magurodon)
  • Oyakodon - (Parent and Child) Usually chicken and egg but sometimes salmon and salmon roe
  • Gyūdon - seasoned beef
  • Tempuradon - battered, deep fried bite-sized foods

Grilled and pan-fried dishes (Yakimono)

  • Gyoza - Chinese dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables
  • Hamachi Kama - grilled yellow tail tuna jaw and cheek bone
  • Kushiyaki - meat and vegetable kebabs
  • Okonomiyaki - pan-fried batter cakes with various savory toppings (see also Okonomiyaki restaurants)
  • Omu-Raisu - i.e. "omelette rice", a fried ketchup-flavored rice sandwiched with a thinly spread beaten egg or covered with a plain egg omelette
  • Omu-Soba - an omelette with yakisoba as its filling
  • Takoyaki - a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside
  • Teriyaki - grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce
  • Unagi, including kabayaki - grilled and flavored eel
  • Yakisoba - Japanese style fried noodles
  • Yakitori - chicken kebabs

Nabemono (one pot cooking)

  • Sukiyaki - mixture of noodles, thinly sliced beef, egg and vegetables boiled in a special sauce made of fish broth, soy sauce, sugar and sake
  • Shabu-shabu - noodles, vegetables and shrimp or thinly sliced beef boiled in a thin stock and dipped in a soy or sesame sauce before eating
  • Motsunabe - cow intestine, hakusai (bok choi) and various vegetables are cooked in a light soup base
  • Kimuchinabe - similar to motsunabe, except with a kimuchi base and using thinly sliced pork. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish, but it has also become very popular in Japan, particularly in the southern island of Kyushu, which is situated closest to South Korea
  • Oden
  • Nikujaga, a Japanese version of beef stew.

Noodles (men-rui)

Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve ramen-rice combination sets.

  • Soba - thin brown buckwheat noodles served chilled with various toppings or in hot broth
  • Ramen - thin light yellow noodle served in hot broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan
  • Udon - thick wheat noodle served with various toppings or in a hot shoyu and dashi broth
  • Champon - yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students
  • Somen
  • Okinawa soba - a wheat-flour noodle often served with sōki, steamed pork

Other

  • Agedashi tofu - cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth
  • Bento or Obento - combination meal served in a wooden box
  • Hiyayakko - cold tofu dish
  • Osechi - traditional food eaten at the New Year
  • Natto - fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous amongst non-Japanese for its strong smell and slippery texture. Often eaten for breakfast. Typically popular in Kanto and less so in Kansai
  • Shiokara - salty fermented viscera
  • Chawan mushi - meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables boiled in egg custard

Rice (gohanmono)

  • Mochi - soft rice cake
  • Ochazuke - green tea poured over white rice, often flavored
  • Onigiri - Japanese rice balls
  • Sekihan - red rice with adzuki beans
  • Kamameshi - rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot
  • Kare Rice (see also curry) - Introduced from UK in the late 19th century, it became a staple food in Japan
  • Hayashi Rice - thick beef stew on rice; origin of the name is unknown, but may be "hashed rice"
  • Om-rice (Omu-raisu オムライス) - omelette filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tokyo

Sashimi

Sashimi is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish but can be almost anything including beef, horse and chicken.

  • Basashi - sliced horse meat, sometimes called Sakura
  • Fugu - sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty
  • Rebasashi - usually liver of beef
  • Shikasashi - sliced deer meat, a rare delicacy in certain parts of Japan

Soups (suimono and shirumono)

  • Tonjiru - similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients
  • Dangojiru - soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots
  • Miso soup - soup made with miso, dashi and seasonal ingredients like fish, kamaboko, onions, clams, potato, etc.
  • Sumashijiru - a clear soup made with dashi and seafood

Sushi

Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or seafood.

  • Nigirizushi - This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice.
  • Makizushi - Translated as "roll sushi," this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces.
  • Temaki - Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside.
  • Chirashi - Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish.

Sweets

  • Wagashi - Japanese-style sweets
    • Amanatto
    • Anmitsu- a traditional Japanese dessert
    • Anpan - bread with sweet bean paste in the center
    • Dango - rice dumpling
    • Ginbou
    • Hanabiramochi
    • Higashi
    • Hoshigaki - Dried persimmon fruit
    • Imagawayaki - also known as 'Taikoyaki' is a round Taiyaki and fillings are same
    • Kakigori - shaved ice with syrup topping.
    • Kompeito - crystal sugar candy
    • Manju - sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center
    • Matsunoyuki
    • Melonpan - a large, round, sweet, crusty bread that looks and tastes somewhat like a melon
    • Mochi - steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid mass
    • Oshiruko - a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi - rice cake
    • Uiro - a steamed cake made of rice flour
    • Taiyaki - a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an - red bean paste
  • Dagashi - Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets
    • Karumetou - Brown sugar cake. Also called Karumeyaki
    • Ramune - Sweet candy that melts in your mouth
    • Sosu Senbei - Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce
    • Umaibou - Puffed corn food with various flavors
  • Yogashi - Western-style sweets, but in Japan typically very light or spongy
    • Kasutera - "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake
    • Mirucurepu - "mille crepe" - layered crepe
  • Other Snack
    • Azuki Ice - vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans
    • Hello Panda
    • Macha Ice (Green tea ice cream) - green tea flavored ice cream
    • Pocky

Chinmi

  • Uni - Specifically salt-pickled uni
  • Karasumi
  • Konowata

Japanese influence on other cuisines

United States

Teppanyaki is said to be an American invention, as is the California roll (not to mention the Philadelphia roll), and while the former has been well received in Japan the latter has not and has, at worst, been termed not sushi by Japanese people. However thanks to some recent trends in American culture such as Iron Chef and Benihana, Japanese culinary culture is slowly fusing its way into American life. Japanese food, which had been quite exotic in the West as late as the 1970s, is now quite at home in parts of the continental United States, and has become an integral part of food culture in Hawaii.

Imported and adapted foods

A Japanese children's book. The food and utensils depicted, however, are Western.

Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas). Chinese, French, Italian and Spanish cuisine is of particular interest to Japanese people. Historically, foods such as castella and bread were originally imported from Portugal, and the name pan for bread is a loanword from Portuguese.

Many imported foods are made suitable for the Japanese palate by reducing the amount of spice used or changing a part of a recipe. For example, the Korean pickle kimchi, usually fermented in Korea, in Japan is instead often simply pickled, without a key Korean ingredient, fermented shrimp. Similarly, Japanese pizza may have toppings such as sliced boiled eggs, sweetcorn, shrimps, nori, and mayonnaise instead of tomato sauce.

Other examples of changed imported cuisine include:

  • Spaghetti with creamy shrimp, lobster, crab, Alaska pollock roe or sea urchin sauce, or a non-creamy light sauce topped with seaweed, or made with tomato ketchup, weiners, sliced onion and green pepper (called 'neapolitan')
  • Japanese-only "Chinese dishes" like Ebi Chili (shrimp in a tangy and slightly spicy sauce)
  • Korean barbecue that is unflavored and is dipped in sauce before eating for flavor
  • Korean Naengmyun with thicker noodles and a different broth

The Japanese often eat at hamburger chains such as McDonald's or Mos Burger, a popular competitor. Other fast-food establishments are similarly popular. These include doughnut and ice cream shops. Okinawa has a chain of A&W drive-in restaurants featuring the company's root beer. The Japanese also alter American-style fast-food, serving such items as green-tea milkshakes and fried shrimp burgers at chains like Lotteria.

In Tokyo, it is quite easy to find restaurants serving authentic foreign cuisine. However, in most of the country, in many ways, the variety of imported food is limited; for example, it is rare to find pasta that is not of the spaghetti or macaroni varieties in supermarkets or restaurants; bread is very rarely of any variety but white; and varieties of imported cereal are also very limited, usually either frosted or chocolate flavored. "Italian restaurants" also tend to only have pizza and pasta in their menus.

Washoku and yōshoku

Imported cuisines and foods from America and Europe are called yōshoku (洋食), a shortened form of seiyōshoku (西洋食) lit. Western cuisine. Japanese cuisine is called washoku (和食), lit. Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine is called Chūkaryōri (中華料理), lit. Chinese recipe.

A number of foreign dishes have been adapted to a degree that they are now considered Japanese, and are an integral part of any Japanese family menu. Yet, these are still categorized as yōshoku as they were imported. Perhaps the best example is curry rice, which was imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom, and vaguely resembles the original Indian dish. Another example is "Hamburg steak", which is a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Restaurants that serve these foods are called yōshokuya (洋食屋), lit. Western cuisine restaurants. However, yōshoku basically refers to Japanese-style foreign cuisine of a vague origin.

Tempura

One of the oldest imported dishes is tempura, although it has been so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. As such, it is considered washoku. Tempura came to Japan from Portuguese sailors in the 16th century as a technique for cooking fish. Since then, the Japanese have extended its ingredients to include almost every sort of seafood and vegetable. Shrimp, eggplant, squash, and carrots are typical ingredients today. Another food, like tempura, that is now considered washoku is sōmen.

Fusion foods

In a constant quest to adopt and expand Japanese cuisine, Japanese have made hundreds of recipes that are distinctly different from the original recipes but still retain the "air" (and basic taste) of their origins. For example, "curry" from India, imported via the United Kingdom, has fused with varieties of foods to make new recipes. Curry made with fish based dashi is poured over udon, making "Kare Udon". It is wrapped in dough and deep fried, making "Kare Pan", curry bread. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called Fukujinzuke or Rakkyo. Other recipes are so exotic by any standard that they remain a local cuisine. Anmitsu (あんみつ), a dish of cream, bean jam, ice cream, and fruits is often served as a dessert in restaurants.


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Anmitsu (あんみつ), a dish of cream, bean jam, ice cream, and fruits is often served as a dessert in restaurants. Methods:. Other recipes are so exotic by any standard that they remain a local cuisine. Required components:. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called Fukujinzuke or Rakkyo. Isaac Asimov, on the other hand, proposes (in his first jokebook, Treasury of Humor) that the essence of humour is anticlimax: an abrupt change in point of view, in which trivial matters are suddenly elevated in importance above those that would normally be far more important. It is wrapped in dough and deep fried, making "Kare Pan", curry bread. Heinlein proposes that humour comes from pain, and that laughter is a mechanism to keep us from crying.

Curry made with fish based dashi is poured over udon, making "Kare Udon". In Stranger in a Strange Land, Robert A. For example, "curry" from India, imported via the United Kingdom, has fused with varieties of foods to make new recipes. A number of science fiction writers have explored the theory of humour. In a constant quest to adopt and expand Japanese cuisine, Japanese have made hundreds of recipes that are distinctly different from the original recipes but still retain the "air" (and basic taste) of their origins. Americans visiting Australia have gained themselves a reputation for gullibility and a lack of a sense of humour by not recognising that tales of kangaroos hopping across the Sydney Harbour Bridge exemplify the propensity for this style of leg-pulling. Another food, like tempura, that is now considered washoku is sōmen. One notable trait of Australians (perhaps inherited from the British) lies in their use of deadpan humour, in which the joker will make an outrageous or ridiculous statement without giving any explicit signs of joking.

Shrimp, eggplant, squash, and carrots are typical ingredients today. Users of some psychoactive drugs tend to find humour in many more situations and events than one normally would. Since then, the Japanese have extended its ingredients to include almost every sort of seafood and vegetable. Although many writers have emphasised the positive or cathartic effects of humour some, notably Billig, have emphasises the potential of humour for cruelty and its involvement with social control and regulation. Tempura came to Japan from Portuguese sailors in the 16th century as a technique for cooking fish. Prominent theoreticians in this field include Raymond Gibbs, Herbert Clark, Michael Billig, Willibald Ruch, Victor Raskin, Eliot Oring, and Salvatore Attardo. As such, it is considered washoku. There also exist linguistic and psycholinguistic studies of humour, irony, parody and pretence.

One of the oldest imported dishes is tempura, although it has been so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. Puns classify words not by what lives (their meaning) but by mechanics (their mere sound). However, yōshoku basically refers to Japanese-style foreign cuisine of a vague origin. A Bergsonian might explain puns in the same spirit. Western cuisine restaurants. He used as an instance a book by an English humorist, in which an elderly woman who desired a reputation as a philanthropist provided "homes within easy hail of her mansion for the conversion of atheists who have been specially manufactured for her, so to speak, and for a number of honest folk who have been made into drunkards so that she may cure them of their failing, etc." This idea seems funny because a genuine impulse of charity as a living, vital impulse has become encrusted by a mechanical conception of how it should manifest itself. Restaurants that serve these foods are called yōshokuya (洋食屋), lit. The French philosopher Henri Bergson wrote an essay on "the meaning of the comic", in which he viewed the essence of humour as the encrustation of the mechanical upon the living.

Another example is "Hamburg steak", which is a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Notable studies of humour have come from the pens of Aristotle in The Poetics (Part V), of Sigmund Freud in Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious and of Schopenhauer. Perhaps the best example is curry rice, which was imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom, and vaguely resembles the original Indian dish. Typically, the priest will make a remark, the rabbi will continue in the same vein, and then the lawyer will make a third point that forms a sharp break from the established pattern, but nonetheless forms a logical (or at least stereotypical) response. Yet, these are still categorized as yōshoku as they were imported. For instance, a class of jokes exists beginning with the formulaic line "A priest, a rabbi, and a lawyer are sitting in a bar..." (or close variations on this). A number of foreign dishes have been adapted to a degree that they are now considered Japanese, and are an integral part of any Japanese family menu. For this reason also, many jokes work in threes.

Chinese recipe. For example:. Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine is called Chūkaryōri (中華料理), lit. Perhaps the essence of humour lies in the presentation of something familiar to a person, so they think they know the natural follow-on thought or conclusion, then providing a twist through presentation something different from what the audience expected (see surprise), or else the natural result of interpreting the original situation in a different, less common, way. Japanese cuisine is called washoku (和食), lit. White once said that "Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind." However, attempts to do just that have been made, such as this one:. Western cuisine. Author E.B.

Imported cuisines and foods from America and Europe are called yōshoku (洋食), a shortened form of seiyōshoku (西洋食) lit. Some claim that humour cannot or should not be explained. "Italian restaurants" also tend to only have pizza and pasta in their menus. This is why jokes are often funny only when told the first time. However, in most of the country, in many ways, the variety of imported food is limited; for example, it is rare to find pasta that is not of the spaghetti or macaroni varieties in supermarkets or restaurants; bread is very rarely of any variety but white; and varieties of imported cereal are also very limited, usually either frosted or chocolate flavored. Once the problem in meaning has been described through a joke, people immediately begin correcting their impressions of the symbols that have been mocked. In Tokyo, it is quite easy to find restaurants serving authentic foreign cuisine. In other words, comedy is a sign of a 'bug' in the symbolic make-up of language, as well as a self-correcting mechanism for such bugs.

The Japanese also alter American-style fast-food, serving such items as green-tea milkshakes and fried shrimp burgers at chains like Lotteria. Irony is explicitly this form of comedy, whereas slapstick takes more passive social norms relating to physicality and plays with them. Okinawa has a chain of A&W drive-in restaurants featuring the company's root beer. Language is an approximation of thoughts through symbolic manipulation, and the gap between the expectations inherent in those symbols and the breaking of those expectations leads to laughter. These include doughnut and ice cream shops. One explanation of humour is based on the fact that a great deal of humour is a consequence of language. Other fast-food establishments are similarly popular. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of the term (the German loanword from English) to mean any type of comedy.

The Japanese often eat at hamburger chains such as McDonald's or Mos Burger, a popular competitor. By comparison, the use of irony creates the perception of a passage from the serious to the comic, while in humour the opposite is true. Other examples of changed imported cuisine include:. For this reason humour is often a subjective experience as it depends on a special mood or perspective from its audience to be effective. Similarly, Japanese pizza may have toppings such as sliced boiled eggs, sweetcorn, shrimps, nori, and mayonnaise instead of tomato sauce. The term "humour" as formerly applied in comedy referred to the interpenetration of the sublime and the ridiculous. For example, the Korean pickle kimchi, usually fermented in Korea, in Japan is instead often simply pickled, without a key Korean ingredient, fermented shrimp. Examples of various different styles of humour, or techniques for evoking humour or creating a humourous situation are listed below.

Many imported foods are made suitable for the Japanese palate by reducing the amount of spice used or changing a part of a recipe. . Historically, foods such as castella and bread were originally imported from Portugal, and the name pan for bread is a loanword from Portuguese. For example, young children (of any background) particularly favour slapstick, while satire tends to appeal to more mature audiences. Chinese, French, Italian and Spanish cuisine is of particular interest to Japanese people. A sense of humour is the ability to experience humour, a quality which all people share, although the extent to which an individual will personally find something humorous depends on a host of absolute and relative variables, including, but not limited to geographical location, culture, maturity, level of education and context. Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas). The origin of the term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which stated that a mix of fluids known as humours controlled human health and emotion.

Japanese food, which had been quite exotic in the West as late as the 1970s, is now quite at home in parts of the continental United States, and has become an integral part of food culture in Hawaii. The term encompasses a form of entertainment or human communication which evokes such feelings, or which makes people laugh or feel happy. However thanks to some recent trends in American culture such as Iron Chef and Benihana, Japanese culinary culture is slowly fusing its way into American life. Humour (Commonwealth English) or humor (American English) is the ability or quality of people, objects or situations to evoke feelings of amusement in other people. Teppanyaki is said to be an American invention, as is the California roll (not to mention the Philadelphia roll), and while the former has been well received in Japan the latter has not and has, at worst, been termed not sushi by Japanese people. timing. United States. reframing.

Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or seafood. hyperbole. Sashimi is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish but can be almost anything including beef, horse and chicken. metaphor. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve ramen-rice combination sets. similar to reality, but not real. Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal. appealing to feelings or to emotions.

A one-bowl dish of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings. some surprise, contradiction, ambiguity or paradox. It is not generally thought possible to make authentic Japanese food without shō-yu (soy sauce), miso and dashi. Exemplified by The Larry Sanders Show and Curb Your Enthusiasm. See also Category:Japanese ingredients. Character Driven, deriving humour from the way characters act in specific situations, without punchlines. In some regions every 1st and 15th day of the month people eat a mixture of rice and adzuki (azuki meshi). Unintentional humour, that is, making people laugh without intending to (as with Ed Wood's Plan 9 From Outer Space).

Major such combinations include:. Deliberate ambiguity and confusion with reality, often performed by Andy Kaufman. In Japanese tradition some dishes are strongly tied to a festival or event. Anti-humour

    . Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed ends facing left and supported by a chopstick holder, or hashioki (箸置き). Visual humour: Like the above, but encompassing narrative in theater or comics ,or on film or video. Pickled vegetables are often served as well, and eaten at the end of the meal, but are not counted as part of three side dishes. Funny pictures: Photos or drawings/cartoons that are intentionally or unintentionally humorous.

    Behind these are three flat plates to hold the three side dishes, one to far back left (on which might be served a simmered dish), one at far back right (on which might be served a grilled dish), and one in the center of the tray (on which might be served boiled greens). Form-versus-content humour. Nearest the diner are the rice bowl on the left and the soup bowl on the right. Practical joke: luring someone into a humorous position or situation and then laughing at their expense. Typically, five separate bowls and plates are set before the diner. Surreal humour or absurdity. Traditional table settings are based on the ichijū-sansai formula. Clash of context humour, such "fish out of water".

    Larger low tables (chabudai, ちゃぶ台) that accommodated entire families were becoming popular by the beginning of the 20th century, but these gave way to western style dining tables and chairs by the end of the 20th century. Faking stupidity. Before the 19th century, small individual box tables (hakozen, 箱膳) or flat floor trays were set before each diner. Inflicting pain, such as kick in the groin. The traditional Japanese table setting has varied considerably over the centuries, depending primarily on the type of table common during a given era. Exaggerated or unexpected gestures and movements. Salamander is eaten as well in places. Slapstick

      .

      In some regions, grasshoppers (inago) and bee larvae (hachinoko) are not uncommon dishes. Deadpan Fake stern manner. Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, there are a couple of exceptions. Nonverbal

        . Ramen is served in a variety of soup stocks ranging from soy sauce/fish stock to butter/pork stock. Ridicule of self through absurdism, as in the surreally dry and bizarre comedy of Steven Wright. A more recent import from China, dating to the early 19th century, is ramen (ラーメン; Chinese wheat noodles), which has become extremely popular. Self-ridicule, such as Rodney Dangerfield's self-deprecating humour
          .

          Both are generally served in a soy-flavored fish broth with various vegetables. Ridicule, such as the Darwin Awards

            . Made from wheat flour, udon (うどん) is a thick, white noodle. Self-irony. Made from buckwheat flour, soba (蕎麦) is a thin, brown noodle. Satire. There are two traditional types of noodle, soba and udon. Sarcasm.

            Noodles, originating from China, have become an essential part of Japanese cuisine. Parody. Beef and chicken are commonly eaten and have become part of everyday cuisine. Obscenity. Although not known as a meat eating country, very few Japanese consider themselves vegetarians. Droll. Since Japan is an island nation, its people consume much seafood including fish, shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, lobsters, shrimp and seaweed. Non-sequitur.

            There may also be chapters devoted to soups, sushi, rice, noodles, and sweets. Wit, as in many one-liner jokes. Chapters are organized according to cooking techniques: fried foods, steamed foods, and grilled foods, for example, and not according to particular ingredients (e.g., chicken or beef) as are western cookbooks. Irony, where a statement or situation implies both a superficial and a concealed meaning which are at odds with each other. This Japanese view of a meal is reflected in the organization of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Riddle. Ichijū-sansai often finishes with pickles such as umeboshi and green tea. Sick Jokes, arousing humour through grotesque, violent or exceptionally cruel scenarios.

            The three side dishes are usually raw fish (sashimi), a grilled dish, and a simmered (sometimes called boiled in translations from Japanese) dish -- although steamed, deep fried, vinegared, or dressed dishes may replace the grilled or simmered dishes. Stereotyping, such as blonde jokes, lawyer jokes, racial jokes, viola jokes. The most common meal, however, is called ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜; "one soup, three sides"), or soup, rice, and three side dishes, each employing a different cooking technique. Adages, often in the form of paradox "laws" of nature, such as Murphy's law. A traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, usually consists of miso soup, rice, and a pickled vegetable. Joke

              . This means soup, rice, and one accompanying side dish--usually a pickled vegetable like daikon. Comic sounds or inherently funny words with sounds that make them amusing in a language.

              The simplest Japanese meal, for example, consists of ichijū-issai (一汁一菜; "one soup, one side" or "one dish meal"). Pun. Traditional Japanese meals are named by the number of side dishes that accompany the rice and soup that are nearly always served. Oxymoron. Anything else served during a meal--fish, meat, vegetables, tsukemono (pickles)--is considered a side dish, known as okazu. Word play

                . Traditional Japanese cuisine is dominated by white rice (hakumai, 白米), and few meals would be complete without it. Understatement.

                . Hyperbole. Many Japanese think of the everyday food of the Japanese people--especially that existing before the end of the Meiji Era (1868 - 1912) or before World War II. Syllepsis (zeugma). Many think of sushi or the elegant stylized formal kaiseki meals that originated as part of the Japanese tea ceremony. Enthymeme. There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. Triple and paraprosdokian.

                Korean Naengmyun with thicker noodles and a different broth. Figure of speech

                  . Korean barbecue that is unflavored and is dipped in sauce before eating for flavor. Verbal
                    . Japanese-only "Chinese dishes" like Ebi Chili (shrimp in a tangy and slightly spicy sauce). Spaghetti with creamy shrimp, lobster, crab, Alaska pollock roe or sea urchin sauce, or a non-creamy light sauce topped with seaweed, or made with tomato ketchup, weiners, sliced onion and green pepper (called 'neapolitan').

                    Konowata. Karasumi. Uni - Specifically salt-pickled uni. Pocky.

                    Macha Ice (Green tea ice cream) - green tea flavored ice cream. Hello Panda. Azuki Ice - vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans. Other Snack

                      .

                      Mirucurepu - "mille crepe" - layered crepe. Kasutera - "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake. Yogashi - Western-style sweets, but in Japan typically very light or spongy

                        . Umaibou - Puffed corn food with various flavors.

                        Sosu Senbei - Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce. Ramune - Sweet candy that melts in your mouth. Also called Karumeyaki. Karumetou - Brown sugar cake.

                        Dagashi - Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets

                          . Taiyaki - a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an - red bean paste. Uiro - a steamed cake made of rice flour. Oshiruko - a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi - rice cake.

                          Mochi - steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid mass. Melonpan - a large, round, sweet, crusty bread that looks and tastes somewhat like a melon. Matsunoyuki. Manju - sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center.

                          Kompeito - crystal sugar candy. Kakigori - shaved ice with syrup topping. Imagawayaki - also known as 'Taikoyaki' is a round Taiyaki and fillings are same. Hoshigaki - Dried persimmon fruit.

                          Higashi. Hanabiramochi. Ginbou. Dango - rice dumpling.

                          Anpan - bread with sweet bean paste in the center. Anmitsu- a traditional Japanese dessert. Amanatto. Wagashi - Japanese-style sweets

                            .

                            Chirashi - Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish. Temaki - Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside. Makizushi - Translated as "roll sushi," this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces. Nigirizushi - This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice.

                            Sumashijiru - a clear soup made with dashi and seafood. Miso soup - soup made with miso, dashi and seasonal ingredients like fish, kamaboko, onions, clams, potato, etc. Dangojiru - soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots. Tonjiru - similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients.

                            Shikasashi - sliced deer meat, a rare delicacy in certain parts of Japan. Rebasashi - usually liver of beef. Fugu - sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty. Basashi - sliced horse meat, sometimes called Sakura.

                            Om-rice (Omu-raisu オムライス) - omelette filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tokyo. Hayashi Rice - thick beef stew on rice; origin of the name is unknown, but may be "hashed rice". Kare Rice (see also curry) - Introduced from UK in the late 19th century, it became a staple food in Japan. Kamameshi - rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot.

                            Sekihan - red rice with adzuki beans. Onigiri - Japanese rice balls. Ochazuke - green tea poured over white rice, often flavored. Mochi - soft rice cake.

                            Chawan mushi - meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables boiled in egg custard. Shiokara - salty fermented viscera. Typically popular in Kanto and less so in Kansai. Often eaten for breakfast.

                            Natto - fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous amongst non-Japanese for its strong smell and slippery texture. Osechi - traditional food eaten at the New Year. Hiyayakko - cold tofu dish. Bento or Obento - combination meal served in a wooden box.

                            Agedashi tofu - cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth. Okinawa soba - a wheat-flour noodle often served with sōki, steamed pork. Somen. Champon - yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students.

                            Udon - thick wheat noodle served with various toppings or in a hot shoyu and dashi broth. Ramen - thin light yellow noodle served in hot broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan. Soba - thin brown buckwheat noodles served chilled with various toppings or in hot broth. Nikujaga, a Japanese version of beef stew.

                            Oden. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish, but it has also become very popular in Japan, particularly in the southern island of Kyushu, which is situated closest to South Korea. Kimuchinabe - similar to motsunabe, except with a kimuchi base and using thinly sliced pork. Motsunabe - cow intestine, hakusai (bok choi) and various vegetables are cooked in a light soup base.

                            Shabu-shabu - noodles, vegetables and shrimp or thinly sliced beef boiled in a thin stock and dipped in a soy or sesame sauce before eating. Sukiyaki - mixture of noodles, thinly sliced beef, egg and vegetables boiled in a special sauce made of fish broth, soy sauce, sugar and sake. Yakitori - chicken kebabs. Yakisoba - Japanese style fried noodles.

                            Unagi, including kabayaki - grilled and flavored eel. Teriyaki - grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce. Takoyaki - a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside. Omu-Soba - an omelette with yakisoba as its filling.

                            "omelette rice", a fried ketchup-flavored rice sandwiched with a thinly spread beaten egg or covered with a plain egg omelette. Omu-Raisu - i.e. Okonomiyaki - pan-fried batter cakes with various savory toppings (see also Okonomiyaki restaurants). Kushiyaki - meat and vegetable kebabs.

                            Hamachi Kama - grilled yellow tail tuna jaw and cheek bone. Gyoza - Chinese dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables. Tempuradon - battered, deep fried bite-sized foods. Gyūdon - seasoned beef.

                            Oyakodon - (Parent and Child) Usually chicken and egg but sometimes salmon and salmon roe. Katsudon - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chicken katsudon) or fish (e.g., magurodon). Tonkatsu - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions called chicken katsu). Tempura - battered and deep-fried vegetables, seafood, and meat.

                            Kushiage - meat deep fried on a skewer. Korokke (croquette) - breaded and deep-fried balls of mashed potato with creamy vegetable, seafood, or meat-flavored fillings. Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), mustard, red pepper, ginger, shiso (or beefsteak) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba). Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress.

                            Negi (welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (garlic chives), rakkyo (a type of scallion). Kombu, katsuobushi, niboshi. Shō-yu (Soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake. Fu (wheat gluten).

                            Katakuri flour, kudzu flour, rice powder, soba flour, wheat flour. yuzu. sudachi,. natsumikan (amanatsu),.

                            mikan,. kumquat,. kabosu,. iyokan,.

                            daidai,. Citrus fruits:

                              . loquat. nashi pear,.

                              chestnut,. persimmon,. Fruits:

                                . Yuba.

                                Tofu (tofu, agedōfu),. Soy sauce (light, dark, tamari),. Miso,. Edamame,.

                                Bean products:

                                  . Beans (soy, adzuki). Meats (pork, beef, chicken, horse), sometimes as minchi (minced meat). Eggs (chicken, quail).

                                  Noodles (udon, soba, somen, ramen). Satsuma-age. kamaboko,. dried cuttlefish,.

                                  niboshi,. chikuwa,. Processed seafood:

                                    . others; see Category:Sea vegetables.

                                    hijiki,. wakame,. konbu,. nori,.

                                    seaweed:

                                      . Tsukemono (pickled vegetables). shimeji. nameko,.

                                      enokitake,. matsutake,. shiitake,. Mushrooms:

                                        .

                                        Konnyaku (shirataki). Sansai (wild vegetables). moyashi (mung or soybean sprouts). fuki (butterbur),.

                                        negi (Welsh onion),. takenoko (bamboo shoots),. renkon (lotus root),. sweet potato,.

                                        daikon,. gobo (burdock),. eggplant,. cucumber,.

                                        spinach,. nira (Chinese chives),. Vegetables:

                                          . Mochi rice (glutinous rice).

                                          Short or medium grain white rice. Rice

                                            . This is called toshi koshi soba (年越しそば) (literally "year crossing soba"). Soba - New Year's Eve.

                                            Sekihan, cooked rice with adzuki - celebration in general. Hamo (a kind of fish) and somen - Gion Festival. Chimaki (steamed sweet rice cake) - Tango no Sekku and Gion Festival. botamochi (sticky rice dumpling with sweet azuki paste) - Spring equinox.

                                            Chirashizushi, clear soup of crumbs and amazake - Hinamatsuri. Osechi - New Year.

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