Japanese cuisine

One course of a multi course Kaiseki meal, showing a careful arrangement of the foods

There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. Many think of sushi or the elegant stylized formal kaiseki meals that originated as part of the Japanese tea ceremony. Many Japanese think of the everyday food of the Japanese people--especially that existing before the end of the Meiji Era (1868 - 1912) or before World War II.

Food individual to the country

Barrels of sake, a traditional Japanese alcoholic drink

Traditional Japanese cuisine is dominated by white rice (hakumai, 白米), and few meals would be complete without it. Anything else served during a meal--fish, meat, vegetables, tsukemono (pickles)--is considered a side dish, known as okazu.

Traditional Japanese meals are named by the number of side dishes that accompany the rice and soup that are nearly always served. The simplest Japanese meal, for example, consists of ichijū-issai (一汁一菜; "one soup, one side" or "one dish meal"). This means soup, rice, and one accompanying side dish--usually a pickled vegetable like daikon. A traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, usually consists of miso soup, rice, and a pickled vegetable. The most common meal, however, is called ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜; "one soup, three sides"), or soup, rice, and three side dishes, each employing a different cooking technique. The three side dishes are usually raw fish (sashimi), a grilled dish, and a simmered (sometimes called boiled in translations from Japanese) dish -- although steamed, deep fried, vinegared, or dressed dishes may replace the grilled or simmered dishes. Ichijū-sansai often finishes with pickles such as umeboshi and green tea.

This Japanese view of a meal is reflected in the organization of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Chapters are organized according to cooking techniques: fried foods, steamed foods, and grilled foods, for example, and not according to particular ingredients (e.g., chicken or beef) as are western cookbooks. There may also be chapters devoted to soups, sushi, rice, noodles, and sweets.

Since Japan is an island nation, its people consume much seafood including fish, shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, lobsters, shrimp and seaweed. Although not known as a meat eating country, very few Japanese consider themselves vegetarians. Beef and chicken are commonly eaten and have become part of everyday cuisine.

Noodles, originating from China, have become an essential part of Japanese cuisine. There are two traditional types of noodle, soba and udon. Made from buckwheat flour, soba (蕎麦) is a thin, brown noodle. Made from wheat flour, udon (うどん) is a thick, white noodle. Both are generally served in a soy-flavored fish broth with various vegetables. A more recent import from China, dating to the early 19th century, is ramen (ラーメン; Chinese wheat noodles), which has become extremely popular. Ramen is served in a variety of soup stocks ranging from soy sauce/fish stock to butter/pork stock.

Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, there are a couple of exceptions. In some regions, grasshoppers (inago) and bee larvae (hachinoko) are not uncommon dishes. Salamander is eaten as well in places.

Traditional Japanese table settings

The traditional Japanese table setting has varied considerably over the centuries, depending primarily on the type of table common during a given era. Before the 19th century, small individual box tables (hakozen, 箱膳) or flat floor trays were set before each diner. Larger low tables (chabudai, ちゃぶ台) that accommodated entire families were becoming popular by the beginning of the 20th century, but these gave way to western style dining tables and chairs by the end of the 20th century.

Traditional table settings are based on the ichijū-sansai formula. Typically, five separate bowls and plates are set before the diner. Nearest the diner are the rice bowl on the left and the soup bowl on the right. Behind these are three flat plates to hold the three side dishes, one to far back left (on which might be served a simmered dish), one at far back right (on which might be served a grilled dish), and one in the center of the tray (on which might be served boiled greens). Pickled vegetables are often served as well, and eaten at the end of the meal, but are not counted as part of three side dishes.

Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed ends facing left and supported by a chopstick holder, or hashioki (箸置き).

Dishes for special occasions

In Japanese tradition some dishes are strongly tied to a festival or event. Major such combinations include:

  • Osechi - New Year.
  • Chirashizushi, clear soup of crumbs and amazake - Hinamatsuri.
  • botamochi (sticky rice dumpling with sweet azuki paste) - Spring equinox.
  • Chimaki (steamed sweet rice cake) - Tango no Sekku and Gion Festival.
  • Hamo (a kind of fish) and somen - Gion Festival.
  • Sekihan, cooked rice with adzuki - celebration in general.
  • Soba - New Year's Eve. This is called toshi koshi soba (年越しそば) (literally "year crossing soba").

In some regions every 1st and 15th day of the month people eat a mixture of rice and adzuki (azuki meshi).

Japanese ingredients

  • Rice
    • Short or medium grain white rice
    • Mochi rice (glutinous rice)
  • Vegetables:
    • nira (Chinese chives),
    • spinach,
    • cucumber,
    • eggplant,
    • gobo (burdock),
    • daikon,
    • sweet potato,
    • renkon (lotus root),
    • takenoko (bamboo shoots),
    • negi (Welsh onion),
    • fuki (butterbur),
    • moyashi (mung or soybean sprouts)
    • Sansai (wild vegetables)
    • Konnyaku (shirataki)
  • Mushrooms:
    • shiitake,
    • matsutake,
    • enokitake,
    • nameko,
    • shimeji.
  • Tsukemono (pickled vegetables)
  • seaweed:
    • nori,
    • konbu,
    • wakame,
    • hijiki,
    • others; see Category:Sea vegetables
  • Processed seafood:
    • chikuwa,
    • niboshi,
    • dried cuttlefish,
    • kamaboko,
    • Satsuma-age.
  • Noodles (udon, soba, somen, ramen)
  • Eggs (chicken, quail)
  • Meats (pork, beef, chicken, horse), sometimes as minchi (minced meat)
  • Beans (soy, adzuki)
  • Bean products:
    • Edamame,
    • Miso,
    • Soy sauce (light, dark, tamari),
    • Tofu (tofu, agedōfu),
    • Yuba
  • Fruits:
    • persimmon,
    • chestnut,
    • nashi pear,
    • loquat
  • Citrus fruits:
    • daidai,
    • iyokan,
    • kabosu,
    • kumquat,
    • mikan,
    • natsumikan (amanatsu),
    • sudachi,
    • yuzu.
  • Katakuri flour, kudzu flour, rice powder, soba flour, wheat flour
  • Fu (wheat gluten)

See also Category:Japanese ingredients.

Japanese flavorings

It is not generally thought possible to make authentic Japanese food without shō-yu (soy sauce), miso and dashi.

  • Shō-yu (Soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake.
  • Kombu, katsuobushi, niboshi.
  • Negi (welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (garlic chives), rakkyo (a type of scallion)
  • Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress.
  • Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), mustard, red pepper, ginger, shiso (or beefsteak) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba).

Famous Japanese foods and dishes

Deep-Fried dishes (Agemono)

  • Korokke (croquette) - breaded and deep-fried balls of mashed potato with creamy vegetable, seafood, or meat-flavored fillings.
  • Kushiage - meat deep fried on a skewer.
  • Tempura - battered and deep-fried vegetables, seafood, and meat.
  • Tonkatsu - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions called chicken katsu).

Donburi

A one-bowl dish of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings

  • Katsudon - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chicken katsudon) or fish (e.g., magurodon)
  • Oyakodon - (Parent and Child) Usually chicken and egg but sometimes salmon and salmon roe
  • Gyūdon - seasoned beef
  • Tempuradon - battered, deep fried bite-sized foods

Grilled and pan-fried dishes (Yakimono)

  • Gyoza - Chinese dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables
  • Hamachi Kama - grilled yellow tail tuna jaw and cheek bone
  • Kushiyaki - meat and vegetable kebabs
  • Okonomiyaki - pan-fried batter cakes with various savory toppings (see also Okonomiyaki restaurants)
  • Omu-Raisu - i.e. "omelette rice", a fried ketchup-flavored rice sandwiched with a thinly spread beaten egg or covered with a plain egg omelette
  • Omu-Soba - an omelette with yakisoba as its filling
  • Takoyaki - a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside
  • Teriyaki - grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce
  • Unagi, including kabayaki - grilled and flavored eel
  • Yakisoba - Japanese style fried noodles
  • Yakitori - chicken kebabs

Nabemono (one pot cooking)

  • Sukiyaki - mixture of noodles, thinly sliced beef, egg and vegetables boiled in a special sauce made of fish broth, soy sauce, sugar and sake
  • Shabu-shabu - noodles, vegetables and shrimp or thinly sliced beef boiled in a thin stock and dipped in a soy or sesame sauce before eating
  • Motsunabe - cow intestine, hakusai (bok choi) and various vegetables are cooked in a light soup base
  • Kimuchinabe - similar to motsunabe, except with a kimuchi base and using thinly sliced pork. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish, but it has also become very popular in Japan, particularly in the southern island of Kyushu, which is situated closest to South Korea
  • Oden
  • Nikujaga, a Japanese version of beef stew.

Noodles (men-rui)

Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve ramen-rice combination sets.

  • Soba - thin brown buckwheat noodles served chilled with various toppings or in hot broth
  • Ramen - thin light yellow noodle served in hot broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan
  • Udon - thick wheat noodle served with various toppings or in a hot shoyu and dashi broth
  • Champon - yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students
  • Somen
  • Okinawa soba - a wheat-flour noodle often served with sōki, steamed pork

Other

  • Agedashi tofu - cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth
  • Bento or Obento - combination meal served in a wooden box
  • Hiyayakko - cold tofu dish
  • Osechi - traditional food eaten at the New Year
  • Natto - fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous amongst non-Japanese for its strong smell and slippery texture. Often eaten for breakfast. Typically popular in Kanto and less so in Kansai
  • Shiokara - salty fermented viscera
  • Chawan mushi - meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables boiled in egg custard

Rice (gohanmono)

  • Mochi - soft rice cake
  • Ochazuke - green tea poured over white rice, often flavored
  • Onigiri - Japanese rice balls
  • Sekihan - red rice with adzuki beans
  • Kamameshi - rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot
  • Kare Rice (see also curry) - Introduced from UK in the late 19th century, it became a staple food in Japan
  • Hayashi Rice - thick beef stew on rice; origin of the name is unknown, but may be "hashed rice"
  • Om-rice (Omu-raisu オムライス) - omelette filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tokyo

Sashimi

Sashimi is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish but can be almost anything including beef, horse and chicken.

  • Basashi - sliced horse meat, sometimes called Sakura
  • Fugu - sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty
  • Rebasashi - usually liver of beef
  • Shikasashi - sliced deer meat, a rare delicacy in certain parts of Japan

Soups (suimono and shirumono)

  • Tonjiru - similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients
  • Dangojiru - soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots
  • Miso soup - soup made with miso, dashi and seasonal ingredients like fish, kamaboko, onions, clams, potato, etc.
  • Sumashijiru - a clear soup made with dashi and seafood

Sushi

Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or seafood.

  • Nigirizushi - This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice.
  • Makizushi - Translated as "roll sushi," this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces.
  • Temaki - Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside.
  • Chirashi - Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish.

Sweets

  • Wagashi - Japanese-style sweets
    • Amanatto
    • Anmitsu- a traditional Japanese dessert
    • Anpan - bread with sweet bean paste in the center
    • Dango - rice dumpling
    • Ginbou
    • Hanabiramochi
    • Higashi
    • Hoshigaki - Dried persimmon fruit
    • Imagawayaki - also known as 'Taikoyaki' is a round Taiyaki and fillings are same
    • Kakigori - shaved ice with syrup topping.
    • Kompeito - crystal sugar candy
    • Manju - sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center
    • Matsunoyuki
    • Melonpan - a large, round, sweet, crusty bread that looks and tastes somewhat like a melon
    • Mochi - steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid mass
    • Oshiruko - a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi - rice cake
    • Uiro - a steamed cake made of rice flour
    • Taiyaki - a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an - red bean paste
  • Dagashi - Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets
    • Karumetou - Brown sugar cake. Also called Karumeyaki
    • Ramune - Sweet candy that melts in your mouth
    • Sosu Senbei - Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce
    • Umaibou - Puffed corn food with various flavors
  • Yogashi - Western-style sweets, but in Japan typically very light or spongy
    • Kasutera - "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake
    • Mirucurepu - "mille crepe" - layered crepe
  • Other Snack
    • Azuki Ice - vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans
    • Hello Panda
    • Macha Ice (Green tea ice cream) - green tea flavored ice cream
    • Pocky

Chinmi

  • Uni - Specifically salt-pickled uni
  • Karasumi
  • Konowata

Japanese influence on other cuisines

United States

Teppanyaki is said to be an American invention, as is the California roll (not to mention the Philadelphia roll), and while the former has been well received in Japan the latter has not and has, at worst, been termed not sushi by Japanese people. However thanks to some recent trends in American culture such as Iron Chef and Benihana, Japanese culinary culture is slowly fusing its way into American life. Japanese food, which had been quite exotic in the West as late as the 1970s, is now quite at home in parts of the continental United States, and has become an integral part of food culture in Hawaii.

Imported and adapted foods

A Japanese children's book. The food and utensils depicted, however, are Western.

Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas). Chinese, French, Italian and Spanish cuisine is of particular interest to Japanese people. Historically, foods such as castella and bread were originally imported from Portugal, and the name pan for bread is a loanword from Portuguese.

Many imported foods are made suitable for the Japanese palate by reducing the amount of spice used or changing a part of a recipe. For example, the Korean pickle kimchi, usually fermented in Korea, in Japan is instead often simply pickled, without a key Korean ingredient, fermented shrimp. Similarly, Japanese pizza may have toppings such as sliced boiled eggs, sweetcorn, shrimps, nori, and mayonnaise instead of tomato sauce.

Other examples of changed imported cuisine include:

  • Spaghetti with creamy shrimp, lobster, crab, Alaska pollock roe or sea urchin sauce, or a non-creamy light sauce topped with seaweed, or made with tomato ketchup, weiners, sliced onion and green pepper (called 'neapolitan')
  • Japanese-only "Chinese dishes" like Ebi Chili (shrimp in a tangy and slightly spicy sauce)
  • Korean barbecue that is unflavored and is dipped in sauce before eating for flavor
  • Korean Naengmyun with thicker noodles and a different broth

The Japanese often eat at hamburger chains such as McDonald's or Mos Burger, a popular competitor. Other fast-food establishments are similarly popular. These include doughnut and ice cream shops. Okinawa has a chain of A&W drive-in restaurants featuring the company's root beer. The Japanese also alter American-style fast-food, serving such items as green-tea milkshakes and fried shrimp burgers at chains like Lotteria.

In Tokyo, it is quite easy to find restaurants serving authentic foreign cuisine. However, in most of the country, in many ways, the variety of imported food is limited; for example, it is rare to find pasta that is not of the spaghetti or macaroni varieties in supermarkets or restaurants; bread is very rarely of any variety but white; and varieties of imported cereal are also very limited, usually either frosted or chocolate flavored. "Italian restaurants" also tend to only have pizza and pasta in their menus.

Washoku and yōshoku

Imported cuisines and foods from America and Europe are called yōshoku (洋食), a shortened form of seiyōshoku (西洋食) lit. Western cuisine. Japanese cuisine is called washoku (和食), lit. Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine is called Chūkaryōri (中華料理), lit. Chinese recipe.

A number of foreign dishes have been adapted to a degree that they are now considered Japanese, and are an integral part of any Japanese family menu. Yet, these are still categorized as yōshoku as they were imported. Perhaps the best example is curry rice, which was imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom, and vaguely resembles the original Indian dish. Another example is "Hamburg steak", which is a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Restaurants that serve these foods are called yōshokuya (洋食屋), lit. Western cuisine restaurants. However, yōshoku basically refers to Japanese-style foreign cuisine of a vague origin.

Tempura

One of the oldest imported dishes is tempura, although it has been so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. As such, it is considered washoku. Tempura came to Japan from Portuguese sailors in the 16th century as a technique for cooking fish. Since then, the Japanese have extended its ingredients to include almost every sort of seafood and vegetable. Shrimp, eggplant, squash, and carrots are typical ingredients today. Another food, like tempura, that is now considered washoku is sōmen.

Fusion foods

In a constant quest to adopt and expand Japanese cuisine, Japanese have made hundreds of recipes that are distinctly different from the original recipes but still retain the "air" (and basic taste) of their origins. For example, "curry" from India, imported via the United Kingdom, has fused with varieties of foods to make new recipes. Curry made with fish based dashi is poured over udon, making "Kare Udon". It is wrapped in dough and deep fried, making "Kare Pan", curry bread. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called Fukujinzuke or Rakkyo. Other recipes are so exotic by any standard that they remain a local cuisine. Anmitsu (あんみつ), a dish of cream, bean jam, ice cream, and fruits is often served as a dessert in restaurants.


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Anmitsu (あんみつ), a dish of cream, bean jam, ice cream, and fruits is often served as a dessert in restaurants. Mathematics of gambling. Other recipes are so exotic by any standard that they remain a local cuisine. Chinese Blackjack is played by many in Asia, having no splitting of cards, but with other card combination regulations. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called Fukujinzuke or Rakkyo. This game is dealt from a Spanish shoe, and blackjacks only pay even money. It is wrapped in dough and deep fried, making "Kare Pan", curry bread. Double Attack Blackjack has very liberal blackjack rules and the option of increasing one's wager after seeing the dealer's up card.

Curry made with fish based dashi is poured over udon, making "Kare Udon". This game increases house edge by paying even-money on blackjacks and players losing ties. For example, "curry" from India, imported via the United Kingdom, has fused with varieties of foods to make new recipes. Double Exposure Blackjack is a variant in which the dealer's cards are both face-up. In a constant quest to adopt and expand Japanese cuisine, Japanese have made hundreds of recipes that are distinctly different from the original recipes but still retain the "air" (and basic taste) of their origins. These changes, while attracting the novice player, actually increase the house edge in these games. Another food, like tempura, that is now considered washoku is sōmen. Certain rules changes are employed to create new variant games.

Shrimp, eggplant, squash, and carrots are typical ingredients today. With correct basic strategy, a Spanish 21 game has a lower house edge than a comparable blackjack game. Since then, the Japanese have extended its ingredients to include almost every sort of seafood and vegetable. Spanish 21 provides players with many liberal blackjack rules, such as doubling down any number of cards (with the option to 'rescue', or surrender only one wager to the house), payout bonuses for five or more card 21's, 6-7-8 21's, 7-7-7 21's, late surrender, and player blackjacks always winning and player 21's always winning, at the cost of having no 10 cards in the deck (though there are jacks, queens, and kings). Tempura came to Japan from Portuguese sailors in the 16th century as a technique for cooking fish.
. As such, it is considered washoku. Arnold Snyder's articles in Blackjack Forum magazine were the first to bring Shuffle Tracking to the general public.

One of the oldest imported dishes is tempura, although it has been so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. This technique, which is admittedly much more difficult than straight card counting and requires excellent eyesight and powers of visual estimation, has the additional benefit of fooling the casino people who are monitoring the player's actions and the count, since the shuffle tracker could be, at times, betting and/or playing opposite to how a straightforward card counter would. However, yōshoku basically refers to Japanese-style foreign cuisine of a vague origin. Thorp.) One such technique, mainly applicable in multi-deck games (aka shoes), involves tracking groups of cards (aka slugs, clumps, packs) during the play of the shoe, following them through the shuffle and then playing and betting accordingly when those cards come into play from the new shoe. Western cuisine restaurants. (It must be noted, however, that almost all of these techniques are based on the value of the cards to the player and the casino, as originally conceived by Edward O. Restaurants that serve these foods are called yōshokuya (洋食屋), lit. There are techniques other than card counting that can swing the advantage of casino 21 towards the player, at least in theory.

Another example is "Hamburg steak", which is a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Interactive strategy tables for each possible card-distribution in the shoe can be generated using a JavaScript based blackjack calculator. Perhaps the best example is curry rice, which was imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom, and vaguely resembles the original Indian dish. Basic strategy for other decks. Yet, these are still categorized as yōshoku as they were imported. This version is much more advantageous to the player, but requires a slightly modified basic strategy table. A number of foreign dishes have been adapted to a degree that they are now considered Japanese, and are an integral part of any Japanese family menu. In some LV Strip casinos you may still be able to find the older version of the multi-deck shoe game, where dealer stands on soft 17; those are usually high minimum ($50 or more) tables.

Chinese recipe. Key:. Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine is called Chūkaryōri (中華料理), lit. Specifically: dealer hits on soft 17, double after split allowed, multiple split aces, one card to split aces, blackjack pays 3:2, and (optionally) late surrender. Japanese cuisine is called washoku (和食), lit. The above is a basic strategy table for the most common 6- to 8-deck, Las Vegas Strip rules. Western cuisine. The following rules are detrimental to the player:.

Imported cuisines and foods from America and Europe are called yōshoku (洋食), a shortened form of seiyōshoku (西洋食) lit. The following rules are beneficial to the player:. "Italian restaurants" also tend to only have pizza and pasta in their menus. Indeed, casinos offering special rules like surrender and double-after-split may actually be offering a positive expectation to basic strategy players; they are counting on players making mistakes to make money. However, in most of the country, in many ways, the variety of imported food is limited; for example, it is rare to find pasta that is not of the spaghetti or macaroni varieties in supermarkets or restaurants; bread is very rarely of any variety but white; and varieties of imported cereal are also very limited, usually either frosted or chocolate flavored. Under the most favorable conditions (single deck, downtown Las Vegas rules), the house advantage over a basic strategy player can be as low as 0.16%. In Tokyo, it is quite easy to find restaurants serving authentic foreign cuisine. There are slight variations in basic strategy depending on the exact house rules and the number of decks used.

The Japanese also alter American-style fast-food, serving such items as green-tea milkshakes and fried shrimp burgers at chains like Lotteria. Basic strategy is based on the player's point total and the dealer's visible card. Okinawa has a chain of A&W drive-in restaurants featuring the company's root beer. This strategy determines when to hit and when to stand, and also determines when doubling down or splitting is the correct action. These include doughnut and ice cream shops. But because blackjack, unlike other games, has an element of player choice, players can actually reduce the casino advantage to a small percentage by playing what is known as basic strategy. Other fast-food establishments are similarly popular. As in all casino games, the house has a statistical advantage over the players that will play itself out in the long run.

The Japanese often eat at hamburger chains such as McDonald's or Mos Burger, a popular competitor. (If the player with the natural refuses "even money", and the dealer turns over a natural, it is a tie.). Other examples of changed imported cuisine include:. Thus it is exactly the same thing as buying Insurance, losing the Insurance bet and getting paid 3:2 on the natural. Similarly, Japanese pizza may have toppings such as sliced boiled eggs, sweetcorn, shrimps, nori, and mayonnaise instead of tomato sauce. In such a case, the dealer usually asks the player "Even money?" This means that instead of 3:2, the player with the natural accepts to be paid off at 2:2. For example, the Korean pickle kimchi, usually fermented in Korea, in Japan is instead often simply pickled, without a key Korean ingredient, fermented shrimp. Even for the player who has been dealt a natural (a two-card 21) it is unwise to take Insurance.

Many imported foods are made suitable for the Japanese palate by reducing the amount of spice used or changing a part of a recipe. through card counting) of the dealer's 'hole card' because Insurance has a negative expected value for the player. Historically, foods such as castella and bread were originally imported from Portugal, and the name pan for bread is a loanword from Portuguese. Insurance is statistically a bad bet for the player who has no direct knowledge nor estimation (e.g. Chinese, French, Italian and Spanish cuisine is of particular interest to Japanese people. Of course, a player may lose both his original bet and his Insurance bet. Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas). Note that the player made a net profit on that round.

Japanese food, which had been quite exotic in the West as late as the 1970s, is now quite at home in parts of the continental United States, and has become an integral part of food culture in Hawaii. (All Insurance wagers are settled as soon as the dealer turns over his 'hole card', before all else.) But the player wins his $10 bet. However thanks to some recent trends in American culture such as Iron Chef and Benihana, Japanese culinary culture is slowly fusing its way into American life. The player instantly loses his $5 Insurance wager. Teppanyaki is said to be an American invention, as is the California roll (not to mention the Philadelphia roll), and while the former has been well received in Japan the latter has not and has, at worst, been termed not sushi by Japanese people. Suppose the 'hole card' is a 7. United States. The dealer turns up his 'hole card' after the Insurance betting period is over -- and it's not a 10-valued card.

Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or seafood. Suppose the player's hand is 19. Sashimi is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish but can be almost anything including beef, horse and chicken. The player takes Insurance by betting an additional amount of $5. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve ramen-rice combination sets. Example: The player originally bets $10 and the dealer shows an Ace. Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal. Conversely, a player may win his original bet and lose his Insurance bet:.

A one-bowl dish of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings. did not lose any money) on that round. It is not generally thought possible to make authentic Japanese food without shō-yu (soy sauce), miso and dashi. Note that the player came out even (i.e. See also Category:Japanese ingredients. But the Insurance bet wins, so the player gets 2:1 on his $5 Insurance wager and receives $10 (on top of the $5 which are returned to him). In some regions every 1st and 15th day of the month people eat a mixture of rice and adzuki (azuki meshi). The player loses his $10 bet.

Major such combinations include:. The dealer turns up his 'hole card' after the Insurance betting period is over -- and it's a 10-valued card. In Japanese tradition some dishes are strongly tied to a festival or event. Suppose the player's hand is 19. Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed ends facing left and supported by a chopstick holder, or hashioki (箸置き). The player takes Insurance by betting an additional amount of $5. Pickled vegetables are often served as well, and eaten at the end of the meal, but are not counted as part of three side dishes. Example: The player originally bets $10 and the dealer shows an Ace.

Behind these are three flat plates to hold the three side dishes, one to far back left (on which might be served a simmered dish), one at far back right (on which might be served a grilled dish), and one in the center of the tray (on which might be served boiled greens). a two-card 21, a blackjack, and this pays off 2:1 if it wins. Nearest the diner are the rice bowl on the left and the soup bowl on the right. Because the dealer's upcard is an Ace, this means that the player who takes Insurance is essentially betting that the dealer was dealt a natural, i.e. Typically, five separate bowls and plates are set before the diner. a 10, a Jack, a Queen or a King. Traditional table settings are based on the ichijū-sansai formula. The player who is taking Insurance is betting that the dealer's 'hole card' is a 10-value card, i.e.

Larger low tables (chabudai, ちゃぶ台) that accommodated entire families were becoming popular by the beginning of the 20th century, but these gave way to western style dining tables and chairs by the end of the 20th century. The Insurance bet is placed separately on a special portion of the table, which usually carries the words "Insurance Pays 2:1". Before the 19th century, small individual box tables (hakozen, 箱膳) or flat floor trays were set before each diner. The player who wishes to take Insurance can bet an amount up to half his original bet. The traditional Japanese table setting has varied considerably over the centuries, depending primarily on the type of table common during a given era. If the dealer's upcard is an Ace, the player is offered the option of taking Insurance before the dealer checks his 'hole card'. Salamander is eaten as well in places. It is advised to take a look at the rules of the specific variation before playing.

In some regions, grasshoppers (inago) and bee larvae (hachinoko) are not uncommon dishes. There are more than a few blackjack variations which can be found in the casinos, each has its own set of rules, strategies and odds. Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, there are a couple of exceptions. Some common rules variations include:. Ramen is served in a variety of soup stocks ranging from soy sauce/fish stock to butter/pork stock. Bets are normally paid out at the odds of 1:1. A more recent import from China, dating to the early 19th century, is ramen (ラーメン; Chinese wheat noodles), which has become extremely popular. If the dealer busts then all remaining players win.

Both are generally served in a soy-flavored fish broth with various vegetables. The felt of the table will indicate whether or not the house hits or stands on a soft 17. Made from wheat flour, udon (うどん) is a thick, white noodle. In most casinos a dealer must also hit a soft 17 (such as an ace and a 6). Made from buckwheat flour, soba (蕎麦) is a thin, brown noodle. House rules say that the dealer must hit until he or she has at least 17, regardless of what the players have. There are two traditional types of noodle, soba and udon. After all the players have finished making their decisions, the dealer then reveals his or her hidden hole card and plays the hand.

Noodles, originating from China, have become an essential part of Japanese cuisine. If the player busts, he or she loses the bet even if the dealer goes on to bust as well. Beef and chicken are commonly eaten and have become part of everyday cuisine. The player's turn is over after deciding to stand, doubling down to take a single card, or busting. Although not known as a meat eating country, very few Japanese consider themselves vegetarians. The player's options for playing his or her hand are:. Since Japan is an island nation, its people consume much seafood including fish, shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, lobsters, shrimp and seaweed. When all the players have finished the dealer plays his hand.

There may also be chapters devoted to soups, sushi, rice, noodles, and sweets. If the dealer does not have a natural, then the first player completely plays out his hand, followed by the next player, and so on. Chapters are organized according to cooking techniques: fried foods, steamed foods, and grilled foods, for example, and not according to particular ingredients (e.g., chicken or beef) as are western cookbooks. This practice minimises the risk of inadvertantly revealing the hole card, which would give the sharp-eyed player a considerable advantage. This Japanese view of a meal is reflected in the organization of traditional Japanese cookbooks. In casinos where a hole card is dealt, a dealer who is showing a card with a value of 10 may slide the corner of his or her facedown card over a small mirror on the tabletop in order to check whether it is an ace or not. Ichijū-sansai often finishes with pickles such as umeboshi and green tea. If the player and dealer both have a blackjack, it's a push.

The three side dishes are usually raw fish (sashimi), a grilled dish, and a simmered (sometimes called boiled in translations from Japanese) dish -- although steamed, deep fried, vinegared, or dressed dishes may replace the grilled or simmered dishes. If a player has a blackjack and the dealer doesn't, the player wins automatically. The most common meal, however, is called ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜; "one soup, three sides"), or soup, rice, and three side dishes, each employing a different cooking technique. After the cards are dealt, if the dealer has a blackjack, all the players who don't have a blackjack lose immediately. A traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, usually consists of miso soup, rice, and a pickled vegetable. A player with a natural is usually paid 3:2 on his bet, although in 2003 some casinos started paying only 6:5 on blackjacks, a move decried by longtime blackjack players. This means soup, rice, and one accompanying side dish--usually a pickled vegetable like daikon. A two-card hand of 21 (an ace plus a ten-value card) is called a "blackjack" or a "natural", and is an automatic winner.

The simplest Japanese meal, for example, consists of ichijū-issai (一汁一菜; "one soup, one side" or "one dish meal"). In European blackjack, the hole card is not actually dealt until the players all play their hands.) The cards are dealt face up from a shoe, or face down if it is a pitch game. Traditional Japanese meals are named by the number of side dishes that accompany the rice and soup that are nearly always served. (The face-down card is known as the "hole card". Anything else served during a meal--fish, meat, vegetables, tsukemono (pickles)--is considered a side dish, known as okazu. One of the dealer's two cards is face-up so all the players can see it, and the other is face down. Traditional Japanese cuisine is dominated by white rice (hakumai, 白米), and few meals would be complete without it. The dealer gives two cards to each player, including himself.

. After initial bets are placed, the dealer deals the cards, either from one or two hand-held decks of cards, known as a "pitch" game, or more commonly from a shoe containing four or more decks. Many Japanese think of the everyday food of the Japanese people--especially that existing before the end of the Meiji Era (1868 - 1912) or before World War II. If the player's and the dealer's hands have the same point value, this is known as a "push", and neither player nor dealer wins the hand. Many think of sushi or the elegant stylized formal kaiseki meals that originated as part of the Japanese tea ceremony. Note that if the player busts, he loses, even if the dealer also busts, which is the source of the casino's advantage. There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. The goal of each player is to beat the dealer, by having the higher, unbusted hand.

Korean Naengmyun with thicker noodles and a different broth. A hand in which an ace's value is counted as 11 is called a soft hand. Korean barbecue that is unflavored and is dipped in sauce before eating for flavor. An ace's value is 11 unless this would cause the player to bust, in which case it is worth 1. Japanese-only "Chinese dishes" like Ebi Chili (shrimp in a tangy and slightly spicy sauce). Cards 2 through 10 are worth their face value, and face cards (jack, queen, king) are also worth 10. Spaghetti with creamy shrimp, lobster, crab, Alaska pollock roe or sea urchin sauce, or a non-creamy light sauce topped with seaweed, or made with tomato ketchup, weiners, sliced onion and green pepper (called 'neapolitan'). The hand with the highest total wins as long as it doesn't exceed 21; a hand with a higher total than 21 is said to bust.

Konowata. Blackjack hands are scored by their point total. Karasumi. . Uni - Specifically salt-pickled uni. This hand was called a "blackjack" and the name stuck even though the bonus payout was soon abolished. Pocky. One such bonus was a 10-to-1 payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black Jack (either the Jack of clubs or the Jack of spades).

Macha Ice (Green tea ice cream) - green tea flavored ice cream. When blackjack was first introduced in the United States it wasn't very popular, so gambling houses tried offering various bonus payouts to get the players to the tables. Hello Panda. Blackjack's precursor was vingt-et-un ("twenty-one"), which originated in French casinos around 1700, and did not offer the 3:2 bonus for a two-card 21. Azuki Ice - vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans. Much of blackjack's popularity is due to the mix of chance with elements of skill and decision making, and the publicity that surrounds the practice of card counting, a skill with which players can turn the odds of the game in their favor by making betting decisions based on the values of the cards known to remain in the deck. Other Snack

    . Blackjack, also known as twenty-one and pontoon in British English, is one of the most popular casino card games in the world.

    Mirucurepu - "mille crepe" - layered crepe. Luck, Logic, and White Lies: The Mathematics of Games, Joerg Bewersdorff, 2004, ISBN 1568812108, 121-134. Kasutera - "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake. Epstein, 1977, ISBN 012240761X, 215-251. Yogashi - Western-style sweets, but in Japan typically very light or spongy

      . The Theory of Gambling and Statistical Logic, Richard A. Umaibou - Puffed corn food with various flavors. Knock-Out Blackjack, Olaf Vancura and Ken Fuchs, 1998, ISBN 0929712315.

      Sosu Senbei - Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce. Ken Uston on Blackjack, Ken Uston, 1986, ISBN 0818404116. Ramune - Sweet candy that melts in your mouth. Million Dollar Blackjack, Ken Uston, 1994 (1981), ISBN 0-89746-068-5. Also called Karumeyaki. Blackbelt in Blackjack, Arnold Snyder, 1998 (1980), ISBN 0910575053. Karumetou - Brown sugar cake. The World's Greatest Blackjack Book, Lance Humble and Carl Cooper, 1980, ISBN 0-285-15382-1.

      Dagashi - Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets

        . The Theory of Blackjack, Peter Griffin, 1996 (1979), ISBN 0929712129. Taiyaki - a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an - red bean paste. Professional Blackjack, Stanford Wong, 1994 (1975), ISBN 0935926216. Uiro - a steamed cake made of rice flour. Playing Blackjack as a Business, Lawrence Revere, 1998 (1971), ISBN 0-8184-0064-1. Oshiruko - a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi - rice cake. Thorp, 1966, ISBN 0394703103.

        Mochi - steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid mass. Beat the Dealer : A Winning Strategy for the Game of Twenty-One, Edward O. Melonpan - a large, round, sweet, crusty bread that looks and tastes somewhat like a melon. Player losing ties. Matsunoyuki. No-Peek (European) blackjack—player loses splits and doubles to a dealer blackjack. Manju - sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center. Aces may not be resplit.

        Kompeito - crystal sugar candy. Double down restricted to certain totals, such as 9-11 or 10,11. Kakigori - shaved ice with syrup topping. Splitting a maximum of once (to two hands). Imagawayaki - also known as 'Taikoyaki' is a round Taiyaki and fillings are same. Dealer hits on soft seventeen (ace, six). Hoshigaki - Dried persimmon fruit. Less than 3:2 payout on blackjacks (as is the case with Las Vegas Strip single-deck blackjack, paying out 6:5).

        Higashi. Five or more cards with the total still no more than 21 as an automatic win (a "Charlie"). Hanabiramochi. Drawing more than one card against a split Ace. Ginbou. Resplitting Aces. Dango - rice dumpling. Normal (aka "late") surrender.

        Anpan - bread with sweet bean paste in the center. Early surrender; the ability to forfeit half your wager against a face or ace before the dealer checks for blackjack. Anmitsu- a traditional Japanese dessert. Doubles are permitted after splitting. Amanatto. Doubles are permitted on any two-card hand except a blackjack. Wagashi - Japanese-style sweets

          . This means players lose not only their original bet, but also any additional money invested from splitting and doubling down.

          Chirashi - Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish. European No-Hole-Card Rule: the dealer receives only one card, dealt face-up, and does not a second card (and thus does not check for blackjack) until players have acted. Temaki - Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside. dealer hits a soft seventeen (ace-six, which can play as seven or seventeen). Makizushi - Translated as "roll sushi," this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces. double-down restrictions: double-down allowed only on certain combinations. Nigirizushi - This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice. late surrender: player has the option to surrender after dealer checks for Blackjack.

          Sumashijiru - a clear soup made with dashi and seafood. early surrender: player has the option to surrender before dealer checks for Blackjack. Miso soup - soup made with miso, dashi and seasonal ingredients like fish, kamaboko, onions, clams, potato, etc. one card split aces: one card is dealt on each ace, player's turn is over. Dangojiru - soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots. Surrender was common during the early- and mid-20th century, but is no longer offered at most casinos. Tonjiru - similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients. Surrender: Forfeit half the bet and give up the hand.

          Shikasashi - sliced deer meat, a rare delicacy in certain parts of Japan. This option is available only when both cards have the same value. Rebasashi - usually liver of beef. Split: Double the wager and have each card be the first card in a new hand. Fugu - sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty. Double down: Double the wager, take exactly one more card, and then stand. Basashi - sliced horse meat, sometimes called Sakura. Stand: Take no more cards.

          Om-rice (Omu-raisu オムライス) - omelette filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tokyo. Hit: Take another card. Hayashi Rice - thick beef stew on rice; origin of the name is unknown, but may be "hashed rice". Kare Rice (see also curry) - Introduced from UK in the late 19th century, it became a staple food in Japan. Kamameshi - rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot.

          Sekihan - red rice with adzuki beans. Onigiri - Japanese rice balls. Ochazuke - green tea poured over white rice, often flavored. Mochi - soft rice cake.

          Chawan mushi - meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables boiled in egg custard. Shiokara - salty fermented viscera. Typically popular in Kanto and less so in Kansai. Often eaten for breakfast.

          Natto - fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous amongst non-Japanese for its strong smell and slippery texture. Osechi - traditional food eaten at the New Year. Hiyayakko - cold tofu dish. Bento or Obento - combination meal served in a wooden box.

          Agedashi tofu - cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth. Okinawa soba - a wheat-flour noodle often served with sōki, steamed pork. Somen. Champon - yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students.

          Udon - thick wheat noodle served with various toppings or in a hot shoyu and dashi broth. Ramen - thin light yellow noodle served in hot broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan. Soba - thin brown buckwheat noodles served chilled with various toppings or in hot broth. Nikujaga, a Japanese version of beef stew.

          Oden. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish, but it has also become very popular in Japan, particularly in the southern island of Kyushu, which is situated closest to South Korea. Kimuchinabe - similar to motsunabe, except with a kimuchi base and using thinly sliced pork. Motsunabe - cow intestine, hakusai (bok choi) and various vegetables are cooked in a light soup base.

          Shabu-shabu - noodles, vegetables and shrimp or thinly sliced beef boiled in a thin stock and dipped in a soy or sesame sauce before eating. Sukiyaki - mixture of noodles, thinly sliced beef, egg and vegetables boiled in a special sauce made of fish broth, soy sauce, sugar and sake. Yakitori - chicken kebabs. Yakisoba - Japanese style fried noodles.

          Unagi, including kabayaki - grilled and flavored eel. Teriyaki - grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce. Takoyaki - a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside. Omu-Soba - an omelette with yakisoba as its filling.

          "omelette rice", a fried ketchup-flavored rice sandwiched with a thinly spread beaten egg or covered with a plain egg omelette. Omu-Raisu - i.e. Okonomiyaki - pan-fried batter cakes with various savory toppings (see also Okonomiyaki restaurants). Kushiyaki - meat and vegetable kebabs.

          Hamachi Kama - grilled yellow tail tuna jaw and cheek bone. Gyoza - Chinese dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables. Tempuradon - battered, deep fried bite-sized foods. Gyūdon - seasoned beef.

          Oyakodon - (Parent and Child) Usually chicken and egg but sometimes salmon and salmon roe. Katsudon - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chicken katsudon) or fish (e.g., magurodon). Tonkatsu - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions called chicken katsu). Tempura - battered and deep-fried vegetables, seafood, and meat.

          Kushiage - meat deep fried on a skewer. Korokke (croquette) - breaded and deep-fried balls of mashed potato with creamy vegetable, seafood, or meat-flavored fillings. Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), mustard, red pepper, ginger, shiso (or beefsteak) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba). Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress.

          Negi (welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (garlic chives), rakkyo (a type of scallion). Kombu, katsuobushi, niboshi. Shō-yu (Soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake. Fu (wheat gluten).

          Katakuri flour, kudzu flour, rice powder, soba flour, wheat flour. yuzu. sudachi,. natsumikan (amanatsu),.

          mikan,. kumquat,. kabosu,. iyokan,.

          daidai,. Citrus fruits:

            . loquat. nashi pear,.

            chestnut,. persimmon,. Fruits:

              . Yuba.

              Tofu (tofu, agedōfu),. Soy sauce (light, dark, tamari),. Miso,. Edamame,.

              Bean products:

                . Beans (soy, adzuki). Meats (pork, beef, chicken, horse), sometimes as minchi (minced meat). Eggs (chicken, quail).

                Noodles (udon, soba, somen, ramen). Satsuma-age. kamaboko,. dried cuttlefish,.

                niboshi,. chikuwa,. Processed seafood:

                  . others; see Category:Sea vegetables.

                  hijiki,. wakame,. konbu,. nori,.

                  seaweed:

                    . Tsukemono (pickled vegetables). shimeji. nameko,.

                    enokitake,. matsutake,. shiitake,. Mushrooms:

                      .

                      Konnyaku (shirataki). Sansai (wild vegetables). moyashi (mung or soybean sprouts). fuki (butterbur),.

                      negi (Welsh onion),. takenoko (bamboo shoots),. renkon (lotus root),. sweet potato,.

                      daikon,. gobo (burdock),. eggplant,. cucumber,.

                      spinach,. nira (Chinese chives),. Vegetables:

                        . Mochi rice (glutinous rice).

                        Short or medium grain white rice. Rice

                          . This is called toshi koshi soba (年越しそば) (literally "year crossing soba"). Soba - New Year's Eve.

                          Sekihan, cooked rice with adzuki - celebration in general. Hamo (a kind of fish) and somen - Gion Festival. Chimaki (steamed sweet rice cake) - Tango no Sekku and Gion Festival. botamochi (sticky rice dumpling with sweet azuki paste) - Spring equinox.

                          Chirashizushi, clear soup of crumbs and amazake - Hinamatsuri. Osechi - New Year.

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