Japanese cuisine

One course of a multi course Kaiseki meal, showing a careful arrangement of the foods

There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. Many think of sushi or the elegant stylized formal kaiseki meals that originated as part of the Japanese tea ceremony. Many Japanese think of the everyday food of the Japanese people--especially that existing before the end of the Meiji Era (1868 - 1912) or before World War II.

Food individual to the country

Barrels of sake, a traditional Japanese alcoholic drink

Traditional Japanese cuisine is dominated by white rice (hakumai, 白米), and few meals would be complete without it. Anything else served during a meal--fish, meat, vegetables, tsukemono (pickles)--is considered a side dish, known as okazu.

Traditional Japanese meals are named by the number of side dishes that accompany the rice and soup that are nearly always served. The simplest Japanese meal, for example, consists of ichijū-issai (一汁一菜; "one soup, one side" or "one dish meal"). This means soup, rice, and one accompanying side dish--usually a pickled vegetable like daikon. A traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, usually consists of miso soup, rice, and a pickled vegetable. The most common meal, however, is called ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜; "one soup, three sides"), or soup, rice, and three side dishes, each employing a different cooking technique. The three side dishes are usually raw fish (sashimi), a grilled dish, and a simmered (sometimes called boiled in translations from Japanese) dish -- although steamed, deep fried, vinegared, or dressed dishes may replace the grilled or simmered dishes. Ichijū-sansai often finishes with pickles such as umeboshi and green tea.

This Japanese view of a meal is reflected in the organization of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Chapters are organized according to cooking techniques: fried foods, steamed foods, and grilled foods, for example, and not according to particular ingredients (e.g., chicken or beef) as are western cookbooks. There may also be chapters devoted to soups, sushi, rice, noodles, and sweets.

Since Japan is an island nation, its people consume much seafood including fish, shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, lobsters, shrimp and seaweed. Although not known as a meat eating country, very few Japanese consider themselves vegetarians. Beef and chicken are commonly eaten and have become part of everyday cuisine.

Noodles, originating from China, have become an essential part of Japanese cuisine. There are two traditional types of noodle, soba and udon. Made from buckwheat flour, soba (蕎麦) is a thin, brown noodle. Made from wheat flour, udon (うどん) is a thick, white noodle. Both are generally served in a soy-flavored fish broth with various vegetables. A more recent import from China, dating to the early 19th century, is ramen (ラーメン; Chinese wheat noodles), which has become extremely popular. Ramen is served in a variety of soup stocks ranging from soy sauce/fish stock to butter/pork stock.

Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, there are a couple of exceptions. In some regions, grasshoppers (inago) and bee larvae (hachinoko) are not uncommon dishes. Salamander is eaten as well in places.

Traditional Japanese table settings

The traditional Japanese table setting has varied considerably over the centuries, depending primarily on the type of table common during a given era. Before the 19th century, small individual box tables (hakozen, 箱膳) or flat floor trays were set before each diner. Larger low tables (chabudai, ちゃぶ台) that accommodated entire families were becoming popular by the beginning of the 20th century, but these gave way to western style dining tables and chairs by the end of the 20th century.

Traditional table settings are based on the ichijū-sansai formula. Typically, five separate bowls and plates are set before the diner. Nearest the diner are the rice bowl on the left and the soup bowl on the right. Behind these are three flat plates to hold the three side dishes, one to far back left (on which might be served a simmered dish), one at far back right (on which might be served a grilled dish), and one in the center of the tray (on which might be served boiled greens). Pickled vegetables are often served as well, and eaten at the end of the meal, but are not counted as part of three side dishes.

Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed ends facing left and supported by a chopstick holder, or hashioki (箸置き).

Dishes for special occasions

In Japanese tradition some dishes are strongly tied to a festival or event. Major such combinations include:

  • Osechi - New Year.
  • Chirashizushi, clear soup of crumbs and amazake - Hinamatsuri.
  • botamochi (sticky rice dumpling with sweet azuki paste) - Spring equinox.
  • Chimaki (steamed sweet rice cake) - Tango no Sekku and Gion Festival.
  • Hamo (a kind of fish) and somen - Gion Festival.
  • Sekihan, cooked rice with adzuki - celebration in general.
  • Soba - New Year's Eve. This is called toshi koshi soba (年越しそば) (literally "year crossing soba").

In some regions every 1st and 15th day of the month people eat a mixture of rice and adzuki (azuki meshi).

Japanese ingredients

  • Rice
    • Short or medium grain white rice
    • Mochi rice (glutinous rice)
  • Vegetables:
    • nira (Chinese chives),
    • spinach,
    • cucumber,
    • eggplant,
    • gobo (burdock),
    • daikon,
    • sweet potato,
    • renkon (lotus root),
    • takenoko (bamboo shoots),
    • negi (Welsh onion),
    • fuki (butterbur),
    • moyashi (mung or soybean sprouts)
    • Sansai (wild vegetables)
    • Konnyaku (shirataki)
  • Mushrooms:
    • shiitake,
    • matsutake,
    • enokitake,
    • nameko,
    • shimeji.
  • Tsukemono (pickled vegetables)
  • seaweed:
    • nori,
    • konbu,
    • wakame,
    • hijiki,
    • others; see Category:Sea vegetables
  • Processed seafood:
    • chikuwa,
    • niboshi,
    • dried cuttlefish,
    • kamaboko,
    • Satsuma-age.
  • Noodles (udon, soba, somen, ramen)
  • Eggs (chicken, quail)
  • Meats (pork, beef, chicken, horse), sometimes as minchi (minced meat)
  • Beans (soy, adzuki)
  • Bean products:
    • Edamame,
    • Miso,
    • Soy sauce (light, dark, tamari),
    • Tofu (tofu, agedōfu),
    • Yuba
  • Fruits:
    • persimmon,
    • chestnut,
    • nashi pear,
    • loquat
  • Citrus fruits:
    • daidai,
    • iyokan,
    • kabosu,
    • kumquat,
    • mikan,
    • natsumikan (amanatsu),
    • sudachi,
    • yuzu.
  • Katakuri flour, kudzu flour, rice powder, soba flour, wheat flour
  • Fu (wheat gluten)

See also Category:Japanese ingredients.

Japanese flavorings

It is not generally thought possible to make authentic Japanese food without shō-yu (soy sauce), miso and dashi.

  • Shō-yu (Soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake.
  • Kombu, katsuobushi, niboshi.
  • Negi (welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (garlic chives), rakkyo (a type of scallion)
  • Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress.
  • Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), mustard, red pepper, ginger, shiso (or beefsteak) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba).

Famous Japanese foods and dishes

Deep-Fried dishes (Agemono)

  • Korokke (croquette) - breaded and deep-fried balls of mashed potato with creamy vegetable, seafood, or meat-flavored fillings.
  • Kushiage - meat deep fried on a skewer.
  • Tempura - battered and deep-fried vegetables, seafood, and meat.
  • Tonkatsu - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions called chicken katsu).

Donburi

A one-bowl dish of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings

  • Katsudon - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chicken katsudon) or fish (e.g., magurodon)
  • Oyakodon - (Parent and Child) Usually chicken and egg but sometimes salmon and salmon roe
  • Gyūdon - seasoned beef
  • Tempuradon - battered, deep fried bite-sized foods

Grilled and pan-fried dishes (Yakimono)

  • Gyoza - Chinese dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables
  • Hamachi Kama - grilled yellow tail tuna jaw and cheek bone
  • Kushiyaki - meat and vegetable kebabs
  • Okonomiyaki - pan-fried batter cakes with various savory toppings (see also Okonomiyaki restaurants)
  • Omu-Raisu - i.e. "omelette rice", a fried ketchup-flavored rice sandwiched with a thinly spread beaten egg or covered with a plain egg omelette
  • Omu-Soba - an omelette with yakisoba as its filling
  • Takoyaki - a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside
  • Teriyaki - grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce
  • Unagi, including kabayaki - grilled and flavored eel
  • Yakisoba - Japanese style fried noodles
  • Yakitori - chicken kebabs

Nabemono (one pot cooking)

  • Sukiyaki - mixture of noodles, thinly sliced beef, egg and vegetables boiled in a special sauce made of fish broth, soy sauce, sugar and sake
  • Shabu-shabu - noodles, vegetables and shrimp or thinly sliced beef boiled in a thin stock and dipped in a soy or sesame sauce before eating
  • Motsunabe - cow intestine, hakusai (bok choi) and various vegetables are cooked in a light soup base
  • Kimuchinabe - similar to motsunabe, except with a kimuchi base and using thinly sliced pork. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish, but it has also become very popular in Japan, particularly in the southern island of Kyushu, which is situated closest to South Korea
  • Oden
  • Nikujaga, a Japanese version of beef stew.

Noodles (men-rui)

Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve ramen-rice combination sets.

  • Soba - thin brown buckwheat noodles served chilled with various toppings or in hot broth
  • Ramen - thin light yellow noodle served in hot broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan
  • Udon - thick wheat noodle served with various toppings or in a hot shoyu and dashi broth
  • Champon - yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students
  • Somen
  • Okinawa soba - a wheat-flour noodle often served with sōki, steamed pork

Other

  • Agedashi tofu - cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth
  • Bento or Obento - combination meal served in a wooden box
  • Hiyayakko - cold tofu dish
  • Osechi - traditional food eaten at the New Year
  • Natto - fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous amongst non-Japanese for its strong smell and slippery texture. Often eaten for breakfast. Typically popular in Kanto and less so in Kansai
  • Shiokara - salty fermented viscera
  • Chawan mushi - meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables boiled in egg custard

Rice (gohanmono)

  • Mochi - soft rice cake
  • Ochazuke - green tea poured over white rice, often flavored
  • Onigiri - Japanese rice balls
  • Sekihan - red rice with adzuki beans
  • Kamameshi - rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot
  • Kare Rice (see also curry) - Introduced from UK in the late 19th century, it became a staple food in Japan
  • Hayashi Rice - thick beef stew on rice; origin of the name is unknown, but may be "hashed rice"
  • Om-rice (Omu-raisu オムライス) - omelette filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tokyo

Sashimi

Sashimi is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish but can be almost anything including beef, horse and chicken.

  • Basashi - sliced horse meat, sometimes called Sakura
  • Fugu - sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty
  • Rebasashi - usually liver of beef
  • Shikasashi - sliced deer meat, a rare delicacy in certain parts of Japan

Soups (suimono and shirumono)

  • Tonjiru - similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients
  • Dangojiru - soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots
  • Miso soup - soup made with miso, dashi and seasonal ingredients like fish, kamaboko, onions, clams, potato, etc.
  • Sumashijiru - a clear soup made with dashi and seafood

Sushi

Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or seafood.

  • Nigirizushi - This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice.
  • Makizushi - Translated as "roll sushi," this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces.
  • Temaki - Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside.
  • Chirashi - Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish.

Sweets

  • Wagashi - Japanese-style sweets
    • Amanatto
    • Anmitsu- a traditional Japanese dessert
    • Anpan - bread with sweet bean paste in the center
    • Dango - rice dumpling
    • Ginbou
    • Hanabiramochi
    • Higashi
    • Hoshigaki - Dried persimmon fruit
    • Imagawayaki - also known as 'Taikoyaki' is a round Taiyaki and fillings are same
    • Kakigori - shaved ice with syrup topping.
    • Kompeito - crystal sugar candy
    • Manju - sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center
    • Matsunoyuki
    • Melonpan - a large, round, sweet, crusty bread that looks and tastes somewhat like a melon
    • Mochi - steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid mass
    • Oshiruko - a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi - rice cake
    • Uiro - a steamed cake made of rice flour
    • Taiyaki - a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an - red bean paste
  • Dagashi - Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets
    • Karumetou - Brown sugar cake. Also called Karumeyaki
    • Ramune - Sweet candy that melts in your mouth
    • Sosu Senbei - Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce
    • Umaibou - Puffed corn food with various flavors
  • Yogashi - Western-style sweets, but in Japan typically very light or spongy
    • Kasutera - "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake
    • Mirucurepu - "mille crepe" - layered crepe
  • Other Snack
    • Azuki Ice - vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans
    • Hello Panda
    • Macha Ice (Green tea ice cream) - green tea flavored ice cream
    • Pocky

Chinmi

  • Uni - Specifically salt-pickled uni
  • Karasumi
  • Konowata

Japanese influence on other cuisines

United States

Teppanyaki is said to be an American invention, as is the California roll (not to mention the Philadelphia roll), and while the former has been well received in Japan the latter has not and has, at worst, been termed not sushi by Japanese people. However thanks to some recent trends in American culture such as Iron Chef and Benihana, Japanese culinary culture is slowly fusing its way into American life. Japanese food, which had been quite exotic in the West as late as the 1970s, is now quite at home in parts of the continental United States, and has become an integral part of food culture in Hawaii.

Imported and adapted foods

A Japanese children's book. The food and utensils depicted, however, are Western.

Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas). Chinese, French, Italian and Spanish cuisine is of particular interest to Japanese people. Historically, foods such as castella and bread were originally imported from Portugal, and the name pan for bread is a loanword from Portuguese.

Many imported foods are made suitable for the Japanese palate by reducing the amount of spice used or changing a part of a recipe. For example, the Korean pickle kimchi, usually fermented in Korea, in Japan is instead often simply pickled, without a key Korean ingredient, fermented shrimp. Similarly, Japanese pizza may have toppings such as sliced boiled eggs, sweetcorn, shrimps, nori, and mayonnaise instead of tomato sauce.

Other examples of changed imported cuisine include:

  • Spaghetti with creamy shrimp, lobster, crab, Alaska pollock roe or sea urchin sauce, or a non-creamy light sauce topped with seaweed, or made with tomato ketchup, weiners, sliced onion and green pepper (called 'neapolitan')
  • Japanese-only "Chinese dishes" like Ebi Chili (shrimp in a tangy and slightly spicy sauce)
  • Korean barbecue that is unflavored and is dipped in sauce before eating for flavor
  • Korean Naengmyun with thicker noodles and a different broth

The Japanese often eat at hamburger chains such as McDonald's or Mos Burger, a popular competitor. Other fast-food establishments are similarly popular. These include doughnut and ice cream shops. Okinawa has a chain of A&W drive-in restaurants featuring the company's root beer. The Japanese also alter American-style fast-food, serving such items as green-tea milkshakes and fried shrimp burgers at chains like Lotteria.

In Tokyo, it is quite easy to find restaurants serving authentic foreign cuisine. However, in most of the country, in many ways, the variety of imported food is limited; for example, it is rare to find pasta that is not of the spaghetti or macaroni varieties in supermarkets or restaurants; bread is very rarely of any variety but white; and varieties of imported cereal are also very limited, usually either frosted or chocolate flavored. "Italian restaurants" also tend to only have pizza and pasta in their menus.

Washoku and yōshoku

Imported cuisines and foods from America and Europe are called yōshoku (洋食), a shortened form of seiyōshoku (西洋食) lit. Western cuisine. Japanese cuisine is called washoku (和食), lit. Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine is called Chūkaryōri (中華料理), lit. Chinese recipe.

A number of foreign dishes have been adapted to a degree that they are now considered Japanese, and are an integral part of any Japanese family menu. Yet, these are still categorized as yōshoku as they were imported. Perhaps the best example is curry rice, which was imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom, and vaguely resembles the original Indian dish. Another example is "Hamburg steak", which is a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Restaurants that serve these foods are called yōshokuya (洋食屋), lit. Western cuisine restaurants. However, yōshoku basically refers to Japanese-style foreign cuisine of a vague origin.

Tempura

One of the oldest imported dishes is tempura, although it has been so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. As such, it is considered washoku. Tempura came to Japan from Portuguese sailors in the 16th century as a technique for cooking fish. Since then, the Japanese have extended its ingredients to include almost every sort of seafood and vegetable. Shrimp, eggplant, squash, and carrots are typical ingredients today. Another food, like tempura, that is now considered washoku is sōmen.

Fusion foods

In a constant quest to adopt and expand Japanese cuisine, Japanese have made hundreds of recipes that are distinctly different from the original recipes but still retain the "air" (and basic taste) of their origins. For example, "curry" from India, imported via the United Kingdom, has fused with varieties of foods to make new recipes. Curry made with fish based dashi is poured over udon, making "Kare Udon". It is wrapped in dough and deep fried, making "Kare Pan", curry bread. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called Fukujinzuke or Rakkyo. Other recipes are so exotic by any standard that they remain a local cuisine. Anmitsu (あんみつ), a dish of cream, bean jam, ice cream, and fruits is often served as a dessert in restaurants.


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Anmitsu (あんみつ), a dish of cream, bean jam, ice cream, and fruits is often served as a dessert in restaurants. In recent years, many Canadians feel that the number of public holidays (and holidays in general) in Canada pales in comparison to other Western countries. Other recipes are so exotic by any standard that they remain a local cuisine. Patricks day a national holiday (as opposed to only Newfoundland and Labrador), lead, and promoted, by the Guinness corporation. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called Fukujinzuke or Rakkyo. In Canada a large lobby exists to make St. It is wrapped in dough and deep fried, making "Kare Pan", curry bread. Such acts are not as common in Ireland.

Curry made with fish based dashi is poured over udon, making "Kare Udon". Patrick's Day items hosting phrases such as "Can't pinch me!" It's also said, and shown in the TV show Angela Anaconda, that if you pinch someone wearing green, everyone else can double pinch you back, even if you are wearing green. For example, "curry" from India, imported via the United Kingdom, has fused with varieties of foods to make new recipes. Traditionally, those who are caught not wearing green are pinched, leading to several St. In a constant quest to adopt and expand Japanese cuisine, Japanese have made hundreds of recipes that are distinctly different from the original recipes but still retain the "air" (and basic taste) of their origins. Patrick's day by wearing green colored clothing and items. Another food, like tempura, that is now considered washoku is sōmen. celebrate St.

Shrimp, eggplant, squash, and carrots are typical ingredients today. Children in the U.S. Since then, the Japanese have extended its ingredients to include almost every sort of seafood and vegetable. (Former Mayor of New York Ed Koch once proclaimed himself "Ed O'Koch" for the day and is one of the most famous people of non-Irish descent to publicly revel on the holiday.). Tempura came to Japan from Portuguese sailors in the 16th century as a technique for cooking fish. Patrick's Day, usually by consuming large quantities of alcoholic beverages, including lager often dyed green, Irish beer, such as Murphys, Smithwicks, Harp or Guinness, or other Irish liquors such as Irish whiskey, Irish Coffee or Baileys Irish Cream, by wearing at least one article of green-colored clothing, and by listening to Irish folk music. As such, it is considered washoku. In many parts of the U.S., Britain, and Australia, expatriate Irish, those of Irish descent, and ever-growing crowds of people with no Irish connections but who may proclaim themselves "Irish for a day" also celebrate St.

One of the oldest imported dishes is tempura, although it has been so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. In Britain, the late Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother used to present bowls of shamrock specially flown over from Ireland to members of the Irish Guards, a regiment in the British Army made up of Irishmen from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland (as well as many Liverpudlians and other Britons). However, yōshoku basically refers to Japanese-style foreign cuisine of a vague origin. In 2003, the President of Ireland celebrated the holiday in Sydney, the Taoiseach was in Washington, while other Irish government members attended ceremonies in New York, Boston, San Francisco, San Jose, Savannah, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Diego, New Zealand, Hong Kong, South Africa, Korea, Japan and Brazil. Western cuisine restaurants. In recent years, it is common for the entire Irish government to be abroad representing the country in various parts of the world. Restaurants that serve these foods are called yōshokuya (洋食屋), lit. No northern Irish parties were invited for these functions in 2005.

Another example is "Hamburg steak", which is a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Originally only representatives of the Republic of Ireland attended, but since the mid-1990s all major Irish political parties from north and south are invited, with the attendance including the representatives of the Irish government, the Ulster Unionist Party, the Social Democratic and Labour Party, Sinn Féin and others. Perhaps the best example is curry rice, which was imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom, and vaguely resembles the original Indian dish. A similar presentation is made to the Speaker of the House. Yet, these are still categorized as yōshoku as they were imported. Patrick's Day or a day or two earlier, in the White House, where they present shamrock to the President of the United States. A number of foreign dishes have been adapted to a degree that they are now considered Japanese, and are an integral part of any Japanese family menu. Since the 1990s, Irish Taoiseach (prime ministers) have sometimes attended special functions either on St.

Chinese recipe. Patrick's Day parade in Canada takes place in Montreal, which began in 1824. Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine is called Chūkaryōri (中華料理), lit. The longest running St. Japanese cuisine is called washoku (和食), lit. are:. Western cuisine. Patrick's Day parades in the U.S.

Imported cuisines and foods from America and Europe are called yōshoku (洋食), a shortened form of seiyōshoku (西洋食) lit. The longest running St. "Italian restaurants" also tend to only have pizza and pasta in their menus. Others, including Chicago, dye their principal rivers green, an act that most native Irish find bizarre. However, in most of the country, in many ways, the variety of imported food is limited; for example, it is rare to find pasta that is not of the spaghetti or macaroni varieties in supermarkets or restaurants; bread is very rarely of any variety but white; and varieties of imported cereal are also very limited, usually either frosted or chocolate flavored. cities paint the traffic stripe of their parade routes green. In Tokyo, it is quite easy to find restaurants serving authentic foreign cuisine. Some U.S.

The Japanese also alter American-style fast-food, serving such items as green-tea milkshakes and fried shrimp burgers at chains like Lotteria. In many other American cities (such as San Francisco), the parade is always held on the Sunday before March 17, regardless of the permutations of the liturgical calendar. Okinawa has a chain of A&W drive-in restaurants featuring the company's root beer. The event is also moved on the rare occasions when, due to Easter falling on a very early date, March 17 would land in Holy Week—this last occurred in 1913, when the parade was held on Saturday, March 15 because Easter that year was March 23 (making March 17 the Monday of Holy Week); this same scenario is scheduled to arise again in 2008, when Easter will also fall on March 23. These include doughnut and ice cream shops. The New York parade is moved to the previous Saturday (March 16) in years where March 17 is a Sunday. Other fast-food establishments are similarly popular. On occasion the AOH has appointed controversial Irish republican figures (some of whom were barred from the U.S.) to be its Grand Marshal.

The Japanese often eat at hamburger chains such as McDonald's or Mos Burger, a popular competitor. Patrick's Day Parade was the primary public function of the AOH. Other examples of changed imported cuisine include:. For many years, the St. Similarly, Japanese pizza may have toppings such as sliced boiled eggs, sweetcorn, shrimps, nori, and mayonnaise instead of tomato sauce. The parade is organized and run by the Ancient Order of Hibernians (AOH) [1]. For example, the Korean pickle kimchi, usually fermented in Korea, in Japan is instead often simply pickled, without a key Korean ingredient, fermented shrimp. Patrick's Day parade which is open to all organizations wishing to march.

Many imported foods are made suitable for the Japanese palate by reducing the amount of spice used or changing a part of a recipe. A tradition has begun in Queens, New York of organizing a parade the week before the official St. Historically, foods such as castella and bread were originally imported from Portugal, and the name pan for bread is a loanword from Portuguese. The gay groups and their sympathisers would lie down in the middle of the street at the start of the parade route, and would be arrested when they refused to move; in the late 1980s such arrests averaged several hundred per year, but had dwindled to a dozen or less annually by the early 2000s. Chinese, French, Italian and Spanish cuisine is of particular interest to Japanese people. Gay rights groups have fought in court to obtain the right to march alongside other organizations, and there have been calls in Ireland (which, since 1992, has some of the most liberal gay laws in the world) for a boycott of the parade. Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas). The New York parade has been dogged with controversy in recent years as its organisers have banned Irish gays and lesbians from marching as a group.

Japanese food, which had been quite exotic in the West as late as the 1970s, is now quite at home in parts of the continental United States, and has become an integral part of food culture in Hawaii. The parade marches up 5th Avenue in Manhattan and it attracts roughly 2 million people. However thanks to some recent trends in American culture such as Iron Chef and Benihana, Japanese culinary culture is slowly fusing its way into American life. The parade itself dates back to 1762, and in 2003 more than 150,000 marchers participated, including bands, military and police groups, county associations, emigrant societies, social and cultural clubs. Teppanyaki is said to be an American invention, as is the California roll (not to mention the Philadelphia roll), and while the former has been well received in Japan the latter has not and has, at worst, been termed not sushi by Japanese people. Patrick's Day parade in the world. United States. Since then the New York celebration has become the largest St.

Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or seafood. Patrick's Day celebrated in New York City was held at the Crown and Thistle Tavern in 1756. Sashimi is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish but can be almost anything including beef, horse and chicken. The first St. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve ramen-rice combination sets. Patrick's Day in the American Colonies took place in Boston in 1737. Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal. The first civic and public celebration of St.

A one-bowl dish of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings. Boulder, Colorado claims to have the shortest parade which is also less than a single city block. It is not generally thought possible to make authentic Japanese food without shō-yu (soy sauce), miso and dashi. The smallest parade is said to take place in Hot Springs, Arkansas in the United States; this parade is less than a single city block and is nevertheless the highlight of the day. See also Category:Japanese ingredients. Some people believe St.Patrick's day is a bigger holiday in the U.S than it is in Ireland, however, despite this, many Americans travel to Ireland for the festivities. In some regions every 1st and 15th day of the month people eat a mixture of rice and adzuki (azuki meshi). Previously the parade was privately funded.

Major such combinations include:. Belfast City Council recently agreed to give some funding to its parade for the first time. In Japanese tradition some dishes are strongly tied to a festival or event. Patrick's Day as a celebration of Irish culture is rarely acknowledged by British loyalists in Northern Ireland, who consider it a republican festival. Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed ends facing left and supported by a chopstick holder, or hashioki (箸置き). Although celebrated by the Church of Ireland as a Christian festival, St. Pickled vegetables are often served as well, and eaten at the end of the meal, but are not counted as part of three side dishes. The parade was watched by over 30,000 people.

Behind these are three flat plates to hold the three side dishes, one to far back left (on which might be served a simmered dish), one at far back right (on which might be served a grilled dish), and one in the center of the tray (on which might be served boiled greens). Patrick's Festival, had over 2000 participants and 82 floats, bands and performers. Nearest the diner are the rice bowl on the left and the soup bowl on the right. In Downpatrick in 2004, according to Down District Council, the parade, during the week-long St. Typically, five separate bowls and plates are set before the diner. The biggest celebrations in Ireland outside Dublin are in Downpatrick, where Saint Patrick was buried following his death on March 17, 461. Traditional table settings are based on the ichijū-sansai formula. Girls traditionally wore green ribbons in their hair (many still do).

Larger low tables (chabudai, ちゃぶ台) that accommodated entire families were becoming popular by the beginning of the 20th century, but these gave way to western style dining tables and chairs by the end of the 20th century. Nevertheless, many Irish people still wear a bunch of shamrock on their lapels or caps on this day, while children wear tri-colour (green, white and orange) badges. Before the 19th century, small individual box tables (hakozen, 箱膳) or flat floor trays were set before each diner. Since 1996, there has been a greater emphasis on celebrating and projecting a fluid and inclusive notion of 'Irishness' rather than a fixed identity based around traditional religious or ethnic allegiance. The traditional Japanese table setting has varied considerably over the centuries, depending primarily on the type of table common during a given era. Patrick's Symposium was "Talking Irish," during which the nature of Irish identity, economic success and the future was discussed. Salamander is eaten as well in places. The topic of the previous year's (2004) St.

In some regions, grasshoppers (inago) and bee larvae (hachinoko) are not uncommon dishes. The most recent Festivals have encompassed spectacular fireworks displays (Skyfest), open-air music, street theatre and the traditional parade. Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, there are a couple of exceptions. In 1997, it became a three day event, and since 2000 has been a 4 day event. Ramen is served in a variety of soup stocks ranging from soy sauce/fish stock to butter/pork stock. Patrick's Festival was held in 1996, and was celebrated only on the day. A more recent import from China, dating to the early 19th century, is ramen (ラーメン; Chinese wheat noodles), which has become extremely popular. The first St.

Both are generally served in a soy-flavored fish broth with various vegetables. Patrick's Festival was set up by the government with the aim to:. Made from wheat flour, udon (うどん) is a thick, white noodle. In the mid-90's, a group called St. Made from buckwheat flour, soba (蕎麦) is a thin, brown noodle. Patrick's Day parades in Ireland date from the late 19th century, originating in the growing sense of nationalism of the period. There are two traditional types of noodle, soba and udon. St.

Noodles, originating from China, have become an essential part of Japanese cuisine. . Beef and chicken are commonly eaten and have become part of everyday cuisine. Patrick's Day. Although not known as a meat eating country, very few Japanese consider themselves vegetarians. In Ireland it is traditional that those observing a lenten fast may break it for the duration of St. Since Japan is an island nation, its people consume much seafood including fish, shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, lobsters, shrimp and seaweed. If it falls in Holy Week, it is moved to the second Monday after Easter.

There may also be chapters devoted to soups, sushi, rice, noodles, and sweets. Patrick's Day falls on a Sunday, it is moved to the following Monday. Chapters are organized according to cooking techniques: fried foods, steamed foods, and grilled foods, for example, and not according to particular ingredients (e.g., chicken or beef) as are western cookbooks. In church calendars, though rarely in secular ones, if St. This Japanese view of a meal is reflected in the organization of traditional Japanese cookbooks. The day always falls in the season of Lent, and it may fall in Holy Week. Ichijū-sansai often finishes with pickles such as umeboshi and green tea. Patrick's Day sometimes is required to give way to a more important feast.

The three side dishes are usually raw fish (sashimi), a grilled dish, and a simmered (sometimes called boiled in translations from Japanese) dish -- although steamed, deep fried, vinegared, or dressed dishes may replace the grilled or simmered dishes. However, as a Christian festival, St. The most common meal, however, is called ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜; "one soup, three sides"), or soup, rice, and three side dishes, each employing a different cooking technique. Patrick's Day is a Christian festival celebrated in the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of Ireland (among other churches in the Anglican Communion) and some other denominations. A traditional Japanese breakfast, for example, usually consists of miso soup, rice, and a pickled vegetable. As well as being a celebration of Irish culture, St. This means soup, rice, and one accompanying side dish--usually a pickled vegetable like daikon. Parades also take place in other places, including London, Paris, Rome, Munich, Moscow, Beijing, Hong Kong, Singapore, Copenhagen and throughout the Americas.

The simplest Japanese meal, for example, consists of ichijū-issai (一汁一菜; "one soup, one side" or "one dish meal"). The four largest parades of recent years have been held in Dublin, New York City, Manchester, and Montreal. Traditional Japanese meals are named by the number of side dishes that accompany the rice and soup that are nearly always served. A major parade takes place in Dublin and in most other Irish towns and villages. Anything else served during a meal--fish, meat, vegetables, tsukemono (pickles)--is considered a side dish, known as okazu. It is celebrated worldwide by the Irish and those of Irish descent and increasingly by many of non-Irish descent. Traditional Japanese cuisine is dominated by white rice (hakumai, 白米), and few meals would be complete without it. It is a legal holiday in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, the overseas territory of Montserrat and the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

. Saint Patrick's Day (March 17), is the Irish feast day which celebrates Saint Patrick (386-461), the patron saint of Ireland. Many Japanese think of the everyday food of the Japanese people--especially that existing before the end of the Meiji Era (1868 - 1912) or before World War II. San Francisco, California, since 1852. Many think of sushi or the elegant stylized formal kaiseki meals that originated as part of the Japanese tea ceremony. New Haven, Connecticut, since 1845. There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. Chicago, Illinois, since 1843.

Korean Naengmyun with thicker noodles and a different broth. Carbondale, Pennsylvania, since 1833. Korean barbecue that is unflavored and is dipped in sauce before eating for flavor. Savannah, Georgia, since 1813. Japanese-only "Chinese dishes" like Ebi Chili (shrimp in a tangy and slightly spicy sauce). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, since 1780. Spaghetti with creamy shrimp, lobster, crab, Alaska pollock roe or sea urchin sauce, or a non-creamy light sauce topped with seaweed, or made with tomato ketchup, weiners, sliced onion and green pepper (called 'neapolitan'). New York, New York, since 1762.

Konowata. Boston, Massachusetts, since 1737. Karasumi. Project, internationally, an accurate image of Ireland as a creative, professional and sophisticated country with wide appeal, as we approach the new Millennium. Uni - Specifically salt-pickled uni. Provide the opportunity and motivation for people of Irish descent, Scottish decent, (and those who sometimes wish they were Irish) to attend and join in the imaginative and expressive celebrations. Pocky. Create energy and excitement throughout Ireland via innovation, creativity, grassroots involvement, and marketing activity.

Macha Ice (Green tea ice cream) - green tea flavored ice cream. Offer a national festival that ranks amongst all of the greatest celebration in the world. Hello Panda. Azuki Ice - vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans. Other Snack

    .

    Mirucurepu - "mille crepe" - layered crepe. Kasutera - "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake. Yogashi - Western-style sweets, but in Japan typically very light or spongy

      . Umaibou - Puffed corn food with various flavors.

      Sosu Senbei - Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce. Ramune - Sweet candy that melts in your mouth. Also called Karumeyaki. Karumetou - Brown sugar cake.

      Dagashi - Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets

        . Taiyaki - a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an - red bean paste. Uiro - a steamed cake made of rice flour. Oshiruko - a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi - rice cake.

        Mochi - steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid mass. Melonpan - a large, round, sweet, crusty bread that looks and tastes somewhat like a melon. Matsunoyuki. Manju - sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center.

        Kompeito - crystal sugar candy. Kakigori - shaved ice with syrup topping. Imagawayaki - also known as 'Taikoyaki' is a round Taiyaki and fillings are same. Hoshigaki - Dried persimmon fruit.

        Higashi. Hanabiramochi. Ginbou. Dango - rice dumpling.

        Anpan - bread with sweet bean paste in the center. Anmitsu- a traditional Japanese dessert. Amanatto. Wagashi - Japanese-style sweets

          .

          Chirashi - Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish. Temaki - Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside. Makizushi - Translated as "roll sushi," this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces. Nigirizushi - This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice.

          Sumashijiru - a clear soup made with dashi and seafood. Miso soup - soup made with miso, dashi and seasonal ingredients like fish, kamaboko, onions, clams, potato, etc. Dangojiru - soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots. Tonjiru - similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients.

          Shikasashi - sliced deer meat, a rare delicacy in certain parts of Japan. Rebasashi - usually liver of beef. Fugu - sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty. Basashi - sliced horse meat, sometimes called Sakura.

          Om-rice (Omu-raisu オムライス) - omelette filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tokyo. Hayashi Rice - thick beef stew on rice; origin of the name is unknown, but may be "hashed rice". Kare Rice (see also curry) - Introduced from UK in the late 19th century, it became a staple food in Japan. Kamameshi - rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot.

          Sekihan - red rice with adzuki beans. Onigiri - Japanese rice balls. Ochazuke - green tea poured over white rice, often flavored. Mochi - soft rice cake.

          Chawan mushi - meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables boiled in egg custard. Shiokara - salty fermented viscera. Typically popular in Kanto and less so in Kansai. Often eaten for breakfast.

          Natto - fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous amongst non-Japanese for its strong smell and slippery texture. Osechi - traditional food eaten at the New Year. Hiyayakko - cold tofu dish. Bento or Obento - combination meal served in a wooden box.

          Agedashi tofu - cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth. Okinawa soba - a wheat-flour noodle often served with sōki, steamed pork. Somen. Champon - yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students.

          Udon - thick wheat noodle served with various toppings or in a hot shoyu and dashi broth. Ramen - thin light yellow noodle served in hot broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan. Soba - thin brown buckwheat noodles served chilled with various toppings or in hot broth. Nikujaga, a Japanese version of beef stew.

          Oden. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish, but it has also become very popular in Japan, particularly in the southern island of Kyushu, which is situated closest to South Korea. Kimuchinabe - similar to motsunabe, except with a kimuchi base and using thinly sliced pork. Motsunabe - cow intestine, hakusai (bok choi) and various vegetables are cooked in a light soup base.

          Shabu-shabu - noodles, vegetables and shrimp or thinly sliced beef boiled in a thin stock and dipped in a soy or sesame sauce before eating. Sukiyaki - mixture of noodles, thinly sliced beef, egg and vegetables boiled in a special sauce made of fish broth, soy sauce, sugar and sake. Yakitori - chicken kebabs. Yakisoba - Japanese style fried noodles.

          Unagi, including kabayaki - grilled and flavored eel. Teriyaki - grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce. Takoyaki - a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside. Omu-Soba - an omelette with yakisoba as its filling.

          "omelette rice", a fried ketchup-flavored rice sandwiched with a thinly spread beaten egg or covered with a plain egg omelette. Omu-Raisu - i.e. Okonomiyaki - pan-fried batter cakes with various savory toppings (see also Okonomiyaki restaurants). Kushiyaki - meat and vegetable kebabs.

          Hamachi Kama - grilled yellow tail tuna jaw and cheek bone. Gyoza - Chinese dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables. Tempuradon - battered, deep fried bite-sized foods. Gyūdon - seasoned beef.

          Oyakodon - (Parent and Child) Usually chicken and egg but sometimes salmon and salmon roe. Katsudon - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chicken katsudon) or fish (e.g., magurodon). Tonkatsu - deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions called chicken katsu). Tempura - battered and deep-fried vegetables, seafood, and meat.

          Kushiage - meat deep fried on a skewer. Korokke (croquette) - breaded and deep-fried balls of mashed potato with creamy vegetable, seafood, or meat-flavored fillings. Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), mustard, red pepper, ginger, shiso (or beefsteak) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba). Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress.

          Negi (welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (garlic chives), rakkyo (a type of scallion). Kombu, katsuobushi, niboshi. Shō-yu (Soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake. Fu (wheat gluten).

          Katakuri flour, kudzu flour, rice powder, soba flour, wheat flour. yuzu. sudachi,. natsumikan (amanatsu),.

          mikan,. kumquat,. kabosu,. iyokan,.

          daidai,. Citrus fruits:

            . loquat. nashi pear,.

            chestnut,. persimmon,. Fruits:

              . Yuba.

              Tofu (tofu, agedōfu),. Soy sauce (light, dark, tamari),. Miso,. Edamame,.

              Bean products:

                . Beans (soy, adzuki). Meats (pork, beef, chicken, horse), sometimes as minchi (minced meat). Eggs (chicken, quail).

                Noodles (udon, soba, somen, ramen). Satsuma-age. kamaboko,. dried cuttlefish,.

                niboshi,. chikuwa,. Processed seafood:

                  . others; see Category:Sea vegetables.

                  hijiki,. wakame,. konbu,. nori,.

                  seaweed:

                    . Tsukemono (pickled vegetables). shimeji. nameko,.

                    enokitake,. matsutake,. shiitake,. Mushrooms:

                      .

                      Konnyaku (shirataki). Sansai (wild vegetables). moyashi (mung or soybean sprouts). fuki (butterbur),.

                      negi (Welsh onion),. takenoko (bamboo shoots),. renkon (lotus root),. sweet potato,.

                      daikon,. gobo (burdock),. eggplant,. cucumber,.

                      spinach,. nira (Chinese chives),. Vegetables:

                        . Mochi rice (glutinous rice).

                        Short or medium grain white rice. Rice

                          . This is called toshi koshi soba (年越しそば) (literally "year crossing soba"). Soba - New Year's Eve.

                          Sekihan, cooked rice with adzuki - celebration in general. Hamo (a kind of fish) and somen - Gion Festival. Chimaki (steamed sweet rice cake) - Tango no Sekku and Gion Festival. botamochi (sticky rice dumpling with sweet azuki paste) - Spring equinox.

                          Chirashizushi, clear soup of crumbs and amazake - Hinamatsuri. Osechi - New Year.

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