The Nightmare Before Christmas

Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993) is a stop-action animated musical film about the inhabitants of Halloween Town who take over Christmas one year, directed by stop-motion animator Henry Selick. The film is loosely based on drawings and a poem by Tim Burton, and he served as co-producer. He did not direct the film as is sometimes believed, but he was still heavily involved.

The film was released by Touchstone Pictures, a film studio owned by the Walt Disney Company, after the main Walt Disney Pictures division balked at some of the darker content.

Synopsis

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

The film centers around Jack Skellington, the much adored leader of Halloween Town. Although Jack is loved and respected by the townspeople, he feels that there is something unknown to him that is missing from his life. One day while wandering in the woods with his dog zero, Jack discovers a circle of trees unlike anything that he has seen before. Each tree has a door on it representing a different holiday. When Jack opens the Christmas door he is sucked into the wonderful world of Christmas Town. Jack is mesmerized by the color and cheerfulness of the holiday, and realizes that this is exactly what he has been searching for.

When Jack returns to Halloween Town he locks himself in his home and performs countless experiments to try and better understand Christmas Town. Soon Jack calls a meeting in Town Hall and reveals his plans to takeover Christmas. All of the townspeople pitch in to create their own twisted version of the holiday. Sally, a close friend and admirer of Jack, tries to warn him that she thinks it is a bad idea to take over something he knows nothing about, but Jack is too wrapped in his fantasies to listen.

In order to successfully take over Christmas, Jack enlists the help of a trio of misfits named Lock, Shock, and Barrel to kidnap Santa Claus. The children take him to a villainous monster named Oogie Boogie.

On Christmas Eve, Jack embarks on his makeshift sleigh flanked by skeleton reindeers and his ghost dog, Zero. Jack's scary and sometimes dangerous presents put the people in the real world in a panic and they begin to call the police with reports of attacking Christmas toys and an imposter Santa Claus. In not too long, Jack is targeted by the military and shot down. At the same time, Sally goes to try and rescue Santa Claus but is captured by Oogie Boogie and the two are in risk of their lives.

When Jack finds himself and his sleigh crashed in a graveyard and his vision of Christmas wrecked, he realizes that he is the Pumpkin King and that he should stick to what he knows best, namely Halloween. In order to salvage Christmas Jack hurries back to Halloween Town and confronts Oogie Boogie. After Jack destroys Oogie, revealing him to be nothing more that a burlap monster full of bugs, Santa Claus hurries to deliver the correct presents and save Christmas. Once Santa has delivered all the presents he brings the Christmas spirit to Halloween Town, including snow, and the citizens are amazed by the new sensations.

Finally, Sally reveals her true feelings to Jack and in the end of the movie the two begin a relationship.

Legacy

When the movie originally was released it failed to live up to expectations and was considered a flop. However, when it was released on video a new audience began to discover it and slowly it began to grow a cult following. The same studio that produced Nightmare later created another stop motion movie based on the Roald Dahl book, James and the Giant Peach (1996), though it did not receive the same amount of success.

In 2005, Tim Burton returned to the media of stop motion with his new film, Corpse Bride.

Merchandising

Currently, 'Nightmare Before Christmas' has become one of the most sucessful franchises in terms of selling merchandise, and the film has developed a group of very dedicated collectors. Much of the original merchandise has become highly collectible and rare. In the past few years many retail stores like Hot Topic have obtained the rights to sell products and have flooded the market with what some believe to be cheap and uninspired merchandise.

Technical data

  • Title: The Nightmare Before Christmas
  • Directed by: Henry Selick
  • Written by: Caroline Thompson and Michael McDowell
  • Music by: Danny Elfman
  • Released on: October 13, 1993
  • American picture
  • Specifications: Technicolor, 35 mm 1.66:1 (colours, Dolby digital sound)
  • Genre: animation, fantasy, satire, musical
  • Runtime: 76 minutes
  • MPAA rating: PG

Starfield Creations

Cast (voices)

  • Chris Sarandon: Jack Skellington (speaking)
  • Danny Elfman: Jack Skellington (singing), Barrel, The Clown with the tearawayface
  • Catherine O'Hara: Sally, Shock
  • William Hickey: Dr. Finklestein
  • Glenn Shadix: Mayor
  • Paul Reubens: Lock
  • Ken Page: Oogie Boogie

On the soundtrack album, Patrick Stewart voices the opening narrative poem. A second poem, also read by Stewart, is included before the "End Credits" music; in this passage, Santa Claus describes a visit he made to Halloween Town many years after the events of the film.

Haunted Mansion Holiday

For the past five years, the Disneyland and Tokyo Disneyland in California and Japan have received a Nightmare Before Christmas themed overlay, called Haunted Mansion Holiday, for their Haunted Mansion attractions. The attractions are closed in October each year for themes to be completely overhauled, and open until January of the next year. The attraction generally has a one night opening event each year that includes special guests, a dinner, special merchandise, and a ride through the attraction, although the Happiest Celebration on Earth halted that in Disneyland in 2005. Starting in 2001, the ride has included a score that was written specifically for the ride by film composer Danny Elfman. There has been a great deal of speculation recently that 2006 will be last year for the event, allegedly at Tim Burton's request.

Video games

A video game based on the original movie was released in 2005. The Nightmare Before Christmas: Oogie's Revenge is an action/adventure game developed by Capcom from Japan for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox systems. Intended to be a sequel to the movie, the game features the return of all the well-known characters in a new and arguably darker story with upgraded versions of the movie's songs. In the story, Jack leaves Halloween Town to satisfy his curiosity, but during his absence, Oogie Boogie is reconstructed and by the time Jack returns he has taken over Halloween Town and tricked its people into thinking Jack has abandoned them. Now Jack has to stop Oogie Boogie's evil plans as he attempts to take over the other holiday worlds, and the 'real' world. The game features controls similar to Devil May Cry. The game features a weapon known as a 'Soul Robber'. In the game you get other costumes such as "Pumpkin King," and "Santa Jack".


A GBA game, "The Nightmare Before Christmas: The Pumpkin King" came out in fall 2005. The opposite of the Playstation and Xbox versions, the GBA game works as a prequel to the movie. The Pumpkin King is a side-scrolling action platformer in which you'll control Jack Skellington and use a number of different weapons to fight enemies and traverse obstacles. The side-scrolling adventure game centers around the first time Jack faced off against his nemesis, Oogie Boogie, to eventually become the Pumpkin King. The game's plot will kick off with the invasion of some unusual bugs in Halloween Town. Jack soon discovers that these nasty insects are under the control of Oogie Boogie, who's looking to take over Halloween himself. With these creepy wheels set in motion, it will be up to Jack and his friends--including characters such as Zero, Sally, Dr. Finklestein, and others--to both stop Oogie and save Halloween.

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

Halloween Town also appears as one of the worlds in the Square Enix/Disney Kingdom Hearts video game series (in fact, it was the movie's first official video game appearance). In this game, Jack tries to create an artificial heart so he can control the Heartless for use in his "Heartless Halloween," but the plan goes awry when Oogie Boogie (who was one of the Disney villains allied with Maleficent) steals the heart, ingests it, and tries to use it to control the Heartless for his own purposes. Jack then teams up with Sora and the others to stop Oogie Boogie's plans. Jack can also join Sora's party whenever they are in Halloween Town. Kingdom Hearts II follows the movie plot, where Jack tries to take over Santa Claus' place on Christmas.

Trading Card Game

Sometime during 2005, a card game, titled The Nightmare Before Christmas TCG, was released. Released were starter decks and a base set. In March 2006, there will be a new set, called Christmas Town, and a Tournament Kit released.


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In March 2006, there will be a new set, called Christmas Town, and a Tournament Kit released. In Fleming's books, Bond has a penchant for "battleship grey" Bentleys, while Gardner awarded the agent a modified Saab 900 Turbo nicknamed the Silver Beast and later a Bentley Mulsanne Turbo. Released were starter decks and a base set. Bond's most famous car is the silver grey Aston Martin DB5 seen in Goldfinger, Thunderball, GoldenEye, and Tomorrow Never Dies. Sometime during 2005, a card game, titled The Nightmare Before Christmas TCG, was released. Since Moonraker subsequent productions struggled with balancing gadget content against the story's capacities, without implying a technology-dependent man, to mixed results. Kingdom Hearts II follows the movie plot, where Jack tries to take over Santa Claus' place on Christmas. Some films, in the opinion of many critics and fans, have had excessive amounts of gadgets or extremely outlandish gadgets and vehicles, specifically 1979's science fiction-oriented Moonraker and 2002's Die Another Day in which Bond's Aston Martin could become invisible due to a technology Q refers to as adaptive camouflage.

Jack can also join Sora's party whenever they are in Halloween Town. The gadgets, however, assumed a higher, spectacular profile in the 1964 film Goldfinger; its success encouraged further espionage equipment from Q Branch to be supplied to 007. Jack then teams up with Sora and the others to stop Oogie Boogie's plans. No, Bond's sole gadgets were a geiger counter and a wristwatch with a luminous (and radioactive!) face. In this game, Jack tries to create an artificial heart so he can control the Heartless for use in his "Heartless Halloween," but the plan goes awry when Oogie Boogie (who was one of the Disney villains allied with Maleficent) steals the heart, ingests it, and tries to use it to control the Heartless for his own purposes. Fleming's novels and early screen adaptations presented minimal equipment such as From Russia with Love's booby-trapped attaché case; in Dr. Halloween Town also appears as one of the worlds in the Square Enix/Disney Kingdom Hearts video game series (in fact, it was the movie's first official video game appearance). Exotic espionage equipment and vehicles are very popular elements of James Bond's literary and cinematic missions; these items often prove critically important to Bond removing obstacles to the success of his missions.

Finklestein, and others--to both stop Oogie and save Halloween. Some of the more memorable ones include Bill Tanner, Rene Mathis, Felix Leiter, and Jack Wade. With these creepy wheels set in motion, it will be up to Jack and his friends--including characters such as Zero, Sally, Dr. Throughout both the novels and the films there have only been a handful of recurring characters. Jack soon discovers that these nasty insects are under the control of Oogie Boogie, who's looking to take over Halloween himself. Since Brosnan's tenure, however, the character has taken on a (relatively) more progressive outlook on women; he respects the new, female M (played by Judi Dench) and has let a few women, particularly Paris Carver and Elektra King, get under his skin. The game's plot will kick off with the invasion of some unusual bugs in Halloween Town. Despite Bond's philandering, most end up, if not in love with him, at least subdued by him.

The side-scrolling adventure game centers around the first time Jack faced off against his nemesis, Oogie Boogie, to eventually become the Pumpkin King. The aggressiveness of Bond's sexual conquests occasionally while his lovers eventually return his advances, he does not take the initial "no" for an answer. The Pumpkin King is a side-scrolling action platformer in which you'll control Jack Skellington and use a number of different weapons to fight enemies and traverse obstacles. Bond's women, particularly in the films, often have double entendre names, leading to coy jokes, for example, "Pussy Galore" in Goldfinger (a name invented by Fleming), "Plenty O'Toole" in Diamonds Are Forever, and "Xenia Onatopp" (a villainess sexually excited by strangling men with her thighs) in GoldenEye. The opposite of the Playstation and Xbox versions, the GBA game works as a prequel to the movie. In the films, Leiter appeared regularly during the Connery era, only once during Moore's tenure, and in both Dalton films; however, he was only played by the same actor twice.
A GBA game, "The Nightmare Before Christmas: The Pumpkin King" came out in fall 2005. Occasionally Bond is assigned to work a case with his good friend, Felix Leiter of the CIA.

In the game you get other costumes such as "Pumpkin King," and "Santa Jack". In the novels (but not in the films), Bond has had two secretaries, Loelia Ponsonby and Mary Goodnight, who in the films typically have their roles and lines transferred to M's secretary Miss Moneypenny. The game features a weapon known as a 'Soul Robber'. Bond's superiors and other officers of the British Secret Service are generally known by letters such as M and Q. The game features controls similar to Devil May Cry. The James Bond series of novels and films have a plethora of interesting allies and villains. Now Jack has to stop Oogie Boogie's evil plans as he attempts to take over the other holiday worlds, and the 'real' world. Several comic book adaptations of the James Bond films have been published through the years, as well as numerous original stories.

In the story, Jack leaves Halloween Town to satisfy his curiosity, but during his absence, Oogie Boogie is reconstructed and by the time Jack returns he has taken over Halloween Town and tricked its people into thinking Jack has abandoned them. Titan Books is presently reprinting these comic strips in an ongoing series of graphic novel-style collections; by the end of 2005 it had completed reprinting all Fleming-based adaptations as well as Colonel Sun and had moved on to reprinting original stories. Intended to be a sequel to the movie, the game features the return of all the well-known characters in a new and arguably darker story with upgraded versions of the movie's songs. Later, the comic strip produced original stories, continuing until 1983. The Nightmare Before Christmas: Oogie's Revenge is an action/adventure game developed by Capcom from Japan for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox systems. Since then many illustrated adventures of James Bond have been published, including every Ian Fleming novel as well as Kingsley Amis' Colonel Sun, and most of Fleming's short stories. A video game based on the original movie was released in 2005. After initial reluctance by Fleming who felt the strips would lack the quality of his writing, agreed and the first strip Casino Royale was published in 1958.

There has been a great deal of speculation recently that 2006 will be last year for the event, allegedly at Tim Burton's request. In 1957 the Daily Express, a newspaper owned by Lord Beaverbrook, approached Ian Fleming to adapt his stories into comic strips. Starting in 2001, the ride has included a score that was written specifically for the ride by film composer Danny Elfman. Connery himself recorded new voiceovers for the game, the first time the actor has played Bond in 22 years. The attraction generally has a one night opening event each year that includes special guests, a dinner, special merchandise, and a ride through the attraction, although the Happiest Celebration on Earth halted that in Disneyland in 2005. This was the second game based on a Connery Bond film (the first was a 1980s text adventure adaptation of Goldfinger) and the first to use the actor's likeness as agent 007. The attractions are closed in October each year for themes to be completely overhauled, and open until January of the next year. In 2005, Electronic Arts released another game in the same vein as Everything or Nothing, this time a video game adaptation of From Russia with Love, which allowed the player to play as Bond with the likeness of Sean Connery.

For the past five years, the Disneyland and Tokyo Disneyland in California and Japan have received a Nightmare Before Christmas themed overlay, called Haunted Mansion Holiday, for their Haunted Mansion attractions. It was also the first game to feature well known actors including Willem Dafoe, Heidi Klum and Pierce Brosnan as James Bond, although several previous games have used Brosnan's likeness as Bond. A second poem, also read by Stewart, is included before the "End Credits" music; in this passage, Santa Claus describes a visit he made to Halloween Town many years after the events of the film. Electronic Arts has to date released seven games, including the popular Everything or Nothing, which broke away from the first-person shooter element found in GoldenEye and went to a third-person perspective. On the soundtrack album, Patrick Stewart voices the opening narrative poem. In 2004, Electronic Arts released a game entitled GoldenEye: Rogue Agent that had nothing to do with either the video game GoldenEye or the film of the same name, and Bond himself plays only a minor role in which he is "killed" in the beginning during a virtual mission similar to the climax at Fort Knox in the film Goldfinger. Starfield Creations. Subsequently, virtually every Bond video game has attempted to copy GoldenEye 007's accomplishment and features to varying degrees of success.

In the past few years many retail stores like Hot Topic have obtained the rights to sell products and have flooded the market with what some believe to be cheap and uninspired merchandise. Bond video games, however, didn't reach their popular stride until 1997's GoldenEye 007 by Rare for the Nintendo 64. Much of the original merchandise has become highly collectible and rare. Since then, there have been numerous video games either based on the films or using original storylines. Currently, 'Nightmare Before Christmas' has become one of the most sucessful franchises in terms of selling merchandise, and the film has developed a group of very dedicated collectors. In 1983, the first Bond video game, developed and published by Parker Brothers, was released for the Atari 2600, the Atari 5200, the Commodore 64, and the Colecovision. In 2005, Tim Burton returned to the media of stop motion with his new film, Corpse Bride. From Russia with Love also opens with an instrumental version over the title credits (which then segues into the James Bond Theme), but Matt Monro's vocal version also appears twice in the film, including the closing credits; the Monro version is generally considered the film's main theme, even though it doesn't appear during the opening credits.

The same studio that produced Nightmare later created another stop motion movie based on the Roald Dahl book, James and the Giant Peach (1996), though it did not receive the same amount of success. No is the "James Bond Theme", although the opening credits also include an untitled bongo interlude, and concludes with a vocal Calypso-flavoured rendition of "Three Blind Mice" entitled "Kingston Calypso" that sets the scene. However, when it was released on video a new audience began to discover it and slowly it began to grow a cult following. The main theme for Dr. When the movie originally was released it failed to live up to expectations and was considered a flop. On Her Majesty's Secret Service is the only Bond film with a solely instrumental theme, though Louis Armstrong's ballad "We Have All the Time in the World", which serves as Bond and his wife Tracy's love song and whose title is Bond's last line in the film, is considered the unofficial theme. Finally, Sally reveals her true feelings to Jack and in the end of the movie the two begin a relationship. The Bond films are known for their theme songs heard during the title credits, sung by well-known popular singers (which have included Tina Turner, Paul McCartney & Wings, Tom Jones, Madonna, and Duran Duran, among many others.) Shirley Bassey performed three themes in total, and is the only singer to have been associated with more than one film.

Once Santa has delivered all the presents he brings the Christmas spirit to Halloween Town, including snow, and the citizens are amazed by the new sensations. Arnold is the series' current composer of choice, and was recently signed to compose the score for the his fourth consecutive Bond film, Casino Royale. After Jack destroys Oogie, revealing him to be nothing more that a burlap monster full of bugs, Santa Claus hurries to deliver the correct presents and save Christmas. Barry's legacy was followed by David Arnold, in addition to other well-known composers and record producers such as George Martin, Bill Conti, Michael Kamen, Marvin Hamlisch, and Eric Serra. In order to salvage Christmas Jack hurries back to Halloween Town and confronts Oogie Boogie. Both "The James Bond Theme" and "On Her Majesty's Secret Service" have been remixed a number of times by popular artists, including Art of Noise, Moby, Paul Oakenfold, and the Propellerheads. When Jack finds himself and his sleigh crashed in a graveyard and his vision of Christmas wrecked, he realizes that he is the Pumpkin King and that he should stick to what he knows best, namely Halloween. No, and is credited with the creation of "007", which was used as an alternate Bond theme in several films, and the popular orchestrated theme "On Her Majesty's Secret Service".

At the same time, Sally goes to try and rescue Santa Claus but is captured by Oogie Boogie and the two are in risk of their lives. Barry went on to compose the scores for eleven Bond films in addition to his uncredited contribution to Dr. In not too long, Jack is targeted by the military and shot down. No, although the actual authorship of the music has been a matter of controversy for many years. Jack's scary and sometimes dangerous presents put the people in the real world in a panic and they begin to call the police with reports of attacking Christmas toys and an imposter Santa Claus. "The James Bond Theme" was written by Monty Norman and was first orchestrated by the John Barry Orchestra for 1962's Dr. On Christmas Eve, Jack embarks on his makeshift sleigh flanked by skeleton reindeers and his ghost dog, Zero. A reunion television movie, The Return of the Man from U.N.C.L.E. (1983), is notable for featuring a cameo by George Lazenby as James Bond; for legal reasons, his character, a tribute to Ian Fleming, was credited as "JB".

The children take him to a villainous monster named Oogie Boogie. The latter having had contributions by Fleming towards its creation; the show's lead character, "Napoleon Solo," was named after a character in Fleming's novel Goldfinger and Fleming also suggested the character name April Dancer, which was later used in the spinoff series The Girl from U.N.C.L.E.. In order to successfully take over Christmas, Jack enlists the help of a trio of misfits named Lock, Shock, and Barrel to kidnap Santa Claus. 1960s TV imitations of James Bond such as I Spy, Get Smart, The Wild Wild West, and The Man from U.N.C.L.E. went on to became popular successes in their own right. Sally, a close friend and admirer of Jack, tries to warn him that she thinks it is a bad idea to take over something he knows nothing about, but Jack is too wrapped in his fantasies to listen. The Austin Powers series by writer and actor Mike Myers and other parodies such as Johnny English (2003), the "Flint" series starring James Coburn as Derek Flint, and Casino Royale (1967) are testaments to Bond's prominence in popular culture. All of the townspeople pitch in to create their own twisted version of the holiday. James Bond has long been a household name and remains a huge influence within the cinematic spy film genre.

Soon Jack calls a meeting in Town Hall and reveals his plans to takeover Christmas. For more in-depth information, see the controversy over Thunderball. When Jack returns to Halloween Town he locks himself in his home and performs countless experiments to try and better understand Christmas Town. McClory to this day still claims to own the film rights to Thunderball, though MGM and EON claim those rights have expired. Jack is mesmerized by the color and cheerfulness of the holiday, and realizes that this is exactly what he has been searching for. A second attempt by McClory to remake Thunderball in the 1990s with Sony Pictures was halted by legal action which resulted in Sony Pictures abandoning their aspirations for a rival James Bond series. When Jack opens the Christmas door he is sucked into the wonderful world of Christmas Town. Never Say Never Again was not made by Broccoli's production company, EON Productions, and is, therefore, not considered a part of the official film series.

Each tree has a door on it representing a different holiday. McClory did so in 1983 by producing the film Never Say Never Again, which featured Sean Connery for a seventh time as 007. One day while wandering in the woods with his dog zero, Jack discovers a circle of trees unlike anything that he has seen before. The deal specifically stated that McClory couldn't reproduce another adaptation until a set period of time had elapsed. Although Jack is loved and respected by the townspeople, he feels that there is something unknown to him that is missing from his life. Afterwards McClory made a deal with EON Productions to produce a film adaptation starring Sean Connery. The film centers around Jack Skellington, the much adored leader of Halloween Town. McClory filed a lawsuit that would eventually award him the film rights to the novel in 1963.

. Initially the novel only credited Fleming. The film was released by Touchstone Pictures, a film studio owned by the Walt Disney Company, after the main Walt Disney Pictures division balked at some of the darker content. When plans for a James Bond film were scrapped in the late 1950s, a story treatment entitled Thunderball, written by Ian Fleming, Kevin McClory and Jack Whittingham, was adapted as Fleming's ninth Bond novel. He did not direct the film as is sometimes believed, but he was still heavily involved. For more information, see the history of Casino Royale. The film is loosely based on drawings and a poem by Tim Burton, and he served as co-producer. The instrumental theme music was a hit for Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass.

Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993) is a stop-action animated musical film about the inhabitants of Halloween Town who take over Christmas one year, directed by stop-motion animator Henry Selick. Feldman who turned Fleming's first novel into a spoof featuring actor David Niven as one of six James Bonds. Ken Page: Oogie Boogie. The rights to Casino Royale were subsequently sold to producer Charles K. Paul Reubens: Lock. The episode featured American Barry Nelson in the role of "Jimmy Bond", an agent for the fictional "Combined Intelligence" agency. Glenn Shadix: Mayor. In 1954, CBS paid Ian Fleming $1,000 USD for the rights to adapt Casino Royale into a one hour television adventure as part of their Climax! series.

Finklestein.
. William Hickey: Dr. There's also lively debate on the best Bond movie, with most major film critics giving the top mark to either From Russia with Love (Connery's favourite, as he re-asserted in a 2002 ABC interview with Sam Donaldson) or its brassy followup, Goldfinger. Despite George Lazenby's short tenure in the tuxedo, some reviewers have also warmed to On Her Majesty's Secret Service (with Leonard Maltin's Movies on TV review book stating it might have been the best Bond film ever had Connery appeared in it). Catherine O'Hara: Sally, Shock. Work is also already underway on the script for the follow-up film, currently referred to by its working title, Bond 22. Danny Elfman: Jack Skellington (singing), Barrel, The Clown with the tearawayface. On October 14, 2005, EON Productions announced that Daniel Craig would be the sixth official James Bond and will star in the latest 007 adventure, Casino Royale in 2006.

Chris Sarandon: Jack Skellington (speaking). Every aficionado has a favourite James Bond: Sean Connery—the tough guy, his machismo ready beneath the polished persona, George Lazenby—the controversial ultra-macho man, equally loved and despised, Roger Moore—the sophisticate, a perfect gentleman, rarely mussing his hair whilst saving the world, Timothy Dalton—the hard-edged literary character, and Pierce Brosnan—the polished man of action. MPAA rating: PG. Thirdly, Octopussy (1983) incorrectly states the title of the next film as From A View To A Kill, the original literary title of A View to a Kill. Runtime: 76 minutes. In 1977, The Spy Who Loved Me stated Bond would return in For Your Eyes Only, however, EON Productions had decided to instead take advantage of the Star Wars space craze and release a film adaptation of Fleming's Moonraker, which was changed to a plot involving outer space. Genre: animation, fantasy, satire, musical. The first, 1964's Goldfinger, in early prints announced Bond to return in On Her Majesty's Secret Service, however, the producers changed their mind shortly after release and subsequently made the correction in future prints of the film.

Specifications: Technicolor, 35 mm 1.66:1 (colours, Dolby digital sound). Over the years the films have incorrectly named the sequel three times. American picture. Up until Octopussy (1983) the end-credit line would also name the next title in the film series ("James Bond will return in..."). Released on: October 13, 1993. ." or "James Bond will be back" during or after the final credits. Music by: Danny Elfman. No (1962) and "Thunderball" (1965), has the line: "James Bond will return.

Written by: Caroline Thompson and Michael McDowell. Every film, except Dr. Directed by: Henry Selick. Shaken, not stirred," first stated in Goldfinger (although not the first time Bond has a martini) was also honoured as #90 on the same list. Title: The Nightmare Before Christmas. The catch phrase, "a martini. On June 21, 2005 the catch phrase was honoured as the 22nd greatest quote in cinema history by the American Film Institute as part of their 100 Years Series [5].

Since then, the phrase has entered the lexicon of Western popular culture as the epitome of polished, understated machismo. No. James Bond" became a catch phrase after it was first muttered (with a cigarette in the corner of his mouth) by Sean Connery in Dr. Agent 007's famous introduction, "Bond.

The Bond films are unusual in retaining full opening and closing credits; since the late 1970s it has become common for most films to save detailed credits for the end, with only principal actors and crew listed at the beginning. The credits for GoldenEye depict the fall of the Soviet Union and thus provide a transition from the pre-fall era of the opening sequence to the post-fall setting of the rest of the narrative. Die Another Day was unusual in that the images shown in that film's opening credits advance the storyline. For Your Eyes Only begins with Sheena Easton singing the title song on-screen.

For the most part, the credits are unrelated to the plot of the film, although the design may reflect an overall theme (for example, You Only Live Twice uses a Japanese motif as well as images of a volcano, both of which are elements of the movie itself). While the credits run, the main theme of the film is usually sung by a popular artist of the time. Since Binder's death in 1991, Daniel Kleinman has designed the credits and has introduced CG elements not present during Binder's era. The best known of the Bond title designers is Maurice Binder, who created these sequences for fourteen 007 films from 1962 to 1989.

This sequence is a trademark and a staple of the James Bond films. When the teaser sequence is finished, the opening credits begin during which an arty display of scantily clad and even (discreetly) naked females can be seen doing a variety of activities from dancing, jumping on a trampoline, to shooting weapons. The 1999 film The World Is Not Enough currently holds the record as the longest Bond teaser ever, running more than 15 minutes; most teasers run for less than five. Since The Spy Who Loved Me in 1977, they have often involved attention-grabbing action sequences, which have tended to become larger and more elaborate with each successive film.

Some of the teasers tie in with the plot of the film (as in Live and Let Die). After the gun barrel sequence, every film starting with From Russia with Love (1963), would start with a pre-credits teaser, also popularly known as the "opening gambit." Usually the scene features 007 finishing up a previous case before taking on the case from the film, and does not always relate to his main mission. The gun barrel is seen from the assassin's perspective—looking down at a walking James Bond, who quickly turns and shoots; the scene reddens (signifying the spilling of the would-be assassin's blood), the gun barrel dissolves to a white circle, and the film begins. No, every official James Bond film begins with what is known as the James Bond gun barrel sequence, which introduces agent 007.

Since Dr. The James Bond film series has its own traditions, many of which date back to the very first movie in 1962. Shaw's old office was located in Regent Park, and he was supposed to have been on SMERSH's hit list. Brian Shaw's choice of pistol, a .25 caliber, echoes that of James Bond's preference for the .25 caliber Beretta.

In Clive Cussler's novel, "Night Probe", there is a character named Brian Shaw, whom the hero, Dirk Pitt suspects to be James Bond. No credit is given to Ian Fleming Publications, suggesting this rare story may have been unauthorised; a photo of Sean Connery as Bond is featured on the cover of the book. The title story features James Bond, M, and other characters and features an epic bridge game between Bond and the villain, Saladin. Bond, a collection of bridge-related short stories by Phillip King and Robert King.

Batsford produced Your Deal, Mr. In 1997, the British publisher B.T. The text of The Killing Zone is available on the Internet and can be found here. The second story, 1985's The Killing Zone by Jim Hatfield goes so far as to have been privately published as well as claim on the cover that it was published by Glidrose; however it is highly unlikely that Glidrose contacted Hatfield to write a novel since at the time John Gardner was the official author.

Some sources have suggested that Jenkins novel was to be published under the Markham pseudonym. The novel was never published. According to the book The Bond Files by Andy Lane and Paul Simpson, soon after Ian Fleming died, Glidrose Productions commissioned Jenkins to write a James Bond novel. The first in 1966, was Per Fine Ounce by Geoffrey Jenkins, a friend of Ian Fleming who claimed to have developed with Fleming a diamond-smuggling storyline similar to Diamonds Are Forever as early as the 1950s.

In addition to numerous fan fiction pieces written since the character was created, there have been two stories written by well-known authors claiming to have been contracted by Glidrose. 07 by Andrei Guliashki, in which a communist hero finally and forcefully defeats 007. In 1968, they hit back with a spy novel of their own called Avakoum Zahov vs. Russians were often the villains in Fleming's Cold War-era novels in at least some form.

The series was mildly successful and spawned six novelisations published in 1992 by John Peel writing as John Vincent, a 12 issue comic book series by Marvel Comics published in 1992, as well as a video game developed by Eurocom for the NES and the SNES in 1991. In 1991 an animated television series, James Bond Jr, ran for 65 episodes. This book is for young-adult readers, and chronicles the adventures of 007's nephew (despite the inaccurate title). In 1967, Glidrose authorised publication of 003½: The Adventures of James Bond Junior written by Arthur Calder-Marshall under the pseudonym R D Mascott.

A second volume has been tentatively scheduled for publication in October 2006.[4]. Ian Fleming Publications, who had previously refused to comment as to whether the book was authorised, officially confirmed the book was and always had been a project by them on the day of the book's publication. John Murray admitted on August 28, 2005 that the books were a spoof after an investigation by The Sunday Times of London. The novels had originally been touted as the secret journal of a "real" Miss Moneypenny and that James Bond was a possible pseudonym for a genuine intelligence officer, an idea shared by John Pearson's earlier biography, James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007.

No). Weinberg is the first woman to write officially licensed Bond-related literature (although Johanna Harwood had previously co-written the screenplay for Dr. The first installment of the trilogy, subtitled Guardian Angel, was released on October 10, 2005. A new trilogy of novels "edited" by Samantha Weinberg under the pseudonym Kate Westbrook entitled The Moneypenny Diaries was released by John Murray publishers that centres on the character of Miss Moneypenny, M's personal secretary.

It is currently unknown whether these will be adaptations of Higson's books. The Young Bond series is expected to add graphic novels in 2006. The series is currently planned out for five novels according to Charlie Higson. A second novel was released in the UK in January 2006.

Regardless, the first novel became a bestseller in the United Kingdom and was released to good reviews. Since the concept was announced the series has taken heavy criticism for being aimed at the "Harry Potter audience" and has been seen by some as a desperate attempt to find a new audience for Bond. Written by Charlie Higson (The Fast Show) the series is intended to align faithfully with the adult Bond's back-story established by Fleming and Fleming only. Instead of continuing from where Raymond Benson ended in 2002, the new series featured James Bond as a thirteen-year-old boy attending Eton College.

In April 2004, Ian Fleming Publications (Glidrose) announced a new series of James Bond books. Although it has been suggested a "big name" author might take on the task, the publishers have yet to approach anyone about this project [3]. This would feature the adult version of the character as opposed to the "Young Bond" character of the recent Charlie Higson books (see below). On August 28, 2005, Ian Fleming Publications confirmed it is planning to publish a one-off adult Bond novel in 2008 to mark what would have been Ian Fleming's 100th birthday.

The year 2003 marked the first year since 1980 that a new James Bond novel had not been published. Low sales figures for the books, and plans by Ian Fleming Publications to focus on reissuing Fleming's original novels for the 50th anniversary of the character, were among reasons speculated by fans as to why Benson departed. Benson abruptly resigned as Bond novelist at the end of 2002, despite having previously announced plans to write a short story collection. Benson also wrote a fourth short story entitled "The Heart of Erzulie" that was rejected for publication.

Benson's three short stories remain uncollected, unlike previous short stories from Ian Fleming. Benson wrote six James Bond novels, three novelisations, and three short stories. Benson also contributed to the creation of several modules in the popular James Bond 007 role-playing game in the 1980s. The book was initially released in 1984 and later updated in 1988.

Benson had previously written The James Bond Bedside Companion, a book dedicated to Ian Fleming, the official novels, and the films. As a James Bond novelist, Benson was initially controversial for being American, and for ignoring much of the continuity established by Gardner. In 1996, Gardner retired from writing James Bond books due to ill health, and American Raymond Benson quickly replaced him. Generally Gardner's series is considered a success although their canonical status is disputed.

The biggest change in Gardner's series was updating 007's world to the 1980s; however, it would keep the characters the same age as they were in Fleming's novels. In the 1980s, the series was finally revived with new novels by John Gardner; between 1981 and 1996, he wrote fourteen James Bond novels and two screenplay novelisations, surpassing Fleming's original output. Both novelisations were written by screenwriter Christopher Wood and were the first official novelisations, although technically, Fleming's Thunderball was a novelisation having been based on scripts by himself, Kevin McClory, and Jack Whittingham (although it predated the movie), and the For Your Eyes Only collection was also, for the most part, based upon unproduced scripts. This would happen again with 1979's Moonraker.

In 1977, the film The Spy Who Loved Me was released and was subsequently novelised and published by Glidrose due to the radical difference between the script and Fleming's novel of the same name. Prior to writing this, Pearson had written an early biography of Ian Fleming, The Life of Ian Fleming. Glidrose reportedly considered a new series of novels written by Pearson, but this did not come to pass. Since the book has many discrepancies with Fleming's Bond (for example his birth year), the canonical status of James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007 is debated among fans—some consider it apocryphal, though at least one publisher, Pan Books, issued it as an official novel along with the rest of Fleming's series for its first paperback edition.

The book was well-received by aficionados—readers and viewers, alike. Pearson wrote James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007 in the first person as if meeting the secret agent himself. In 1973, Fleming biographer John Pearson was commissioned by Glidrose to biograph the fictional character James Bond. See The controversy over The Man with the Golden Gun.).

Amis had also been claimed for many years as the ghost writer of The Man with the Golden Gun, although this has been debunked by numerous sources. William ("Bill") Tanner", a recurring character in the Bond novels. Amis had previously written two books on the world of James Bond, the 1964 essay The James Bond Dossier and the tongue-in-cheek 1965 release The Book of Bond, or Every Man His Own 007 (written under the pseudonym "Lt.-Col. Ultimately, only one Markham novel saw print, 1968's Colonel Sun by Kingsley Amis.

Following Fleming's death in 1964, Glidrose Productions, publishers of the James Bond novels, planned a new book series, credited to the pseudonym "Robert Markham" and written by a rotating series of authors. The second anthology, Octopussy and The Living Daylights (in many editions titled only Octopussy), originally only contained two short stories, "Octopussy" and "The Living Daylights"; a third story, "The Property of a Lady" was added in the 1967 paperback edition, and a fourth, "007 in New York", was added in 2002. When the project fell through, Fleming turned them into short stories: (i) "From a View to a Kill", (ii) "For Your Eyes Only", (iii) "Risico", plus two additional stories, "The Hildebrand Rarity" and "Quantum of Solace", which were previously published. His first anthology of short stories, For Your Eyes Only, mostly consisted of converted screenplays for a CBS television series based on the character.

To this day, it is still debated whether Fleming himself actually finished 1965's The Man with the Golden Gun, as he died very soon after completing the book. Between 1953 and 1966, twelve James Bond novels and two short story collections by Fleming were published, with one novel and one short story collection issued posthumously. Every year thereafter until his death in 1964, Fleming would retreat for the first two months of the year to his Jamaican estate, Goldeneye, to write a James Bond novel. Upon accepting the job, Fleming asked that he be allowed two months vacation per year.

At the time, Fleming was the Foreign Manager for Kemsley Newspapers, an organisation owned by the London Sunday Times. In February 1952, Ian Fleming began work on his first James Bond novel. Followers of Farmer's speculations have greatly elaborated on Bond's family. In his fictional biographies, author Philip Jose Farmer suggests that Bond belongs in the Wold Newton family tree along with Tarzan, Doc Savage, and many other fictional heroes.

While it is never stated explicitly, dialogue strongly hints that Reston is Bond's son and the grand-nephew of Sherlock Holmes. Clive Reston, a supporting character in the series, resembles Bond in many respects and is an MI6 agent himself. A second (non-canonical) son is suggested in the Marvel Comics series Master of Kung Fu. His first name, Campion, is believed to be a reference to fictional detective Albert Campion.

The second miniseries would continue the Holmes link, as MI6 would be taken over by Mycroft Holmes as the new "M." Although Moore makes no overt connection between Bond and Campion, the saturation of literary reference in the comics has led fans to propose that Campion is meant to be an ancestor of the modern secret agent. Later in "League," it is revealed that this "M" is none other than Professor James Moriarty, the archnemisis of Sherlock Holmes. His superior, the overall director of the top-secret team, is code-named M, an obvious reference to the Bond mythos. In it, the portly, sinister, and secretive MI6 agent placed in charge of the League is named Campion Bond.

An interesting, if wholly noncanonical, conjecture about the Bond lineage can be found in Alan Moore's comic book series, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, set in Victorian England. Exactly when he learned this is not known; however he is aware of his son, James Suzuki, by the time of Raymond Benson's short story "Blast From the Past.". Bond had one child, by Kissy Suzuki in You Only Live Twice, although he did not know of the boy's existence until sometime later. In the novels, Bond gets revenge in the following novel, You Only Live Twice, when he by chance comes across Blofeld in Japan, whilst the cinematic Bond takes on Blofeld in Diamonds Are Forever with mixed results.

In both the literary and cinematic versions of On Her Majesty's Secret Service, James Bond marries, but his bride, Teresa di Vicenzo (Tracy), is killed on their wedding day by his archenemy, Ernst Stavro Blofeld; the event resonates in both versions of the character for many years thereafter. In the novels (notably From Russia, With Love), Bond's physical description has generally been consistent: a three-inch, vertical scar on his left cheek (absent from the cinematic version); blue-grey eyes; a "cruel" mouth; short, dark hair, a comma of which falls on his forehead (greying at the temples in Gardner's novels); and (after Casino Royale) the faint scar of the Russian cyrillic letter "Ш" (SH) on the back of one of his hands (carved by a SMERSH agent). In the novels, Gardner replaced the PPK (eventually) with an ASP 9mm. In the film Tomorrow Never Dies, Bond updates his gun to the latest model of the Walther P99.

No in both the literary and cinematic versions, Bond has used a Walther PPK in almost every adventure. Since Dr. No, when reluctantly re-equipped with a 7.65 mm Walther PPK pistol replacing his Beretta automatic pistol, agent 007 protests, telling M that he has used the weapon for 10 years, suggesting he has been a secret agent for at least that long. In Dr.

The cinematic James Bond (introduced in 1962) already had a history with the Secret Service. He later feels so strongly about his decision that he actually hopes M fires him for it; there are Fleming works in which Bond does not kill anyone. Instead Bond intentionally wounds the assassin and still manages to accomplish the mission. Such is the case in "The Living Daylights" where Bond makes a last second decision to disobey his orders and not kill an assassin.

The literary James Bond was reserved in his licenced killing, sometimes disobeying his orders to kill if the mission could be accomplished by other means. No, shooting Professor Dent in the back; killing the unarmed Elektra King in The World Is Not Enough). Nonetheless, James Bond does kill when needed, and on film commits acts that might be considered murder in other circumstances (in Dr. The novel Goldfinger begins with Bond being haunted by memories of a small-time, Mexican gunman he had killed with his bare hands days earlier and on film, specifically in The World Is Not Enough, he admits that cold-blooded killing is a filthy business.

Pearson's biography (disputed canonically) suggests Bond first killed as a teenager. Bond dislikes taking life—resorting to flippant jokes and off-hand remarks as after-the-fact relief, often misinterpreted as cold-bloodedness. Throughout Fleming's novel, further continuation novels, and even the films, Bond's attitude toward his job is similar. According to Bond, obtaining a 00 number is not hard so long as you're prepared to kill.

Bond travels to Stockholm where he kills the man in his sleep with a knife. The second was the assassination of a Norwegian who became a double agent and betrayed 2 British agents. The first is the assassination of a Japanese cipher expert on the thirty-sixth floor of the RCA Building at Rockefeller Center in New York City. Bond earns his stripes in the 00 Section by completing two tasks, which Fleming outlines in Casino Royale.

It can be assumed that by this time Bond has moved on to another organisation. This action really doesn't make any sense since Bond is supposedly in the Royal Navy. One supporting reason is that Fleming describes Bond in the Ardennes firing a bazooka in 1944. It is believed that it is during this time that Bond perhaps joined another organisation such as the SOE, the 00 Section of the British Secret Service, or perhaps as a commando in Fleming's own 30 Assault Unit (30 AU).

According to Fleming, after joining the RNVR, Bond is mentioned as to traveling to America, Hong Kong, and Jamaica. It is never stated when James Bond became a 00 agent. Since Benson's Bond was rebooted, Bond became a Commander again. Bond maintains this rank through further continuation novels and in the films, however, Gardner promoted Bond to Captain in Win, Lose or Die.

In 1941, Bond lied about his age in order to enter the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve during World War II, from which he emerged with the rank of Commander before joining the British Secret Service. Bond can speak a variety of different languages, most notably Russian and Japanese, although many times the languages Bond claims to know are contradicted between the film series, Fleming's novel series, and even later films and continuation novels. He also attends (presumably at some point) Oxford to study Danish in Tomorrow Never Dies, although in the film he's not there to study at all. The film version of James Bond tacks on the additions of Bond being a graduate with a degree in Oriental languages from Cambridge University, as stated in You Only Live Twice.

With the exception of Fettes, Bond's attendance at these schools parallels Fleming's own life, as he attended these same schools. In "Octopussy", Fleming writes that Bond briefly attended the University of Geneva. After Eton, Bond attended and continued his education at Fettes College in Edinburgh, Scotland, his father's old school. In Fleming's short story "From a View to a Kill," Bond admits to losing his virginity on his first visit to Paris at the age of 16.

Bond briefly attended Eton College starting at the age of "12 or thereabouts", but was expelled after two halves when some "alleged" troubles with one of his maids came to light. Regardless, Bond is unquestionably British. According to Pearson, Bond was born near Essen, Germany; however, Charlie Higson, in his novel SilverFin claims Bond was born in Switzerland. It is also debated where James Bond was born.

Ian Fleming Publications recognised this issue for their Young Bond series of novels featuring Bond as a teenager in the 1930s and along with its author, Charlie Higson, defined Bond being born in the year 1920. Since all of the years claimed for when Bond was born would have made him too young to purchase this Bentley, a more likely scenario is that he inherited it. 1933 is the year mentioned in Casino Royale for when Bond 'bought' his first Bentley. For instance, if one computes Bond's age for when he was admitted into the Ministry of Defence to when his parents died (1939 - 17 = 1922 + 11 = 1933) Bond would have been 11 in 1933 from January 1 through November 10 if he was born in 1921.

He contends that a lot of details in Bond's timeline make better sense with the original 1939 date. Griswold notes that Bond's joining of the Ministry of Defence was originally written in Fleming's manuscript as 1939 (the same year Fleming joined). A more complex date of birth, according to John Griswold and his authorised book Ian Fleming's James Bond: Annotations and Chronologies, is November 11, 1921 (November 11, being Pearson's date). Prior to this, Tiger Tanaka, the head of the Japanese Secret Service, states Bond was born in the year of the rat, which supports 1924.

If Bond was 17 in 1941, then he was born in 1924. M writes that Bond left school when he was 17 years old and joined the Ministry of Defence in 1941. In the novel, M writes an obituary for James Bond after believing him to be dead. According to John Pearson's James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007, Bond was born on November 11, 1920; no Fleming novel supports this date, in fact, the novel You Only Live Twice makes a couple references to Bond's birth year being 1924.

Most researchers or biographers have concluded that Bond was born in either 1920, 1921 or 1924. Due to Fleming's changes of dates and times in which events occurred, Bond's specific birth year is unknown. This approximate age carries on in continuation novels written by Kingsley Amis, John Gardner, and Raymond Benson. In the same novel Bond notes that he has only 8 years to go, thus in Moonraker, Bond is 37 years old.

Many Ian Fleming biographers agree that Fleming never really intended to write as many James Bond adventures as he did and to keep writing the novels he had to "tinker with Bond's early life" and change dates to ensure Bond was the appropriate age for the service, particularly due to a statement in Moonraker that 007 faced mandatory retirement from the 00 Section at age 45. He is roughly in his late thirties. With the exception of the Young Bond series of novels by Charlie Higson launched in 2005, Bond for the most part is an ageless character in both films and literature. Bond's family motto, which was adopted by James Bond during "Operation Corona" in the novel On Her Majesty's Secret Service is Orbis non sufficit (Latin for "The world is not enough.").

He subsequently went to live with his Aunt, Miss Charmian Bond, in Kent. James Bond is the son of a Scottish father, Andrew Bond, and a Swiss mother, Monique Delacroix, both of whom died in a mountain climbing accident in the Aiguilles Rouges, when Bond was 11 years old. The combination saw the success of Bond return to its standard stride it hadn't reached since 1979's Moonraker. Pierce Brosnan filled Bond's shoes with an elegant mix of Sean Connery cool and Roger Moore wit.

The 1990s saw a revival and renewal of the series beginning with GoldenEye in 1995. Regardless, a new Bond film was scheduled for release in 1991; however, legal wrangling over ownership of the character led to a protracted delay that would keep Bond off movie screens for the next six years during which time, Dalton had moved on. and "15" in the UK. Licence to Kill's relative failure is usually blamed on a poor promotional campaign in the United States, Dalton's darker portrayal of Bond, and its status as the first Bond film to be rated PG-13 in the U.S.

While Dalton's final outing, Licence to Kill (1989), was financially successful, it did not prove as popular as previous Bond films. The hard-edge of Timothy Dalton in the Bond films of the late 80s met a mixed response from moviegoers; some welcomed the earthier style reminiscent of Fleming's character, while others missed the light-hearted approach which characterised the Roger Moore era. By the 1980s, some critics had grown tired of the films, commenting that the perennial sexism and glamorous locales had become outdated, and that Bond's smooth, unruffled exterior didn't mesh with competing movies like Die Hard. After the release of On Her Majesty's Secret Service, George Lazenby quit the role of Bond for this very reason even though he was offered a seven-film contract.

Since Bond's peak of popularity in 1965, with the release of Thunderball, critics have often predicted that Bond's successful run would come to an end, usually believing that Bond was out of touch with the times. In the UK, Bond holds three of the top five top spots of the most-watched television movies. They continue to earn substantial profits after their theatrical run via videotape, DVD, and television broadcasts. Every Bond film has been a box office success to a lesser or greater degree.

Their production company, EON Productions, set up a semi-regular schedule of releases; initially annually, then usually once every two years, although there have been a couple times where the gap was larger, usually due to external events. No starring Sean Connery. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman started the official cinematic run of Bond in 1962, with Dr. Albert R.

agent named "Jimmy Bond." In 1956, Bob Holness provided the voice of Bond in a South African radio adaptation of Fleming's third novel, Moonraker. The first actor to play Bond was American Barry Nelson, in the 1954 CBS television production of Casino Royale in which the character became a U.S. In many cases, the villain then dies at Bond's hands, although early Bond films often ended with the villain either escaping or being killed by someone else. Inevitably, a villain tries to kill Bond with a deathtrap during which the villain reveals vital information; Bond later escapes and uses the information to thwart the evil plot.

The cinematic Bond adventures were initially influenced by earlier spy thrillers such as North by Northwest, Saboteur, and Journey Into Fear, but later entries became formulaic dramas where Bond saves the world from apocalyptic madmen. The films expanded on Fleming's books, adding gadgets from Q Branch, death-defying stunts, and often abandoning the original plotlines for more outlandish and cinema-friendly adventures. Instead, they established the formula of unique villains, outlandish plots, and voluptuous women who tend to fall in love with Bond at first sight — the feeling often being mutual. The original books by Fleming are usually dark – lacking fantasy or gadgets.

The James Bond novels and films have ranged from realistic spy drama to science fiction. A new film, Casino Royale, is currently in production with an expected release in 2006. The James Bond franchise is currently the second all-time highest grossing film franchise in history, after Star Wars[2], and one of the longest running film series in history, spanning 20 official films, 2 unofficial films, 1 TV episode based on Casino Royale, and a cartoon television series spinoff. Fleming claimed that while there he was cleaned out by a "chief German agent" at a table playing Chemin de Fer, however, Admiral Godfrey tells a different story, that Fleming only played Portuguese businessmen and that afterwards Ian had fantasised about them being German agents and the excitement of cleaning them out.

While there they went to the Estoril Casino in Estoril, which, due to the neutral status of Portugal had a number of spies of warring regimes present. Most notably, and the basis for Casino Royale, was a trip to Lisbon that Fleming and the Director of Naval Intelligence, Admiral Godfrey, took during World War II en route to the United States. Fleming has, however, admitted to being inspired by true or partially-true events that took place during his career at the Naval Intelligence Division of the Admiralty. In Casino Royale the character Vesper Lynd says of Bond, "He reminds me rather of Hoagy Carmichael, but there is something cold and ruthless." Other characteristics of Bond's look are said to be based on Fleming, such as his height, his hairstyle and his eye colour.

Although the character of Bond is not known to be based on anyone but Fleming himself, the look of James Bond, famed for being "suave and sophisticated," is based on a young Hoagy Carmichael. how they should look and how they should dress), and have similar education and military careers both rising to the rank of Commander. drinking and smoking), share the same view on women (e.g. scrambled eggs), have the same habits (e.g.

Both, for the most part, went to the same schools, like the same foods (e.g. Most researchers agree that James Bond is a highly romanticised version of Fleming himself; the author was known for his jetsetting lifestyle and reputation as a womaniser. Although some names share similarities with Bond, none have ever been confirmed by Fleming, Ian Fleming Publications or any of Ian Fleming's biographers such as Fleming's assistant and friend, John Pearson. Usually these people have a background of some kind in espionage or other covert operations.

Since the fictional James Bond's creation, hundreds of reports by various news outlets have suggested names for Ian Fleming's inspiration of Bond. Plomer liked it enough that he gave the manuscript to Jonathan Cape, who did not like it as much, but published it anyway due to the fact that Ian was the younger brother of Peter Fleming, an established travel writer who also put in a good word for Ian. After completing the manuscript for what would later be titled Casino Royale, Fleming allowed his friend William Plomer, a poet and later Fleming's editor, to read it. Of the name, Fleming once said "I wanted the simplest, dullest, plainest-sounding name I could find, James Bond was much better than something more interesting like 'Peregrine Maltravers.' Exotic things would happen to and around him but he would be a neutral figure - an anonymous blunt instrument wielded by a Government Department." [1].

Fleming, a keen birdwatcher, owned a copy of Bond's field guide at Goldeneye. The hero of Fleming's tale, James Bond, was named after an American ornithologist of the same name who was an expert on Caribbean birds and had written a definitive book on the subject: Birds of the West Indies. James Bond was created in February 1952 by Ian Fleming while on vacation at his Jamaican estate called Goldeneye. Afterwards, it was virtually eliminated.

Bond's "genius" became a running joke during Roger Moore's era. In Goldfinger, he is able to calculate in his head how many trucks it would take to transport all the gold in Fort Knox, and how long the gold would be radioactive after the villain's bomb explodes. James Bond does have a quirk of being a "know-it-all," moreso on film. In real life, martini bars often dub a martini made "shaken, not stirred" as a "Martini James Bond." It is notable to say that the literary Bond incarnation has a strong preference for bourbon and drinks that on more occasions.

No. Throughout the novels, 007 orders his martinis with a slice of lemon peel, although this only occurs on film in Dr. This drink specifically was dubbed "The Vesper" martini, after his lover in the book, Vesper Lynd. James Bond is famous for ordering his vodka martinis "shaken, not stirred." The literary Bond prefers vodka, but also drinks gin martinis, and in his first adventure, Casino Royale, he orders a martini that includes both types of liquor.

The last time Bond smoked a cigarette on film was in 1989. During the films starring Connery, Lazenby and Dalton Bond was a smoker, while during Moore's and Brosnan's tenure he doesn't smoke cigarettes, although he does occasionally smoke cigars. On film, Bond has been off and on. Regardless, the literary incarnation continues to smoke through many continuation novels.

He is also forced to cut back after being sent to a health farm per his superior's order. On average, however, Bond smokes 60 a day, although in certain novels Bond does attempt to cut back so that he can accomplish certain feats such as swimming underwater. Bond is the consummate womaniser, drinker, and heavy cigarette smoker, at one point reaching 70 cigarettes a day. The 'double-O' prefix indicates his discretionary licence to kill in the performance of his duties.

As an agent of the Secret Service, Bond holds code number "007". Under the cover name "Universal Exports" and later "Transworld Consortium", Bond's fictional British Secret Service starting in 1995 takes on the actual name of the UK's Secret Intelligence Service, commonly known as MI6. Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR is an agent of the international arm of the British Secret Service headquartered in London in a tall, grey building overlooking Regent's Park. .

In addition to novels and films, Bond is a prominent character in many computer and video games, comic strips and comic books, and has been the subject of many parodies. Currently, Columbia Pictures and MGM (United Artists' parent) co-distribute the series. Broccoli's family company, Danjaq, LLC, has co-owned the James Bond film series with United Artists Corporation since the mid-1970s, when Saltzman sold UA his share of Danjaq. The 21st official film, Casino Royale, with Daniel Craig as Bond, is in production and is scheduled for a November 17, 2006 release.

In chronological order, they are:. To date, five actors have portrayed Bond in the official series, and a sixth is soon to make his appearance. Wilson, carried on the production duties together beginning in 1995. His daughter, Barbara Broccoli, and his stepson, Michael G.

Broccoli and Harry Saltzman produced most of the official films up until 1975 when Broccoli became the sole producer. Twenty films have been produced by EON featuring this character as well as two independently produced films and one American television adaptation of Fleming's first novel under legal licence; however, it is generally considered that only the EON films are "official." Albert R. Although initially made famous through the novels, James Bond is now probably best known from the EON Productions film series. Fleming wrote numerous novels and short stories based upon the character and, after his death in 1964, further literary adventures were written by Kingsley Amis (pseudonym "Robert Markham"), John Pearson, John Gardner, Raymond Benson, and Charlie Higson; in addition, Christopher Wood wrote two screenplay novelisations and other authors have also written various unofficial permutations of the character.

James Bond, also known as 007 (pronounced "double-oh seven"), is a fictional British spy created by writer Ian Fleming in 1953. Bond franchise Box Office numbers [7], Casino Royale Box Office numbers (1967), Box Office numbers + Inflation. URL accessed on February 23, 2005.. The Charlie Higson CBn Interview.

Charlie Higson interview with CommanderBond.net. ISBN 0719065410.. The James Bond Phenomenon: A Critical Reader, Manchester University Press. Lindner, Christoph (2003).

ISBN 0810932962.. James Bond: The Legacy, Boxtree/Macmillan. Cork, John (2002). ISBN 1860643876..

Tauris. Licence To Thrill: A Cultural History Of The James Bond Films, I.B. Chapman, James (1999). ISBN 1401102840..

The James Bond Bedside Companion, Dodd, Mead. Benson, Raymond (1984). URL accessed on July 13, 2005.. 100 Movie Quotes.

AFI's 100 Years.. James Bond" 22nd greatest line in cinema history. ^  "Bond. URL accessed on June 15, 2005..

Most Lucrative Movie Franchises. ^  James Bond the second highest grossing film franchise of all time. ISBN 0719568153.. James Bond: The Man and His World, John Murray.

^ Chancellor, Henry (2005). As a tribute to this, when casting his third Indiana Jones film, The Last Crusade, Lucas chose Connery for the role of Indiana's father, with his reasoning being "Who else could play Indiana Jones' father, but the guy who inspired all of this in the first place, James Bond himself!" (Sean Connery). George Lucas has said on multiple occasions that Connery's portrayal of the character was one of the primary inspirations for his Indiana Jones character. Sean Connery starred in the Motion Picture version of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, which has a 'supposed' link to the roots of James Bond's ancestry.

Five Ian Fleming titles have thus far never been used as film titles: The Property of a Lady, Quantum of Solace, Risico, The Hildebrand Rarity, and 007 in New York. In fact Llewelyn had been killed in a car crash shortly after the release of the previous film. In Die Another Day, Cleese becomes the new Q, the old Q having presumably retired. In The World is Not Enough, John Cleese is introduced as Q's assistant, whom Bond teasingly refers to as "R." Despite Cleese receiving a credit as R, there is no hint in the dialogue that this is an official title.

Desmond Llewelyn holds a record, appearing in 17 of the James Bond films as "Q," aka Major Boothroyd, and head of Q-branch. Baker shows up in later James Bond films, portraying Jack Wade, one of James Bond's allies in both Goldeneye and Tomorrow Never Dies. Joe Don Baker played Brad Whitaker, the villain in The Living Daylights. With the release of Casino Royale, Craig will become the first actor with blond hair to have portrayed Bond; although Roger Moore did sport sandy colored hair in his first few Bond films, he is not considered a blond.

Legal wranglings over ownership of the Bond franchise, however, led to the series being put on hiatus until 1994. Although never officially confirmed, numerous sources have suggested the title was to be The Property of a Lady, after the short story from the collection Octopussy and The Living Daylights. Dalton was originally contracted for three films, with the third film planned for release in 1991. Moore was reportedly Fleming's initial first choice for the Bond role, although other sources have suggested that Fleming favored James Mason or Cary Grant.

While initially skeptical about Connery being chosen to play Bond (at one point dismissing him as an "overgrown stuntman"), Fleming liked his portrayal so much that he eventually added background to the character in the novels so that his father was Scottish. "Then we'll use ice packs before the love scenes like we did with Sean," he replied. [6]. "But I've got breasts like a woman," I continued. I objected, "But I'm bald." "So was Sean — we'll get around it." he replied.

Gambon spoke of the situation in an interview: When he told me he was considering me for the part of 007 himself, I was amazed. Michael Gambon, who co-starred with current Bond actor Daniel Craig in Layer Cake and Sylvia, was asked by Cubby Broccoli to audition for the role in 1970 to replace Lazenby. To date, the only American to play the role is Barry Nelson, albeit unofficially in the Americanised version of the character in the 1954 TV adaptation of Casino Royale. Several other American actors, including Patrick McGoohan, and Robert Wagner, have been offered the role only to turn it down.

James Brolin was hired in 1983 to replace Moore, and was preparing to shoot Octopussy when the producers convinced Moore to return. Burt Reynolds was also asked by Cubby Broccoli in the early '70s to replace Connery after Diamonds Are Forever, but turned him down. John Gavin was hired in 1970 to replace Lazenby, but Connery was lured back at the eleventh hour and it was he who appeared in Diamonds Are Forever instead of Gavin. Adam West was offered the chance to appear in On Her Majesty's Secret Service when Connery chose not to return to the role, but turned down the offer.

However, American actors have been hired on two occasions, and approached about playing Bond on several others. Many people assume the Bond producers would never hire an American to portray the character in the official film series. Daniel Craig (announced October 2005 but yet to appear on screen). Pierce Brosnan.

Timothy Dalton. Roger Moore. George Lazenby. Sean Connery.

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