IRC-Galleria is the largest WWW-based virtual community in Finland. It was founded in December 2000 by Tomi Lintelä as a photo gallery for the Finnish users of Internet Relay Chat. As for February 2006, IRC-galleria boasts of over 302,000 registered users and over 3,600,000 images. About 85% of the users are active users who use the service on a weekly or daily basis. However, only about 20% of the users have identified themselves as actual users of IRC.
Despite all the features, IRC-Galleria is basically a photo gallery and it is not possible to have a user account without at least one accepted image. The maximum number of visible images per user is 60 (only for VIP-users), and the so-called default image must contain the face of the user.
The communication in IRC-Galleria is based on short messages, comments, each of which is associated with either a picture or a community. Each user can be a member of at most 40 communities. Some of the communities are named after IRC channels, and joining them requires IRC-based identification. Comments are only visible to those who are logged in.
IRC-Galleria is now maintained and developed by Dynamoid Oy, a company founded solely for the sake of IRC-Galleria. The service is financed with banner advertising, SMS-based services, T-shirts and optional VIP privileges which can be bought with SMS.
The unwillingness of the administrators of IRC-Galleria to exclude non-IRC-users has caused some schism, driving a few users to found their own alternative gallery services with a mandatory IRC-based registration. The administrators responded by introducing some features which aim at the minimization of the biggest problems related to the non-IRC-users.
The non-IRC-users registered in IRC-Galleria are sometimes ironically called galleriairkkaajat (gallery IRCers) due to the fact that many of them frequently refer to IRC-Galleria with the acronym IRC without necessarily even having a clue what the actual IRC is.
IRC-Galleria is now officially open for anyone who is over 12 years old and speaks Finnish.
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IRC-Galleria is now officially open for anyone who is over 12 years old and speaks Finnish. Conversely, daycares with an "infant room" providing infant care will call all their charges in the infant room "infants" even if they are older than a year and/or walking; they will sometimes use the term "walking infant". The non-IRC-users registered in IRC-Galleria are sometimes ironically called galleriairkkaajat (gallery IRCers) due to the fact that many of them frequently refer to IRC-Galleria with the acronym IRC without necessarily even having a clue what the actual IRC is. Even if not standing and walking, children older than one year are often no longer considered to be an infant and called a toddler regardless of whether they can actually toddle. The administrators responded by introducing some features which aim at the minimization of the biggest problems related to the non-IRC-users. While there is no defined end to infancy, babies are traditionally called "toddlers" when they start to walk. The unwillingness of the administrators of IRC-Galleria to exclude non-IRC-users has caused some schism, driving a few users to found their own alternative gallery services with a mandatory IRC-based registration. Fees for transportation and entrance fees at locations such as amusement parks or museums are often waived.
The service is financed with banner advertising, SMS-based services, T-shirts and optional VIP privileges which can be bought with SMS. Their social presence is different from that of adults, and they may be the focus of attention. IRC-Galleria is now maintained and developed by Dynamoid Oy, a company founded solely for the sake of IRC-Galleria. As is the case with most other young children, infants are usually treated as special persons. Comments are only visible to those who are logged in. Infants cry as a form of basic instinctive communication to their parents when in need of feeding or when in discomfort. Some of the communities are named after IRC channels, and joining them requires IRC-based identification. Babies cannot walk, although more mature infants may crawl; baby transport may be by perambulator (stroller or buggy) or on the back or in front of an adult in a special bag, cloth or cradle board.
Each user can be a member of at most 40 communities. Parents have to pay attention to the baby's action so they can learn the signals. The communication in IRC-Galleria is based on short messages, comments, each of which is associated with either a picture or a community. Babies can learn to signal to the parents when it is time to urinate or defecate by turning or making some noises. The maximum number of visible images per user is 60 (only for VIP-users), and the so-called default image must contain the face of the user. These techniques assert babies can control their bodily functions at the age of six months and they are aware when they are urinating at even earlier age. Despite all the features, IRC-Galleria is basically a photo gallery and it is not possible to have a user account without at least one accepted image. Infants are incontinent, therefore diapers are generally used in industrialized countries, while methods similar to elimination communication  are common in third world countries.
However, only about 20% of the users have identified themselves as actual users of IRC. In 1981 the World Health Assembly adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, to ensure that babies, carers and health workers were protected from commercial pressure to favour artificial feeding. About 85% of the users are active users who use the service on a weekly or daily basis. However, despite the proven benefits of breastfeeding, women throughout the world are under pressure to use artificial milks as a result of the unethical marketing practices of the baby food industry. As for February 2006, IRC-galleria boasts of over 302,000 registered users and over 3,600,000 images. The Word Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that one and a half million infants die each year because they are not breastfed. It was founded in December 2000 by Tomi Lintelä as a photo gallery for the Finnish users of Internet Relay Chat. Breastfeeding is the best start in life for a child.
IRC-Galleria is the largest WWW-based virtual community in Finland. Infant formula does not provide these immune substances and in places with poor quality water supply, subjects the infant to an increased risk of disease. Breastfeeding provides infants with many natural immune substances and isolates the infant from most bacteria or other contaminations in the local water supply. Sometimes a wet nurse is hired to feed the infant. If the mother is unable to breast feed, or does not want to, infant formula is used in Western countries.
Infants have a sucking instinct allowing them to extract the milk from the nipples of the breasts or the nipple of the baby bottle. As infants age, and their appetites grow, many parents choose from a variety of baby foods to feed the child. Feeding is done by breastfeeding or with special industrial milk, "infant formula". This epidemiological indicator is recognised as a very important measure of the level of healthcare in a country because it is directly linked with the health status of infants, children, and pregnant women as well as access to medical care, socio-economic conditions, and public health practices.
Major causes of infant mortality include dehydration, infection, congenital malformation, and SIDS. Infant mortality can be subdivided into neonatal death, referring to deaths in the first 27 days of life, and post-neonatal death, referring to deaths after 28 days of life. Infant mortality is the death of infants in the first year of life. A newborn has a developed sense of smell at birth, and within the first week of life can already distinguish the differences between the mother’s own breast milk and the breast milk of another female.
Newborns can respond to different tastes, including sweet, sour, bitter, and salty substances, with preference toward sweets. Conversely, loud or sudden noises will startle and scare a newborn. The sound of other human voices, especially the mother’s, can have a calming or soothing effect on the newborn. This may explain why people will unknowingly raise the pitch of their voice when talking to newborns.
For unknown reason, newborns usually respond to a female’s voice over a male’s. Therefore, although a newborn’s ears may have some mucous and fluid, he or she can hear sound from birth. While still inside the mother, the infant could hear many internal noises, such as the mother’s heartbeat, as well as many external noises including human voices, music and most other sounds. However, the newborn has a preference for looking at other human faces above all else.
Usually anything that is shiny, has sharp contrasting colors, or has complex patterns will catch an infant’s eye. When a newborn is not sleeping, or feeding, or crying, he or she may spend a lot of time staring at random objects. While this may not be much, it is all that is needed for the infant to look at the mother’s face when breastfeeding. Newborn infants have unremarkable vision, being able to focus on objects only about 18 inches directly in front of their face.
The need to suckle is instinctive and allows newborns to feed. Newborns may comfort themselves by sucking their thumbs, or a pacifier. Gentle rocking back and forth will oftentimes calm a crying infant, as will massages and warm baths. Newborns can feel all different sensations, but respond most enthusiastically to soft stroking, cuddling and caressing.
While older babies are considered "cute", newborns can be "unattractive" by the same criteria and first time parents may need to be educated in this regard. Thus prototypical older babies look very different. Newborns lose many of the above physical characteristics quickly. Occasionally, hospitals may apply triple dye to the umbilical stub to prevent infection, which may temporarily color the stub and surrounding skin purple.
The umbilical stub will dry out, shrivel, darken, and spontaneously fall off within about 3 weeks. After birth, a physician will cut the umbilical cord, leaving a 1-2 inch stub. The umbilical cord of a newborn is bluish-white in color. In either case, this is considered normal and will disappear in time.
Females may actually discharge milk from their nipples, and/or a bloody or milky-like substance from the vagina. This is caused by naturally-occurring maternal hormones and is a temporary condition. The breasts may also be enlarged, even in male infants. A newborn’s genitals are enlarged and reddened, with male infants having an unusually large scrotum.
The newborn may also have Mongolian spots, various other birthmarks, or peeling skin, particularly at the wrists, hands, ankles, and feet. Newborns are wet, covered in streaks of blood, and coated with a white substance known as vernix caseosa, which is hypothesized to act as an antibacterial barrier. As soon as the newborn begins to breathe, usually within a minute or two, the skin’s color returns to its normal tones. Immediately after birth, a newborn’s skin is oftentimes grayish to dusky blue in color.
The scalp may also be temporarily bruised or swollen, especially in hairless newborns, and the area around the eyes may be puffy. Amongst fair-skinned parents, this fine hair may be blond, even if the parents are not. Some may be nearly bald while others may have very fine, almost invisible hair. Likewise, not all infants are born with lush heads of hair.
Lanugo disappears within a few weeks. It may be particularly noticeable on the back, shoulders, forehead, ears and face of premature infants. Some newborns have a fine, downy body hair called lanugo. Special exercises sometimes advised by physicians may assist the process.
This will usually return to normal on its own within a few days or weeks. During labor and birth, the infant’s skull changes shape to fit through the birth canal, sometimes causing the child to be born with a misshapen or elongated head. These “soft spots” are known as fontanels; and the two largest are the diamond-shaped anterior fontanel, located at the top front portion of the head, and the smaller triangular-shaped posterior fontanel, which lies at the back of the head. At birth, many regions of the newborn’s skull have not yet been converted to bone.
While the adult human skull is about 1/8 of the total body length, the newborn’s is twice that. A newborn’s head is very large in proportion to the rest of the body, and the cranium is enormous relative to his or her face. The Apgar score is a measure of a newborn's transition from the womb during the first ten minutes of life. The average total body length is 14-20 inches (35.6-50.8cm), although premature newborns may be much smaller.
The average weight of a full-term newborn is approximately 7 ½ pounds (3.2kg), but can be anywhere from 6-10 pounds (2.7-3.6kg). A newborn’s shoulders and hips are narrow, the abdomen protrudes slightly, and the arms and legs are relatively short. . The term can technically also apply to premature infants and postmature infants, as well as full term newborns.
A human infant which is less than 28 days old is a newborn. A newborn infant is known as a neonate (neonatal, neonatus) after the final stage of gestation throughout the first three months. The term infant is also used as formal/legal term for minor; that is, a child in general. It is commonly used as a slightly more formal word for baby (the youngest category of child).