IRC-Galleria is the largest WWW-based virtual community in Finland. It was founded in December 2000 by Tomi Lintelä as a photo gallery for the Finnish users of Internet Relay Chat. As for February 2006, IRC-galleria boasts of over 302,000 registered users and over 3,600,000 images. About 85% of the users are active users who use the service on a weekly or daily basis. However, only about 20% of the users have identified themselves as actual users of IRC.
Despite all the features, IRC-Galleria is basically a photo gallery and it is not possible to have a user account without at least one accepted image. The maximum number of visible images per user is 60 (only for VIP-users), and the so-called default image must contain the face of the user.
The communication in IRC-Galleria is based on short messages, comments, each of which is associated with either a picture or a community. Each user can be a member of at most 40 communities. Some of the communities are named after IRC channels, and joining them requires IRC-based identification. Comments are only visible to those who are logged in.
IRC-Galleria is now maintained and developed by Dynamoid Oy, a company founded solely for the sake of IRC-Galleria. The service is financed with banner advertising, SMS-based services, T-shirts and optional VIP privileges which can be bought with SMS.
The unwillingness of the administrators of IRC-Galleria to exclude non-IRC-users has caused some schism, driving a few users to found their own alternative gallery services with a mandatory IRC-based registration. The administrators responded by introducing some features which aim at the minimization of the biggest problems related to the non-IRC-users.
The non-IRC-users registered in IRC-Galleria are sometimes ironically called galleriairkkaajat (gallery IRCers) due to the fact that many of them frequently refer to IRC-Galleria with the acronym IRC without necessarily even having a clue what the actual IRC is.
IRC-Galleria is now officially open for anyone who is over 12 years old and speaks Finnish.
This page about irc-galleria includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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IRC-Galleria is now officially open for anyone who is over 12 years old and speaks Finnish. Talk to local authorities or park rangers to see if it is advisable before taking such a risk. The non-IRC-users registered in IRC-Galleria are sometimes ironically called galleriairkkaajat (gallery IRCers) due to the fact that many of them frequently refer to IRC-Galleria with the acronym IRC without necessarily even having a clue what the actual IRC is. Jogging, running, and biking on wildland trails can be particularly hazardous since such runners are likely to be less attentive to the surroundings and the motion can trigger a "chase and kill" reflex in the animal. The administrators responded by introducing some features which aim at the minimization of the biggest problems related to the non-IRC-users. California law requires that wild animals who have attacked a human must be killed if they can be located. The unwillingness of the administrators of IRC-Galleria to exclude non-IRC-users has caused some schism, driving a few users to found their own alternative gallery services with a mandatory IRC-based registration. This, as well as the extinction in California of the wolf and brown bear, has allowed the puma to greatly increase its numbers, as there are usually no longer any competing predators able to steal a puma's kill, though a few black bears may be strong enough to do so.
The service is financed with banner advertising, SMS-based services, T-shirts and optional VIP privileges which can be bought with SMS. Pumas cannot be hunted in California except under very specific circumstances. IRC-Galleria is now maintained and developed by Dynamoid Oy, a company founded solely for the sake of IRC-Galleria. A young male puma was shot nearby by rangers later in the day. Comments are only visible to those who are logged in. On January 8, 2004 a puma killed and partly ate a mountain biker in Whiting Ranch Wilderness Park in Orange County, California; what is assumed to be the same animal attacked another mountain biker in the park the following day, but was fought off by other bikers. Some of the communities are named after IRC channels, and joining them requires IRC-based identification. Pumas in such circumstances may come to lose their fear of both people and dogs and come to see them as prey.
Each user can be a member of at most 40 communities. Attacks by puma on humans and pets are associated with urban areas situated in the wildland urban intermix such as the Boulder, Colorado area which have encouraged the traditional prey of the puma, the mule deer, to habituate to urban areas and the presence of people and pets. The communication in IRC-Galleria is based on short messages, comments, each of which is associated with either a picture or a community. There were around 100 puma attacks on humans in the USA and Canada during the period from 1890 to January 2004, with 16 fatalities; figures for California were 14 attacks and 6 fatalities. The maximum number of visible images per user is 60 (only for VIP-users), and the so-called default image must contain the face of the user. Attacks on humans are rare, but do occur — especially as humans encroach on wildlands and impact the availability of the puma's traditional prey. Despite all the features, IRC-Galleria is basically a photo gallery and it is not possible to have a user account without at least one accepted image. If a male puma invades the territory of another male, he may kill the kittens of resident females so that they will become receptive to mating.
However, only about 20% of the users have identified themselves as actual users of IRC. Female pumas usually have 3 or 4 kittens in a den in a rocky location. About 85% of the users are active users who use the service on a weekly or daily basis. A male may breed with several females. As for February 2006, IRC-galleria boasts of over 302,000 registered users and over 3,600,000 images. Adult males tend to claim a 250 km² (100 mile²) stretch for their territory; adult females take (50 to 150 km² (20 to 60 mile²) on average; however their ranges can vary from as much as 1,000 km² (370 mile²) to as little as 25 km² (10 mile²). It was founded in December 2000 by Tomi Lintelä as a photo gallery for the Finnish users of Internet Relay Chat. Like other cats, they will also move to certain areas for feeding.
IRC-Galleria is the largest WWW-based virtual community in Finland. Pumas will catch and kill their prey 98% of the time, so perhaps they can afford to be a bit choosey. Pumas do not enjoy being scavengers, however, and will generally hunt for their own food and not eat from a carcass. The carcass of the kill is usually then buried or partially covered to protect it for several days, while the puma continues to roam and comes back for nourishment as needed. They usually kill with a bite at the base of the skull to break the neck of their target.
They hunt alone and ambush their prey, often from behind. They normally hunt large mammals, such as deer and elk, but will eat small animals, such as beavers, porcupines or even mice, if the need arises. Pumas can kill and drag prey about 7 times their own weight. There are no authenticated reports of truly melanistic pumas.
Abnormally dark brown pumas with paler bellies have been described, primarily from South and Central America and were described as couguar noire in Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon. Abnormally pale and even white (leucistic but not albino) pumas exist. Kittens have irregular blotches of darker brown which can sometimes persist into adolescence but disappear by the time the cat is a year old. The normal coloration of the puma is tawny or sandy, mimicking their principal prey, the deer.
Pumas that live closest to the equator are the smallest, and increase in size in populations closer to the poles. Their life span is about a decade in the wild and 25 years or more in captivity. Puma kittens have brownish-blackish spots and rings on their tails. Adult females can be 2 m (7 ft) long and have a mass of about 35 kg (weigh approx 75 lb).
In exceptional cases males may reach as much as 90 kg. Adult males may be more than eight feet long (nose to tail), and have a mass of about 70 kg (weigh approx 150 lb). Puma claws are retractable and they have four toes. Their bite strength is more powerful than that of any domestic dog.
The puma can run as fast as 50 km/h (30 mph), jump 6 m (20 ft) from a standing position, vertically leap 2.5 m (8 ft), and often weigh more than 70 kg (150 lb). Pumas are tawny-colored with black-tipped ears and tail. circa 1990) and an estimated 4,500 to 5,000 in Colorado. There are an estimated 4,000 to 6,000 pumas in California (est.
They have also begun preying on pets, such as dogs and cats, and livestock, but have rarely turned to people as a source of food. Due to urbanization in the urban-wildland interface, pumas often come into contact with people, especially in areas with a large population of deer, their natural prey. There are continuing reports of the survival of a remnant population of the Eastern Cougar in New Brunswick, Ontario, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. It is anticipated that they will soon expand their range over the entire eastern and southern United States.
Pumas have been seen along the northern shore of Lake Superior with an attack on a horse in Ely, Minnesota in 2004. Pumas are gradually extending their range to the east, following creeks and riverbeds, and have reached Missouri and Michigan. The densest concentration of pumas in North America is found on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. In Canada, pumas are found west of the prairies, in Alberta, British Columbia and the southern Yukon.
Hunted almost to extinction in the United States, the puma has made a dramatic comeback, with an estimated 30,000 individuals in the western United States. When pumas are found and relocated to more "wild" parts of the state, they are put into competition with already existing cats. This is mostly due to human infringement, clashing with cities and other urban "advancements" or because of the loss of territories that urbanization brings. One of the only locations where the puma is in great danger is within the United States, mainly Florida and other parts of the East Coast.
Even now, it has the widest range of any New World land animal, spanning 110 degrees of latitude, from the northern Yukon Territory (in Canada) to the southern Andes (on both the Chilean and Argentinian sides). Before the modern human population explosion in the Americas, the puma ranged across most of the Americas. Pumas have one of the largest ranges of any wild cat, holding competition with only the Eurasian Lynx, Wild Cat and greatly spread Leopard. Hybrids between pumas and jaguars have been reported, but none have been proven.
Hybrids between a puma and an ocelot have also been bred. In spite of not being closely related to the pantherine big cats, hybrids between pumas and leopards have been bred and are called pumapards. Although a controversial move, the hybrids are more vigorous than pure Florida panthers and excessive inbreeding is averted. Hybrids between subspecies of puma have occurred where new blood has been introduced into the Florida panther.
Unfortunately it vanished into extinction as late as 1925. schorgeri). c. There once was a subspecies of puma in Wisconsin called the Wisconsin Cougar (F.
As a result of inbreeding due to small population, this subspecies is beginning to exhibit a crook at the end of its tail and a whorls of fur on the back. The Florida panther may be recognized in its smaller size (compared to other puma), a broader skull, and longer legs. Estimates of their wild numbers range anywhere from 25 to 50 individuals. There is currently a widespread effort in Florida to try to save the remaining population of the state's native panthers, as their numbers are extremely sparse.
The Florida panther is a rare subspecies of puma that lives in the low pinelands, palm forests and swamps of southern Florida in the United States, especially near the Big Cypress National Preserve. .
The puma is not closely related to other large felines, such as leopards and lions. Recent DNA analysis has established that the puma is supposedly quite closely related to the jaguarundi and North American cheetah (Miracinonyx, now extinct), but not to true cheetahs. concolor is accepted as having been wholly extirpated by the late 1800's, and where breeding populations have not been documented as re-established by 2005. Such anecdotal accounts are particularly prominent in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, a region where P.
The melanistic gene can be seen in a variety of cats, including the Lion, Tiger, Leopard, Jaguar, Caracal, Jaguarundi, Serval, Ocelot, Margay, Bobcat, Geoffrey's Cat; however, melanism has never been documented in Puma concolor, though urban legends of "black panthers" persist. In South America, panther refers to the jaguar and can refer to either the spotted or black jaguar. In Europe and Asia, panther means leopard and can refer to either the spotted or black leopard. In North America, particularly the United States, panther by itself refers to a puma, although the term black panther is correctly associated only with the melanistic variants of leopards or jaguars rather than pumas.
In fact in the English language the puma has over 40 different names. In Brazil it's called suçuarana, from the Tupi language, but also has other names. The word puma comes from the Quechua language. It is also known by the regional names of cougar, mountain lion, panther, catamount, and painted cat.
It is more closely related to the common house cat than to the African lion. Though large in size this cat cannot roar, but instead purrs and has even been said to make eerily humanlike screams when courting. The puma (Puma concolor since 1993, previously Felis concolor) is a type of predator-feline found in North, Central, and South America. Norton, November, 2003, hardcover, 320 pages, ISBN 0393058077.
W. David Baron, Beast in the Garden: A Modern Parable of Man and Nature, W. Do not climb a tree as pumas can climb just as well (if not much better) than humans. Be wary when leaving pets outside, particularly at dawn and dusk.
Keep pets from roaming and never feed pets outside. Install motion-sensitive outdoor lighting. Remove dense and low-lying vegetation that provide good hiding places for pumas. The best place to hit a puma is on the nose.
Pumas have been repelled with rocks, sticks, garden tools, kicks, and bare hands; a well placed kick to the face has been known to work. Fight back if attacked. Do not crouch down or bend over; this may create the appearance of an ordinary quadriped prey rather than a typically non-prey biped. Do everything possible to appear larger or intimidating, including raising arms wildly, opening up jacket, and throwing stones and branches.
Pick up young children without bending or turning from the puma (if possible). Instead, stand and face the animal, making eye contact. If confronted by a puma, do not run; that might stimulate its instinct to chase. Do not hike alone; go in groups with adults supervising children.
Andes Puma (Puma concolor araucanus). Argentine Puma (Puma concolor pearsoni). Chilean Puma (Puma concolor puma). Mato Grosso Cougar (Puma concolor acrocodia).
Bolivian Cougar (Puma concolor osgoodi). Incan Cougar (Puma concolor incarum). Amazon Cougar (Puma concolor discolor). Ecuador Cougar (Puma concolor soderstromi).
Colombian Cougar (Puma concolor bangsi). Mayan Cougar (Puma concolor mayensis). Texas Cougar (Puma concolor stanleyana. Yuma Puma (Puma concolor browni).
Kaibab Cougar (Puma concolor kaibabensis). California Cougar (Puma concolor californica). Vancouver Island Cougar (Puma concolor vancouverensis). Oregon Cougar (Puma concolor oregonensis).
Colorado Cougar (Puma concolor hippolestes). Missoula Cougar (Puma concolor missoulensis). Patagonian Puma (Puma concolor patagonica). Baja Californian Cougar (Puma concolor improcera).
Brazilian Cougar (Puma concolor concolor). Costa Rican Cougar (Puma concolor costaricensis). Mexican Cougar (Puma concolor azteca). Eastern Cougar (Puma concolor cougar).
Wisconsin Cougar (Puma concolor shorgeri) (extinct). Florida Panther (Puma concolor coryi).