Hiroshima

Main keep of Hiroshima Castle

The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare.

Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba.

History

Atomic Bomb Dome at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, a remnant of the city at ground zero of its nuclear bombardment

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet.

Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him.

Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. This role continued until World War II.

Atomic bombing

On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack.

After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968.

Hiroshima, following the atomic bombing

After the war

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. 1905-d. 1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.

Memorial cenotaph at Hiroshima Peace Park

Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years.

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace

Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005.

Attractions

A man prepares okonomiyaki in a restaurant in Hiroshima

Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times.

Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. League football team.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period.

Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station.

Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles.

  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial
  • Hiroshima Castle
  • Shukkei Garden
  • Mitaki Temple

Wards

Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):

  • Aki-ku
  • Asakita-ku
  • Asaminami-ku
  • Higashi-ku
  • Minami-ku
  • Naka-ku
  • Nishi-ku
  • Saeki-ku

Demographics

As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The total area is 741.75 km².

Industry

Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.

Sister cities

  • Chongqing, China
  • Daegu, South Korea
  • Hannover, Germany
  • Honolulu, United States
  • Montreal, Canada
  • Volgograd, Russia

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037

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Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan. The interaction of the solar wind with the terrestrial atmosphere can produce spectacular aurorae, but can play havoc with electrically sensitive systems such as electricity grids and radio signals. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. The activity of this system can affect planetary atmospheres and occasionally surfaces. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. pressure and wind), and though not true weather, is generally known as space weather. Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Inconsistencies in this wind and larger events on the surface of the star, such as Coronal Mass Ejections, form a system that has features analogous to conventional weather systems (i.e.

The total area is 741.75 km². A star's corona is constantly being lost to space, creating what is essentially a very thin atmosphere throughout the solar system, known as the solar wind. As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². Weather is not limited to just planetary bodies however. Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):. [3]. Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles. Studying how the weather works on other planets has been seen as helpful in understanding how it works on Earth.

Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station. Jupiter's banded appearance shows over a dozen such zones, while Venus appears to have no zones at all. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Earth's weather appears to behave based on about a half-dozen latitudinal weather zones. Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. This mystery is still to be solved [2]. Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. This has created a puzzle for planetary scientists: The weather is created by the differential action of the Sun's energy on different places and the amount of energy received by Neptune is very, very small, relative to the Earth, yet the strength and magnitude of weather phenomena on Neptune is far, far greater than on Earth.

League football team. On other gas giants, the lack of a surface allows the wind to reach enormous speeds: gusts of up to 400 metres per second (900 mph) have been measured on the planet Neptune. Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. Extra-terrestrial weather systems can be extremely stable; one of the most famous landmarks in the solar system, Jupiter's Great Red Spot is an anticyclonic storm known to have existed for at least 300 years. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. The Cassini-Huygens mission to Titan, for example, discovered clouds formed from methane or ethane which deposit rain composed of liquid methane and other organic compounds. Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Weather phenomena and systems on other planets are thought to be similar to those on Earth, but often occur on a much bigger scale or involve different substances to those familiar to Earth dwellers.

Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005. While this may be possible in the distant future, this is far beyond current technology. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. On a grander scale, science fiction authors have long posited the idea of terraforming other planets in order to make them habitable by human beings. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. Experiments have been carried out for many years, but the results are usually ambiguous. Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. It is the goal of some scientists to control the weather.

For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years. Christmas, for example, is the Yule of the pagans, celebrated around the winter solstice (the shortest day of the year). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. The effect of seasons on the life of primitive peoples also caused them to observe and celebrate certain events during the calendar, some of which, in adulterated form, are still observed today. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). A well known example is the Groundhog Day celebrated near the end of winter in parts of the United States. Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. Because of the large affect that weather has on day-to-day life and due to the impossibility of any type of forecasting before the advent of modern technology, a large body of folklore aimed at trying to explain the weather has grown up, some of which is fairly accurate, most less so.

In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games. More recently, Hurricane Katrina forced the temporary abandonment of the entire city of New Orleans in 2005. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. A series of great storms throughout the 13th century caused the powerful English Cinque Ports to be silted up and hence lose their influence. As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. The Little Ice Age of the 14th to 18th centuries had wide ranging affects in the northern hemisphere, including decimating the fledgling Viking colonies of Greenland, catalysing the formation of leagues among the Native American groups in North America, and forcing the change of patterns of agriculture across Europe to accommodate the shortened growing season. 1968). One such event that is celebrated is the saving of Japan from invasion by the Mongol fleet of Kublai Khan by the Kamikaze winds in 1281.

1905-d. Aside from climatic changes that have caused the gradual drift of populations (for example the desertification of the Middle East, and Ice ages in Northern Europe), extreme weather events have caused smaller scale population movements and intruded directly on the course of human history. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. Weather has played a large, and sometimes direct, part in human history. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. Weather also plays a major, if indirect, role in erosion of the surface, moving surface constituents around. Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. acid rain) or are reformed into other rocks and soils.

They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968. These are then free to take part in chemical reactions that can affect the surface further (e.g. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. The process of weathering breaks down rocks and soils into smaller fragments and then into their constituent substances. After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Along with plate tectonics and ocean circulation, weather is one of the fundamental processess that have shaped the Earth since its creation and will continue to do so as long as it exists. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack. This makes it very difficult to accurately predict short term weather changes more than a few days in advance, though weather forecasters are continually working to extend this limit through the science of the study of weather, Meteorology.

It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. The Earth's atmosphere is one large chaotic system so small changes to one part can have large effects elsewhere. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. Weather does occur in the stratosphere and does affect weather lower down in the troposphere, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood [1]. On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Almost all recognised weather phenomena on Earth occur in the troposphere (the lower part of the atmosphere). This role continued until World War II. Less common events include natural disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes and ice storms.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. On Earth, regularly occurring weather phenomena include such things as wind, cloud, rain, snow, fog and dust storms. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. This effect causes seasons and may influence long term weather patterns. Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. Any precession in a planet's orbit will affect the amount of energy received at a particular spot throughout the year. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him. The only two fundamental causes of weather are thus surface temperature, and to a lesser extent, elevation.

About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. A large scale example of this process can be seen in the Hadley cell and other forms of atmospheric circulation, a smaller scale example would be coastal breezes. Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. The simple systems thus formed can then display emergent behaviour to produce more complex systems and thus all other weather phenomena. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet. Horizontal wind currents are formed at the boundaries between differentially heated areas and can be exacerbated by the presence of sloped surfaces. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. When the hot air later cools it shrinks and sinks lower, increasing air pressure and displacing the air already below it.

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. This hot air expands and rises lowering the air pressure and drawing colder air into its place, which is in turn heated and rises and so on. . These surface temperature differences cause vertical wind currents as the hot surface heats the air directly above it. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba. It is due mainly to these two factors that the surface is heated to different extents. Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. ocean, forest, ice) have different properties of reflectivity (albedo) and absorb and radiate different amounts of energy.

It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare. Different types of surface (e.g. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). Because of a planet's curvature, sunlight is incident at different angles at different latitudes (higher latitude -> lower angle of incidence -> less heating). The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Weather happens because different areas of a planet receive differing amounts of energy from the Sun. John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037. .

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X. Usage of the two terms often overlaps and the concepts are obviously very closely related. 1961. Average atmospheric conditions over significantly longer periods are known as climate. ed. The term is normally taken to mean the activity of these phenomena over short periods of time, usually no more than a few days in length. Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. Weather is an all-encompassing term used to describe all of the many and varied phenomena that can occur in the atmosphere of a planet.

The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government. Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Richard B.

Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. Volgograd, Russia. Montreal, Canada. Honolulu, United States.

Hannover, Germany. Daegu, South Korea. Chongqing, China. Saeki-ku.

Nishi-ku. Naka-ku. Minami-ku. Higashi-ku.

Asaminami-ku. Asakita-ku. Aki-ku. Mitaki Temple.

Shukkei Garden. Hiroshima Castle. Hiroshima Peace Memorial.

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