Hiroshima

Main keep of Hiroshima Castle

The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare.

Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba.

History

Atomic Bomb Dome at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, a remnant of the city at ground zero of its nuclear bombardment

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet.

Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him.

Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. This role continued until World War II.

Atomic bombing

On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack.

After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968.

Hiroshima, following the atomic bombing

After the war

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. 1905-d. 1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.

Memorial cenotaph at Hiroshima Peace Park

Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years.

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace

Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005.

Attractions

A man prepares okonomiyaki in a restaurant in Hiroshima

Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times.

Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. League football team.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period.

Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station.

Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles.

  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial
  • Hiroshima Castle
  • Shukkei Garden
  • Mitaki Temple

Wards

Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):

  • Aki-ku
  • Asakita-ku
  • Asaminami-ku
  • Higashi-ku
  • Minami-ku
  • Naka-ku
  • Nishi-ku
  • Saeki-ku

Demographics

As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The total area is 741.75 km².

Industry

Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.

Sister cities

  • Chongqing, China
  • Daegu, South Korea
  • Hannover, Germany
  • Honolulu, United States
  • Montreal, Canada
  • Volgograd, Russia

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037

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Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan. It also retained the iPod's seamless integration with iTunes and the iTunes Music Store, allowing for true auto-sync between the software application and the iPod mini. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Like the larger iPod, the iPod mini supported MP3, AAC/M4A, WAV, AIFF, and Apple Lossless audio formats. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. Along the top, it has a hold switch, a headphone jack, and a jack for connecting accessories. Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. The unit's battery is charged during connection.

The total area is 741.75 km². A proprietary dock connector was provided on the bottom of the device for a connection to a computer (Hi-Speed USB or FireWire). As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². However, the 2nd generation iPod minis no longer came with a FireWire cable or an AC power adapter, which were left out to reduce the selling prices of the new iPod minis. Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):. This problem was addressed in the second generation models which had a claimed battery life of about 18 hours. Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles. The battery life of the first generation of iPod mini was about 8 hours (similar to the 3G iPod that was available when the mini was released,) which led to some criticism of the battery's short duration.

Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station. Towards the end of the life of the iPod mini, Apple laser etched 2 lines of 32 characters each on the top of the reverse side of the iPod mini for free. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Second generation models were available in both 4GB and 6GB versions (capable of storing roughly 1,000 and 1,500 songs) and eventually had the drive size laser etched on the case to help distinguish between the two. Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. First generation models were confined to a 4GB hard drive. Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. The iPod mini used ultra-thin Compact Flash Microdrive hard drives made by Hitachi.

League football team. While the button labels were gray on the first generation iPod, the second generation iPod sported button labels that matched the color of the case. Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. The gold model was dropped from the second generation range due to unpopularity. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. First generation iPod minis were available in five colors: silver, gold, pink, blue, and green. Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Its case was composed of anodized aluminum.

Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005. Both versions were 3.6 by 2.0 by 0.5 inches (91 by 51 by 13 mm) and weighed 3.6 ounces (102 grams). foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. The two generations of the iPod mini were externally almost identical, with the differences lying in their storage and battery capacities. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. . Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. Above the wheel was a display which showed menus or information about the currently selected track.

For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years. The click wheel is now also used in the fourth and fifth generation iPods as well as in the iPod nano. Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. Like its predecessors, the wheel was developed for Apple by Synaptics. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). To access one of the four buttons, a user physically pushed the edge of the wheel inward over one of the four labels. Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. The device retained the popular touch-sensitive scroll wheel of the third generation iPod; however, instead of the four touch buttons located above the wheel, the buttons were once again made mechanical beneath the wheel itself (hence, the new wheel was known as a "click wheel").

In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games. The iPod mini line was discontinued on September 7, 2005, replaced by the iPod nano. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. A second generation version was announced on February 23, 2005. As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. The device interoperated with both Macintosh and Windows PCs, with limited third-party support for Linux and other Unix workalikes. 1968). It was announced on January 6, 2004, and released on February 20 of the same year.

1905-d. The iPod mini was a smaller version of Apple Computer's iPod portable audio player. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city.

They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack.

It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. This role continued until World War II.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him.

About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay.

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. . As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba. Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance.

It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037.

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X. 1961. ed. Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng.

The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Richard B.

Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. Volgograd, Russia. Montreal, Canada. Honolulu, United States.

Hannover, Germany. Daegu, South Korea. Chongqing, China. Saeki-ku.

Nishi-ku. Naka-ku. Minami-ku. Higashi-ku.

Asaminami-ku. Asakita-ku. Aki-ku. Mitaki Temple.

Shukkei Garden. Hiroshima Castle. Hiroshima Peace Memorial.

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