Hiroshima

Main keep of Hiroshima Castle

The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare.

Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba.

History

Atomic Bomb Dome at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, a remnant of the city at ground zero of its nuclear bombardment

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet.

Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him.

Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. This role continued until World War II.

Atomic bombing

On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack.

After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968.

Hiroshima, following the atomic bombing

After the war

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. 1905-d. 1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.

Memorial cenotaph at Hiroshima Peace Park

Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years.

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace

Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005.

Attractions

A man prepares okonomiyaki in a restaurant in Hiroshima

Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times.

Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. League football team.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period.

Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station.

Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles.

  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial
  • Hiroshima Castle
  • Shukkei Garden
  • Mitaki Temple

Wards

Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):

  • Aki-ku
  • Asakita-ku
  • Asaminami-ku
  • Higashi-ku
  • Minami-ku
  • Naka-ku
  • Nishi-ku
  • Saeki-ku

Demographics

As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The total area is 741.75 km².

Industry

Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.

Sister cities

  • Chongqing, China
  • Daegu, South Korea
  • Hannover, Germany
  • Honolulu, United States
  • Montreal, Canada
  • Volgograd, Russia

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037

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Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan. As of January of 2006 Americorps plans to continue to send relief to the affected areas. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. The crews performed a number of relief tasks free of charge for hurricane survivors in need, including but not limited to support on the Fema/Carnival Cruise Lines shelter ship, tarping damaged roofs, and debris removal. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The crews originated from two main organizations, the National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC) and the Washington Conservation Corps (WCC). Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Americorps sent several crews to Texas, Mississippi, and Louisiana in response to the Gulf Storms of 2005, namely Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

The total area is 741.75 km². The Red Cross also expanded their Hurricane Katrina internet "Safe List" for use by those affected by Hurricane Rita. As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The American Red Cross continued to provide disaster relief to Hurricane Katrina affected areas, but as a result of Hurricane Rita, had to open additional shelters in other gulf states. Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):. It is their mission to provide relief support for all of the areas in Texas and Louisiana effected by the two storms and to remove obstructions that might otherwise hinder help to those affected. Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles. [50] [51] The 1,400 Oregonian soldiers and airmen, including the 1st Batallion of the 186th Infantry which is designated a quick response unit, are joined by engineers and military police from Louisiana, a Stryker brigade from Pennsylvania, and an engineering batallion from Missouri.

Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station. Douglas Pritt of the 41st Brigade Combat Team, Oregon Army National Guard, head of Joint Task Force Rita (formally called JTF Ponchartrain). Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Gen. Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. On September 24, 2005, following the havoc caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, the National Guard named Brig. Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. Refineries directly impacted by the storm include:.

League football team. Due to the impending oil shortage and increasing gas prices, Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue declared what he termed "snow days," closing all Georgia public primary and secondary schools on September 26 and 27 to conserve fuel for buses. Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. Some economists argue that the rebuilding effort could buoy the economy in 2006, while others argue that the energy spike could decrease consumer confidence by enough to send the economy into a full-fledged recession when combined with the Federal Reserve's recent increases in interest rates. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. The most pessimistic projections have GDP growth cut by 1% on an annualized basis in the United States in the second half of 2005, with as many as 500,000 people made unemployed. Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. With some 200,000 jobless claims attributed to Katrina, Rita could be a further drag on a weakened US economy.

Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005. However the oil industry escaped essentially unscathed from the storm and post-storm predictions estimated only minor price rises. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. With over half of Gulf production still shut down in the wake of Katrina, some economists have stated that a worst case scenario is for gasoline prices to briefly touch $5/US gallon ($1.30/L), which would be easily the highest real price for gasoline paid in the United States during the internal combustion era. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. Rita's path takes it through a dense area of offshore pipelines and oil platforms, and on land to an area with large refineries. Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. Currently, there is very little spare crude oil capacity in the United States, and the Gulf of Mexico produces some 2 million barrels per day (300,000 m³) total, as well has having some 30% of the total refining capacity of the United States, which is the world's largest consumer of gasoline and crude oil.

For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years. The heavy concentration of oil infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico makes hurricanes of Rita's intensity very problematic. Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. Bolivar Peninsula between Galveston and Sabine Pass had only a small ocean surge, in contrast to the eastern side of Rita's center which sent a 20 foot ocean surge through Louisiana's unprotected towns. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Rita's ocean surge was easily handled by Port Arthur's extensive levee system. Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. This placed most of the coastal community to the left of the eye and in the least damaging hurricane quadrant.

In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games. The "Golden Triangle" area was spared a more devastating ocean surge by the redirection of Rita's path hours before landfall. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. Those displaced by Rita were offered up to 60 days of hotel rooms, generators, chainsaws, and monetary assistance by FEMA. As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. A mandatory evacuation was issued before Rita's landfall. 1968). Some areas did not have power for more than six weeks.

1905-d. The water treatment plant in Port Neches was heavily damaged. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. An enormous number of houses and businesses suffered extensive damage due to falling trees and directly from Rita's winds. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In Groves, the home of Texas' Pecan Festival, an equal number of the pecan trees were leveled. Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. In Beaumont an estimated 25% of the trees in the heavily wooded neighborhoods were uprooted.

They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968. Texas Governor Rick Perry declared a nine county disaster area. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. All communities in the "Golden Triangle" formed by Beaumont, Port Arthur, and Orange sustained enormous damage from Rita's winds. After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. [48]. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack. [47] After water levels were lowered and an inspection was conducted by national and local experts, the dam was declared stable late on Monday, September 26, 2005.

It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. Repairs to the dam are expected to take months to complete. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. As reported by the a number of news outlets, on Sunday, September 25, 2005, this discharge put lives at risk downstream and threatened a major bridge as well due to a sizable barge coming adrift. On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. North of Houston, the 2.5 mile Lake Livingston dam sustained substantial damage from powerful waves driven by 117 mph winds [46] and had to conduct an emergency release in order to lessen pressure on the dam. This role continued until World War II. [45].

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. [44] Thirty one deaths have been reported in Harris County, of which all of them were indirect (mostly related to the evacuation and cleanup). After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. Some windows blew out of some downtown skyscrapers, and some trees and signals were down. Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. For the most part, Houston escaped major damage, apart from extensive loss of power. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him. [43].

About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. Around midnight, a vacant restaurant collapsed nearby, which was reportedly as a result of the fire that weakened the walls. Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. No serious injuries were reported in the fire. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet. However, the fire department was able to fight the blaze and prevent it from spreading through the city. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. In the late evening, a fire broke out in the Strand District of Galveston, Texas, gutting several homes.

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. [42]. . [40][41] Many of the passengers were mobility-impaired making escape difficult or impossible. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba. The fire started in the brake system, and the passengers' therapeutic oxygen tanks may have caused the bus to explode. Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. Twenty three people were killed as a result of that incident.

It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare. On the morning of September 23, a bus carrying 45 nursing home evacuees from Brighton Gardens in Bellaire, Texas erupted into flames and exploded on Interstate 45 southeast of Dallas in Wilmer. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). This poor area was just getting back of their feet after feeling Category 2 winds when Hurricane Katrina moved through the area. The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Also Lauderdale County which is in east central Mississippi reported several confirmed and unconfirmed tornado touch downs in and near the cities of Marion and Meridian. John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037. There were several non-life threatening injuries.

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X. There were also numerous mobile homes damaged at the University Hills trailer park just off the campus. 1961. MSU officials do not have specific damage assesments available; however, they do note there was significant damage to some buildings. ed. A tornado touched down on Mississippi State University's campus. Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. [39].

The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government. Another death was reported in Wilkinson County, although it has not been confirmed if it was storm-related. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. Another unconfirmed tornado was reported in Bolivar County. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. At least 40 homes and an industrial plant were damaged from one tornado in Humphreys County in central Mississippi, in which one person was killed. Richard B. Several tornadoes from Rita's outer bands affected the state.

Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. [38]. Volgograd, Russia. 250 people were rescued on Saturday, September 24. Montreal, Canada. In Vermilion Parish south of Abbeville, rescue efforts were undertaken for up to 1,000 people stranded by local flooding. Honolulu, United States. [37].

Hannover, Germany. Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco reported that 700,000 homes had lost power in 41 of the state's 64 parishes. Daegu, South Korea. [36]. Chongqing, China. It has been reported that at least 100 people needed to be rescued from rooftops, and at least 25 more remain stranded. Saeki-ku. [35] Some people were stranded in flooded communities, and boats had to be used for rescues.

Nishi-ku. In Terrebonne Parish, virtually every levee was breached. Naka-ku. Widespread flooding was reported in coastal parishes. Minami-ku. In Vinton, several fires were burning, the roof was torn off the town's recreation center and many homes were damaged by fallen trees. Higashi-ku. [34] Damage to the city's electrical system was so severe that authorities warned that power would not return for two weeks, if not longer.

Asaminami-ku. There was also extensive damage to its regional airport. Asakita-ku. At a hotel on the Contraband Bayou, water was reportedly up to the second floor. Aki-ku. Lake Charles experienced severe flooding, with reports of water rising 6-8 feet in areas around the lake itself. Mitaki Temple. A casino boat and several barges were floating loose in Lake Charles and damaged a bridge spanning Interstate 10 across the Calcasieu River.

Shukkei Garden. In Cameron Parish, the communities of Hackberry [33], Cameron, Creole, Grand Chenier, and Holly Beach were heavily damaged or entirely destroyed. Hiroshima Castle. Damage in southwestern Louisiana was extensive. Hiroshima Peace Memorial. [32]. As of Saturday night, September 24, water from a 150-foot gap in the Industrial Canal levee had some areas of the Ninth Ward under eight feet of water.

Some pumping stations were abandoned. CDT, water had begun gushing through another leak in the patched London Avenue Canal into the surrounding Gentilly neighborhood. By approximately 5 p.m. CDT on Friday.

Water in the Ninth Ward was reported to be waist-deep at 11 a.m. CDT on Friday, September 23. Water entered the Ninth Ward over two 32-foot (10 m) wide patches in the levee as of about 9 a.m. On Friday, September 23, the day prior to landfall, rising water due to Hurricane Rita was pouring through breaches in the patched Industrial Canal levee in New Orleans' already hard-hit Ninth Ward, as reported by the Army Corps of Engineers.

New Orleans levee system had already sustained heavy damage from Hurricane Katrina before Rita's outer bands of rain fell on the city. [31]. Both were due to high surf and rip currents caused by Rita's distant waves. While the Florida Panhandle escaped most of the land effects from Rita, two deaths were reported on beaches.

No deaths were reported in either Florida or Cuba from the initial impact. [30]. More than 2,000 National Guard troops and dozens of law enforcement officers were brought in and are on standby. Bush in four counties: Broward, Collier, Miami-Dade and Monroe.

A state of emergency was declared by Florida Governor Jeb Bush and a federal emergency by President George W. [29]. EDT on Tuesday, September 20, about 25,000 customers were without electricity in Broward and Miami-Dade counties, plus another 2,100 in the Keys. As of 8 p.m.

The Overseas Highway (US 1) connecting the islands was impassable in some sections as a result of the flooding. Flooding was reported along the Florida Keys as a result of the storm surge. More than 340,000 people were under voluntary or mandatory evacuation orders in Florida and Cuba. No deaths were reported in Arkansas due to Rita.

[28]. Most tornadoes move northeast. The tornadoes were unusual in that they moved in a northwestern direction due to the direction in which Rita was moving. [27].

In addition, significant flooding has been reported in several areas. While Rita weakened to a tropical depression, the outer bands continued to spawn numerous tornadoes in Arkansas, including one in Lonoke County and another in Conway County, damaging many homes and businesses in several communities. poisoning, illnesses, waiting for help). Indirect deaths indicate those caused by hurricane-related accidents (including car accidents, fires or other incidents), as well as clean-up and evacuation incidents and health issues (i.e.

Direct deaths indicate those caused by the direct effects of the winds, flooding, tornadoes, storm surge or oceanic effects of Rita. The two Florida deaths were both in rip currents on beaches caused by Rita's distant waves. One was caused by a hurricane-related tornado in the outer bands, and three others were caused by fallen trees during the storm. Only six of them were direct deaths.

CDT on October 3 (0300 UTC October 4) stands at 119. The reported death toll as of 10 p.m. Also gas prices fell in the U.S instead of rising as feared. [9].

[8] Total damage is estimated $9.4 billion, which makes Rita the ninth costliest storm in US history. In total, it is estimated that well over 2 million customers were without electricity. [7] Calcasieu Parish, with the communities of Lake Charles, Sulphur, Westlake and Vinton also suffered heavy damage. Cameron Parish was heavily damaged, with the communities of Holly Beach, Hackberry and Cameron being essentially destroyed.

However, local storm surges of 15 to 20 feet (4.5-6.1 m) in southwestern Louisiana were reported, and in from coastal parishes, damage was extensive. The 5 inches (130 mm) of rain expected to fall overnight in New Orleans also did not happen, and the pressure on the levee system was eased. The storm surge feared in Galveston did not materialize, as the city was well to the west of the storm's center; the strong winds actually flattened the surge, which was only seven feet (2 m), and the seawall was easily able to handle it. The effects of Hurricane Rita were not nearly as severe as expected.

Valero Energy Corp, the nation's largest refiner, stated on September 21 that Rita could have caused gasoline prices to rise well above $3 per US gallon ($0.79/L). While no potential storm path would threaten all of the capacity at once, a direct strike on Houston could disable up to 8% of the nation's refining capacity. The Texas Gulf Coast is home to 23% of the United States' refining capacity, and numerous offshore production platforms were in Rita's path. The storm threatened a large amount of oil infrastructure that was left undamaged by Katrina.

Concerns had been raised over the state of the oil industry in response to Rita. As part of the evacuation, Johnson Space Center in Houston handed off control of the International Space Station to their Russian counterparts. Many motorists ran out of gas despite turning off their air conditioners in the 98 degree record temperatures. Evacuees fought traffic all day and only moved about one hundred to one-hundred and fifty miles.

The Texas Department of Transportation was unprepared to execute this in an efficient way and in many cases without a release point to the North traffic would only speed up for a short time. Contraflow lanes were instigated after it was realized that a the state's highway system had become gridlocked. Distances that usually took 2-3 hours of travel time took some passengers upwards of 24 hours. Designated evacuation routes slowed to a pace far worse than with any previous hurricane.

By the time Jefferson County began their mandatory evacuation up Highway 69, 96 and others, Houstonians had already clogged up these highway arteries to the North. During the Rita evacuation these preperations and their execution were overwhelmed by the enormous and unprecedented numbers of people fleeing from the Houston area prior to the residents of the "Golden Triangle". Plans were put in place to open up these intersections. After Lili, citizens came back with complaints of long lines of cars caused by stop lights and stop signs along evacuation routes unattended by anyone from law enforcement.

Highway 73 between Port Arthur and Winnie was also widened to facilitate future evacuations in response to an even earlier hurricane. Officials in the "Golden Triangle" area had set up evacuation routes and a shelter system of sorts in response to the slow evacuation of residents prior to Hurricane Lili. "If you're not in the evacuation zone, follow the news," he said, advising people to use common sense. After heavy traffic snarled roads leading out of town and gas shortages left numerous vehicles stranded, he backed off on this.

On Wednesday, Houston mayor Bill White urged residents to evacuate the city, telling residents, "Don't wait; the time for waiting is over," and reminding residents of the disaster in New Orleans. These evacuation-destination cities included Austin, College Station, San Antonio, Dallas, Huntsville, and Lufkin, Texas. Also, different zones were to be forced to go to certain cities in Texas and were not allowed to exit their designated routes except for food and gas - another feature of the evacuation plan which hoped to keep traffic and flow orderly throughout this timeframe. Officials of Harris County hoped that the designation of zones A, B, and C would be able to prevent bottlenecks leaving the area such as those seen out of New Orleans prior to Katrina and Hurricane Dennis this year.

Nonetheless, many residents remained in the county because they were either unaware of the danger of the storm or believed that it was more important to protect their belongings, particularly in the wake of looting following Hurricane Katrina. Officials in Galveston County (which includes the city of Galveston), which was devastated by the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, ordered mandatory evacuations, effective September 21 at 6 p.m., in a staggered sequence setting different zones in the area which were due to leave at different times over 24 hours, well in advance of the storm's possible landfall later in the week but not enough in advance to ensure that all residents could evacuate safely in advance of the storm. Highway 290 northwest to Bryan/College Station. [6] On September 22, Governor Perry and the Texas Department of Transportation implemented a contraflow lane reversal on Interstate 45 north towards Dallas, on Interstate 10 west towards San Antonio and U.S.

Texas Governor Rick Perry recalled all emergency personnel, including almost 1,200 Texas National Guard from Katrina recovery efforts, in anticipation of Hurricane Rita's arrival. In addition, residents of Cameron Parish, Calcasieu Parish, and parts of Jefferson Davis Parish and Vermillion Parish were told to evacuate ahead of the storm. [5]. The original breaches had occurred a month earlier as a result of Hurricane Katrina.

Although Rita remained well to the south and west of New Orleans, a pre-landfall storm surge overwhelmed a levee protecting the lower 9th Ward [3], a part of a fragile and already compromised levee system as repairs continued [4] At landfall, more parts of the levee wall were breached causing major reflooding in New Orleans. [2] However, as Rita developed in the Gulf of Mexico, the reopening was cancelled and a re-evacuation of the city was initiated on September 21 as the storm was initially forecast to make landfall much closer to the city. Before Rita, the mayor of New Orleans, Ray Nagin, had planned to begin reopening the city after the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina on September 19. Hurricane Rita was the third (now fourth) most intense hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin and the most intense hurricane on record in the Gulf of Mexico, taking over the latter record set by Hurricane Katrina only three weeks earlier.

Rita has broken multiple records, being the earliest 17th named storm, the third (now fourth) most intense storm, and quickest drop of pressure in one hour. The Hydrometeorological Prediction Center ceased monitoring Tropical Depression Rita early on September 26. Rita's remnants -- technically an extensive low pressure area -- moved quickly out of the lower Mississippi Valley region and were absorbed by a cold front. Rita lost both hurricane and tropical storm status on the same day as its landfall.

Rita's wind field was so intense that it destroyed or disabled several weather buoys. "Rita is the strongest storm that I've ever been in," he commented. Warren Madden, a Hurricane Hunter and meteorologist for The Weather Channel, recorded a peak wind gust of 235 mph (380 km/h) while in the eye of the storm. Col.

Lt. (NASA clip depicting the history of the storm before landfall). Hurricane Rita's rapid intensification may in part be attributed to its encounter with the Gulf Loop Current and Eddy Vortex. CDT, the advisory said that Rita's maximum sustained winds had increased to 175 mph (280 km/h) with an estimated minimum pressure of 897 mbar (hPa), (26.59 inHg).

At 10:00 p.m. CDT, a reconnaissance aircraft recorded a pressure reading of 899 mbar (hPa), but it was thought to actually be lower since the reading was not from the center. At 6:50 p.m. CDT (19:55 UTC), another update was issued, saying Rita had strengthened into a Category 5 storm with maximum wind speeds of 165 mph (265 km/h).

Less than two hours later, at 3:55 p.m. CDT (1815 UTC) said that Rita's maximum winds had increased to 150 mph (240 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 920 mbar (hPa). An update issued at 2:15 p.m. Rita continued to gain strength unabated.

At that advisory, Rita's maximum sustained winds increased to 140 mph (225 km/h). EDT on September 21. EDT on September 20 to 11 a.m. The National Hurricane Center's official advisories, issued every three hours, showed strengthening at every single advisory from 5 p.m.

As Hurricane Rita entered the Gulf of Mexico, it rapidly increased in intensity. The warm water in the Gulf of Mexico, which was at the time 1 °F (0.5 °C) above average, was very favorable for hurricane development. Four hours later, another special update stated that Rita had reached Category 2 strength with 100 mph (160 km/h) maximum sustained winds. EDT that morning showed that Rita had closed the eyewall and winds clearly reached hurricane strength.

Aerial reconnaissance data released at 9:45 a.m. Rita was slow to become a hurricane; discussions early on September 20 showed that wind translations to surface level were indeed at 75 mph (120 km/h), however, the lack of a complete eyewall meant that the National Hurricane Center kept Rita as a tropical storm with 70 mph (110 km/h) winds overnight. A mandatory evacuation had been ordered for the entire Florida Keys. It became the 17th tropical storm of the season on September 18, less than a day after forming.

A surface low formed near it, and the season's 18th tropical depression formed soon thereafter east of the Turks and Caicos Islands. The storm formed at the tail end of an old frontal boundary, where convection and low level circulation around an upper level low steadily developed for over two days. Rita was in fact the third seventeenth storm of any season to form since naming of tropical storms began in 1950, but in the 1969 season many tropical storms went unnamed due to the lack of sophisticated forecasting systems; the seventeenth storm of 1969 was Hurricane Martha. Rita's name itself is a significant indicator of the activity of the 2005 hurricane season: only once before had a name starting with 'R' been used for an Atlantic storm, in 1995 for Hurricane Roxanne.

. The storm killed just 6 people but caused 113 indirect deaths; damage estimates are around $9 billion (2005 US dollars). Post-landfall damage was extensive in the coastal areas in southwestern Louisiana and extreme southeastern Texas. A day prior to landfall, the resultant storm surge also reopened some of the levee breaches caused by Hurricane Katrina a month earlier, and reflooded parts of New Orleans.

The storm first struck Florida after making an approach near Cuba and went on to strike Texas and Louisiana. It was the second-most powerful hurricane of the season (behind Hurricane Wilma) and the fourth most intense hurricane ever in the Atlantic Basin. Hurricane Rita was the seventeenth named tropical storm, tenth hurricane, fifth major hurricane, and second Category 5 hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Estimated repair time: two weeks to a month.

Damage: two cooling towers and a flare stack. Valero, Port Arthur, Texas, 250,000 b/d

    . Estimated repair time: no report. Damage: no report.

    Total SA, Port Arthur, Texas, 180,000 b/d

      . Estimated repair time: did not comment. Damage: minor damage, cooling water-tower. Motiva Enterprises (Royal Dutch Shell & Saudi Refining), Port Arthur, Texas, 285,000 b/d
        .

        Estimated repair time: did not comment. Damage: initial assessments do not indicate significant damage. ExxonMobil, Beaumont, Texas 348,000 b/d

          . Estimated repair time: did not comment.

          Damage: wind damage. ConocoPhillips, Lake Charles, Louisiana, 250,000 b/d

            . Estimated repair time: did not comment. Damage: minor damage, stripped away insulation from cooling towers.

            Citgo Petroleum (Petroleos de Venezuela), Lake Charles, Louisiana, 310,000 b/d

              . Estimated repair time: no report. Damage: power, phones out, some wind damage; control room, admin building OK. Calcasieu Refining, Lake Charles, Louisiana, 32,000 barrels per day [49] (b/d)
                .

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