Hiroshima

Main keep of Hiroshima Castle

The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare.

Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba.

History

Atomic Bomb Dome at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, a remnant of the city at ground zero of its nuclear bombardment

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet.

Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him.

Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. This role continued until World War II.

Atomic bombing

On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack.

After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968.

Hiroshima, following the atomic bombing

After the war

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. 1905-d. 1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.

Memorial cenotaph at Hiroshima Peace Park

Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years.

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace

Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005.

Attractions

A man prepares okonomiyaki in a restaurant in Hiroshima

Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times.

Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. League football team.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period.

Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station.

Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles.

  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial
  • Hiroshima Castle
  • Shukkei Garden
  • Mitaki Temple

Wards

Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):

  • Aki-ku
  • Asakita-ku
  • Asaminami-ku
  • Higashi-ku
  • Minami-ku
  • Naka-ku
  • Nishi-ku
  • Saeki-ku

Demographics

As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The total area is 741.75 km².

Industry

Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.

Sister cities

  • Chongqing, China
  • Daegu, South Korea
  • Hannover, Germany
  • Honolulu, United States
  • Montreal, Canada
  • Volgograd, Russia

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037

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Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan. They are more specifically differentiated as follows:. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. This is accomplished in one of three ways: the teeth are along the perimiter of a flat, circular blade; the blade reciprocates up and down rapidly; or the teeth are along one edge of a continuous band. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. Mechanically powered saws mechanically move the teeth past the wood while the saw itself is held stationary. Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. This division of Frame Saws includes the following types of saws:.

The total area is 741.75 km². This is accomplished by placing the blade in a frame. As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The final category of hand saws stiffens the blade by placing it under tension. Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):. Finally, some Dozuki saws, which are an Eastern-style (cut on the pull stroke)saw have backs and are classified as back-saws. Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles. A saw with a straight handle that extends from the top back of the blade is referred to as a Gent's saw.

Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station. These saws also have a handle that is vertical in relation to the blade. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. While this list is not definitive, they are generally named, from longest to shortest: Mitre Saw, Carcase Saw, Tenon saw, and Dovetail saw. Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Back saws are differentiated by length of blade. Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. The second category of hand saws keep a thinner blade stiff by reinforcing it with a steel or brass back.

League football team. This division includes the following specific types of saws:. Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. A Hand saw uses either simply a blade thick enough to be stiff, or cuts on the pull stoke which reduces the stiffness requirement. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. Hand-powered saws fall into three divisions, which are defined by the way they hold the blade stiff (a requirement to get an even, clean cut). Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. The first and largest division is between hand-powered saws and mechanically powered saws.

Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005. There are a number of different categories of saw, all with the same purpose of accurately making larger pieces of wood into smaller pieces of wood. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. . It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. Though Greek mythology indicates Perdix, the nephew of Daedalos, the inventor of the saw, unearthed constructed wooden artifacts from Ancient and Predynastic Egypt suggest possibly a much earlier date (see [1], Predynastic Egypt). Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. The saw can also be used — or abused — for playing music.

For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years. A saw is a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a serrated blade (a blade with the cutting edge dentated or toothed) and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power. Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. Chainsaw, motor-driven, for felling trees. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Band saw, with motor-driven continuous band. Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. Scroll saw, motorized version of the coping saw for making intricate curved cuts.

In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games. Reciprocating saw is the correct term to avoid violating trademark rights. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. because they pioneered this type saw and "Sawzall" is their trademark. As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. Often called a "Sawzall" which is actually correct only if made by the Milwaukee Tool Co. 1968). Normally held in both hands, useful for demolition work.

1905-d. Reciprocating Saw, action similar to a jigsaw, but much larger, more powerful and with a longer stroke. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. Historically was called a sabre saw (also saber) saw - no longer a common term. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. Jigsaw, narrow blade for cutting irregular shapes, typically held in one hand. Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. A sliding compound miter saw has a blade which can be pulled through the work similar to the action of a radial arm saw, which gives a greater capacity for cutting wider boards.

They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968. The basic model has it's circular blade fixed at a 90º angle to the vertical, a compound miter saw's blade can be adjusted to other angles. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. Electric miter saw, (also called chop saw, cut-off saw or power miter box) – for making accurate cross cuts and miter cuts. After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. who pioneered this type saw - design is similar to a small wood router, bits are similar to a twist drill, some cut on the upward twist, some cut downwards. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack. The latter is a trademark owned by Bosch Tool Corp.

It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. Rotary saw, for making accurate cuts without need for a pilot hole in wallboard, plywood, and other thin materials, also called a spiral cut saw or a "RotoZip". Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. Radial arm saw, versatile machine used mainly for cross-cutting where the blade is pulled on a guide arm through a piece of wood held stationary on the saw's table. On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Cabinet saw, similar to a table saw, but more precise and more powerful, often driven by multiple belts - an enclosed base stand is an integral part of the saw. This role continued until World War II. Can be set on a workbench, on steel legs, or a base specifically built to hold the saw.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. The latter is sometimes called a Contractor's Saw. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. May be direct drive or belt driven. Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. Table saw, circular blade rises thru a slot in a table, most common piece of stationary woodworking equipment. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him. Circular saw, machine-driven for industrial sawing of log and beams, typically found in sawmills - also name given to smaller hand-held saws.

About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. Coping saw, thin blade tensioned by a metal frame, sometimes called a jigsaw; that term has now become more common to describe a motorized hand held saw with a reciprocating blade. Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. Bucksaw or log saw, for fast, rough cutting. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet. Hacksaw, for cutting metal. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. Bow saw, thin blade pulled taut by a twisted cord or rod and nut.

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. One type of hand powered Miter saw (makes precisely angled cross cuts) uses a backsaw. . Two-man saw, for cutting large logs. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba. Keyhole saw or padsaw or compass saw, with narrow pointed blade. Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. Japanese saw, hand saws that cut on the pull stroke with straight handles.

It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare. Floorboard saw, with curved blade. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). Hand saw, saws operated by hand as opposed to power saws. The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Ripsaw, for cutting along the grain. John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037. Crosscut saw, for making cuts perpendicular to the grain.

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X. 1961. ed. Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng.

The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Richard B.

Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. Volgograd, Russia. Montreal, Canada. Honolulu, United States.

Hannover, Germany. Daegu, South Korea. Chongqing, China. Saeki-ku.

Nishi-ku. Naka-ku. Minami-ku. Higashi-ku.

Asaminami-ku. Asakita-ku. Aki-ku. Mitaki Temple.

Shukkei Garden. Hiroshima Castle. Hiroshima Peace Memorial.

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