Hiroshima

Main keep of Hiroshima Castle

The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare.

Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba.

History

Atomic Bomb Dome at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, a remnant of the city at ground zero of its nuclear bombardment

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet.

Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him.

Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. This role continued until World War II.

Atomic bombing

On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack.

After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968.

Hiroshima, following the atomic bombing

After the war

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. 1905-d. 1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.

Memorial cenotaph at Hiroshima Peace Park

Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years.

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace

Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005.

Attractions

A man prepares okonomiyaki in a restaurant in Hiroshima

Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times.

Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. League football team.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period.

Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station.

Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles.

  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial
  • Hiroshima Castle
  • Shukkei Garden
  • Mitaki Temple

Wards

Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):

  • Aki-ku
  • Asakita-ku
  • Asaminami-ku
  • Higashi-ku
  • Minami-ku
  • Naka-ku
  • Nishi-ku
  • Saeki-ku

Demographics

As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The total area is 741.75 km².

Industry

Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.

Sister cities

  • Chongqing, China
  • Daegu, South Korea
  • Hannover, Germany
  • Honolulu, United States
  • Montreal, Canada
  • Volgograd, Russia

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037

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Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.
. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. For the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season, Atlantic tropical storms will be named:. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. If there are more than 21 named storms in any given season, storms will be named for the letters of the Greek alphabet, starting with Alpha and following the list in order (like was used in 2005). Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. The 2006 list will be used again in 2012, except for any names that are retired before then.

The total area is 741.75 km². In the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season, Kirk replaced Keith, which was retired in 2001 following its effects during the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season. As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The deadliest or most notable storms have their names retired from the rotation. Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):. Names are used on a six-year rotation. Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles. The World Meteorological Organization now creates and maintains the annual lists.

Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station. Initially, storms only had female names, but after some protest, male and female names were alternated beginning in 1979. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. This replaced the old system which used map coordinates for identification. Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. In 1953, the Center began naming storms which reach tropical storm intensity. Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. Outside of the hurricane season, the specialists concentrate on public education efforts.

League football team. Each specialist signs forecasts and advisories with their last name, sometimes issuing joint statements with other NHC staff members. Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. They forecast and recommend watches and warnings. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. The specialists coordinate with officials in each country likely to be affected. Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Public advisories are issued more often when the storm threatens land.

Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005. Whenever a depression appears, they issue advisories every six hours until the storm runs its course. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. The specialists work rotating eight-hour shifts from May through November, monitoring weather patterns in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific oceans. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. The NHC's hurricane specialists are the chief meteorologists that predict the actions of tropical storms. Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. .

For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years. The current director of the National Hurricane Center is Max Mayfield. Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. Former NHC Director Bob Simpson was co-creator of the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). In 1995, the NHC moved into a new hurricane resistant facility on the campus of Florida International University. Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. The radar was replaced with a WSR-88D NEXRAD system.

In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games. In 1992, Hurricane Andrew blew the WSR-57 weather radar and the anemometer off the roof of Gables One Tower, then the location of the NHC's offices. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. In 1984, the NHC was separated from the Miami Weather Service Forecast Office, which was given the responsibility of handling standard weather forecasting and observation for southeastern Florida. As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. The Miami office was designated the National Hurricane Center in 1967, and given responsibility for Atlantic tropical cyclones. 1968). As communications and forecasting evolved, responsibility for issuing hurricane warnings was eventually centralized in the Miami Weather Bureau office.

1905-d. The National Hurricane Center has its roots in an 1898 declaration by then-President William McKinley for the Weather Bureau (now the National Weather Service) to establish a hurricane warning network. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. As such, the NHC is the central clearinghouse for all tropical cyclone forecasts and observations occurring in these areas, regardless of their effect on the US. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. Although an agency of the United States, the World Meteorological Organization has designated the NHC as Regional Specialized Meteorology Center for the North Atlantic and eastern Pacific. Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. When tropical storm or hurricane conditions are expected within 36 hours, the center issues the appropriate watches and warnings via the news media and NOAA Weather Radio.

They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Service's Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. The U.S. After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Max Mayfield 2000- Current. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack. Jerry Jarell 1997- 1999.

It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. Bob Burpee. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. Bob Sheets. On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Neil Frank. This role continued until World War II. Robert Simpson.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. Stacy Stewart, specialist since 1999. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. Richard Pasch, specialist since 1989. Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. Dr. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him. Richard Knabb, specialist since 2005.

About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. Dr. Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. Franklin, specialist since 1999. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet. James L. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. Jack Beven, specialist since 1999.

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. Dr. . Lixion Avila, specialist since 1987. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba. Dr. Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance.

It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037.

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X. 1961. ed. Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng.

The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Richard B.

Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. Volgograd, Russia. Montreal, Canada. Honolulu, United States.

Hannover, Germany. Daegu, South Korea. Chongqing, China. Saeki-ku.

Nishi-ku. Naka-ku. Minami-ku. Higashi-ku.

Asaminami-ku. Asakita-ku. Aki-ku. Mitaki Temple.

Shukkei Garden. Hiroshima Castle. Hiroshima Peace Memorial.

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