Hiroshima

Main keep of Hiroshima Castle

The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare.

Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba.

History

Atomic Bomb Dome at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, a remnant of the city at ground zero of its nuclear bombardment

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet.

Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him.

Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. This role continued until World War II.

Atomic bombing

On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack.

After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968.

Hiroshima, following the atomic bombing

After the war

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. 1905-d. 1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.

Memorial cenotaph at Hiroshima Peace Park

Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years.

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace

Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005.

Attractions

A man prepares okonomiyaki in a restaurant in Hiroshima

Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times.

Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. League football team.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period.

Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station.

Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles.

  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial
  • Hiroshima Castle
  • Shukkei Garden
  • Mitaki Temple

Wards

Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):

  • Aki-ku
  • Asakita-ku
  • Asaminami-ku
  • Higashi-ku
  • Minami-ku
  • Naka-ku
  • Nishi-ku
  • Saeki-ku

Demographics

As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The total area is 741.75 km².

Industry

Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.

Sister cities

  • Chongqing, China
  • Daegu, South Korea
  • Hannover, Germany
  • Honolulu, United States
  • Montreal, Canada
  • Volgograd, Russia

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037

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Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan. Bush nominated Samuel Alito for the seat on October 31, 2005 and he was confirmed on January 31, 2006. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Some commentators suggested the White House's staunch refusal to release documents relating to Miers' White House service provided a pretext for withdrawal. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. Although many in Washington and in the media expressed surprise at Miers' decision to withdraw, the move was widely anticipated. Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. history.

The total area is 741.75 km². Ginsburg in 1987, and the seventh to do so in U.S. As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². Miers was the first Supreme Court nominee to withdraw since Douglas H. Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):. On October 27, 2005, the White House announced that Harriet Miers had asked President Bush to withdraw her nomination, citing fears that the nomination would create a "burden for the White House and its staff and it is not in the best interest of the country." President Bush stated that the Senate's interest in internal White House documents "would undermine a president's ability to receive candid counsel," and he had "reluctantly accepted" her request. Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles. On October 19, 2005, Specter and Leahy announced their intent to begin confirmation hearings for Miers on November 7, 2005.

Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station. "There are no votes one way or another", he said on CBS' Face the Nation. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. He said that most senators were waiting for the hearings before making up their mind. Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Senator Charles Schumer (D-NY) stated shortly afterwards that "I think, if you were to hold the vote today, she would not get a majority, either in the Judiciary Committee or on the floor." However, Specter, the committee chairman rejected the notion that Miers' nomination was shaky. Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. In addition, the Committee repeated its request to review internal White House documents that would illustrate her experience as White House Counsel and the constitutional issues she worked on.

League football team. Her answers also included an error on constitutional law where she mentioned a constitutional right for proportional representation which the Supreme Court previously ruled that did not exist. Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. In an unprecedented move, Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Arlen Specter and ranking Senator Patrick Leahy also requested that Miers re-do some of her answers to the questionnaire submitted to her by the Committee, noting that her responses were "inadequate", "insufficient", and "insulting" because she failed or refused to adequately answer various questions with acceptable accuracy or with sufficient detail. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. Early one-on-one meetings between Miers and the members of the Senate Judiciary Committee were said to have gone poorly, and the White House considered suspending them to focus on preparation for the confirmation hearings. Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp.
.

Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005. Many notable conservatives vigorously criticized her nomination, and numerous conservative groups normally considered part of Bush's political base planned to mount an organized opposition campaign. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Miers' nomination was criticized from people all over the political spectrum, based on her lack of judicial experience, her close personal ties to Bush, and her lack of a clear record on issues likely to be encountered as a Supreme Court Justice. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. On October 3, 2005, Bush nominated Miers to serve as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. This caused several commentators to draw parallels with the 2000 election, when Dick Cheney, the head of Bush's vice-presidential search committee, was ultimately selected as the running mate (see [[21]]).

For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years. Bush took the recommendation seriously, factoring into account suggestions by several senators that the nominee should come from outside the appellate court system (see [[20]]). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. Meanwhile, Senate minority leader Harry Reid (Democrat - Nevada), recommended Miers as O'Connor's successor (see [[18]],[[19]]). (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). The Senate confirmed the nomination on September 29. Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. Rehnquist died of thyroid cancer on September 3, Bush withdrew this nomination and renominated Roberts for Chief Justice of the United States.

In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games. After William H. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. as O'Connor's replacement. As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. Roberts, Jr. 1968). On July 19, 2005, Bush announced John G.

1905-d. Bush appointed Miers as head of the search committee for candidates to replace O'Connor. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. On July 1, 2005, Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor announced her intention to retire upon the confirmation of a successor. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. Miers' last public speech was given to the North Dallas Chamber of Commerce on June 2, 2005. Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Bush is an impossible-to-describe privilege" and noted that Bush's personal qualities "make a brighter future for our nation and people all around the world possible." (see [[17]]).

They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968. She also stated that "serving President Bush and Mrs. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. According to former Bush speechwriter David Frum, Miers has called Bush the most brilliant man she had ever met (see [[15]]) and says he was the "best Governor ever" (see[[16]]). After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Miers is said to be one of Bush's closest personal friends, and appears given to effusive praise for the President. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack. In November 2004, Bush named her to succeed Alberto Gonzales, his nominee for Attorney General, to the post of White House Counsel, the chief legal adviser for the Office of the President.

It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. In 2003, she was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff for Policy. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. In that role, she opposed the administration's 2001 decision to stop cooperating with the ABA rating of judicial nominees. On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. In January 2001, Miers followed Bush to Washington, D.C., serving as Assistant to the President and Staff Secretary during the first two years of his presidency. This role continued until World War II. She said her resignation had nothing to do with lagging sales in the system's biggest game, Lotto Texas, but rather that she wanted to allow her successor time to prepare for rebidding the lottery's primary operator contract.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. Miers resigned from the lottery commission in early 2000, a year before her term ended. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. According to Texans for Public Justice, GTech paid Littwin $300,000 to settle the suit (see [[14]]). Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. He brought a lawsuit alleging that he was fired in retaliation for the investigation and to ensure that GTech would keep its contract (see [[13]]). The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him. He stated that Miers ordered him to stop the investigation.

About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. Littwin, as director, began an investigation into whether GTech had made illegal campaign contributions and whether GTech owed the commission millions of dollars for breaches of its contract. Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. At the time, the contract to operate the lottery was held by the politically connected GTech Corporation (see [[11]]), which had obtained the contract with the help of a former Lieutenant Governor of Texas (Democrat Ben Barnes) (see [[12]]). The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet. In 1997, the commission under Miers hired Lawrence Littwin as executive director, but then fired him five months later. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. Her tenure has also been criticized, however.

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. Some have credited Miers with reforming the commission after a previous corruption scandal (see [[10]]). . Bush, then Texas governor, appointed Miers to chair the Texas Lottery Commission. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba. In 1995, George W. Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. She served as the first female president of both the Dallas Bar Association and later the State Bar of Texas, and also served one term on the Dallas City Council.

It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare. Before joining the Bush administration, Miers was a lawyer in private practice for 27 years, handling business cases, and acting as then-Governor Bush's personal lawyer. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). Prior to assuming the position of White House Counsel, Miers had served as White House staff secretary, and Deputy Chief of Staff for Policy. The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. She is a close friend of Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice, and former Secretary of Agriculture, Ann Veneman. John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037. After her nomination to the Supreme Court, Hecht was cited as an unofficial spokesperson representing her views.

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X. Texas Supreme Court Justice Nathan Hecht has been described as Miers's "companion" and "on-again, off-again boyfriend"; he has known her for over 25 years. 1961. Miers never married and has no children. ed. She also had a sister, Kitty, who is deceased. Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. Miers's mother and two of her brothers still live in Dallas; a third brother lives in Houston, Texas.

The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government. Ed Gillespie said that she was a "conservative Democrat" at the time. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. Her last recorded contribution to a Democratic cause or campaign was in 1988. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Her earlier political history shows support for the Democrats during the 1980s, with recorded contributions to Democratic candidates and causes, including the Democratic National Committee, the Senate campaign of Lloyd Bentsen and the 1988 presidential campaign of Al Gore, totaling $3,000. Richard B. Bush), including Kay Bailey Hutchinson, Phil Gramm, and Pete Sessions, with recorded contributions to Republican candidates and causes totaling nearly $12,000.

Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. Since September 1994, Miers has contributed to the campaigns of various Republicans (at about the same time she began to work for George W. Volgograd, Russia. She subsequently became Bush's personal lawyer, and worked as a lawyer in his 2000 presidential campaign. Montreal, Canada. Miers subsequently worked as general counsel for Bush's transition team in 1994, when he was first elected Governor of Texas. Honolulu, United States. Nathan Hecht, her escort close friend, made the introduction.

Hannover, Germany. Bush in January 1989 at an Austin dinner, an annual affair held for legislators and other important people. Daegu, South Korea. Miers met George W. Chongqing, China. She did not run for reelection in 1991 after a restructure of the city council converted Miers's at-large seat, elected by voters citywide, into a single-district seat. Saeki-ku. In 1989, Miers was elected to a two-year term as an at-large member of the Dallas City Council.

Nishi-ku. Thus, all Texas lawyers who oppose abortion would have been forced, despite those beliefs, to financially support ABA's pro-choice position. Naka-ku. Second, as a unitary bar state, Texas makes bar membership a licensure requirement. Minami-ku. First, the State Bar of Texas is statutorily prohibited from taking positions on political issues. Higashi-ku. Meirs, who had not been involved in Chicago, supported ABA abortion neutrality in San Francisco on two grounds.

Asaminami-ku. By the summer of 1992, at its annual meeting in San Francisco, the issue was again pending before the ABA assembly. Asakita-ku. The ABA adopted neutrality on abortion in 1990 in Chicago at its annual meeting. Aki-ku. While head of the State Bar of Texas, Miers joined an unsuccessful effort to have the American Bar Association maintain its then-official position of neutrality on abortion. Mitaki Temple. She has also served as chair of the Board of Editors for the American Bar Association Journal and as the chair of the ABA's Commission on Multi-Jurisdictional Practice.

Shukkei Garden. In 1992, Miers became the first woman to head the State Bar of Texas. Hiroshima Castle. In 1986, Miers became the first female president of the Dallas Bar Association. Hiroshima Peace Memorial. As a commercial litigator, she represented clients including Microsoft and the Walt Disney Company. In 2000 the firm settled a lawsuit asserting that "it aided a client in defrauding investors" for $22 million (see [[9]]).

When the merger that created Locke, Liddell & Sapp took place in 1999, she became the co-managing partner of a legal business with more than 400 lawyers. She was the first female lawyer hired by the firm, and later became its president. From 1972 until 2001, Miers worked for the Dallas law firm of Locke, Liddell & Sapp (and predecessor firms prior to mergers). Estes.

District Court for the Northern District of Texas, Joe E. After graduating from law school, from 1970 to 1972, Miers was a law clerk for the Chief Judge of the U.S. In the summer of 1969, between her second and third years of law school, Miers worked as a clerk for Belli, Ashe, Ellison, Choulos & Lieff, the San Francisco law firm founded by "King of Torts", the late eccentric attorney, Melvin Belli (see[[8]]). Raggio, who was a mentor to Miers (see [[7]]).

In the late 1990s, while Miers was on the advisory board for Southern Methodist University's law school, she helped create and fund a Women's Studies lecture series named after pioneering Texas lawyer, Louise B. Miers also recently received an honorary degree from Pepperdine University (see[[6]]). Miers graduated from Southern Methodist University with a bachelor's degree in mathematics (1967) and from its law school with a Juris Doctor degree (1970). When a lawyer was able to organize her family's financial situation, Miers was inspired to enter law school (see [[5]]).

Then her father had a debilitating stroke. The economic plight of her family was so dire that she almost dropped out in her freshman year, but she was able to find part-time work that put her through college. Miers entered Southern Methodist University intending to become a teacher. It was inititally reported that she was raised a Roman Catholic before becoming an evangelical Protestant, but these were ultimately debunked.

Miers, Sr., and his wife, the former Sally Richardson. She describes herself as a "Texan through and through." (see[[4]]) The fourth of five children, she is the daughter of real estate investor Harris W. to work in the Bush administration. Miers was born in Dallas, Texas, and spent most of her life there until 2001, when she moved to Washington, D.C.

. On October 27 Miers asked the President to withdraw her nomination, and President Bush did so. As the Senate hearing process proceeded, Miers' appointment was widely criticized, with Miers herself being characterized as unqualified and a Presidential crony. Supreme Court to replace Justice Sandra Day O'Connor.

Bush nominated her on October 3, 2005 for Associate Justice of the U.S. Based on the recommendation of Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid (Democrat - Nevada) ([[1]],[[2]],[[3]]), President George W. Harriet Ellan Miers (born August 10, 1945) is an American lawyer, currently serving as White House Counsel.

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