Hiroshima

Main keep of Hiroshima Castle

The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare.

Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba.

History

Atomic Bomb Dome at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, a remnant of the city at ground zero of its nuclear bombardment

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet.

Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him.

Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. This role continued until World War II.

Atomic bombing

On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack.

After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968.

Hiroshima, following the atomic bombing

After the war

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. 1905-d. 1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.

Memorial cenotaph at Hiroshima Peace Park

Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years.

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace

Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005.

Attractions

A man prepares okonomiyaki in a restaurant in Hiroshima

Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times.

Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. League football team.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period.

Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station.

Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles.

  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial
  • Hiroshima Castle
  • Shukkei Garden
  • Mitaki Temple

Wards

Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):

  • Aki-ku
  • Asakita-ku
  • Asaminami-ku
  • Higashi-ku
  • Minami-ku
  • Naka-ku
  • Nishi-ku
  • Saeki-ku

Demographics

As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The total area is 741.75 km².

Industry

Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.

Sister cities

  • Chongqing, China
  • Daegu, South Korea
  • Hannover, Germany
  • Honolulu, United States
  • Montreal, Canada
  • Volgograd, Russia

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037

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Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan. It is worth noting that the way we perceive space may not necessarily be representative of the actuality of space. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. "Veridical perception" is the term used to describe the processing of the information provided by the sensory organs to an extent whereby it allows interaction with the actuality of that perceived. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The perception of surroundings is important due to its necessary relevance to survival, especially with regards to hunting and self preservation. Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Other, more specialised topics studied include amodal perception and object permanence.

The total area is 741.75 km². Psychologists analysing the perception of space are concerned with how recognition of an object's physical appearance or its interactions are perceived. As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The way in which space is perceived is an area which psychologists first began to study in the middle of the 19th century, and it is now thought by those concerned with such studies to be a distinct branch within psychology. Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):. Two important thought-experiments connected with these questions are: Newton's bucket argument and Poincaré's sphere-world. Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles. Similar philosophical questions concerning space include: Is space absolute or purely relational? Does space have one correct geometry, or is the geometry of space just a convention? Historical positions in these debates have been taken by Isaac Newton (space is absolute), Gottfried Leibniz (space is relational), and Henri Poincaré (spatial geometry is a convention).

Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station. Spatial measurements are used to quantify how far apart objects are, and temporal measurements are used to quantify how far apart events occur. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. With Kant, neither space nor time are conceived as substances, but rather both are elements of a systematic framework we use to structure our experience. Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. In his Critique of Pure Reason, Kant described space as an a priori notion that (together with other a priori notions such as time) allows us to comprehend sense experience. Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. Another way to frame this is to ask, "Can space itself be measured, or is space part of the measurement system?" The same debate applies also to time, and an important formulation in both areas was given by Immanuel Kant.

League football team. An issue of philosophical debate is whether space is an ontological entity itself, or simply a conceptual framework we need to think (and talk) about the world. Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. Modern physics does not treat space and time as independent dimensions, but treats both as features of spacetime – a conception that challenges intuitive notions of distance and time. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. Space is typically described as having three dimensions, and that three numbers are needed to specify the size of any object and/or its location with respect to another location. Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. These opposing views are relevant also to definitions of time.

Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005. Space has a range of definitions. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Public space is a term used to define areas of land which are open to all, whilst private property is that area of land owned by an individual or company, for their own use and pleasure. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. Ownership of Airspace and of waters is decided internationally. Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. Ownership of space is not restricted to land.

For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years. Space can also impact on human and cultural behaviour, being an important factor in architecture, where it will impact on the design of buildings and structures, and on farming. Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. Spatial planning is a method of regulating the use of space at land-level, with decisions made at regional, national and international levels. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). While some cultures assert the rights of the individual in terms of ownership, other cultures will identify with a communal approach to land ownership. Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. Geographical space is called land, and has a relation to ownership (in which space is seen as property).

In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games. Astronomy is the science involved with the observation, explanation and measuring of objects in outer space. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. Cartography is the mapping of spaces to allow better navigation, for visualisation purposes and to act as a locational device. As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. Geography is the branch of science concerned with identifying and describing the Earth, utilising spatial awareness to try and understand why things exist in specific locations. 1968). The International System of Units, (SI), is now the most common system of units used in the measuring of space, and is almost universally used within science.

1905-d. Geometry, the name given to the branch of mathematics which measures spatial relations, was popularised by the ancient Greeks, although earlier societies had developed measuring systems. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. The measurement of physical space has long been important. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In particular, the boundary between space and Earth's atmosphere is conventionally set at the Karman line. Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Although space is certainly spacious, it is now known to be far from empty, and filled with a tenuous plasma.

They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968. Any area outside the atmospheres of any celestial body can be considered 'space'. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. In astronomy, space refers collectively to the relatively empty parts of the universe. After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. In spacetime, measurements of space and time are held to be relative to velocity. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack. Einstein's work unified the two into spacetime.

It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. Before Einstein's work on relativistic physics, time and space were seen as independent dimensions. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. Relativistic physics examines spacetime rather than space; spacetime is modeled as a four-dimensional manifold, and currently, there are theories that can support up to eleven-dimensional spaces. On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. In classical physics, space is a three-dimensional Euclidean space where any position can be described using three coordinates. This role continued until World War II. Currently, the standard space interval, called a standard meter or simply meter, is defined as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second (exact).

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. Thus, similar to the definition of other fundamental quantities (like time and mass), space is defined via measurement. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. Space is one of the few fundamental quantities in physics, meaning that it cannot be defined via other quantities because there is nothing more fundamental known at present. Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. Kinds of mathematical spaces include:. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him. Mathematicians often study general structures that hold regardless of the number of dimensions.

About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. As far as the concept of dimension is defined, this need not be 3: it can also be 0 (a point), 1 (a line), 2 (a plane), more than 3, and with some definitions, a non-integer value. Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. Distance measurement is abstracted as the concept of metric space and volume measurement leads to the concept of measure space. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet. Important varieties of vector spaces with more imposed structure include Banach space and Hilbert space. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. In particular, a vector space and specifically a Euclidean space can be seen as generalizations of the concept of a Euclidean coordinate system.

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. It is not a formally defined concept as such, but a generic name for a number of similar concepts, most of which generalize some abstract properties of the physical concept of space. . In mathematics, a space is a set, with some particular properties and usually some additional structure. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba. . Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. (See philosophy of space.).

It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare. The nature of space has been a prime occupation for philosophers and scientists for much of human history, and hence it is difficult to provide an uncontroversial and clear definition outside of specific defined contexts. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). the Universe, outer space, all physical space, mathematical space). The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Euclidean space, living space, personal space, social space), or (conceptually) infinite space (ie. John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037. In common usage, it refers to varied concepts of finite (or local) space (ie.

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X. Space is a general or specialized concept of a local, relative, containing, or otherwise relevant area —where all objects within have a relationship with (the) space which follows various (theoretically) defineable rules. 1961. Accessed June 12, 2005. ed. Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. Space perception.

The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government. Kenophobia is the fear of empty spaces. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. Astrophobia is the fear of celestial space,. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Space can also cause anxiety in people, with agoraphobia manifesting itself in some people as a fear of open spaces, and claustrophobia being the fear of enclosed spaces. Richard B. The term "personal space" refers to the amount of space a person likes to maintain between their own person and that of other people.

Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. In this view space does not refer to any kind of entity that is a "container" that objects "move through". Volgograd, Russia. A contrasting view is that space is part of a fundamental abstract mathematical conceptual framework (together with time and number) within which we compare and quantify the distance between objects, their sizes, their shapes, and their speeds. Montreal, Canada. One view of space is that it is part of the fundamental structure of the universe, a set of dimensions in which objects are separated and located, have size and shape, and through which they can move. Honolulu, United States. Vector space.

Hannover, Germany. Topological space. Daegu, South Korea. Projective space. Chongqing, China. Probability space. Saeki-ku. Metric space.

Nishi-ku. Hilbert space. Naka-ku. Euclidean space. Minami-ku. Banach space. Higashi-ku.

Asaminami-ku. Asakita-ku. Aki-ku. Mitaki Temple.

Shukkei Garden. Hiroshima Castle. Hiroshima Peace Memorial.

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