Hiroshima

Main keep of Hiroshima Castle

The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare.

Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba.

History

Atomic Bomb Dome at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, a remnant of the city at ground zero of its nuclear bombardment

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet.

Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him.

Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. This role continued until World War II.

Atomic bombing

On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack.

After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968.

Hiroshima, following the atomic bombing

After the war

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. 1905-d. 1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.

Memorial cenotaph at Hiroshima Peace Park

Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years.

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace

Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005.

Attractions

A man prepares okonomiyaki in a restaurant in Hiroshima

Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times.

Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. League football team.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period.

Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station.

Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles.

  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial
  • Hiroshima Castle
  • Shukkei Garden
  • Mitaki Temple

Wards

Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):

  • Aki-ku
  • Asakita-ku
  • Asaminami-ku
  • Higashi-ku
  • Minami-ku
  • Naka-ku
  • Nishi-ku
  • Saeki-ku

Demographics

As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The total area is 741.75 km².

Industry

Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.

Sister cities

  • Chongqing, China
  • Daegu, South Korea
  • Hannover, Germany
  • Honolulu, United States
  • Montreal, Canada
  • Volgograd, Russia

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037

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Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan. During the time when her daughter is with Hades, Demeter becomes depressed and causes winter. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. However, Hades tricked Persephone into eating the food of the dead so Zeus decreeded Persephone would spend six months with Demeter and six months with Hades. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. Zeus ordered Hades to return her to Demeter, the goddess of the earth and her mother. Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. In Greek mythology, Hades kidnapped Persephone to be his wife.

The total area is 741.75 km². In addition to this, novels such as Ethan Frome also use a winter setting to mirror the bleak, frozen feelings that the characters harbor. As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². There are many films in which a winter setting plays an important role, Fargo being an example. Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):. Other uses of winter in the graphic arts occur in Winsor McCay's Little Nemo in Slumberland. Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles. The land of Frigia is also featured in the serial Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe.

Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station. In Alex Raymond's comic strip, Flash Gordon, there is a land called Frigia, where it is always winter. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. LeGuin's novel The Left Hand of Darkness is set on a planet named Winter. Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Ursula K. Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. Winter is one movement in Vivaldi's "The Four Seasons;" and there are many examples of four paintings, all showing the same scene in different seasons.

League football team. Lewis's The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, where it was always winter but never Christmas. Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. S. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. Some use winter to suggest death, as in Robert Frost's "Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening." Some use it to suggest the absence of hope, as in C. Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Winter is highly symbolic of many things to many people and has been used to represent various things by artists in all media.

Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005. Although causes include genetic disposition and stress, the prevailing environmental influence is decreased exposure to light due to winter weather patterns. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Symptoms include sleeping more, tiredness, depression, and physical aches. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. The severest cases of this type of depression is diagnosed as seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. Around winter months, a gloominess, called "winter blues" or "February blahs" or "Holiday depression"-- during November and December in the northern hemisphere-- is informally noted amongst people.

For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years. Passing seasons change the habits and moods of people. Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. Larger plants, particularly deciduous trees, usually let their upper part die, but their roots are still protected by the snow layer. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). As for perennial plants, many small ones profit from the insulating effects of snow by being buried in it. Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. Annual plants never survive the winter.

In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games. To survive the harshness of winter, many animals have developed different behavioral and morphological adaptations:. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. This effect is compounded by the larger distance that the light must travel through the atmosphere, allowing it to filter more of this already limited heat. As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. In regions experiencing winter, the same amount of solar radiation is spread out over a larger area. 1968). During winter in either hemisphere, the radiation from the Sun hits that hemisphere at an oblique angle.

1905-d. When it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere faces the Sun more directly and thus experiences warmer temperatures than the Northern Hemisphere. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. It is this variation that primarily brings about the seasons. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. The planet is tilted at an angle of 23°27' (23 degrees 27 minutes) to the plane of its orbit, and this causes different latitudes on the Earth to directly face the Sun as the Earth moves through its orbit. Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. For example, winter occurs in the Northern Hemisphere when the Earth is closest to the Sun.

They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968. The popular belief that winter is caused by the Earth moving away from the Sun in its orbit is not true. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. Our planet remains tilted on its axis, and this has a dramatic effect on the weather. After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Elsewhere, in Chinese astronomy (and other East Asian calenders), winter is taken to commence on or around November 7, with the Jiéqì known as (立冬 lì dōng, literally "establishment of winter".). The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack. However, in the United Kingdom and Ireland the winter solstice is traditionally considered as midwinter, the winter season beginning November 1 on All Hallows or Samhain.

It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. In meteorology, it is by convention counted instead as the whole months of June, July and August in the Southern Hemisphere and December, January and February in the Northern Hemisphere. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. Astronomically, it starts with the winter solstice (around December 21 in the Northern Hemisphere and June 21 in the Southern Hemisphere), and ends with the spring equinox (around March 21 in the Northern Hemisphere and September 23 in the Southern Hemisphere). On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. A rare meteorological phenomenon encountered during winter is ice fog, which is composed of ice crystals suspended in the air and happening only at very low temperatures (at least 10 degrees below zero Fahrenheit). This role continued until World War II. Blizzards often develop and cause many transportation delays.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. Outside the equatorial areas, winter is cold and (particularly in the Northern Hemisphere) snowy. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. Measured astronomically, winter begins on the shortest day of the year, and each day of winter has more sunlight than the previous one. Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. Nighttime predominates the winter season, and in some regions it has the highest rate of precipitation as well as prolonged dampness due to permanent snow cover in such areas. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him. Meteorological winter is the season having the shortest days (which vary greatly according to latitude) and the lowest temperatures.

About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. . Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. However, many cultures in Europe consider winter to begin in November. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet. Contemporary meteorology takes winter to be the months of December, January, and February in the Northern Hemisphere and June, July, and August in the Southern Hemisphere. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. Depending on place and culture, what is considered to be the start and end of winter vary.

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. In areas farther from the equator, winter is often marked by snow. . It is the season with the shortest days and the lowest temperatures. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba. Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. Most notorious however was an unofficial strike by gravediggers.

It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare. Lorry drivers, train drivers, nurses, most public sector employees, refuse collectors, and workers at Ford Motors all went on strike. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). The Winter of Discontent is the name for the British winter of 1978-79, during which there were widespread strikes. The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Russian Winters of 1812/13 and 1941/42. John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037. Mice and voles typically live under the snow layer.

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X. Snow also affects the ways animals behave, as many take advantage of the insulating properties of snow by burrowing in it. 1961. The heavier winter coat made this season a favorite for trappers who sought more profitable skins. ed. The coat is then shed following the winter season to allow better cooling. Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. This improves the heat-retention qualities of the fur.

The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government. Some fur-coated mammals grow a heavier fur coat during the winter. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. Examples are the ptarmigan, the arctic fox, the weasel, the white-tailed jack rabbit or the mountain hare. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. The color of the fur or plumage are changed to white in order to be confused with snow and thus, to retain their cryptic coloration year round. Richard B. Resistance is observed when an animal endures winter, but changes in ways such as color and musculature.

Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. This is the case of squirrels, beavers, skunks, badgers and raccoons. Volgograd, Russia. Some animals store food for the winter and live upon it instead of hibernating completely. Montreal, Canada. For example, gophers, bears, frogs, snakes or bats hibernate. Honolulu, United States. These animals "sleep" during winter and only come out as warm weather returns.

Hannover, Germany. Hibernation is a state of reduced metabolic activity during the winter. Daegu, South Korea. the cardinal do not migrate. Chongqing, China. However some birds, i.e. Saeki-ku. Migration is a common effect of winter upon animals, affecting basically birds.

Nishi-ku. Ice Sculpture - elaborate sculptures are carved out of blocks of ice. Naka-ku. Ice diving - a type of penetration diving where the dive takes place under ice. Minami-ku. Ice fishing - the sport of catching fish with lines and hooks through an opening in the ice on a frozen body of water. Higashi-ku. Ice boating - a means of travel in a specialized boat similar in appearance to a sailboat but fitted with skis or runners (skates) and designed to run over ice instead of (liquid) water.

Asaminami-ku. Ice Skating - a means of traveling on ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special boots (or, more primitively, without boots, tied to regular footwear). Asakita-ku. Snowman building - creating a man-like model out of snow. Aki-ku. Snowshoeing - a means of travel in which one is able to walk on top of the snow by increasing the surface area of their feet. Mitaki Temple. Snowboarding - an increasingly common sport where participants strap a composite board to their feet and slide down a snow-covered mountain.

Shukkei Garden. Snowball fight - a physical game in which snowballs are thrown with the intention of hitting someone else. Hiroshima Castle. Sledding - a downhill activity where the user uses a sled to glide down the hill. Hiroshima Peace Memorial. Skiing - the activity of gliding over snow using what is now fiberglass planks called skis that are strapped to the skiers' feet with ski bindings. Bobsledding - a winter sport in which teams make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked purpose-built iced tracks in a gravity-powered, steerable sled.

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