Hiroshima

Main keep of Hiroshima Castle

The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare.

Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba.

History

Atomic Bomb Dome at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, a remnant of the city at ground zero of its nuclear bombardment

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet.

Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him.

Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. This role continued until World War II.

Atomic bombing

On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack.

After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968.

Hiroshima, following the atomic bombing

After the war

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. 1905-d. 1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games.

Memorial cenotaph at Hiroshima Peace Park

Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years.

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace

Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005.

Attractions

A man prepares okonomiyaki in a restaurant in Hiroshima

Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times.

Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. League football team.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period.

Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station.

Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles.

  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial
  • Hiroshima Castle
  • Shukkei Garden
  • Mitaki Temple

Wards

Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):

  • Aki-ku
  • Asakita-ku
  • Asaminami-ku
  • Higashi-ku
  • Minami-ku
  • Naka-ku
  • Nishi-ku
  • Saeki-ku

Demographics

As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². The total area is 741.75 km².

Industry

Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan.

Sister cities

  • Chongqing, China
  • Daegu, South Korea
  • Hannover, Germany
  • Honolulu, United States
  • Montreal, Canada
  • Volgograd, Russia

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037

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Other Mazda factories are in Hofu and Flat Rock, Michigan. [55] [56] The defense of Stanley Tookie Williams stated that this was a lie purported by the police department, and in their Reply Petition for Executive Clemency they attached a declaration from Lafayette Jones' mother which declared, under penalty of perjury, that Lafayette was not Stanley Tookie Williams' son. The Mazda CX-7 is slated to be built here in early 2006. The police department identified Jones as the son of Stanley Tookie Williams. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata and Mazda RX-8. In November 2005, the Fontana, California Police Department advised print and television media that a warrant had been issued for a registered sex offender, Lafayette Jones. Mazda Motor Company, now controlled by the Ford Motor Company, is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. was sentenced to sixteen years in prison for second-degree murder.

The total area is 741.75 km². Williams, Jr. As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 1,136,684 and the density of 1532.44 persons per km². Stanley Williams' other son, Stanley "Little Tookie" Williams, Jr., a Neighborhood Crip, was found guilty of shooting a twenty year-old woman to death in an alley off Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Hiroshima has 8 wards (ku):. [54]. Hiroshima is known for its version of okonomiyaki, called "Hiroshima-yaki" or "Hiroshima pancake." The Hiroshima version of okonomiyaki is unique for its inclusion of yakisoba noodles. He said, "I feel it's my duty to go on a worldwide campaign to show that redemption is real," he said.

Although it lies outside the city of Hiroshima, it is accessible by streetcar or railroad (and ferry) from the central train station. According to the December 21, 2005 article, "Funeral Service Celebrates Williams' Conversion From Violence to Peace; About 2,000 mourners hear celebrities and friends call the Crips' co-founder's execution a waste and praise his advocacy for children" written by LA Times Staff Writer Lisa Richardson, Willliams' son "brought the church to its feet" when he promised to teach Schwarzenegger about redemption. Its large red "floating" gate is one of the best known sights of Japan. Travon was the only family member who spoke at the funeral. Itsukushima ("Miyajima") Shrine is in the town of Miyajima, on the island of Itsukushima, across from Hiroshima. [53]. Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. [52] Travon is married, a father, owns a home and works for a social services agency in the Los Angeles area, said Barbara Becnel, Stanley Williams' co-author, according to Associated Press writer Kim Curtis in November 2005.

League football team. He said he was at peace with himself and proud of his son," who avoided the gang life, according to Leslie Fulbright, a staff writer for the San Francisco Chronicle. Sanfrecce Hiroshima is the city's J. "He was great. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series three times. Williams Taylor talked to her ex-husband by phone that day. Baseball fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. Travon Williams, the older son by Bonnie Williams Taylor, whom Williams wed in 1981 before his conviction, was 32 years old at the time of his father's execution.

Tens of thousands of people marked the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 2005. "It's nine-fifteen on twelve-thirteen and another black king will be taken from the scene" [51]. foreign policy and urge the president to visit Hiroshima. Rapper Snoop Dogg recited a poem to mourners about the execution-. It has often been used as an occasion to criticize U.S. Teach them to promote peace and teach them to focus on rebuilding the neighborhoods that you, others and I helped to destroy.” (Stanley "Tookie" Williams). Every year on August 6, the mayor of Hiroshima gives a speech called "The Peace Declaration" to commemorate the atomic bombing of the city. Teach them to strive for higher education.

For the most part, however, Hiroshima has updated its streetcars over the years. “Teach them how to avoid our destructive footsteps. Some streetcars that survived the war - and the nuclear attack - were put back into service, and four of these are still running today. I battled my demons and I was triumphant,” Williams said. (After World War II, Japanese cities - like British ones - were anxious to get rid of their streetcar systems due to damage to the infrastructure, and so there were plenty of streetcars available to give away.) Hiroshima thus rebuilt its streetcar system along with the rest of the city, and thus Hiroshima is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system (although other cities have streetcar lines). “The war within me is over. Also, as a result of the atomic bombing, Hiroshima began to receive donations of streetcars from all over Japan. At his funeral, the last words of Williams echoed from a tape played to mourners, whom he asked to spread a message to loved ones:.

In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games. [50] It is planned that Williams' body will be cremated and his ashes will be sent to South Africa for scattering. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate translation services for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. Williams' funeral filled the 1,500 seat Bethel AME church and drew a wide variety of people from current gang members to celebrities and religious leaders. As a result, the city of Hiroshima was receiving more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. [49] A memorial service was held in Los Angeles on 20 December 2005, where Becnel read his final wishes. 1968). The viewing drew approximately 2000 people.

1905-d. Williams' body was laid out for viewing on 19 December 2005. In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor Shinzo Hamai (b. An archived copy of a Maura Dolan's Los Angeles Times November 29 article on the history of Becnel's efforts on behalf of Williams can be found here [48]. Several civic leaders and scholars were consulted about the rebuilding plan. [47]. Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with new modern buildings rising all over the city. Williams’ spokeswoman and co-author, Barbara Becnel, said shortly after Williams's death that she is "now on a mission." [46] "That mission is one: to obtain justice for Stanley Tookie Williams by proving beyond a shadow of a doubt his innocence, (and) continuing to preserve the incredibly remarkable legacy of this man who personifies redemption." Williams directed Becnel to receive his body, and Becnel began making the funeral arrangements.

They have written a letter of protest every time a nuclear weapon has been detonated anywhere in the world since 1968. So take care.”. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of nuclear weapons, and has advocated more broadly for world peace. So with that, I am grateful….I say to you and everyone else, God bless. After the nuclear attack, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a “peace memorial city”, and the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation was designated the "Atomic Bomb Dome," a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. And whether others choose to believe that I have redeemed myself or not, I worry not, because I know and God knows, and you can believe that all of the youths that I continue to help, they know, too. The American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are commonly believed to be the major factor leading to the surrender of the Japanese government six days after the latter attack. That's the beauty about it.

It was the second such device to be detonated, and the first ever to be used in military action. It's accessible for everybody. Air Force B-29 bomber which was altered specifically to hold the bomb, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians and heavily damaging the city. And it doesn't -- is not predicated on color or race or social stratum or one's religious background. On August 6, 1945 the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a U.S. That's how I would like my legacy to be remembered as: a redemptive transition, something that I believe is not exclusive just for the so-called sanctimonious, the elitists. This role continued until World War II. And I say to you and all those who can listen and will listen that redemption is tailor-made for the wretched, and that's what I used to be….That's what I would like the world to remember me.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. So, therefore, I just stand strong and continue to tell you, your audience and the world that I am innocent and, yes, I have been a wretched person, but I have redeemed myself. After the han was abolished the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. This is pure faith, and predicated on my redemption. Finally Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area and Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima han during the Edo period. It has nothing to do with machismo, with manhood, or with some pseudo former gang street code. The winner Tokugawa Ieyasu deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province to another daimyo who had supported him. In an interview [45] on WBAI Pacifica radio hours before the execution, however, he had this to say: “[M]y lack of fear of this barbaric methodology of death, I rely upon my faith.

About a half century later, after the Battle of Sekigahara, his grandson and the leader of the West Army Mori Terumoto was on the losing side. [44] At the time of his execution, he provided no last words to the prison warden. Hiroshima was founded by Mori Motonari as his capital. Williams requested no last meal and consumed only milk and oatmeal throughout the day. The city is almost entirely flat and only slightly above sea level; to the northwest and northeast of the city, some hills rise to 700 feet. [43]. The city is located on the broad, flat delta of the Ota River, which has 7 channel outlets dividing the city into six islands which project into Hiroshima Bay. Adam Housley, a reporter for Fox News, described the experience as "choreographed", "sterile", and "clinical".

Hiroshima was founded in 1589, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, and became a major urban center during the Meiji period. Lora Owens appeared very upset, according to MSNBC anchor Rita Cosby. . Members of Albert Owens' family who witnessed the execution were described as stony-faced. As of 2004, the city's mayor is Tadatoshi Akiba. He talked with his guards throughout the process. Hiroshima gained municipality status on April 1, 1889 and was designated on April 1, 1980 by government ordinance. Williams apparently exchanged many glances with his supporters.

It is most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare. Witnesses described a somber mood in the execution chamber. Geographical location 34°23′07″N, 132°27′19″E (City Hall). Fagan later wrote a detailed description [42] of the execution. The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. And most strikingly at the end of the execution, as those three were heading out, they yelled, “The State of California just killed an innocent man!” which is the first time I ever heard any outburst in the death chamber there.". John Hersey, Hiroshima, ISBN 0679721037. We could see them, and throughout the last part of the execution -- or preparing him when he was still conscious, they gave what looked like black power salutes several times to him, one man and two women.

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 067976285X. Becnel was among them, I understand. 1961. The most notable thing was that Williams had supporters at the back of the room… Ms. ed. A reporter for the San Francisco Chronicle, Kevin Fagan said, "This is the sixth one I have seen here at San Quentin, and I have to say this was very different. Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. He kept them on, and he kept looking…".

The author shows why the Japanese were preparing to continue the fight for an indefinite period and why they expected that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government. He had his glasses on the whole time. Uses newly declassified US military intelligence records and other primary sources from many countries to make the case that bombing had a huge net saving of lives, Japanese and American, over an invasion. Added Contra Costa Times reporter John Simerman, "They had some trouble with the second I.V., which was in the left arm… Williams, at one point, grimaced or looked almost out of frustration… at the difficulty there…. Frank, “Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire” (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461), a thorough analysis of all the available contemporaneous intel from the perspectives of the various participants during the last months of the war. [41]. Richard B. The process which should take only a few minutes instead took about 20 minutes.

Pacific War Research Society, “Japan's Longest Day”, the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. According to CNN, the staff had difficulty inserting the needles. Volgograd, Russia. An unnamed reporter at the execution said that Williams showed no resistance, neither when he came into the chamber shortly after midnight, nor after he was strapped onto the gurney. Montreal, Canada. Their description is as follows: [40]. Honolulu, United States. PST (08:35 UTC), several reporters who witnessed the execution held a news conference.

Hannover, Germany. After Williams was declared dead at 12:35 a.m. Daegu, South Korea. He was the 12th person executed by the state since California reinstated the death penalty in 1977. Chongqing, China. Newsweek reported [39] thousands of protesters outside, most asking for clemency. Saeki-ku. After exhausting all forms of appeal, Williams was executed by lethal injection at San Quentin State Prison, California, on December 13, 2005.

Nishi-ku. [38]. Naka-ku. Williams about an escape plan which involved the killing of a bus driver and another accomplice. Minami-ku. Prosecutors had cited handwritten notes written by Mr. Higashi-ku. Williams.".

Asaminami-ku. Oglesby told Von Ellerman that he was using the documents to testify against Williams and others "to obtain a reduction or eliminate charges against him." Von Ellerman also observed Oglesby copying from samples of Williams' handwriting "to create incriminating documents that would appear to be written by Mr. Asakita-ku. Mr. Aki-ku. He states that he had observed his cellmate George Oglesby receive police reports on Williams and others from the Sheriff's department. Mitaki Temple. It included reference to an affidavit by Gordon Bradbury von Ellerman attesting to belief in Williams' innocence and dated December 10 [36] states that he called the NAACP on December 8 after reading that date in the Daily Breeze [37] that his cellmate, George Oglesby, had testified against Williams.

Shukkei Garden. That same day, Jonathan Harris, a New York counsel with Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP, filed a response [35], summarizing new evidence of innocence. Hiroshima Castle. Schwarzenegger summarized by basing his denial of clemency on the "totality of circumstances." (Summary – Details in PDF format). Hiroshima Peace Memorial. In his denial, Schwarzenegger cited the following:. On December 12, 2005, Schwarzenegger denied clemency for Williams.

Williams work." [34]. This position of peace would honor my husband's memory and Mr. Williams to join me in sending a message to all communities that we should all unite in peace. I invite Mr.

Williams' peace initiative. By contrast, on December 9, 2005, Linda Owens, Albert Owens' widow, issued a statement in support of Williams’ efforts to bring an end to gang violence and his call for peace between gangs: "I, Linda Owens want to build upon Mr. [33]. On December 8, 2005, Lora Owens, the stepmother of Albert Owens, one of the victims, made a statement expressing her opinion of Stanley Williams: "I think he [Williams] is the same cold-blooded killer that he was then and he would be now if he had the opportunity again." [32] Owens' two daughters, Rebecca and Andrea, who were 8 and 5 when their father was murdered, also opposed clemency and recalled that they were aghast when they had learned that their father's murderer was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize.

Press conferences and rallies in more than a dozen California cities called for a halt to all executions and asked Governor Schwarzenegger to commute Williams’ death sentence to a sentence of life without parole; demonstrations against the death penalty also took place in numerous cities around the world. The “California Moratorium on Executions Act”, A.B.1121, is scheduled to have its first hearing in January 2006. On November 29, 2005, the American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California announced [31] that more than 175,000 Californians had signed a petition requesting the temporary suspension of executions in California until the California Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice could complete its study due by December 31, 2007. Tony Ford, who is up for execution on March 14 in a disputed conviction, helped organize a prisoners' strike in Texas protesting Williams's execution.

Other prisoners were also involved in activism to save Williams's life. See photos of some of the activist events to stop the execution. Celebrities also joined the fight, including Snoop Dogg, who appeared at a clemency rally wearing a shirt advertising the Save Tookie website and performed a song he had written for Williams, and Jamie Foxx, who - noting that Tookie's execution date was his birthday - publicly stated that the only birthday present he wanted was clemency for Williams. Tookie's friend, co-author and political collaborator, Barbara Becnel, helped to spearhead much of the organizing.

Many anti-death penalty and civil rights organizations around the country organized activist campaigns to stop the execution, including the Campaign to End the Death Penalty, the NAACP, and others. The recurring segment offended some members of the public, who filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission. In the hour, they interviewed advocates of both sides of the issue and expressed their support of the impending execution. In mid-November 2005, talk show hosts John and Ken of the John and Ken Show on Clear Channel's KFI radio in Los Angeles, California started a "Tookie Must Die (For Killing Four Innocent People)" hour on their show daily until the execution of Williams.

Also during this period, the media, community organizations, and relatives of the victims were speaking out. [30]. Supporters of Williams also made another plea directly to Governor Schwarzenegger to stay the execution. On December 11, 2005, the California Supreme Court denied Williams' request for a stay of execution.

[29]. On November 30, 2005, the California Supreme Court, in a 4-2 decision, refused to reopen Williams' case. While the clemency petition was pending before the governor, Williams also filed further appeals in the courts. Schwarzenegger described the decision whether to grant clemency as "the toughest thing when you are governor, dealing with someone's life.".

The one-hour, closed-door meeting took place as a crowd consisting of both supporters of Williams and proponents of capital punishment congregated outside the Capitol in Sacramento. On December 8, 2005, Governor Schwarzenegger held a clemency hearing. At least one commentator felt this strategy was flawed: San Francisco Chronicle writer Bob Egelko noted doubts stated by the courts handling the appeals and quoted Austin Sarat, professor of law and politics at Amherst College in Massachusetts and author of Mercy on Trial, a book about clemency: "It's [actual innocence] about the only ground in which governors grant clemency in the modern period...I know of no case in which a death row inmate has been spared (solely) on the basis of post-conviction rehabilitation." [28]. The clemency petition emphasized the theme of Williams' redemption, rather than his claim of actual innocence.

Williams said he didn't want to be a "snitch." [27]. The Los Angeles Police Department, the Los Angeles County District Attorney, and other law enforcement disputed that Williams had in fact reformed, saying that he refused to divulge information on other gang members, or debrief officials on the tactics and communication methods that gangs use. The state, through the office of the Los Angeles County District Attorney, opposed the clemency petition. (See below for the full text of the documents filed in these proceedings.).

In early November, 2005, Williams' attorneys filed his formal petition for executive clemency, as well as a motion to obtain new evidence. Those who campaigned against the execution included celebrities, politicians, and Nobel laureates. In late 2005, a campaign began to urge the Governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger, to grant clemency for Williams in consideration of his work as an anti-gang activist and asserted "redemption." Thousands of people signed online petitions calling for Schwarzenegger to commute the death sentence. The appellate court denied Williams' appeal in 2002, but noted that the federal courts were not his only forum for relief and that he could request clemency from the Governor of California.

Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals heard Williams' appeal from the lower federal court. In 2001, the U.S. The lower federal court denied the habeas petition. The State courts affirmed the conviction.

Williams appealed his conviction in the state courts, and filed a petition in the federal courts for habeas corpus relief. The Nobel Prize may not be awarded posthumously, therefore Williams is no longer eligible. William Keach, a Brown University Professor of English Literature, nominated Williams for the Nobel Prize in Literature.[26] The Nobel Committee keeps nominations secret for fifty years. Nominations came from Mario Fehr, a member of the Swiss Parliament [24] and four times by Notre Dame de Namur University Philosophy and Religion Professor Phil Gasper [25].

Williams was reportedly nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize every year from 2001 to 2005. [23]. Bush commending him for his social activism, one of some 267,000 "Call To Service Awards" that were sent out. President George W.

Harrison, a minister from West Monroe, Louisiana, Williams received a letter from U.S. On the nomination of William A. In 2004, he helped broker a peace agreement, called the Tookie Protocol For Peace, for what had been one of the deadliest and most infamous gang wars in the country, between the Bloods and the Crips, in both the state of California and the city of Newark, New Jersey. In 1997, Williams wrote and posted on his website an apology for his role in creating the Crips.

Williams' books have not enjoyed strong sales [22], though they may have been distributed as donations to schools, children's centers, and the like. He wrote several children's books advocating non-violence and alternatives to gangs, an autobiography Blue Rage, Black Redemption, public service announcements, and Redemption: The Stan Tookie Williams Story, a Hollywood movie which honored him. After being released from solitary confinement, Williams gained world-wide attention and praise for his work in prison. [21].

"The particular set is known as the Blue Note Crips, and that information we have received since his arrival here in April 1981 and as recent as June of 2000," Crittendon said. But we have also received information that has identified him as an active member of the Crips," Crittendon said. Though the prison guards noted that he still remained a member of the Crips gang, "The violations are usually involving batteries on inmates, batteries on staff. The prison official had observed no gang activity and complimented Williams on his behavior for the last ten years.

According to a classification report found on page 8 of filings by his lawyers during the clemency proceedings [20], dated August 5, 2004, Williams had no violations since that time. [19] The following is a list of Stanley Williams prison record through 1993. As inmate CDC# C29300 [17] Williams spent 6 1/2 years in solitary confinement in the late 1980s [18] for multiple assaults on guards and fellow inmates. In response to questioning by the trial judge, the alternate juror stated that the jurors sitting in the center of the jury box had told her that after the verdicts were read, Williams looked at the jury and said that he was going to get all of them.".

The trial record shows that after the jurors returned their guilty verdicts, Williams said, “Sons of bitches,” in a voice sufficiently loud that the court reporter included this statement in the trial transcript." "On the day that the jury began its penalty-phase deliberations, an alternate juror reported to the bailiff that some jurors believed that Williams had threatened them. The Court of Appeals summary of the case [16] Williams stated "that various jurors misconstrued as a threat a question that he asked defense counsel at the close of the guilt phase. [15]. According to Williams' defense attorneys, in two subsequent cases, District Attorney Robert Martin was censured by the California State Supreme Court for using race as a criterion in jury selection and had two murder convictions overturned on those grounds.

[14]. According to the clemency petition, in his closing arguments, Martin described Williams as a "Bengal tiger in captivity in a zoo" and said that the jury needed to imagine him in his natural "habitat" which was like "going into the back country, into the hinterlands." In a radio interview, Martin stated that the analogy was not meant to be racial, and instead was a metaphor to the fact that Williams appeared in court dressed in business attire much like an animal in a zoo appears more docile than it would be in the wild. [13]. The defense, however, has neither stated whether or not his mother was actually Filipino, nor refuted the evidence that McLurkin was black.

McLurkin's driver license photo and the fact that both he and his mother were born in the Phillipines was presented as additional evidence in a November 2005 petition for clemency. McLurkin was black. They maintain that the trial record indicates that none of the lawyers -- and particularly the prosecutor -- thought Mr. [12] The defense responded that, contrary to the sworn affidavit, McLurkin did not appear black.

[11] The District Attorney provided proof, however, in the form of a death certificate and the sworn affidavit of another juror, that juror #12, William James McLurkin, was black. Williams' lawyers claimed that he was convicted by a jury that had no Blacks, one Latino, one Filipino-American, and "ten Caucasians". The prosecution removed three Blacks from serving as jurors in Williams' trial. [10].

"It's as simple as that," said Williams' spokeswoman Barbara Becnel. They stated that people who appreciate Williams' work sent him money. Opponents also pointed out that he received a significant amount of money from outside sources. When contacted about Williams' alleged ongoing gang activity, Los Angeles Police Department spokeswoman April Harding said there was no evidence of his gang leadership.

Critics point to the fact that although he apologized for and renounced gangs and the founding of the Crips, Williams never renounced his gang membership, and allegedly continued to associate with Crips members in prison. The shell recovered from the Yang crime scene was conclusively matched to Williams' weapon "to the exclusion of all other firearms."[9]. The two shells recovered from the Owens crime scene were consistent with shells fired from this gun, with no exclusionary markings. Williams' lawyers have claimed that the District Attorney quashed a murder investigation in exchange for their testimony.

According to the District Attorney, the husband was undergoing sentencing for receiving stolen property and tried for extortion. Williams' gun was found in the home of a couple with whom he had been living. The Defense claims this expert's methodology was "junk science at best." [8]. No second examiner verified his findings.

Even the shotgun shells found conveniently at each crime scene didn't match the shotgun shells that I owned." However, the prosecution's firearms expert, a sheriff's deputy, testified during trial that the shotgun shell recovered from the Yang murder crime scene matched test shells from the shotgun owned by Stanley Williams. They didn't match my boots, nor eyewitnesses. From the beginning of his sentence, Williams maintained his innocence regarding the four murders, alleging prosecutorial misconduct, exclusion of exculpatory evidence, ineffective assistance of counsel, biased jury selection, and the misuse of jailhouse and government informants.[7] Williams claimed that the police found "not a shred of tangible evidence, no fingerprints, no crime scenes of bloody boot prints. [6].

The jury recommended the death penalty, and the judge accepted the recommendation and sentenced him to death. The jury also convicted him of robbery in both cases, and found that he personally used a firearm in the commission of the crimes. Stanley Williams was convicted in 1981 of all four murders with special circumstances on each count of felony murder (robbery) as well as multiple murder in the case of the Brookhaven event. Witnesses testified that Williams referred to the victims in conversations with friends as "Buddha-heads", a derogatory term for Asians.

Yu-Chin Lin was shot once in the upper left face area at a distance of a few feet. Tsai-Shai also received two close range wounds, one to the tailbone, and the other to the front of the abdomen, entering at the navel. The forensic pathologist testified that Yen-Yi Yang suffered two close range shotgun wounds, one to his left arm and abdomen, and one to the lower left chest. It was later determined that the Brookhaven incident netted Stanley Williams approximately one hundred dollars.

Robert entered the motel office and found that his mother, his sister, and his father had all been shot; the cash register was empty. Shortly thereafter he heard a female scream, followed by gunshots. Robert, asleep with his wife in their bedroom at the motel, was awakened by the sound of somebody breaking down the door to the motel’s office. Inside the office, Williams shot and killed Yen-Yi, Tsai-Shai, and Yu-Chin, after which he emptied the cash register and fled the scene.

According to court transcripts, at approximately 5:00 am on March 11, 1979, Stanley Williams entered the Brookhaven Motel lobby and then broke down the door that led to the private office. Yu-Chin had recently joined them from Taiwan. They ran the Brookhaven Motel located at 10411 South Vermont Avenue in South Central Los Angeles along with their forty-three year old daughter, Yu-Chin Yang Lin, and son Robert. Yang, were immigrants from Taiwan.

The Yang family, husband seventy-six year old Yen-Yi Yang, and wife sixty-three year old Tsai-Shai C. Williams said that he “didn’t want to leave any witnesses.” Williams also said he killed Owens “because he was white and he was killing all white people.” Coward testified that Williams had bragged about the shooting, stating, “You should have heard the way he sounded when I shot him,” as he made gurgling or growling noises and laughed about Owens’ death. Once back in Los Angeles, Sims asked Williams why he had shot Owens. They had netted approximately $120 in the robbery.

Williams, Darryl, Coward, and Sims then fled in the two cars and returned home to Los Angeles. Records show that Williams shot out a security monitor and then killed Owens, shooting him twice in the back at point blank range as he lay prone on the storage room floor. He then heard a shot and glass breaking, followed by two more shots. Coward said that he next heard the sound of a round being chambered into the shotgun.

Court records show that as Darryl and Sims walked to the counter area to take money from the register, Williams walked behind Owens, pulled the sawed-off shotgun from under his jacket and told Owens to “shut up and keep walking.” While pointing the shotgun at Owens’ back, Williams directed him to a back storage room and ordered him to lie down. Williams and Coward followed Owens into the store. When Darryl and Sims entered the 7-Eleven, Owens put the broom and dustpan he was using on the hood of his car and followed them into the store. The store clerk, twenty-six year old Albert Lewis Owens, was sweeping the store parking lot.

Transcripts show that next Coward and Sims followed Williams and Darryl to the 7-Eleven market located at 10437 Whittier Boulevard, near Whittier, California. He then told the men that they would find another place to rob, and that they would all go inside so he could demonstrate to them how a robbery was done. Williams reportedly became very unhappy that Darryl and Sims did not follow through on the plan. And then we left.".

Sims then "walked back from the back ‘cause there was somebody in there and just walked out the door and got back the car with, uh, Blackie. Garcia provided and lit one for him. Sims testified that he and Darryl entered the market, after which Sims walked to the back of the store while Darryl approached Garcia and asked for a cigarette. Johnny Garcia, the clerk on duty at the Stop-N-Go at the time, testified that he was just finishing up mopping the floor, and noticed a station wagon, along with four black men standing outside the door of the store.

Darryl was carrying the .22 pistol that Williams had deposited in the station wagon earlier. Darryl and Sims, at the request of Williams, entered the store with the apparent intention of robbing it. Both vehicles exited the freeway in the vicinity of Whittier Boulevard, where they drove to a nearby Stop-N-Go market. Darryl and Williams got into the station wagon, Coward and Sims got into the Cadillac, and shortly thereafter they were on the freeway headed toward Pomona.

Williams then suggested that they should all go to Pomona. Upon returning, Williams had a .22 caliber pistol, which he placed in the station wagon. Afterward, they went to another residence, where Williams left the others for a period of time. The three men then went to the home of Tony Sims, where they discussed where in Pomona, California they could go to make some money.

Williams went into the Garret residence, and in about ten minutes returned with the shotgun. Williams frequently stayed with Garret, and kept some of his personal effects at that location including a 12-gauge shotgun. Coward followed the two in his 1969 Cadillac. A time after the initial meeting, Darryl, driving a brown station wagon and accompanied by Williams, drove to the home of James Garret.

"Blackie", a reference to his African American heritage. Williams introduced Darryl to a friend of his, Alfred Coward, a.k.a. Court transcripts state that [5], Stanley Williams met with a man who is only identified in court documents as "Darryl" late sometime on Tuesday evening, February 27, 1979. Williams always maintained his innocence, though subsequent court reviews concluded that there was no compelling reason to grant a retrial.[4].

Williams was convicted of two separate robbery/murders in 1979. And eventually, we morphed into the monster we were addressing."[3] According to one version, the original name of the gang was the word Cribs from the first name of the gang, the Avenue Babies, and a reference to their youthfulness. But I was totally wrong. Williams said "we started out—at least my intent was to, in a sense—address all of the so-called neighboring gangs in the area and to put, in a sense—I thought I can cleanse the neighborhood of all these, you know, marauding gangs.

According to many of the original members of the gang, it was initially started as a means to keep the streets safe, reducing violence and police brutality. Williams joined Washington in 1971, forming the west side Crips. The eastern side Crips were formed by Raymond "Truck" Washington in 1969. Williams Jr.

[2] People mistakenly believe that "Tookie" was a nickname, but it was in fact his given middle name, which was shared by Williams and his son, Stanley T. Fremont Senior High School, but was expelled and did not graduate. He attended John C. Born to a 17-year-old mother in New Orleans, Louisiana, Williams moved to the impoverished South Central Los Angeles neighborhood when he was 6, where he made a name for himself for being a fighter and a "general" on the streets of South Central's West Side.

. On December 13, 2005, Williams was executed via a botched lethal injection amidst debate over the death penalty and whether his anti-gang advocacy in prison represented genuine atonement. [1] A 2004 biographical feature film entitled Redemption: The Stan Tookie Williams Story featured Jamie Foxx as Williams. He co-wrote children's books and participated in efforts intended to prevent youths from joining gangs.

In 1993, Williams began making changes in his behavior, and became an anti-gang activist while on Death Row in California, Although he continued to refuse to assist police in their gang investigations, he renounced his gang affiliation and apologized for the Crips' founding, while maintaining his innocence of the crimes for which he was convicted. While in prison, Williams refused to aid police investigations with any information against his gang, and was involved in attacks on guards and other inmates as well as multiple escape plots. In December 2005 he was executed for the 1979 murders of Albert Owens, Yen-Yi Yang, Tsai-Shai Lin, and Yee-Chen Lin. Stanley Tookie Williams III (December 29, 1953 – December 13, 2005), was an early leader of the Crips, a notorious American street gang which had its roots in South Central Los Angeles in 1969.

The Nation, (December 14, 2005). "Hypocrisy Trumps Clemency". Tookie's Mistaken Identity: On the Trail of the Real Founder of the Crips. The Peoples' Clemency Hearing Socialist Worker.

State's high court won't spare Williams. Schwarzenegger hears Snoop Dogg's clemency plea. NAACP Steps Up Efforts to Save Stanley Tookie Williams. THE HUTCHINSON REPORT: Why 'Tookie' Williams?.

Retrieved December 8, 2005. October 26, 2005. "Stanley Tookie Williams, Could be First Gang Member Executed in California", Street Gangs Magazine. Alonso, Alex.

Retrieved December 1, 2005. December 1, 2005. "Reformed gang leader awaits death", BBC News. Leithead, Alistair.

Retrieved December 13, 2005. December 13, 2005. "Stanley 'Tookie' Williams Executed", ABC KGO-TV / Associated Press. Redemption : From Original Gangster to Nobel Prize Nominee - The Extraordinary Life Story of Stanley Tookie Williams (Paperback) by Stanley Williams, 2004, (HB) ISBN 1903854342.

Life in Prison by Stanley Tookie Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1998, (PB) ISBN 1587170949, 80 pages, Reading level: Ages 4-8 (royalties donated to the Institute for the Prevention of Youth Violence). Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence.) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 1568381379, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 4-8. Gangs and Your Neighborhood (Williams, Stanley. Tookie Speaks Out Against Gangs.) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 156838136, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 4-8.

Gangs and Your Friends (Williams, Stanley. Gangs and Weapons (Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence) by Stanley Tookie Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 1568381328, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 9-12. Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence.) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 156838131X, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 9-12. Gangs and Wanting to Belong (Williams, Stanley.

Tookie Speaks Out Against Gangs.) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 1568381344 (HB} ISBN 0823923452, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 4-8. Gangs and Violence (Williams, Stanley. Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence.) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, ISBN 1568381301, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 9-12. Gangs and the Abuse of Power (Williams, Stanley.

Gangs and Self-Esteem: Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence (Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1999, (PB) ISBN 061302690X, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 4-8. Tookie Speaks Out Against Gang Violence,) by Stanley Williams, Barbara Cottman Becnel, 1997, (PB) ISBN 1568381352, 24 pages, Reading level: Ages 9-12. Gangs and Drugs (Williams, Stanley. Blue Rage, Black Redemption: A Memoir (Paperback) by Stanley Tookie Williams, 2005, (PB) ISBN 0975358405.

In this case, the one thing that would be the clearest indication of complete remorse and full redemption is the one thing Williams will not do.". Without an apology and atonement for these senseless and brutal killings there can be no redemption. "Is Williams’ redemption complete and sincere, or is it just a hollow promise? Stanley Williams insists he is innocent, and that he will not and should not apologize or otherwise atone for the murders of the four victims in this case. "The dedication of Williams' book Life in Prison casts significant doubt on his personal redemption and… the mix of individuals on [the dedication] list is curious" … "but the inclusion of George Jackson on the list defies reason and is a significant indicator that Williams is not reformed.".

From 1995 he "tried to preach a message of gang avoidance and peacemaking" … "It is hard to assess the effect of such efforts in concrete terms, but the continued pervasiveness of gang violence leads one to question the efficacy of Williams' message.". Williams had written books that instruct readers to avoid the gang lifestyle and to stay out of prison. A "close look at his post-arrest and post-conviction conduct tells a story different from redemption.". "Cumulatively, the evidence demonstrating Williams is guilty of these murders is strong and compelling" … "there is no reason to second-guess the jury's decision of guilt.".

The basis of his request for clemency is the "personal redemption Stanley Williams has experienced and the positive impact of the message he sends," yet "it is impossible to separate Williams' claim of innocence from his claim of redemption.". "The possible irregularities in Williams’ trial have been thoroughly and carefully reviewed by the courts, and there is no reason to disturb the judicial decisions that uphold the jury’s decisions that he is guilty of these four murders and should pay with his life.". 15). Exh.

(P. Subsequently, a stabbing instrument ("shank") made of sharpened plastic was recovered from where the fight had occurred. After a warning shot was fired, the fighting stopped. A guard ordered the inmates to stop, but the fight continued.

Williams was one of the combatants. On July 6, 1993, a large fight broke out in the shower area. 14). Exh.

(P. After the shot was fired, guards gained control over Williams. Eventually, gun officers responded by firing a round near Williams. Once again, despite being ordered to stop, Williams continued with the assault.

On December 24, 1991, Williams was involved in another fight with an inmate. 13). Exh. (P.

On October 19, 1988, Williams was placed in Administrative Segregation based on his association with the Crips street gang. 13). Exh. (P.

Prison officials subsequently learned that this stabbing was done in retaliation for a September 22, 1988 stabbing of another inmate ordered by Williams. On October 10, 1988, Williams was involved in a fight that led to him being stabbed by Tiequon Aundray Cox (aka Lil Fee), a Rolling 60s Crips member, and fellow death row inmate. 12). Exh.

(P. Eventually, after gun officers responded, Williams stopped the attack. The guard ordered Williams to stop but Williams continued with the assault. On July 4, 1986, Williams stepped between a guard and another inmate and began to beat up the inmate.

11). Exh. I have dusted many officers on the street, one more would not make any difference." (P. When the guard advised the female of the prison policies, Williams became verbally hostile and stated, "you are looking around too much and that's not your job.

On June 8, 1984, Williams was observed participating in inappropriate behavior with a female visitor. 10). Exh. (P.

Only after a guard fired a warning shot did Williams stop fighting. Williams, however, continued to fight. In an effort to stop the attack, the guard blew his whistle and drew his weapon. On February 16, 1984, a guard saw Williams bending over another inmate and striking him with his closed fists.

9). Exh. (P. On January 29, 1982, Williams again attacked a guard by throwing a chemical substance on him.

8). Exh. (P. As a result of that assault, the guard suffered from chemical burns to these areas and had to be taken to the hospital where he received emergency care.

In one of these instances, Williams threw a chemical substance in the eyes and on the face of a guard. On January 28, 1982, Williams had two separate instances where he threw chemical substances at guards. 7). Exh.

Williams responded by saying "you'll get yours boy, I can do anything now because I know what the gunmen will do…one of these days I'll trick you boy." (P. The guard then explained the line-up procedure to Williams. Williams refused the order and became hostile. On January 26, 1982, Williams was ordered to lineup for his return to his cell.

6). Exh. (P. Only after repeated orders did Williams stop.

When Williams was ordered to cease fighting, he ignored the order. Williams was observed kneeling over the other inmate and striking him in the head with his closed fists. On June 30, 1981, just two months after being sentenced, Williams was involved in a violent fight with another inmate.

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