Hilter is a municipality in the district Osnabrück, Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located in the hills of the Teutoburg Forest.
As of 2004 it has a population of 10,179, and covers an area of 52.61 km². Highest elevation is the Hohnangel with 262 m above sea level.
The municipality was formed on July 1, 1972 by merging the municipalities Borgloh, Hankenberge and Hilter. Already in 1970 the municipalities Allendorf, Borgloh-Wellendorf, Ebbendorf, Eppendorf and Uphöfen were merged into the Einheitsgemeinde Borgloh.
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Already in 1970 the municipalities Allendorf, Borgloh-Wellendorf, Ebbendorf, Eppendorf and Uphöfen were merged into the Einheitsgemeinde Borgloh. In 1860, Vittorio Emanuele II, King of Sardinia became also the first King of Italy after conquering the rest of the peninsula. The municipality was formed on July 1, 1972 by merging the municipalities Borgloh, Hankenberge and Hilter. In 1792, Jean-Paul Marat, son of a Sardinian father from Cagliari and a Swiss mother, was one of the triumvirate leading the French Revolution. Highest elevation is the Hohnangel with 262 m above sea level. In 1718 Sardinia became an independent kingdom under the House of Savoy, rulers of Piedmont. As of 2004 it has a population of 10,179, and covers an area of 52.61 km². This was the first time Turks lost out to Europeans signaling a trend of military decline and defeats from which Turks never recovered.
It is located in the hills of the Teutoburg Forest. The sight of the admiral's head on a spear put such a fear in the heart of the Turks, that they abandoned the fight and completely surrendered to Christians. Hilter is a municipality in the district Osnabrück, Lower Saxony, Germany. On October 7, 1571, at the Battle of Lepanto, Sardinian mariners on Board the admiralship of Infante Don John of Austria, half brother of Felipe II, boarded the Turkish admiralship, overpowered the crew, and cut off the head of a Turkish admiral. Under Spain, Sardinians were regularly employed on the royal Spanish fleet. After the merge of the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, Sardinia was incorporated into the newly created national entity, Spain.
The native population of the city of Alghero (S'Alighera in Sardinian, L'Alguer in Catalan) was expelled and the city repopulated by the Catalan invaders, whose descendants spoke Catalan till quite recently. In 1323, the Kingdom of Aragon began a campaign to conquer Sardinia; the giudicato of Arborea successfully resisted this and for a time came to control nearly the entire island, but its last ruler Eleanor of Arborea, was eventually defeated by the Aragonese in the decisive Battle of Sanluri, June 30, 1409. At various times, these fell under the sway of Genoa and Pisa. By 900, these districts had become four independent constitutional monarchies.
To provide for local defense, he divided the island into four Giudicati, Gallura, Logudoro, Arborea, and Caralis. Especially after the conquering of Sicily in 832, the Byzantines were unable to effectively defend their most distant province, and the provincial judge assumed independent authority. Beginning in the eighth century, Arabs and Berbers began raiding Sardinia. Byzantine rule was practically nonexistent in the mountainous Barbagia region in the eastern part of the island, and an independent kingdom persisted there from the sixth through ninth centuries.
Under the Byzantines, the imperial representative was a judge who governed from the southern city of Caralis. From 456 - 534, Sardinia was a part of the short-lived kingdom of the Vandals in North Africa, until reconquered by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I. In 238 BC, after being defeated by the Roman Republic during the First Punic War, Carthage ceded Sardinia to Rome. The settlers called for help from Carthage, and the island became a province in the Carthaginian Empire.
In 509 BC, war broke out between the native Nuragic people and the Phoenician settlers. Beginning around 1000 BC, Phoenician mariners established several ports of trade on the Sardinian coast. The density, extensiveness and sheer size of the architectural remains from the Neolithic period, points to a considerable population of the island. Genetics has now shown that Sardinians are a pre-Indo-European population and, like Basque, different from all surrounding and much younger groups.
However most theories regarding the original population of Sardinia have been formulated prior to genetics research and in the traditional frame of east-west movements. According to some linguistic studies, the town of Sardis in (Lydia) would have been their starting point from which they would have reached the Tyrrhenian Sea, dividing into what were to become the Sardinians and the Etruscans. This assertion holds some truth; in fact most of the tombe dei giganti have a tombstone shaped like a ship vertically dug into the ground, bearing witness to their sea traveling activities. Shardana and Shekelesh were also called by the Egyptians as the "people from the faraway islands", implying that Shardana were already residents of Sardinia at the time of the Egyptian expedition.
Shardana had joined the Shekelesh and others to form the coalition of the Sea Peoples, but were defeated by Ramses III around 1180 BC in Egypt. It is speculated that, among others, the Shardana people landed in Sardinia coming from the eastern Mediterranean. Still today, more than 9,000 Nuraghe survive. From Neolithic times till the Roman Empire, the Nuragic civilisation took shape on the island.
The Cannonau wine is made with these grapes and may qualify as the mother of all the European wines. Desiccated grapes, recently found in several locations, were DNA tested and proved to be the oldest grapes in the world, dating back to the Pyramids' and Mesopotamia’s era. In Prehistory Sardinia's inhabitants developed a trade in obsidian, a stone used for the production of the first rough tools, and this activity brought Sardinians into contact with most of the Mediterranean people. In 1979 human remains were found that were dated to 150,000 BCE.
Sardinia's history is very ancient. It lacks many species instead, like the viper and the marmot, which are found everywhere else on the continent. Sardinia is a precious natural resource, containing thousands of rare or uncommon animals and plant species such as the Mediterranean Monk Seal and the boar. It is highly recommended to make the trip from Macomer to Bosa Marina, where the train winds its way through the typical Sardinian landscape to reach the sea near the coastal town of Bosa situated in the west of the island.
The train connects Cagliari to Arbatax in the south and Sassari to Palau in the north. It is slow but it allows the traveller to have scenic views impossible to see from the main road. Many tourists catch the trenino verde which runs through the wildest parts of the island. Some run on narrow gauge track.
Trains on Sardinia connect the whole island but are rather slow. The Sardinian economy is today focused on tourism (peaking with the Costa Smeralda), industry, commerce, services and information technology; an increasing income is coming from its famous wines and gastronomy. Several gold and silver mines operate on the island. "Unu Francu", referring to the now long-gone money, is a term used by older natives to mean some small amount, much as in English "It's not worth the price".
"su Pidzu"); 1 francu = 1,000 former Italian lire. Sardinia's currency (as a part of Italy) is now the Euro, but in some rural areas Sardinians and towns, above all Cagliari, still unofficially refer to su Francu (or loc. In the city of Alghero in the north, a Medieval dialect of Catalan is still spoken (the name of the city in Catalan is L'Alguer) as the island was an Aragonese colony in the past. In the island of San Pietro, the dialect spoken is a mix of Sardinian and Italian language coming from Liguria Genoa.
The spoken language was spread by the first settlers to Corsica, giving then origin to a new variety of language Sardinian-Corsican language. In the northern regions of Gallura and Sassari, tatarese is spoken. While it has been significantly supplanted by Italian for official purposes, Sardinian is still widely spoken in rural areas. The most spoken languages in Sardinia are Italian and Sardinian, a Romance language of Latin origin, but with an obscure Pre-Roman element, including Phoenician, Etruscan, and Near Eastern languages.
The climate is mainly Mediterranean, with a warm spring and fall, hot summer, and mild winter. See also: Tourist destinations of Sardinia. The island is particularly famous for its beaches, but is also rich in other interesting places. The island contains numerous extraordinary tourist areas, including the Costa Smeralda and Gennargentu.
The other region is Veneto. a distinct people) by the Italian Parliament. Sardinia is one of two Italian regions whose inhabitants have been recognised as a "popolo" (i.e. See also: Sardinian towns.
The region is divided into eight provinces: Cagliari, Sassari, Nuoro, Oristano, Olbia-Tempio, Ogliastra, Carbonia-Iglesias and Medio Campidano. The regional capital is Cagliari. Sardinia is an autonomous region of Italy. Sardinia has an area of 24,090 km2 and a population of 1.65 million.
. Last and present name has been Sardinia, for the Shardana (who also had been expelled in Egypt by Ramses III circa 1180 BC). Sandalyon was its second name, probably due to its shape, recalling a footprint. At the beginning of the nuragic age circa 1500 BC the island was first called Hyknusa (latinized Ichnusa) by the Greeks probably meaning island (nusa) of the Hyksos, the people who had just been expelled by Ahmose I of Egypt circa 1540 BC and were by now looking for a new home.
It forms part of Italy. Sardinia (Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna, Sardinna or Sardinnia in the Sardinian language, Sardenya in Catalan), is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. This cheese is called Casu Marzu. Cheese filled with live maggots and their feces is a delicacy in Sardinia.
The last four are new provinces since May 2005.