Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.


Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).



This page about earthquake includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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. [5]. A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. It is for Windows, free-of-charge. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. It is not designed to replace MS Office, and has only compatibilities of reading Office files.
Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. Microsoft Office Converters and Viewers, provided by Microsoft.

Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. There are also several alternative office suites available, including:. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. This means that any copy of the original Office 2000 ("RTM" or "Gold" in Microsoft documentation) requires Service Release 1 to be installed before a Service Pack can be installed. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. it is necessary to install each release in turn) whereas Service Packs are. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Service Releases are not cumulative (i.e.

Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. However, after Office 2000 Service Release 1, Office releases only Service Packs. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Whereas Windows uses "Service Packs", Office used to release "Service Releases". A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. For some reason, most versions of Microsoft Office (including 97 and later, and possibly 4.3) use their own widget set, and as a result do not exactly match the native operating system. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. Component Object Model (COM) add-ins are supplemental programs that extend the capabilities of an application by adding custom commands and specialized features that can accommodate specific tasks.

Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. A major feature of applications in the Office suite is the ability for users and third party companies to write Office COM add-ins. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. There are variants of more recent versions such as Small Business Edition, Student and Teacher Edition, Professional Edition and Developer Edition with different collections of applications and pricing points. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. However, all versions are known to work to some extent. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. The older, simpler versions tend to run considerably better on WINE than newer ones.

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. However, most versions of the suite can also be run on Unix-like operating systems through the use of a compatibility layer such as CrossOver Office or WINE. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. Microsoft develops Office primarily for Windows and secondarily for Macintosh. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. Pricing as of April 9, 2005 [3] [4]. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. They are identical except for pricing and the inclusion of Virtual PC in the Professional Edition.

The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. All include Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Entourage. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The Macintosh version, Microsoft Office for Mac 2004, is available in three editions. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The Windows version of Microsoft Office 11.0/2003 is available in six editions: (Please note that for the most part, pricing reflects installation on only a single computer.). They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Office X for Mac is also built to handle this file format.

However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. Office 11.0/2003 introduced a new, optional file format for the entire suite, built on XML technology. Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. Consequently, any Macintosh with Office 4.2 or later can read documents created with Windows Office 4.2 or later, and vice-versa. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Also, beginning with Macintosh Office 4.2, the Macintosh and Windows versions of Office share the same file format. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. The Assistant is the main use of Microsoft Agent technology.

This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). The Assistant is often dubbed "Clippy" or "Clippit," due to its default to a paperclip character, coded as CLIPPIT.ACS. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. Intended to make the software less intimidating to new users, it is typically disabled by experienced users. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Since 1997 Office has included Office Assistant, a system that uses animated characters to offer unrequested context-sensitive suggestions to users and access to relevant parts of the help system. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Impress, Corel WordPerfect and Apple Keynote.

If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. It possesses a dominant market share. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. Windows Mobile 2005 (Magneto) will have a version of this program. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. It is used to create slideshows, composed of text, graphics, movies and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and navigated through by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides. No structural damage. Microsoft PowerPoint is a popular presentation program for Windows and Macintosh.

Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. Its Macintosh equivalent is Microsoft Entourage. Trees and bushes shake. It is available for Windows; a version is also included with most Pocket PC handhelds. Plaster in walls might crack. Its personal information manager's main competitors are Mozilla, Lotus Organizer, and Novell Evolution. Furniture moves. Its e-mail program's main competitors are Mozilla Thunderbird/Mozilla, and Eudora.

Pictures fall off walls. The replacement for Microsoft Mail starting in the 1997 version of Office, it includes an e-mail client, calendar, task manager and address book. Objects fall from shelves. Microsoft Outlook, not to be confused with Outlook Express, is a personal information manager and e-mail communication software. People have trouble walking. SPSS is often used for advanced statistical applications. Everyone feels movement. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Calc, StarOffice, Corel Quattro Pro and Gnumeric.

The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. It is available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. It was originally a competitor to the dominant Lotus 1-2-3 but it eventually outsold it and became the de facto standard. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. Like Microsoft Word, it possesses a dominant market share. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. Its main competitors are OpenOffice.org Writer, StarOffice, Corel WordPerfect, Apple Pages and AbiWord. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. It is available for the Windows and Macintosh platforms. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Word is also available in some editions of Microsoft Works. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". Its proprietary DOC format is considered a de facto standard, although its most recent version, Word 11.0/2003, also supports an XML-based format.

That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. It possesses a dominant market share in the word processor market. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. It is considered to be the main program of Office. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Microsoft Word is a word processor. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. Microsoft Office Basic Edition includes Word, Excel and Outlook only.

The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. These programs are included in all editions of Microsoft Office 2003, except Microsoft Office Basic Edition 2003. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. . Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively.
. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. The next version, 12.0, will have a radically different user interface from the older versions.

There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. It has certain features not present in other suites, and other programs have capabilities Office lacks. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Office is currently the most popular office suite in the world and considered to be the de facto standard for productivity programs, although its market share is currently decreasing with the rise of viable free and open source alternatives. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In recent years, Microsoft has attempted to position Office as a development platform in its own right, but has had mixed results with this. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. Over the years the Office applications have grown substantially closer together from a technical standpoint, sharing features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications scripting language.

Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. Additionally, a "Pro" version of Office included Microsoft Access and Schedule Plus. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. The first version of Office contained Word, Excel and Powerpoint. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. The main selling point was that buying the bundle was substantially cheaper than buying each of the individual applications on their own. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Office made its first appearance in the early '90s, and was initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications that were previously marketed and sold separately.

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . Recent versions of Office are now called the 'Office System' rather than the 'Office Suite' to reflect the fact that they include Servers as well. . As well as the office applications, it includes associated servers and Web-based services. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. Microsoft Office is a suite of productivity programs created by Microsoft and developed for Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. It is almost fully compatible with Microsoft Office files.

Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. ThinkFree Office, a free web-based alternative office suite. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Lotus Notes provides the email/PIM portion of the Lotus offering. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Lotus SmartSuite, provided by IBM contains a word-processing program called Word Pro, spreadsheet program called Lotus 1-2-3, a program similar to Microsoft's PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance Graphics and a database program called Lotus Approach. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. GNOME Office, a loosely coupled group of open-source applications including Abiword and Gnumeric, which is targetted for the GNOME desktop environment.

The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). KOffice, an open-source office suite which is part of the KDE Desktop Environment. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. Includes Pages, for word-processing, and Keynote, for presentations. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. iWork, Apple's Mac-only office suite. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Corel's WordPerfect Office.

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. StarOffice, based on the OpenOffice code. Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). NeoOffice, an open-source OpenOffice.org port for Mac OS X that integrates into its Aqua interface. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. It includes practically full compatibility with Microsoft Office (with the exception of lack of full support for Microsoft Office Publisher (pub) files and a lack of a mail client à la Microsoft Office Outlook, however, there are many alternative mail clients to choose from.)

    . Killed over 79,000 people. OpenOffice.org, a completely free and open-source suite available for download to Windows, Linux, and Macintosh users.

    Kashmir earthquake (2005). Office 2004 (Word 2004, etc.) - released May 11, 2004. Fukuoka earthquake (2005). Office v.X (The first Mac OS X/Aqua edition; Word X, etc.) - released November 19, 2001. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). Office 2001 (Word 2001, etc.) - released October 11, 2000. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. Office 98 (Word 98, etc.) - released March 15, 1998.

    Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Office 4.2 (The first Power Mac-aware version; Word 6.0, etc.) - released June 2, 1994. One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Office 3 (Word 5, etc.) - released 1993. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). Office 2 (Word 4, etc.) - released 1992. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). Office 1 (Word 3, etc.) - released 1990.

    Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. Office 12.0 - due to be released simultaneously, or near simultaneously with Windows Vista, Microsoft's next major consumer operating system. Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Office 11.0/2003 (Word 2003, etc.) - released November 17, 2003. Bam Earthquake (2003). Office 10.0/2002/XP (Word 2002, etc.) - released May 31, 2001. Dudley Earthquake (2002). Office 9.0/2000 (Word 2000, etc.) - released January 27, 1999.

    Gujarat Earthquake (2001). Office 8.0/'97 (Word '97, etc.) - released December 30, 1996 (was published on CD-ROM as well as on a set of 45 3½-inch floppy disks). Nisqually Earthquake (2001). Office 7.0/'95 (Word '95, etc.) - released August 30, 1995. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). Office 4.3 (The last 16-bit version; Word 6.0, Excel 5.0, PowerPoint 4.0 and in the pro version: Access 2.0) - released June 2, 1994. Düzce earthquake (1999). Office for NT 4.2 (Word 6.0 [32-bit, i386 and Alpha], Excel 5.0 [32-bit, i386 and Alpha], PowerPoint 4.0 [16-bit], "Microsoft Office Manager") - released July 3, 1994.

    İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. Office 4.0 (Word 6.0, Excel 4.0, PowerPoint 3.0) - released January 17, 1994. Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. Office 3.0 (CD-ROM version: Word 2.0c, Excel 4.0a, PowerPoint 3.0, Mail) - released August 30, 1992 (repackaged as Office 92). Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Office for Mac 2004 Professional Edition (MSRP New User Price $499 US; Upgrade Price $329 US). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. Office for Mac 2004 Student and Teacher Edition (MSRP New User Price $149 US).

    Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Office for Mac 2004 Standard Edition (MSRP New User Price $399 US; Upgrade Price $239 US). Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 11.0/2003 (volume licensing only). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Microsoft Office Professional Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $499 US; Upgrade Price $329 US). Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $449 US; Upgrade Price $279 US).

    Killed over 25,000. Microsoft Office Standard Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $399 US; Upgrade Price $239 US). Armenian earthquake (1988). Microsoft Office Basic Edition 11.0/2003 (bundled with new computers only). Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). Microsoft Office Student and Teacher Edition 11.0/2003 (MSRP New User Price $149 US). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). Microsoft Office SharePoint Portal Server collaboration server.

    Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). Microsoft Office Project Server - project management server. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. Microsoft Office Live Communications Server - real time communications server. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The main reason for its unpopularity was because many people had no idea what it did by looking at its box alone, and therefore did not buy it. Tangshan earthquake (1976). Microsoft Vizact 2000 – a program that "activated" documents using HTML, adding effects such as animation.

    Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. Microsoft Outlook Express – mail client (in Office 98 Macintosh Edition, later replaced by Microsoft Entourage). Sylmar earthquake (1971). Microsoft Mail – mail client (in old versions of Office, later replaced by Microsoft Outlook). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. Its functions were incorporated into Microsoft Outlook. Ancash earthquake (1970). It featured a Planner, To do list, and Contact Information.

    Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. Microsoft Schedule Plus – released with Office 95. Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. Microsoft Binder – incorporates several documents into one file. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). - [2]. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). Patch detection and installation service for Office 2000, XP, and 2003.

    On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. Microsoft Office Update – Web site. Great Kanto earthquake (1923). Included in all versions of Microsoft Office 2003. San Francisco Earthquake (1906). Microsoft Office Online – Web site. Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. An online Office suite as part of Microsoft's Windows Live initiative.

    Charleston earthquake (1886). Microsoft Office Live – Web service. Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). Similar to Windows Update, but also encompasses other Microsoft applications. New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Microsoft Update – Web site. Lisbon earthquake (1755). Included with Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2004.

    Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). Virtual PC – Emulates a standard PC and its hardware. Cascadia Earthquake (1700). Microsoft Entourage – Personal information manager and communication software for Macintosh only (similar to Outlook). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. Developer Tools – (included only with developer editions). Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 - [1].

    San Andreas Fault. Microsoft OneNote – note taking software for use with tablet PCs or regular PCs. New Madrid Fault Zone. Microsoft Project – project manager. North Anatolian Fault Zone. It was temporarily supplemented by Microsoft PhotoDraw in Office 2000 Premium edition. Hayward Fault Zone. Microsoft Photo Editor – photo editing/raster graphics software in older Office versions, and again in XP.

    Calaveras Fault. Microsoft Office Picture Manager – basic photo management software (similar to a basic version of Google's Picasa or Adobe's Photoshop Elements). Alpine Fault. Microsoft Visio – diagram software. Earthquake prediction. Offered only as a stand-alone program for the 2003 version (not part of the office suite). Seismic retrofit. Microsoft FrontPage – web design software (also requires its own server program).

    Household seismic safety. For the 2003 version, included in Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 2003, Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003, and Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003. Emergency preparedness. Microsoft Publisher – Desktop publishing software. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. Included in Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. Microsoft InfoPath – application that enables users to design rich XML-based forms.

    an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year. For the 2003 version, included in Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003, and Microsoft Office Professional Enterprise Edition 2003. Microsoft Access – database manager.

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