Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.


Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).



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. Today, the NBA has reached 30 franchises and continues to evolve as one of the premier sports leagues in the world. A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. In 1996 the NBA created a women's league, the Women's National Basketball Association, and in 2002 created an affiliated minor league, the National Basketball Development League. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. The NBA is now televised in 212 nations in 42 languages.
Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. An increasing number, though, have moved directly from playing elsewhere in the world to starring in the NBA, such as 2002 NBA Rookie of the Year Pau Gasol of Spain, 2002 first pick in the NBA Draft Yao Ming of China, and 2004 Olympic Tournament MVP Manu Ginobili of Argentina.

Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. Initially, many of these players, such as 1994 NBA MVP Hakeem Olajuwon of Nigeria, first played NCAA basketball to enhance their skills. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. A growing number of NBA star players also began coming from other countries. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. The 1992 Olympic basketball Dream Team, the first to use current NBA stars, featured Michael Jordan, Larry Bird, and Magic Johnson. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. The 1990s also saw greater globalization.

Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. During the 1990s, Jordan went on to lead the Bulls to six titles. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). By 1989, further expansion had raised the number of teams in the league to 27. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. Michael Jordan, entered the league in 1984 with the Chicago Bulls, providing an even more popular star to support growing interest in the league. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. Bird went on to lead the Celtics to three titles, and Johnson went on to lead the Lakers to five.

Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. That same year, rookies Larry Bird and Magic Johnson joined the Boston Celtics and Los Angeles Lakers, respectively, initiating a period of significant growth in fan interest in the NBA throughout the country and the world. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. The league added the ABA's innovative three-point field goal beginning in 1979 to open up the game. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Following the 1976 season, the leagues reached a settlement that provided for the addition of four ABA franchises to the NBA, raising the number of franchises in the league at that time to 22. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. The NBA expanded rapidly during this period, one purpose being to tie up most viable cities.

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The ABA also succeeded in signing a number of major stars, including Julius Erving, in part because it allowed teams to sign college undergraduates. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. However, the NBA's leading scorer, Rick Barry jumped to the ABA, as did four veteran referees -- Norm Drucker, Earl Strom, John Vanak and Joe Gushue. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. The NBA landed the most important college star of the era, Kareem Abdul Jabbar (then known as Lew Alcindor), who together with Oscar Robertson led the Milwaukee Bucks to a title in his second season, and who later played on five Laker championship teams. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. The leagues engaged in a bidding war for talent.

The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. In 1967, the league faced a new external threat with the formation of the American Basketball Association. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. Through this period, the NBA continued to strengthen with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, and the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the great individual rivalries in the history of team sports. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league in 1959 and became the dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new records in scoring and rebounding.

However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. In 1956, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, who already featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, and went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. To liven up play, the league introduced the 24 second shot clock in 1954. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as its first dynasty. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. 1950 also saw the NBA integrate, with the addition of African American players by several teams including Chuck Cooper with the Boston Celtics, Nat "Sweetwater" Clifton with the New York Knicks, and Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols.

This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). Louis; the Royals from Rochester to Cincinnati, the Pistons from Fort Wayne to Detroit. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. The Hawks shifted from "Tri-Cities" to Milwaukee and then to St. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. While contracting, the league also saw its smaller city franchises move to larger cities. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1954, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises, all of which are still in the league (the Knickerbockers, Celtics, Warriors, Lakers, Royals/Kings, Pistons, Hawks, and Nationals/76ers).

If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. Following the 1949 season, the BAA agreed to merge with the NBL, expanding the rechristened National Basketball Association to seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. For instance the 1947 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won its 1948 title, followed by the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers who won the 1949 BAA title. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. During its early years, though, the quality of play in the BAA was not obviously better than those other leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. No structural damage. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the National Basketball League, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play primarily in large arenas in major cities.

Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. The Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by the owners of major sports arenas in the Northeast and Midwest, most notably Madison Square Garden in New York City. Trees and bushes shake. There has been only one exception to date: Jerry West won the award in 1969 (the award's first season) even though his Los Angeles Lakers did not win the championship. Plaster in walls might crack. In addition, the league awards an NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award, which nearly always goes to a member of the winning team, though not by rule. Furniture moves. Each player and major contributor, including coaches and the general manager, on the winning team receive a championship ring.

Pictures fall off walls. The victor in the NBA Finals wins the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy. Objects fall from shelves. The final playoff round, a best-of-seven series between the victors of both conferences, is known as the NBA Finals, and it is held annually in June. People have trouble walking. For the final round (NBA Finals), the series follows a 2-3-2 pattern. Everyone feels movement. In every round except the NBA Finals, the best of seven series follows a 2-2-1-1-1 pattern, meaning that one team will have home court in games 1, 2, 5, and 7, while the other plays at home in games 3, 4, and 6.

The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. Since the NBA does not re-seed teams, the playoff bracket in each conference uses a traditional design, with the winner of the series matching the 1st and 8th seeded teams playing the winner of the series matching the 4th and 5th seeded teams, and the winner of the series matching the 2nd and 7th seeded teams playing the winner of the series matching the 3rd and 6th seeded teams. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. Thus, all but one team in each conference are eliminated from the playoffs. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. In the next round, the successful team plays against another advancing team of the same conference. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. Each team plays a rival in a best-of-seven series, with the first team to win four games advancing into the second round, while the other team is eliminated from the playoffs.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. The playoffs follow a tournament format. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. Therefore, the team with the best regular season record in the league is guaranteed home court advantage in every series it plays. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. This means that, for example, if the team who receives the 6 (six) seed has a better record than the team with the 3 (three) seed (seeded thus by virtue of a divisional championship), the 6 seed would have home court advantage, even though the other team has a higher seed. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The team in each series with the better record has home court advantage, including the First Round.

That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. Since the first seed plays the eighth seed, the second seed plays the seventh seed, the third seed plays the sixth seed, and the fourth seed plays the fifth seed in the playoffs, having a higher seed generally means you will be facing a weaker team. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. Having a higher seed offers several advantages. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Although the playoff brackets are not reseeded, home-court advantage is based strictly on regular-season record, without regard to whether a team won its division. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. However, the seeding system has one feature that is unusual in North American sports; division champions do not necessarily have home-court advantage in the playoffs.

The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. The remaining five seeds are determined by taking the five teams with the next-best records from among the non-division winning teams in the conference. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The top three seeds for each conference are determined by taking the winners of the conference's three divisions and ranking them by regular season record. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. The NBA Playoffs begin in late April, with eight teams in each conference qualifying for the playoffs. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. There are also two All-Rookie teams, consisting of the top first-year players regardless of position.

There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. There are two All-Defensive teams, consisting of the top defenders at each position. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are three All-NBA teams, consisting of the top players at each position, with first-team status being most desirable. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. The postseason teams are the All-NBA Teams, the All-Defensive Teams, and the All-Rookie Teams; each consists of five players. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. Additionally, The Sporting News awards an unofficial (but widely recognized) NBA Executive of the Year Award to the general manager who is adjudged to have done the best job for his franchise.

Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. The NBA Most Valuable Player Award is given to player deemed the most valuable for that season. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. The NBA Coach of the Year Award is awarded to either the best coach in the league or the coach that has made the most positive difference to a team. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. The NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award is awarded to the league's best defender. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. The NBA Most Improved Player Award is awarded to the most improved player.

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . The NBA Rookie of the Year Award is awarded to the best rookie player. . The NBA Sixth Man Award is given to the best player coming off the bench (not starting for his team). Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. It is during this time that voting begins for individual awards, as well as the selection of the honorary league-wide postseason teams. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. In April, the regular season ends.

Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Major trades are often completed right before the trading deadline, making that day a hectic time for general managers. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). After this date, teams are not allowed to exchange players with each other for the remainder of the season, although they may still sign and release players. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Shortly after the All-Star break is the league's trade deadline. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. Other attractions of the All-Star break include the got milk? Rookie Challenge game, which pits the best rookies and the best second-year players against each other; the Foot Locker Three-Point Shootout, a competition between players to see who is the best 3-point shooter; and the Sprite Rising Stars Slam Dunk contest, to see which player dunks the ball in the most entertaining way.

The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). The player with the best performance during the game is rewarded with a Game MVP award. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. Then, East faces West in the All-Star game. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. Coaches vote to choose the remaining 14 All-Stars. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Fans are balloted throughout the United States, Canada and through the Internet, and the top vote-getters at each position in each conference are given a starting spot on their conference's All-Star team.

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. In February, the NBA regular season is interrupted to celebrate the annual NBA All-Star Game. Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). Following the recent changes to the National Hockey League's scheduling format, the NBA is now the only major league in which all the teams play each other during the regular season, and where a season ticket holder can see every team in the league come to town in any one season. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. A team can therefore have a relatively easy or difficult schedule, depending on the division and conference it is located in. Killed over 79,000 people. A team faces opponents in its own division four times a year, teams from the other two divisions in its conference either three or four times, and teams in the other conference twice apiece.

Kashmir earthquake (2005). Schedules are not identical for all teams. Fukuoka earthquake (2005). In the regular season, each team plays 82 games, which are divided evenly between home and away games. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). The NBA regular season begins in the first week of November. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. After training camp, a series of preseason exhibition games are held.

Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Teams have the ability to assign players with less than two years of experience to the NBA development league. One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Training camps allow the coaching staff to evaluate players (especially rookies), scout the team's strengths and weaknesses, prepare the players for the rigorous regular season, and determine the 12-man active roster (and a 3-man inactive list, if needed) with which they will begin the regular season. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). Following the summer break, teams hold training camps in October. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). .

Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in Secaucus, New Jersey. Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). The league's several international and individual team offices are directed out its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in New York City. Bam Earthquake (2003). The league adopted the name National Basketball Association in the fall of 1949 after merging with the rival National Basketball League. Dudley Earthquake (2002). The league was founded in New York City on June 6, 1946 as the Basketball Association of America (BAA).

Gujarat Earthquake (2001). The National Basketball Association, more commonly referred to as the NBA, is the world's premier men's professional basketball league and one of the major professional sports leagues of North America. Nisqually Earthquake (2001). NBA Coach of the Year Award. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). NBA Rookie of the Year Award. Düzce earthquake (1999). NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award.

İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. NBA Sixth Man Award. Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. NBA Most Improved Player Award. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). NBA Most Valuable Player Award, NBA Finals MVP Award. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. List of Current NBA Team Rosters.

Northridge, California earthquake (1994). List of NBA players. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. David Stern, Commissioner since 1984. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Larry O'Brien, Commissioner from 1975 to 1984. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Walter Kennedy, President from 1963 to 1967 and Commissioner from 1967 to 1975.

Killed over 25,000. Maurice Podoloff, President from 1946 to 1963. Armenian earthquake (1988). Basketball Hall of Fame. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). Waterloo Hawks (1949–1950). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). Washington Capitols (1946–1951).

Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). Toronto Huskies (1946–1947). The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. Sheboygan Redskins (1949–1950). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. Louis Bombers (1946–1950). Tangshan earthquake (1976). St.

Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. Providence Steamrollers (1946–1949). Sylmar earthquake (1971). Pittsburgh Ironmen (1946–1947). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. Indianapolis Olympians (1949–1953). Ancash earthquake (1970). Indianapolis Jets (1948–1949).

Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. Detroit Gems (1949–1950). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. Detroit Falcons (1946–1947). Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Denver Nuggets (original) (1949–1950). Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). Cleveland Rebels (1946–1947).

On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. Chicago Stags (1946–1950). Great Kanto earthquake (1923). Baltimore Bullets (1947–1955: last NBA team to fold). San Francisco Earthquake (1906). Anderson Packers (1949–1950). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.

Charleston earthquake (1886). Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Lisbon earthquake (1755).

Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). Cascadia Earthquake (1700). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556).

San Andreas Fault. New Madrid Fault Zone. North Anatolian Fault Zone. Hayward Fault Zone.

Calaveras Fault. Alpine Fault. Earthquake prediction. Seismic retrofit.

Household seismic safety. Emergency preparedness. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years.

an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year.

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