Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.


Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).



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. On 8 January 2006 Pope Benedict continued the tradition of his predecessor John Paul II and baptised several infants in the Sistine Chapel representing his pastoral role as Bishop of Rome. A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. Other traditional items unused by the pope include the vestmental gloves, known as gauntlets and the papal fanon, a shoulder-length vestment reserved to Popes, worn with Mass vestments underneath the pallium. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. Like his two immediate predecessors, Benedict chose not to be crowned with the tiara during his Inauguration Mass, nor has he worn it since that time.
Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. One item of clothing that Benedict has not worn to date is the papal tiara.

Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. On December 21, 2005, the pope began wearing the camauro for his general audiences; the traditional papal hat had not been seen since the pontificate of John XXIII (1958 - 1963). Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Pope Benedict XVI has also taken up the use of the red papal tabarro (outdoor cloak), which Pope John Paul II did not use after 1995. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. His house cassock (his soutane or cassock with shoulder cape) also includes the upper half-sleeves discontinued for all other clerics by the authority of Paul VI's Motu Proprio "Pontificalis Domus". Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. He has also worn the red satin mozzetta and its ermine-trimmed winter version that has not been seen since Pope Paul VI.

Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. He has revived the use of the red papal buskins. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). During his installment address, he spoke at length about the significance of one item of vestiture: the pallium, and has reverted to an ancient form of the pallium worn by first millennium pontiffs. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. Pope Benedict XVI has been using papal clothing which had previously fallen into disuse. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. The canonizations were part of a Mass that marked the conclusion of the Synod of Bishops and the Year of the Eucharist.[36].

Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Peter's Square when he canonized Josef Bilczewski, Alberto Hurtado SJ and three others. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Pope Benedict XVI celebrated his first Canonizations on October 23, 2005 in St. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. On 29 September 2005 the Congregation for the Causes of Saints issued a communiqué announcing that henceforth beatifications would be celebrated by a representative of the Pope, usually the Prefect of that Congregation. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Unlike his predecessor, Benedict XVI delegated the beatification liturgical service to a Cardinal.

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The new Blesseds were Mother Marianne Cope and Mother Ascensión Nicol Goñi. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. The first beatification under the new Pope was celebrated on May 14, 2005 by José Cardinal Saraiva Martins. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. [35]. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. Normally the beatification process for a person does not begin until five years have passed since his or her death, but due to the popularity of John Paul II — devotees chanted "Santo subito!" meaning "Saint now!" during the late pontiff's funeral — Benedict XVI dispensed with the rule and styled the late pope with the title given to all those being scrutinized in the beatification process, Servant of God.

The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. On May 9, 2005, Benedict XVI began the beatification process for his immediate predecessor, John Paul II. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. Levada relinquished his see in San Francisco on August 17, 2005 and is expected to be made a Cardinal in a future consistory. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. Though elements of the press have chosen to present Levada as a staunch conservative for his involvement with the drafting of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, his private views and public policies have not been entirely clear. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. On May 13, 2005, Benedict XVI appointed a non-Cardinal, William Joseph Levada, Archbishop of San Francisco in the United States of America.

However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. Benedict's only major new appointment was that of his successor as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. The principal political officer, the Cardinal Secretary of State (often likened to the pope's Prime Minister), remains Angelo Cardinal Sodano, an Italian. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). This assured an easy transition into a new pontificate. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Since their terms had ended on the death of the previous pope, Benedict reappointed after his election all former senior officers of the Roman Curia, though most only in a provisional manner.

This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). This has drawn a sharp criticism by Catholic gay rights advocates like journalist Andrew Sullivan, who claim that Benedict is espousing a form of fundamentalist edict and is opposed to an outside questioning of his doctrines. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. John Lateran basilica on June 6, 2005, Benedict remarked on the issues of same-sex marriage and abortion:. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. In an address to a conference of the Diocese of Rome held at St. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the discussion with secularism and rationalism, one of Benedict's basic ideas can be found in his address on the "Crisis of Culture" in the West, a day before Pope John Paul II died, when he referred to Christianity as the Religion of the Word (in the original Greek, Logos, reason, meaning, intelligence).

If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. He also traced the failed revolutions and violent ideologies of the 20th century to a conversion of partial points of view into absolute guides: "Absolutizing what is not absolute but relative is called totalitarianism," he said during World Youth Day. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. Continuing what he said in the pre-conclave Mass about what he has often referred to as the "central problem of our faith today": [31] the world "moving towards a dictatorship of relativism", [32] on June 6, 2005 he also said:. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. It is a message that helps to overcome what can be considered the great temptation of our time: the claim, that after the Big Bang, God withdrew from history." [30]. No structural damage. speaking to him as to a friend, knowing well that the Lord really is the true friend of everyone, even of those who cannot do great things on their own...that God is working today, and that all we have to do is put ourselves at his disposal...is an extremely important message.

Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. [29] He also said: "Truly we are all able, we are all called to open ourselves to this friendship with God.. Trees and bushes shake. For example, his address to the priests of Rome, his diocese as bishop, [27], to the cardinals in the pre-conclave, a key public address to the Church's top leaders [28], and to 150,000 people among whom were children going to their First Communion. Plaster in walls might crack. "Friendship with Jesus Christ" is a theme of his preaching which is found in many of his homilies and his addresses. Furniture moves. After referring to John Paul II's well-known words (Do not be afraid! Open wide the doors for Christ!), Benedict XVI says:.

Pictures fall off walls. According to commentators, during the Inaugural Mass, the core of his message, the most moving and famous part, is found in the last paragraph of his homily where he referred to both Jesus Christ and John Paul II. Objects fall from shelves. The emphases of his teachings are stated in more detail in Theology of Pope Benedict XVI. People have trouble walking. As Pope, Benedict XVI's main role is to teach about the Catholic faith and the solutions to the problems of the faith, a role that he can play well being a former head of the Church's Congregation of the Faith. Everyone feels movement. In a return to tradition, Benedict chose to resurrect the tradition of delegating the celebration of the beatification liturgies.

The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. However, all the cardinals had already sworn their obedience upon his election. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. During his inaugural Mass, the previous custom of all the cardinals submitting was replaced by having 12 people, representing cardinals, clergy, religious, a married couple and their child, and newly confirmed people, submit to him. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. Since it is the shield and not the background which is unique to the individual Pope, various backgrounds are possible (though rarely used) for even a single shield. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. Benedict's coat of arms has officially omitted the papal tiara, traditionally appearing in the background to designate the Pope's position and replaced it with a simple mitre.[25] However, there have been papal documents since his inauguration that have been appearing with the papal tiara present.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. It is notable that he has used an open popemobile, saying that he wants to be closer to the people. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. Pope Benedict has confounded the expectations of many in the early days of his papacy by his gentle public persona and his promise to listen. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Peter's Square, on April 27, 2005, to explain to the world why he chose the name:. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". Benedict XVI used his first General Audience in St.

That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The choice of the regnal name Benedict (Latin "the blessed") is significant. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. John Lateran. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. (Some sources, such as the Catholic Encyclopedia and a number of church historians, additionally count Pope Stephen II, who died before being consecrated.) Then, on May 7, he was enthroned in a mass at the Basilica of St. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. Peters, formally becoming the 265th pope by the official Vatican reckoning.

The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. On April 24, he was inaugurated in St. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. He then gave the blessing to the people. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. At the balcony, Benedict's first words to the crowd, given in Italian before he gave the traditional Urbi et Orbi blessing in Latin, were:. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. Cardinal Medina Estévez first addressed the massive crowd as "dear(est) brothers and sisters" in Italian, Spanish, French, German and English — each language receiving cheers from the international crowd — before continuing with the traditional Habemus Papam announcement in Latin.

There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. Before his first appearance at the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica after becoming pope, he was announced by the Jorge Cardinal Medina Estévez, protodeacon of the College of Cardinals. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Cardinal Ratzinger had hoped to retire peacefully and said that "At a certain point, I prayed to God 'please don't do this to me'...Evidently, this time He didn't listen to me." [23]. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. Leo IX, the most important German pope of the Middle Ages, known for instituting major reforms during his pontificate. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. Coincidentally, April 19 is the feast of St.

Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. On April 19, 2005, Cardinal Ratzinger was elected as the successor to Pope John Paul II on the second day of the papal conclave after four ballots. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Despite being the favourite (or perhaps because he was the favourite), it was a surprise to many that he was actually elected. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. The elections of both John Paul II and his predecessor, John Paul I had been rather unexpected. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Though Ratzinger was increasingly considered the front runner by much of the international media, others maintained that his election was far from certain since very few papal predictions in modern history had come true.

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . Piers Paul Read wrote in The Spectator on March 5, 2005:. . Ratzinger himself had repeatedly stated he would like to retire to a Bavarian village and dedicate himself to writing books, but more recently, he told friends he was ready to "accept any charge God placed on him.". Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. In April 2005, before his election as pope, he was identified as one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time magazine. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. On the death of John Paul II, the Financial Times gave the odds of Ratzinger becoming pope as 7–1, the lead position, but close to his rivals on the liberal wing of the church.

Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. On January 2, 2005, Time magazine quoted unnamed Vatican sources as saying that Ratzinger was a frontrunner to succeed John Paul II should the pope die or become too ill to continue as pope. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). A careful reading of the text will probably prove disappointing.". The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. He was quoted in the media as stating, "No great mystery is revealed; nor is the future unveiled. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. On June 26, 2000, following the release of the text of the prophecy, Ratzinger issued a joint statement with Cardinal Bertone that the third and final chapter of Mary's prophecy had been fulfilled in 1981 in a failed attempt on the Pope's life.

The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). In 1997, Ratzinger and Capovilla publicly stated that the Third Message was not being withheld for fears it would condemn the changes of the Vatican II council. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. In October 1987 he stated that "the things contained in [the] Third Secret correspond to what has been announced in Scripture and has been said again and again in many other Marian apparitions; first of all, that of Fatima in what is already known of what its message contains, conversion and penitence are the essential conditions for salvation". Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. A year later, the interview was re-published in The Ratzinger Report, although several statements were omitted. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. In 1984, an interview with Ratzinger was published in the Pauline Sisters newsletter and states that the message deals with "dangers threatening the faith and the life of the Christian and therefore of the world", while stating that it marks the beginning of the end-times.

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. He was one of seven people known to have read the actual Third Message put into writing in 1944, and the author of the Theological Commentary on the Third Message, published with the message itself in 2000. Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). Until her death, Lúcia dos Santos, the last surviving of the three Fatima visionaries, was forbidden to discuss the Fatima revelations publicly unless given leave by Cardinal Ratzinger. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. In defending Dominus Iesus, Ratzinger himself has stated that his belief is that inter-faith dialogue should take place on the basis of equal human dignity, but that equality of human dignity should not imply that each side is equally correct. Killed over 79,000 people. They point out that Ratzinger has been very active in promoting inter-faith dialogue.

Kashmir earthquake (2005). Others also maintain that single quotes from Dominus Iesus are not indicative of intolerance or an unwillingness to engage in dialogue with other faiths, and this is clear from a reading of the entire document. Fukuoka earthquake (2005). His defenders argue that it is to be expected that a leader within the Catholic Church would forcefully and explicitly argue in favor of the superiority of Catholicism over other religions. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). He said Turkey had always been "in permanent contrast to Europe" and that linking it to Europe would be a mistake.[22]. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. In an interview in 2004 for Le Figaro magazine, Ratzinger said that Turkey, a country Muslim by heritage and staunchly secularist by its state constitution, should seek its future in an association of Islamic nations rather than the European Union, which has Christian roots.

Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. [21]. One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. The Dalai Lama congratulated Pope Benedict XVI upon his election. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). The World Jewish Congress "welcomed" his election to the pontificate, noted "his great sensitivity to the Jewish history and the Holocaust," and quoted the Pope in its press release:. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). The deliberate omission of the "filioque" clause ("and the Son") in the first paragraph [18] is seen as an outreach to the Greek Orthodox Church which has been in conflict with the Latin Catholic Church over its addition to the Nicene Creed for about one thousand years.[19].

Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. Addressing the question that one religion is as a good as another (syncretism or indifferentism), it states, "...followers of other religions can receive divine grace, it is also certain that objectively speaking they are in a gravely deficient situation in comparison with those who, in the Church, have the fullness of the means of salvation." (par.22). Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). 4). Bam Earthquake (2003). (par. Dudley Earthquake (2002). This document pointed out the danger to the Church of relativistic theories which seek to justify religious pluralism by denying that God has revealed truth to humanity.

Gujarat Earthquake (2001). [17]. Nisqually Earthquake (2001). This was misunderstood by some who mistakenly believed that the Church had previously repudiated its unique role in the world. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). In 2000, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith published a document entitled Dominus Iesus, which reaffirmed the historic doctrine and mission of the Church to proclaim the Gospel. Düzce earthquake (1999). [16].

İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. Shortly after his election, he told Francis Cardinal George, the Archbishop of Chicago, that he would attend to the matter. Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. [15] His Good Friday reflections in 2005 were interpreted as strongly condemning and regretting the abuse scandals, which largely put to rest the speculation of indifference. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). [14] A report by the Catholic Church itself estimated that some 4,450 of the Roman Catholic clergy who served between 1950 and 2002 have faced credible accusations of abuse. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. In 2002, Ratzinger told the Catholic News Service that "less than one percent of priests are guilty of acts of this type." [13] Opponents saw this as ignoring the crimes of those who committed the abuse; others saw it as merely pointing out that this should not taint other priests who live respectable lives.

Northridge, California earthquake (1994). [12]. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. In past eras, some serious crimes by priests against sexual morality, including pedophilia, were handled by that congregation or its predecessor, the Holy Office, but this has not been true in recent years." [9] The promulgation of the norms by Pope John Paul II and the subsequent letter by the then Prefect of the CDF were published in 2001 in Acta Apostolicae Sedis [10] which, in accordance with the Code of Canon Law [11], is the Holy See's official journal, disseminated monthly to thousands of libraries and offices around the world. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. "The letter said the new norms reflected the CDF's traditional “exclusive competence” regarding delicta graviora—Latin for “graver offenses.” According to canon law experts in Rome, reserving cases of clerical sexual abuse of minors to the CDF is something new. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). [8] However, the letter did not discourage victims from reporting the abuse itself to the police; the secrecy related to the internal investigation.

Killed over 25,000. However, when the crime is sexual abuse of a minor, the "prescription begins to run from the day on that which the minor completes the eighteenth year of age." [7] Lawyers acting for two alleged victims of abuse in Texas claim that by sending the letter the cardinal conspired to obstruct justice. Armenian earthquake (1988). The letter extended the prescription (statute of limitations) for these crimes to ten years. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). As part of the implementation of the norms enacted and promulgated [5] on April 30, 2001 by Pope John Paul II, on May 18, 2001 Ratzinger sent a letter [6] to every bishop in the Catholic Church reminding them of the strict penalties facing those who revealed confidential details concerning enquiries into allegations against priests of certain grave ecclesiastical crimes, including sexual abuse, reserved to the jurisdiction of the CDF. 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). [4].

Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). As Cardinal Ratzinger was Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF), the sexual abuse of minors by priests was his responsibility to investigate from 2001, when that charge was given to the CDF by Pope John Paul II. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. Because of these health problems, and in order to have time free to write, he had hoped to retire, but had continued at his post in obedience to the wishes of Pope John Paul II.[3]. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. France's Philippe Cardinal Barbarin further revealed that since the first stroke, Ratzinger has suffered from a heart condition. Tangshan earthquake (1976). In May 2005, the Vatican revealed that he had subsequently suffered another mild stroke - it did not reveal when, other than that it occurred between 2003 and 2005.

Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. The existence of the stroke was known to the Conclave that elected him pope. Sylmar earthquake (1971). In the early 1990s Ratzinger suffered a stroke, which slightly impaired his eyesight temporarily. Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. (See also Theology of Pope Benedict XVI.). Ancash earthquake (1970). During his period in office, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith took disciplinary measures against some outspoken liberation theologians in Latin America in the 1980s.

Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. In office, Ratzinger fulfilled his institutional role, defending and reaffirming official Catholic doctrine, including teaching on topics such as birth control, homosexuality, and inter-religious dialogue. Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. He was promoted with the College of Cardinals to become to Cardinal Bishop of Velletri-Segni in 1993, was made the College's vice-dean in 1998 and dean in 2002. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Consequently, he resigned his post at Munich in early 1982. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). On November 25, 1981, Pope John Paul II named Ratzinger Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, formerly known as the Holy Office, the historical Inquisition.

On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. Of these only he and Cardinal William Baum took part in the Conclave. Great Kanto earthquake (1923). By the time of the 2005 Conclave, he was one of only 14 remaining cardinals appointed by Paul VI, and one of only three of those under the age of 80. San Francisco Earthquake (1906). In the consistory of June 1977, he was named a cardinal by Pope Paul VI. Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. He took as his episcopal motto Cooperatores Veritatis, co-workers of the Truth, from 3 John: 8, a choice he comments upon in his autobiographical work, Milestones.

Charleston earthquake (1886). In March 1977, Ratzinger was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising. Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). Until his election as Pope, he remained one of the journal's most prolific contributors. New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Communio, now published in seventeen editions (German, English, Spanish and many others), has become a prominent journal of Catholic thought. Lisbon earthquake (1755). In 1972, he founded the theological journal Communio with Hans Urs von Balthasar, Henri de Lubac, Walter Kasper and others.

Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). Increasingly, his views, despite his reformist bent, contrasted with those liberal ideas gaining currency theological circles.[2] In 1969, he returned to Bavaria, to the University of Regensburg. Cascadia Earthquake (1700). Ratzinger came increasingly to see these and associated developments (such as decreasing respect for authority among his students, the rise of the German gay rights movement) as related to a departure from traditional Catholic teachings. Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. During this time, he distanced himself from the atmosphere of Tübingen and the Marxist leanings of the student movement of the 1960s, that in Germany quickly radicalised in the years 1967 and 1968, culminating in a series of disturbances and riots in April and May 1968. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). These sentences, however, did not appear in later editions of the book.

San Andreas Fault. He also wrote that the Church of the time was too centralized, rule-bound and overly controlled from Rome. New Madrid Fault Zone. In his 1968 book Introduction to Christianity, he wrote that the pope has a duty to hear differing voices within the Church before making a decision, and downplayed the centrality of the papacy. North Anatolian Fault Zone. In 1966, he was appointed to a chair in dogmatic theology at the University of Tübingen, where he was a colleague of Hans Küng. Hayward Fault Zone. (Later, as the Prefect for the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Ratzinger most clearly spelled out the Catholic Church's position on other religions in the document Dominus Iesus (2000) which also talks about the proper way to engage in ecumenical dialogue.).

Calaveras Fault. He was viewed during the time of the Council as a reformer. Alpine Fault. At the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965), Ratzinger served as a peritus or theological consultant to Josef Cardinal Frings of Cologne, Germany, and has continued to defend the council, including Nostra Aetate, the document on respect of other religions and the declaration of the right to religious freedom. Earthquake prediction. Ratzinger became a professor at the University of Bonn in 1959; his inaugural lecture was on "The God of Faith and the God of Philosophy." In 1963, he moved to the University of Münster, where his inaugural lecture was given in a packed lecture hall, as he was already well known as a theologian. Seismic retrofit. It was completed in 1957 and he became a professor of Freising College in 1958.

Household seismic safety. His Habilitationsschrift (which qualified him for a professorship) was on Bonaventure. Emergency preparedness. Joseph Ratzinger's dissertation (1953) was on Augustine, entitled "The People and the House of God in Augustine's Doctrine of the Church". an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. They were both ordained on June 29, 1951 by Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber of Munich. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. Following repatriation in 1945, the two brothers entered Saint Michael Seminary in Traunstein, and then studied at the Ducal Georgianum (Herzogliches Georgianum) of the Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich.

an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year. The family was reunited when his brother, Georg, returned after being repatriated from a prisoner-of-war camp in Italy. Ratzinger was briefly interned in an Allied prisoner-of-war camp near Ulm and was repatriated on June 19, 1945. His unit served at various posts around the city and was never sent to the front. He was eventually drafted into the German army at Munich to receive basic infantry training in the nearby town of Traunstein.

After his class was released from the Corps in September 1944, Ratzinger was put to work setting up anti-tank defences in the Hungarian border area of Austria in preparation for the expected Red Army offensive. In 1943, when he was 16, Ratzinger was drafted with many of his classmates into the Luftwaffenhelfer programme. According to one of Ratzinger's biographers, the National Catholic Reporter correspondent John Allen, he was an unenthusiastic member who refused to attend meetings. Following his 14th birthday in 1941, Ratzinger joined the Hitler Youth, membership of which was legally required from December 1936[1].

Struck by the Cardinal's distinctive costume, later that day he announced he wanted to be a cardinal. At the age of five, Ratzinger was in a group of children who welcomed the visiting Cardinal Archbishop of Munich with flowers. The pope's relatives agree that his priestly vocation was apparent from boyhood. His sister, Maria Ratzinger, who never married, managed Cardinal Ratzinger's household until her death in 1991.

Pope Benedict's brother, Georg, a priest and former director of the Regensburger Domspatzen choir, is still alive. He was the third and youngest child of Joseph Ratzinger, Sr., a police officer, and Maria Ratzinger (née Peintner). He was baptized the same day. Joseph Alois Ratzinger was born on 16th April, Holy Saturday, 1927 at Schulstrasse 11, his parents' home in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria.

He plays the piano and has a preference for Mozart and Beethoven. He is a member of a large number of academies, such as the French Académie des sciences morales et politiques. He can read ancient Greek and biblical Hebrew. Benedict speaks fluently his native German, and also Italian, French, English, Spanish and Latin.

Benedict XVI's views appear to be similar to those of his predecessor in maintaining the traditional Catholic doctrines on artificial birth control, abortion, and homosexuality while promoting Catholic social teaching. He was the public face of the church in much of the sede vacante period, although technically he ranked below the camerlengo in administrative authority during that time. As Dean of the College of Cardinals he presided over the funeral of John Paul II and also over the Mass immediately preceding the 2005 conclave in which he was elected, in which he called on the assembled cardinals to hold fast to the doctrine of the faith. Before becoming pope, Cardinal Ratzinger was already one of the most influential men in the Roman Curia, and was a close associate of the late John Paul II.

He was the first Dean of the College elected pope since Paul IV in 1555 and the first cardinal bishop elected pope since Pius VIII in 1829. In 1998, he became sub-dean of the College of Cardinals and on November 30, 2002, dean, adding also as is custom the title of Cardinal bishop of the suburbicarian diocese of Ostia. He was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith by Pope John Paul II in 1981 and was also assigned the honorific title of the cardinal bishop of the suburbicarian diocese of Velletri-Segni on April 5, 1993. Born in Bavaria, Germany, Benedict had a distinguished career as a university theologian before being appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising by Pope Paul VI, and very shortly afterwards made a cardinal in the consistory of June 27, 1977.

The last pope named Benedict was Benedict XV, an Italian who reigned from 1914 to 1922, during World War I. He is the ninth German pope, the last being the Dutch-German Adrian VI (1522–1523). He served longer as a cardinal before being elected pope than did any pope since Benedict XIII (elected 1724). He is the oldest person to have been elected pope since Clement XII in 1730.

Pope Benedict XVI was elected pope at the age of 78. . During his papacy, Benedict XVI has particularly emphasized what he sees as a need for Europe to return to fundamental Christian values, in response to increasing de-Christianization and secularization in many developed countries, where secular humanism is influential. At the time of his election as Pope, he was Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and Dean of the College of Cardinals.

He served as a professor at various German universities, and was a theological expert at the Second Vatican Council before becoming Archbishop of Munich and Freising. One of the best-known theologians since the 1960s and a prolific author, he is viewed as a close conservative ally of his predecessor, Pope John Paul II. John Lateran, on May 7, 2005. He was elected on April 19, 2005 in a papal conclave, celebrated his Papal Inauguration Mass on April 24, 2005, and took possession of his cathedral, the Basilica of St.

XVI), born Joseph Alois Ratzinger on April 16, 1927 in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany, is the 265th and reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, and sovereign of Vatican City State. Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: Benedictus PP. On August 21, he led a mass at Marienfeld with about 1,000,000 youths present. He also spoke with representatives of the Muslim and Protestant communities of Cologne.

Benedict and his immediate predecessor John Paul II are the only two popes since St Peter known to have visited a synagogue. The Pope visited the synagogue of the Jewish community in Cologne, which is the oldest Jewish community in the world north of the Alps. There he met with President Horst Köhler, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, leader of the Opposition Angela Merkel (Who later became the first female Chancellor of Germany on November 22, 2005) and others, and visited the famous Cologne Cathedral. Germany (August 18 to August 21, 2005): The Pope arrived in Germany on August 18 in order to participate in the 20th World Youth Day in Cologne.

It was his first pilgrimage outside Rome since being elected the 265th leader of the Roman Catholic Church on April 19. The Pope referred to Bari as a "land of meeting and dialog" with the Orthodox Church in his homily at a Mass that closed a national religious conference. Nicholas of Myra, a 4th-century saint who is one of the most popular in both the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches. Bari, on Italy’s Adriatic coast, is considered a “bridge” between East and West and is home to the relics of St.

Benedict made the pledge in a city closely tied to the Orthodox Church. Italy (May 29, 2005): Pope Benedict visited the Italian port of Bari and pledged to make the reconciliation with the Eastern Orthodox Church a "fundamental" commitment of his papacy.

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