Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.


Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).



This page about earthquake includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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. All four lights periodically flash green on the controller: The controller is not initialised by a device. A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. 1 Red Light: Will usually come with the 'Contact Microsoft Support' error message, but either way it means a hardware failure. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. 2 Left Red Lights: The Xbox 360 system is overheating.
Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. 3 Red Lights: The Xbox 360 system is experiencing a hardware failure.

Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. [43]. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. 4 Red Lights: The A/V cable is either not properly connected to the Xbox 360 system, or is not being detected. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. The patterns are as follows:. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. For some errors the Xbox 360 system will display patterns of red lights to occur in place of the standard green Ring of Light to indicate what error is occouring.

Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. [42]. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Microsoft is unable to replace the scratched discs, however they are offering a free copy of Perfect Dark Zero (a Microsoft published game) as a replacement. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. The manual that comes with the Xbox 360 specifically warns against moving the system while it is powered on. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. When a user moves the Xbox 360 from its vertical position to its horizontal position and vice-versa while the system is reading from a disc, the angular momentum of the disc causes it to brush against the drive's pickup-assembly and results in radial scratches.

Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Since its initial release date, some Xbox 360 customers have complained that the 360 occasionally freezes, apparently due to overheating because of high environment temperatures or a limited airflow around the Xbox 360 (and as such the problem can be lessened by allowing a better airflow or cooler environment). Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Contact Xbox Customer Support." in a variety of languages and the error code at the bottom. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. The screen contains the text "System error. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. The error stops the console and requests that the player contact technical support.

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. Microsoft placed kiosks for demonstration in some stores and the error began appearing. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. It was discovered in Wal-Mart stores days before the official console launch. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. The Xbox 360 screen of death is an error screen displayed by the Xbox 360 game console. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. [41].

The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. On January 26, 2006, Microsoft released Q2 2006 earning report, stating the Xbox 360 has reached 1.5 million units in 2005, 0.9 million units in North America, 0.5 million units in Europe, and 0.1 million units in Japan. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. Purchased separately, the price of the items would be AU$209.95. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. To compensate for the Late Xbox 360 release to Australia and New Zealand, Microsoft released a VIP pack priced AU$149.95, containing the items below. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. The Xbox 360 is scheduled to be released in Australia and New Zealand on March 23, 2006, delayed for 3 weeks from the original March 2 launch date.

However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. In Hong Kong, there are promotions include: free PGR3 faceplate with purchase of selected titles, DOA4 collectibles with purchase of a extra game, and reduced price when purchased with cross-promotional items. Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. The launch date for Hong Kong and Singapore is March 16, 2006, delayed from original March 2 launch date. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Promotions include one free limited edition PGR3 faceplate bundled for the initial shipment, and a gamepad-game combo pack containing Kameo and a wireless gamepad. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. It will be released in Taiwan on March 2, 2006.

This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). The Xbox 360 is scheduled to be released in South Korea on February 24, 2006. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. In Mexico retailers such as the Liverpool, CompuDabo, Game Planet, gdGames, Cyberbox, and Camelot Games have started selling the console, games, and accessories. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. The Xbox 360 was released in Mexico and Colombia on February 2, 2006. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). Sony has a substantial amount of Japanese third party developers.

If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. Recent surveys in Japan have confirmed that the majority of Japanese 'gamers' are strong supporters of Sony. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. On the day of the launch, Capcom unveiled their Xbox 360-exclusive sci-fi game Lost Planet, which features South Korean actor Lee Byung Hun in the lead role. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. On December 17, Rakuten's website announced a special five-day sale starting on December 22 selling 10 Xbox 360s at 24,900 yen.[40]. No structural damage. To entice people into buying the Xbox 360 some retailers are offering discounts on the system if they sign up for a 2 year broadband contract, similar to cell phone deals in the US.

Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. Maruyama is widely credited for attracting support from Japanese game developers. Trees and bushes shake. Microsoft Japan executive Yoshihiro Maruyama stated that he expects sales of Xbox 360 in Japan to hit one million units sometime next year. Plaster in walls might crack. It should be noted that this number is roughly equal to the number of Xbox units sold in Japan by November of 2005. Furniture moves. Namco expects to sell 500,000 copies of Ridge Racer 6 in Japan.

Pictures fall off walls. Initial predictions were highly optimistic as the highest rating launch game reviewed by Famitsu, Namco's Ridge Racer 6, scored 35 out of 40 stars. Objects fall from shelves. Matsui predicts however that the Xbox 360 will likely gain momentum coming into January 2006 when new titles come out which includes Ninety-Nine Nights. People have trouble walking. The 2-day 62,135 sales figure of the Xbox 360 is a little past half of the 123,334 units of the old Xbox that Microsoft sold in the first 3 days in Japan in February 2002. Everyone feels movement. He even added information that over 60% of his readers had planned to buy the much anticipated Tecmo fighting game which is set for a December 29 release.

The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. For his part, Famitsu Xbox 360 editor-in-chief Munetatsu Matsui pointed to DOA4's absence as the main factor behind the slow start. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. Others have also attributed this slow start to titles such as Dead or Alive 4 and Enchant Arm missing the launch date while others point to the marketing strategy that focused on selling the Xbox 360 as a fashionable item when customers were looking for an affordable or a high performance gaming console. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. Some believe this is mainly due to the other popular and prospective video game handheld consoles like the Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, and PlayStation Portable, all of which have sold far more than the Xbox 360. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. [38][39].

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. While other regions such as the United States or Europe enjoyed successful launches, sales in Japan have trailed the other regions, totalling 100,000 by the end of 2005. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. [37]. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Three North American titles (Ridge Racer 6, NBA 2K6, and NHL 2K6) were not available for the Europe launch. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". [36].

That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. A total of 15 games were available for launch, including critical hits Call of Duty 2, Project Gotham Racing 3 and Perfect Dark Zero. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. [34][35]. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. [33] By the end of 2005, Microsoft sold 500,000 consoles in the region. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. [32] In turn, some retailers blamed Microsoft for failing to provide enough consoles in the Christmas period.

The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. [31] The shortages led to some consumers criticising retailers, and others attacking Microsoft itself for failing to fill demand. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. [30] As in North America, thousands of Xbox 360 appeared on auction websites like eBay, selling for more than twice their retail price. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. Microsoft confirmed that 300,000 units were available for the European launch. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. [27], and Microsoft has revised their initial 90 day estimate down to 2.5 million units, though their 6 month sales estimate remains unchanged at 4.5 to 5.5 million consoles.[28][29].

There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. Analysts believe Microsoft will not meet the original worldwide target of 2.75-3 million units sold in the first 90 days after launch. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. [25][26]. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. By the end of 2005, Microsoft sold roughly 900,000 units. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. [24] In Canada, all 32,100 units available for launch were sold.

Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. According to the NDP Group, North American sales totaled 326,000 units in November. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. As of January 26, 2006 at 4:59 EST, major online retailers are sold-out of both Xbox 360 packages (including Amazon.com, circuitcity.com and buy.com). Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. It was reported [23] that 40,000 units appeared on eBay during the initial month of release, which would mean that 10% of the total supply was resold. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. eBay in particular was a popular location for such offers with thousands of consoles going up for auction, some selling for many times the original retail price.

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . The high demand for the Xbox 360 led to some owners almost immediately re-selling their console for vastly inflated prices. . Microsoft has stated that they will look into the reports and have offered assistance reachable by phone. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. Microsoft claims that these problems are to be expected on a large scale release for a console and the number of reports versus the number of consoles released was very minimal. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. [22] The manual contains warnings about not placing the Xbox 360 on soft surfaces or in enclosed spaces to avoid heating problems.

Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Some reported the Xbox 360 crashing with errors, some reported the hard drive does not respond in certain situations while others report error messages during various games or unusually fast overheating. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Immediately after the launch, reports about the new machine's technical glitches started coming out. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. [21]. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. Peter Moore, Microsoft corporate vice president, predicts that shipments will reach 10 million units worldwide by the end of 2006.

The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). This allowed them to launch several months earlier than would otherwise be possible, but also led to shortages. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. They did not, however, build up a sufficient supply of consoles to satisfy the entire demand at launch. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. they did not withhold produced consoles). Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Evidence indicates that Microsoft launched with all consoles available at the time, and operating at maximum production capability (i.e.

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Prelaunch reports assume that Microsoft intentionally restricted supply [18], although there is no evidence to support this and Microsoft has said they are releasing all units into supply chains as quickly as possible [19] [20]. Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). contest that offered participants a chance to win one of three hundred and sixty Xbox 360 console bundles six days before the official launch.[17]. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. The campaign was later revealed to be a U.S. Killed over 79,000 people. [16] This website hosted a number of images that appeared to perpetuate obscure conspiracy theories, but sometimes contained obtuse references to Xbox 360.

Kashmir earthquake (2005). On October 13, 2005, members of the TeamXbox forums were directed to the Hex168.com website through mysterious messages posted by someone called "Lutz". Fukuoka earthquake (2005). October 2005 saw the launch of "Hex168", another viral marketing campaign commissioned by Microsoft and executed by the Marden-Kane advertising agency. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). Design for the website employs flash animation of a Bonsai tree and bland elevator music to create a serene environment that is punctuated by visually intense psychedelic episodes involving the host rabbits. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. New contests include a Halo 2 tournament and a competition to design a "Gamertile" (an avatar icon).

Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. The initial contest was a raffle that required participants to answer three trivia questions regarding the Xbox 360 for a chance to attend a promotional pre-launch event. One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Unveiled on September 27, 2005 the website, hosted by talking rabbits Boss and Didier offers visitors an opportunity to enter in various contests. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). OrigenXbox360.com was the next viral marketing campaign from Microsoft. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). Allard.

Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. On May 12 the ARG section of OurColony closed, visitors were instead greeted with a promotional video hosted by J. Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Throughout March and April OurColony.net offered challenges to its community, rewarding solutions with cropped pictures of the console and game screenshots. Bam Earthquake (2003). The promotional campaign for Xbox 360 began on March 14, 2005 with the opening of an alternate reality game called OurColony. Dudley Earthquake (2002). EB Games locations received the Xbox 360 kiosks in their stores just over a week prior to its release.

Gujarat Earthquake (2001). In the first week of November, the Xbox 360 screen of death was reported. Nisqually Earthquake (2001). In October/November 2005, North American Target and Wal-Mart stores received kiosks to demonstrate games like Call of Duty 2 and Kameo: Elements of Power. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). Microsoft claims that most of the games were running at 25-30% of full capacity because they were not running on actual systems. Düzce earthquake (1999). The demos were running on "Xbox 360 Alpha Development Kits" which were Apple PowerMac G5s, chosen due to the PowerPC processor architecture that the machine shares with the Xbox 360.

İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. The system, along with some playable games, were shown off at E3 2005. Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. In the article he says "It's perfect...The day Sony launches [the new PlayStation], and they walk right into Halo 3." [13] Read more at wikiquote. Microsoft executive Robbie Bach later clarified this statement, saying "Philosophically the point Bill was trying to make is that we're not just going to ship and not have great stuff coming up."[14] Gates himself later clarified that "Halo 3 will ship when Bungie is ready." [15]. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). The Xbox 360 was also featured on the cover of Time magazine's May 23, 2005 issue with Microsoft chairman Bill Gates holding up one of the units. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. The official unveiling of the system occurred on Thursday, May 12, 2005 on MTV in a program called MTV Presents: The Next Generation Xbox Revealed hosted by actor Elijah Wood with a musical performance by the band The Killers.

Northridge, California earthquake (1994). See Xbox Live Arcade, Xbox Live Marketplace, and Microsoft Points. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. Points can be purchased directly through Live or via game cards sold at retails shops such as Target. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. While game demos and trailers are free, full versions of games must be purchased using a system called Microsoft Points. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). By far one of the most interesting features of the Xbox 360 Live is the capability to download arcade-style games through Xbox Live Arcade, as well as game demos and other content through Xbox Live Marketplace.

Killed over 25,000. It offers the following selections:. Armenian earthquake (1988). The Xbox Game Guide is a tabbed user interface that can be accessed instantly by pressing the Guide Button on any Xbox 360 controller. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). An Xbox Live Gold account costs $49.99 USD, £39.99 Pounds Sterling, €59.99 per year (or, in the UK, a 3-month Gold membership is available for £11.99). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). Then when the user goes to add a Xbox Live enabled profile to their console, the user just needs to provide the console with their passport account information.

Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). To transition an Xbox Live account to the new system the user needs to link a Microsoft Passport account to their gamer tag on Xbox.com. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. Microsoft has allowed for previous Xbox Live subscribers to maintain their profile information, buddy lists, and games history when they make the transition to Xbox Live Gold. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. However, video conferencing was not available when the console was first released. Tangshan earthquake (1976). Xbox Live Gold has the same features as Silver plus online game playing capabilities and video conferencing.

Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. Microsoft has also announced there will be trial weekends for Silver members to access the full features of Gold service temporarily. Sylmar earthquake (1971). Silver members are not allowed to play any games online. Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. Xbox Live Silver is free of charge and allows users to create a profile, join on message boards, access to Microsoft's Xbox Live Arcade, and talk to other members. Ancash earthquake (1970). With the launch of the Xbox 360, Microsoft's online gaming service, Xbox Live went through a major upgrade adding a basic non-subscription service (Silver) to its already established premium subscription-based service (Gold).

Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. Microsoft has changed the content of several Xbox games when running under the 360's emulator, such as when they blocked the Halo 2 trailers from running off of later copies of Halo: Combat Evolved discs, presumably because the advertisements promoted a very different game than what ended up being released. Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. [12]. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Microsoft states that they will be adding more emulation profiles as they become available, with the intended goal of making the entire Xbox library playable on the Xbox 360. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). As of January 10, 2006, the Japanese Xbox site shows only 30 [11].

On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. list includes over 200 games, fewer games are listed as backward compatible in the European markets. Great Kanto earthquake (1923). Although the U.S. San Francisco Earthquake (1906). market was released on November 11, 2005 and is maintained at Xbox.com. Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. The list of backward-compatible games for the U.S.

Charleston earthquake (1886). [10]. Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). Updated emulation profiles can be obtained through Xbox Live, by burning a CD with content downloaded from Xbox.com, or by ordering an update disc from Microsoft at a small charge for shipping. New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Hard drives purchased separately or as part of the console package will include a certain number of "emulation profiles" for games, including Halo and Halo 2. Lisbon earthquake (1755). A hard drive is required to enable backward compatibility.

Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). Software emulation is far from perfect, as significant drops in framerate are observable in some titles.[9]. Cascadia Earthquake (1700). Some games have slightly improved draw distance, possibly due to the system's greater memory bandwidth. Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. Games have minor graphical enhancements due to being rendered in 720p resolutions with Anti-Aliasing enabled. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). The Xbox 360 achieves backward compatibility through software emulation of the original Xbox hardware.

San Andreas Fault. The Playstation 3 also has impressive procedural synthesis capabilities, but the technical implementation differs significantly. New Madrid Fault Zone. Other interesting examples of procedural synthesis are shown in various demoscene demos. North Anatolian Fault Zone. Procedural synthesis is also found outside of the Xbox 360 in the advanced freeware FPS game .kkrieger, where such techniques have reduced the size of the visually stunning game to a mere 96 kilobytes. Hayward Fault Zone. The downside to this approach is that when part of the L2 cache is locked, there is even less data immediately available to keep the 3 symmetric cores in the Xenon CPU running at full efficiency (1 MB of shared L2 is already a rather small amount of cache for 3 symmetric cores to share, especially considering that the Xenon CPU does not support out-of-order execution to more efficiently use available clock cycles).

Calaveras Fault. The rationale behind this design is that procedurally generated game content can be streamed directly from CPU to GPU, without incurring additional latency by being stored in system RAM as an intermediary step. Alpine Fault. The Xenos GPU can then read directly from this locked cache space and render the procedurally generated objects. Earthquake prediction. When locked, a segment of cache no longer contains any prefetched instructions or data for the CPU, but is instead used as output space for the procedural synthesis thread. Seismic retrofit. The Xbox 360's architecture was designed with this approach in mind.[8] When running procedural synthesis algorithms, one of the Xenon CPU's cores may "lock" a portion of the 1 MB shared L2 cache.

Household seismic safety. Instead, a general recursive algorithm will generate the tree's model and textures, so that each tree looks different from the next, and do so with high efficiency. Emergency preparedness. A game with only one model for a tree will appear odd, as nature is far more random; the game loses some of its immersion as a result. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. For example, trees are one of the most complicated objects to render in a game, due to their organic complexity. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. Procedural synthesis is an approach to generating game content via algorithms.

an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year. A newer approach to generating content is utilised for Xbox 360 titles, a method referred to by Microsoft as procedural synthesis. As complexity in each rises, the demand for storage rises as well. In traditional games, all content is statically stored and generally immutable; that is, textures, meshes, and other game content is stored on a storage medium. For the Xbox 360, Microsoft has drawn on recent research in computer graphics to enable a new method for game programming.

For example, John Carmack stated at QuakeCon 2005 that the Xbox 360 had "the best development environment" he has seen for a console. To date, some developers have endorsed XNA Studio. Microsoft believes that this will give developers more time to generate unique content and reduce time running the content process. XNA Studio will allow team members to collaborate using familiar techniques and tools, even when elements of the team are distributed geographically, an increasing trend in game development.

These tools are designed to work together to automate common development tasks and present interfaces tailored to the different functions within the team. XNA Studio will provide versions of key production tools such as asset management, defect tracking, project automation and work lists. Based on Microsoft's Visual Studio 2005 Team System, the XNA Studio is the Visual Studio for game development; an integrated, team-based development environment tailored for game production. XNA Studio will enable collaboration between content creators, programmers, management and QA staff to speed the game production process.

XNA Studio covers three areas: Content Creation, Production Processes and Game Technologies. The Xbox 360 game development will be centered around the XNA Studio game development platform. In March 2004, Microsoft announced a new game development software strategy dubbed "XNA", which Microsoft claims would enable game studios to cut development times by up to a third if developing across multiple Microsoft platforms, by means of tools created with the increasing difficulty of programming for a machine with three processor cores in mind. During early development the Xbox 360 was referred to as "Xenon", "Xbox 2", and "Xbox Next".

[7]. By using a program "mceDivX360" on the PC, the Xbox 360 is able to receive streamed films which are converted to WMV format from DivX by Windows Media Encoder. The Xbox 360 is able to stream movies from a PC running Windows XP Media Center Edition, although it is unable to stream movies in DivX format. Windows Media Connect allows users to stream their favorite music collection through the Xbox 360 Dashboard, and allows users to play their music via the Xbox 360 Guide in place of the game's original soundtrack.

After installation the computer and the and Xbox 360 will automatically detect one other. To connect the Xbox 360 to a computer the user will need to download Windows Media Connect. The Xbox 360 has the ability to connect to Windows XP based computers over a home network to stream music and pictures right to a TV. The main dashboard is divided into 4 main sections:.

From there, the full Dashboard can be run, exiting the current game. The Dashboard can also be accessed via the Xbox Guide button on the controller at any time to open a player specific blade. The Dashboard will launch automaticially at boot if no game disc is inserted into the console. The Dashboard is the main interface to the Xbox 360, governed by a series of "blades" to subdivide categories.

Due to the limited space of standard DVDs, some games made for the system may span multiple discs, although procedural generation of textures and models (as seen in the PC game .kkrieger) may reduce the need for multiple discs. Xbox 360 games are set to the standard 7.95GB of storage available on a dual-layer DVD. Bill Gates has confirmed during his keynote speech at CES 2006 that an external HD-DVD drive will be released for the 360 this year.[5] However, Peter Moore has stated that if HD-DVD loses the format war, Microsoft may release an external Blu-Ray drive.[6]. [4].

It has been confirmed by Yoshihiro Maruyama, Japan's chief of Xbox operations, that Microsoft will never release games for Xbox 360 in a format other than DVD. The other supported formats are: CD-DA, CD-ROM, CD-R/RW, WMACD, MP3CD, and JPEG Photo CD. A 12X DVD-ROM SATA drive, capable of reading DVD+R/RW discs and DVD-R/RW, is part of the console, with game titles shipping on single or dual-layer DVDs. The system bandwidth comprises:.

The graphics processing unit (GPU) is a custom ATI R500-based "Xenos". [3]. The central processing unit (CPU), named Xenon (Microsoft) or Waternoose (IBM) is a custom IBM triple-core PowerPC-based design. Specifications are also available at the official Xbox website.

The price of these custom designs are around $20 with more to be released by third party manufacturers. Microsoft has also distributed two promotional faceplates, one for those present at the E3 2005 unveiling and one for VIP X05 attendees. The default faceplate (Xbox 360's Chrome or Core System's Chill) can be replaced with a range of custom designs, each to be sold separately. According to J Allard, the chief of Microsoft's Xbox division, Microsoft may sell larger capacity detachable hard drives for the Xbox 360 in the future, and territories outside of North America may have a differently sized hard drive in the retail unit.

This drive will not be included in the Core System bundle at launch, and also will not be sold separately in Japan. This content will be included on both the bundled hard drive and the stand alone product. The individual drives will come pre-loaded with a promotional video about the making of the Xbox 360, the "XBOX 360 Custom Mix" (A collection of music), additional Dashboard skins, songs, additional Xbox Live Gamertag images, and Hexic HD, an Xbox Live Arcade game from Tetris creator Alexey Pajitnov. A hard drive is also required for the user to be able to play backward compatible Xbox games.

Only 13 GB of this hard drive are available to the user; the rest is reserved for the system and games. A detachable SATA 20 GB hard drive is used for the storage of games, music, downloaded trailers, levels, demos, player preferences, and community-created content from Xbox Live Marketplace; it may also be used to transfer such content between Xbox 360 units. This port replaces the two proprietary USB connectors on the front of the Xbox controller. The rear of the controller includes a port where the player can connect a headset.

The black and white buttons have been redesigned as shoulder buttons, now referred to as bumper buttons, located above the left and right triggers. The ring of light lights up the quadrant (on the controller as well as the console) that represents the player number assigned to that controller (starting with the top left quadrant as player one, and proceeding clockwise to player 4 in the bottom left). Pressing the Xbox guide button will bring the Xbox 360 out of sleep mode, turn the console on or off, and bring up the "Xbox Guide" for access to digital movies, music and games libraries. The Xbox 360 controller adds an Xbox guide button, which has the appearance of the Xbox 360 emblem and is surrounded by a ring of green LEDs.

The controller for the Xbox 360 is a similar version of the Type-S gamepad for the original Xbox. The wireless controller has a battery life of up to 25 hours on the NiMH rechargeable battery pack (optional and recommended) and a recommended range of up to 30 feet (9.14 m). The controllers have two digital Touch-sensitive trigger buttons.The rest of the buttons are not Touch-sensitive. The wired controller has a nine foot (2.74 m) long cord with a break-away feature.

Since the controller has a USB cable, it is also usable in Windows PCs. Alternately it can support two wired controllers through the use of its USB ports at the front, the USB port on the back will support a third controller. The Xbox 360 has the ability to support up to four wireless controllers.
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This discrepancy is partially accounted for by the time needed to localize the games. Japanese customers, however, only had six titles to choose from by the time the Xbox 360 was released on December 10, 2005. The European countries had fifteen titles available for the launch date of December 2, 2005. Eighteen launch titles were available for customers in the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico on November 22, 2005.

For full details see Console Launch. Without it the Xbox 360 numbers sold were less than originally anticipated. The main reason for this may have been the delaying of Dead Or Alive 4 which remains an extremely popular Xbox 360 Japanese game. In Japan, it was received far less enthusiastically, despite the low price and bonus features.

Many stores sold out on the first day, and as of mid-January consumers had to hunt across many stores to find one in stock. The Xbox 360 has been released in North America, Puerto Rico, Europe and Japan. They have also stated that they may release a similar Blu-ray attachment, depending on which format (HD-DVD or Blu-ray) becomes standard, though there is currently no plan except the support for HD-DVD. Microsoft plans to release an external HD-DVD attachment to play high-definition movies.

Xbox 360 is compatible with DVD movies, but not HD-DVD nor Blu-Ray. Microsoft hopes to avoid such a predicament with its new console, the company is predicting that a greater market share and falling hardware costs will make the Xbox 360 a profitable item. Microsoft's home entertainment division posted a loss through nearly every quarter of the console's lifecycle as a result. Because of these chips and the added expense of a hard drive component, Microsoft was never able to reduce the cost of manufacturing an Xbox below the break-even point.

Both of these were very similar to "off the shelf" PC hardware and were therefore sold to Microsoft at inflated market prices. This flexibility stands in contrast to the situation faced by the original Xbox, which contained a processor from Intel (a slightly modified Pentium III) and a GPU from NVidia (a modified GeForce 3). Also, since Microsoft owns the patents or licenses thereunder for all custom hardware used in the Xbox 360, they can easily switch to new fabrication processes or change suppliers in the future in order to reduce manufacturing costs. The strategy of selling a console at a loss or near-loss is common in the console games industry, as console makers can usually expect to make up the investment with revenue from game licensing.

BusinessWeek magazine compiled a report which estimates that the total cost of all of the components in the "premium" bundle is $525 USD, aside from additional manufacturing costs, meaning that Microsoft is losing at least $126 on every Xbox 360 system sold in the US, and at least as much in Japan. However because of the existence of a Core System edition, many games do not require a hard drive. Microsoft's decision has also allowed Japanese developers to fully utilize the hard drive to optimize game performance, since it is part of the default system configuration in their market. Japanese pricing of the console has drawn some criticism, as customers there will be able to purchase the Xbox 360 full package, albeit one region-coded for Japan, for a lower price than in other countries.

The Xbox 360 Premium Edition is being sold in America for $399.99. The Core System is not available in Japan, instead Microsoft offers a package identical to the Xbox 360 SKU for ¥37,900 ($323.90 as of 21 December 05 8:09 UTC, [1]). In United Kingdom and Europe, the console is available in two versions: an Xbox 360 SKU, frequently referred to as the "Xbox 360 Premium Package"; and an Xbox 360 Core System SKU. Microsoft's current retail strategy involves two different configurations of the Xbox 360 in most countries.

. Australia and New Zealand, after being delayed, have been set-back from March 2 to March 23. It will be released February 24 in South Korea, March 16, 2006 in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan (Delayed from original March 2 launch date). The Xbox 360 was released on November 22, 2005 in United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico, December 2 in Europe, December 10 in Japan, February 2, 2006 in Mexico and Colombia.

It is equipped with 512 MB of RAM and uses the DVD-ROM storage medium for Xbox 360 game software. The console hardware is based on a custom IBM PowerPC-based "Xenon" central processing unit (CPU) and a custom ATI R500-based "Xenos" graphics processing unit (GPU). The Xbox 360 configuration, often referred to as the "Premium Edition", includes a hard drive (required for backwards compatibility with original Xbox games), a wireless controller, a headset, an Ethernet cable, an Xbox Live silver subscription, and a component HD AV cable (which can also be used on non-HD TVs). In all countries except Japan the console is sold in two different configurations: the "Xbox 360" and the "Xbox 360 Core System".

The Xbox 360 will compete amongst the upcoming generation of consoles, including the Sony PlayStation 3 and Nintendo Revolution, and was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, a week before the E3 trade show. The Xbox 360 is Microsoft's second video game console, the successor to their original Xbox. Membership to the Xbox 360 VIP website. One Xbox 360 Preview DVD.

One Wireless Controller. Perfect Dark Zero. Xbox 360 Faceplate. Friends Lists.

Custom Playlists. Favorites List. Marketplace. Xbox Live.

Initial Setup - Runs the system setup that executes the first time the Xbox 360 is used. Computers - Manage connections to other computers over network. Network Settings - Create and manage internet connections, set up wireless connections. Memory - Manage things on the harddrive such as game saves, profiles, and downloaded content.

Family Settings - Toggle parental controls, adjust profile levels. Console Settings - Edit Xbox 360 settings such as display, audio, and language. Media Center - Activate Media Center extender. Video - Watch videos stored on the HD.

Pictures - View pictures stored on a camera, a computer or other portable devices. Music - Listen to music from the hard drive, computer or other USB-connected devices. Trailers - Watch downloaded movie/game trailers. Demos - Play downloaded game demos.

Xbox Live Arcade - Allows the user to play games they have downloaded from the Xbox Live Marketplace. Played Games - Displays a list of all the games the user has played. Achievements - Allows the user to view all of their unlocked achievements from games they have played. Xbox Live Marketplace - Download a wide variety of content such as avatars, trailers, even game demos.

Friends - Displays the user's Xbox Live friend list. Messages - View messages, friend requests or game invites sent by other Xbox Live members. Connect to Xbox Live - If offline, allows the user to connect to Xbox Live. There are several ways to utilize the custom soundtrack option: by ripping music from audio CD's, by streaming music directly from a PC, plugging in a USB Flash Drive, or by plugging in a USB-capable portable music player.

Microsoft claims all games will support custom music. 3 USB 2.0 ports. Some games will optionally support native 1080i and 480p video resolutions as well. The GPU can downsample 720p to lower display resolutions (including 480i SDTV and 480p) and dynamically crop or scale 16:9 to fit 4:3 screens.

All games must support a 16:9 aspect ratio, and a minimum of 720p HD resolution with 2x full-scene anti-aliasing enabled. DVD playback on the console has similar lockouts. Games bought for the console in a specific region can only be played in a console from the same region, though some games are region-free. The console makes use of regional lockout.

Media Center Extender capability. Support for WMV HD and progressive or interlaced DVD video playback. 45.9 cm (L) x 35.8 cm (W) x 18.3 cm (H) (22.15 x 20.15 x 13.27 in). Weight 3.5 kg (7.7 lb).

additional MPEG2 decoder for DVD video playback. Bink Video is licensed for games like Project Gotham Racing 3. VC-1 supports DVD quality and high definition quality video. VC-1 or WMV will be used for streaming video.

VC-1 at non-HD NTSC and PAL resolutions. Uses XMA codec (advanced audio technology from Microsoft). Voice communication except during games or applications that do not support voice. No voice echo to game players on the same Xbox console; voice goes only to remote consoles.

256+ audio channels. 32 bit processing. 320 independent decompression channels. Supports 48 kHz 16-bit audio.

All games support at least six channel (5.1) Dolby Digital surround sound. 1 TFLOPS theoretical peak performance of CPU and GPU combined. 115 GFLOPS theoretical peak performance for CPU. 1 GB/s southbridge bandwidth (aggregated 500 MB/s upstream and downstream).

21.6 GB/s front side bus (aggregated 10.8 GB/s upstream and downstream). 32 GB/s GPU to eDRAM bandwidth (2 GHz × 2 accesses per clock cycle on a 64 bit DDR bus). 256 GB/s eDRAM internal logic to eDRAM internal memory bandwidth. 22.4 GB/s memory interface bus bandwidth (700 MHz × 2 accesses per clock cycle (one per edge) on a 128 bit bus).

512 MB 700 MHz GDDR3 (1400MHz effective) RAM (Total system memory is shared with the GPU via the unified memory architecture.). Dot product operations: 24 billion per second or 33.6 billion per second theoretical maximum when summed with CPU operations. Pixel fillrate: 16 gigasamples per second fillrate using 4X multisample anti aliasing (MSAA) or 4 gigapixel per second without multisample anti aliasing (8 ROPs x 500MHz). Texel fillrate: 8 gigatexel per second fillrate (16 textures x 500MHz).

Maximum polygon performance: 500 million triangles per second. 16 Filtered & 16 unfiltered texture samples per clock. 8 ROPs in daughter die. Shader performance: 48 billion (48,000 million) shader operations per second (96 shader operations x 500MHz).

96 Shader operations per cycle across the entire shader array. 2 Shader operations per pipe per cycle. Support for DirectX 9.0 Shader Model 3.0, limited support for future DirectX 10 shader models. Unified shader architecture (This means that each pipeline is capable of running either pixel or vertex shaders.).

1 ALU per fragmentpipe for vertex or pixel shader processing. 3 groups of 16 arithmetic logic units. 48-way parallel floating-point dynamically-scheduled shader pipelines

    . NEC designed eDRAM has internal logic for color, alpha blending, Z/stencil buffering, and anti-aliasing.

    500 MHz 10 MB daughter embedded DRAM framebuffer (90 nm process, 90 million transistors)

      . 500 MHz parent GPU (90 nm process, 235 million transistors). 325 million transistors total. ROM storing Microsoft private encrypted keys.

      DOT products performance: 9,6 billion per second. 512 megabytes of L-2 memory bandwidth (256bit x 1600MHz). 1 MB L-2 cache (lockable by the GPU) running at half-speed (1.6 Ghz) with a 256bit bus. 128×128 register file for each VMX unit.

      One VMX-128 (IBM's branding for AltiVec) SIMD unit per core. Three symmetrical cores, each one SMT-capable and clocked at 3.2 GHz. 90 nm process, 165 million transistors. The remote controls interface with the Xbox 360 via infra-red.

      Both remotes allow basic control of games, along with being able to navigate the dashboard. The universal media remote is a bigger version of the media remote that was initially shipped with the premium version of the console. Universal Media Remote: assists in the playing of DVD movies and music (although the console can play such media without the remote) , and offers controls for a TV or Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005-based PC. Headset: allows gamers to talk to each other when plugged into the controller and connected to Xbox Live, and has an in-line volume control and a mute switch.

      Using an official or third-party wireless bridge the console will automatically detect and link up with other Xbox 360 consoles that are within range and form a mesh network. Wireless Networking Adapter: The Wi-Fi (802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g) adapter is sold separately and will be sold for $100/€80/£60/C$130/¥8,925. Memory Unit: a portable 64MB device which allows the transfer of saved games, in-game achievements and unique gamer profiles to other Xbox 360 consoles. Also includes the rechargeable battery pack.

      Play and Charge kit: allows the controller to be recharged while playing. It also ships as part of the Play & Charge Kit. It is recommended in place of disposable AA batteries (which differ slightly in voltage). Rechargeable battery pack: This nickel metal hydride battery pack provides up to 30 hours of continuous gaming for the wireless controller.

      Composite video cable with SCART adapter. VGA HD AV Cable. Xbox 360 D-Terminal AV Cable (Japan only) This cable is included in the Japanese Xbox 360 System. S-Video AV Cable (U.S., Japan, and Canada only) or Xbox 360 SCART AV Cable (Europe only).

      Xbox 360 Component HD-AV Cable.

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