Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.


Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).



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. Schiavo's diagnosis of being in a persistent vegetative state and that he provided her with appropriate care."[43]. A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. DCF investigators found the claims to be groundless, stating that there were "no indicators" of abuse in any of the cases and concluding that "[t]he preponderance of the evidence shows that Michael Schiavo followed doctors' orders [regarding] Ms. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. These included Terri supposedly being in pain from recent dental work, Terri not having had any dental work for years prior to that, and the blinds in her room not being open wide enough.
Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. During the final stages of the court battle in March 2005, around 30 individuals made a variety of complaints to the DCF, alleging various abuses.

Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. On March 11, 2005, media tycoon Robert Herring (who believes that stem cell research could have cured Schiavo's condition) offered $1 million (USD) to Michael Schiavo if he agreed to cede his guardianship to his wife's parents.[42] The offer was rejected; George Felos, attorney for Michael Schiavo, described it as "offensive," adding that Michael had rejected other monetary offers, including one of $10 million (USD). Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. The Schindlers' legal fight was funded by a variety of sources on the political right.[41]. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Although the vast majority of protests were nonviolent, two of the more extreme acts included death threats aimed towards Michael Schiavo. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. The case drew notable figures on both sides of the debate, as well as many pressure groups and public protesters.

Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. A number of opinion polls were carried out, particularly on the question of federal involvement in the Terri Schiavo case, with conflicting results. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). The Terri Schiavo case held the attention of both American and international audiences and had major political ramifications. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. Jay Wolfson was appointed by Florida legislature to "deduce and represent the best wishes and bests interests of Theresa Schiavo." He reported to Governor Jeb Bush that "the evidence that served as the basis for the decisions regarding Theresa Schiavo were firmly grounded within Florida statutory and case law, which clearly and unequivocally provide for the removal of artificial nutrition in cases of persistent vegetative states," and that the evidence regarding Schiavo's medical condition and intentions had been "deemed, by the trier of fact to be clear and convincing." and "The reasonable degree of medical certainty associated with her diagnosis and prognosis is very high."[40]. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. In 2003, guardian ad litem Dr.

Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. The court determined that she had made "credible and reliable" statements that she wouldn't want to be "kept alive on a machine," based on expert testimony, finding that Americans don't want to live "with no hope of improvement," and that her condition in a persistent vegetative state had "long since satisfied" the requirement that there be no hope of improvement.[39]. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. During a trial in 2000, testimony was heard from witnesses on both sides to establish Schiavo's wishes regarding life support. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Schiavo's husband insisted that she had expressed her wishes not to be kept on life support with no hope for improvement. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Judge Greer rejected their request.[38].

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. This led to a challenge by Schiavo's parents, who requested a new trial about whether their daughter, as a devout Catholic, would wish to go against the Church's teaching. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. Pope John Paul II stated that health care providers are morally bound to provide food and water to patients in persistent vegetative states. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. David Gibbs III, the lead lawyer for Terri Schiavo’s parents, supported Vatican statements which condemned her treatment as euthanasia. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. Michael had her gravestone read:.

The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. The Schindlers' attorney stated that the family was notified by fax only after the memorial service; by then, the family had already started getting calls from reporters.[37] The ashes were interred at Sylvan Abbey Memorial Park in Clearwater, Florida. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. On June 20, the cremated remains of Terri Schiavo were buried. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. He was under court order to provide this information to them. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. On May 7, Schiavo's parents made public a complaint that they hadn't been informed of when and where the ashes of their daughter had been (or were to be) buried by Michael Schiavo.

However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. It can be heard here (Audio: MP3 Format).[36]. Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. Father Frank Pavone, an activist with Priests for Life, delivered the homily. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Her parents offered a memorial Mass for her at the Holy Name of Jesus Catholic Church in Gulfport on April 5. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Schiavo's body was cremated following the autopsy.

This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). The manner of death will therefore be certified as undetermined.". Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. The cause of which [sic] cannot be determined with reasonable medical certainty. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Schiavo suffered severe anoxic brain injury. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). Regarding the cause and manner of Schiavo’s death, Thogmartin wrote, "Mrs.

If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. The examiners also found no evidence that Schiavo had been the victim of trauma (such as domestic violence). For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. Although it was stated that Schiavo suffered from an eating disorder that caused a serious electrolyte disturbance, stopping her heart, the autopsy itself showed did not provide, and could not have provided, evidence to support this claim. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. Aside from a localized, healed inflammation, the cardiac pathologist who studied Schiavo's heart found it and the coronary vessels to be healthy. No structural damage. In the case of Terri Schiavo, seven of the eight neurologists who examined her in her last years stated that she met the clinical criteria for PVS; the serial CT scans, EEGs, the one MRI, and finally, the pathologic findings, were consistent with that diagnosis.

Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. Ancillary investigations, such as CT scans, MRI, EEGs, and lately fMRI and PET scanning, may only provide support for the clinical impression—as might the pathologic findings, after death. Trees and bushes shake. As the condition is defined in clinical terms, it can therefore only be diagnosed in persons who, at some point, are shown to meet those clinical terms. Plaster in walls might crack. Nelson, P.A., cautioned that "[n]europathologic examination alone of the decedent’s brain – or any brain for that matter – cannot prove or disprove a diagnosis of persistent vegetative state or minimally conscious state."[35] The vegetative state is a behaviorally defined syndrome of complete unawareness, to self and to environment, that occurs in a person who nevertheless experiences wakefulness. Furniture moves. Stephen J.

Pictures fall off walls. The damage was, in the words of Thogmartin, "irreversible, and no amount of therapy or treatment would have regenerated the massive loss of neurons."[34] Dr. Objects fall from shelves. There was marked damage to important relay circuits deep in the brain (the thalami)—another common pathologic hallmark of PVS. People have trouble walking. The pattern of damage to the cortex, with injury tending to worsen from the front of the cortex to the back, is also typical. Everyone feels movement. Throughout the cerebral cortex, the large pyramidal neurons that comprise some 70 percent of cortical cells—critical to the functioning of the cortex—were completely lost.

The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. The neuropathologic changes in her brain were precisely of the type seen in patients who enter a PVS following cardiac arrest. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. Microscopic examination revealed extensive damage to nearly all brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, the thalami, the basal ganglia, the hippocampus, the cerebellum, and the midbrain. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. The brain itself weighed 615 g, only half the weight expected for a female of her age, height, and weight. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. Examination of Schiavo’s nervous system revealed extensive injury.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. The official autopsy report[33] was released on June 15, 2005. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. Thogmartin also arranged for specialized cardiac and genetic examinations to be made. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Jon Thogmartin. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The autopsy was lead by Dr.

That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The manner of death was certified as "undetermined", but acute dehydration was noted. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. It revealed extensive brain damage and generally supported the PVS diagnosis. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. The autopsy occurred on April 1, 2005. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. After her death, Schiavo's body was taken to the office of the medical examiner for Pinellas and Pasco counties.

The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. The Schindler family was allowed into the room after Michael Schiavo had left.[32]. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. Her parents, who had been denied access to her during her last hours, went to the hospice to visit her when they were informed she might be approaching death; they arrived half an hour after her death. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. EST on Thursday, March 31, 2005, with her husband Michael at her side. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. Terri Schiavo died at 9:05 a.m.

There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. As her tongue was too dry to receive a small piece of the host, she received under the species of wine, one drop being placed on her tongue. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. The Eucharist, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, can be received under the consecrated species of either bread (referred to as the host) or wine. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In accordance with the Catholic ritual of Viaticum, she received the Eucharist for the last time; it had been administered to her once through her feeding tube just before it was removed. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. The next day, Schiavo was given the Anointing of the Sick ("Last Rites").

Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. On March 26, 2005, Bob and Mary Schindler announced that their legal options had been exhausted. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. In jest, one official said local police discussed "...whether we had enough officers to hold off the National Guard."[31]. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. If Bush (or the Florida Legislature) had ignored Greer's order by attempting to remove Schiavo from the hospice, a confrontation between the Pinellas Park Police Department and the FDLE agents could have ensued. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Governor Bush decided to obey the court order despite enormous pressure from the political right.

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . Once Greer was made aware of the stay, he ordered it lifted and all parties stood down. . While the stay was in effect, Florida Department of Law Enforcement personnel prepared to take custody of Terri and transfer her to a local hospital for reinsertion of the feeding tube. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. The order was appealed to the 2nd DCA the following day, which resulted in an automatic stay under state law. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. On March 24, 2005, Greer denied a petition for intervention by the Department of Children & Families (DCF) and signed an order forbidding the department from "taking possession of Theresa Marie Schiavo or removing her" from the hospice and directed "each and every and singular sheriff of the state of Florida" to enforce his order.

Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. It suggested the Schiavo case offered "a great political issue" that would appeal to the party's base (core supporters) and could be used against Senator Bill Nelson, a Democrat from Florida who is up for reelection in 2006, because he had refused to co-sponsor the bill.[30]. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). The memo was written by Brian Darling, the legal counsel to Florida Republican senator Mel Martinez. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. At the same time, the so-called Schiavo memo surfaced, causing a political firestorm. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. Supreme Court declined to grant certiorari, effectively ending the Schindlers' legal options.

The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). As in the state courts, all of the Schindlers' federal petitions and appeals were denied, and the U.S. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. EST. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. from his vacation in Texas in order to sign the bill into law at 1:11 a.m. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. President Bush flew to Washington D.C.

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. EST. Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). The bill passed the House on March 21 at 12:41 a.m. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. Governor Bush and Congressional Republicans anticipated Greer's adverse ruling well before it was delivered and worked on a daily basis to find an alternative means of overturning the legal process by utilizing the authority of the United States Congress.[29] On March 20, 2005, the Senate (with only three members present) passed their version of the resolution, followed by the House of Representatives, a private bill which came to be called the "Palm Sunday Compromise" (S-686), transferring jurisdiction of the Schiavo case to the federal courts. Killed over 79,000 people. Greer told congressional attorneys, "I have had no cogent reason why the (congressional) committee should intervene." He also stated that last-minute action by Congress does not invalidate years of court rulings.[27][28] Although Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist, Senator Rick Santorum, and House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, brought the possibility of sanctioning Greer on charges of contempt of Congress, Congress did not attempt to enforce the subpoenas or take any action against Greer.

Kashmir earthquake (2005). Following Greer's order on March 18, 2005 to remove the feeding tube, Republicans in the United States Congress subpoenaed both Michael and Terri Schiavo to testify at a congressional hearing.[25] It is contempt of Congress to prevent or discourage congressional witnesses from testifying.[26] The purpose of the subpoenas was thus to postpone the feeding tube removal. Fukuoka earthquake (2005). The Florida Supreme Court then overturned the law as unconstitutional.[24]. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). On May 5, 2004, Baird found "Terri's Law" unconstitutional, and struck it down.[21] Bush appealed this order to the 2nd DCA, but, on May 12, they issued an "Order Relinquishing Case for Entry of Final Judgment and Order to Show Cause Why this Proceeding Should Not be Certified to the Supreme Court As Requiring Immediate Resolution."[22] The 2nd DCA, in sending it directly to the Florida's Supreme Court, invoked "pass through" jurisdiction.[23]. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. On March 17, Baird denied the Schindlers the right to intervene a 2nd time,[17] and the Schindlers, represented by the conservative American Center for Law and Justice (ACLJ), appealed the right to participate in the "Terri's Law" case, with the court scheduling an oral argument [18] date for June 14.[19] The Schindlers' other attorney, Pat Anderson, was concurrently challenging Michael Schiavo's right to be Terri's guardian, and, on June 16, [20] she made a petition for writ of Quo Warranto, a pleading that asks "by what right" someone acts in an official capacity.

Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. They appealed, and, on February 13, the Florida Second District Court of Appeal (2nd DCA) reversed Baird's ruling,[16] allowing them to participate. One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Greer. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). Douglas Baird, a Circuit Judge in the Florida 6th Circuit, the same circuit as for Judge George W. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). At the same time, Robert and Mary Schindler, Terri's parents attempted to intervene and participate in the "Terri's Law" case but were denied by Judge W.

Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. Michael Schiavo opposed the Governor's intervention, and was represented, in part, by the ACLU. Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Bush immediately ordered the feeding tube reinserted. Bam Earthquake (2003). Earlier, in October of 2003, when the Schindlers' final appeal was exhausted, the Florida Legislature passed "Terri's Law,"[15] giving Governor Jeb Bush the authority to intervene in the case. Dudley Earthquake (2002). Congress made use of extraordinary measures to support the Schindlers.

Gujarat Earthquake (2001). Both the state government of Florida and the U.S. Nisqually Earthquake (2001). Many are obviously not aware of the medical exams undertaken for the 2002 trial..." [14]. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). Greer noted that "[m]ost of the doctor affidavits submitted are based on their understanding of Schiavo's condition from news reports or video clips they have seen. Düzce earthquake (1999). Both are asking for an experimental procedure." [13] The following day, Greer denied the first motion as well, citing that an affiant doctor for Michael cautioned that fMRI was an experimental procedure that should be conducted in an academic setting, because Schiavo had already undergone swallowing tests and failed, and because VitalStim had only been performed on patients who were not in a PVS.

İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. The same declarations are being used for both motions and the motion appears to be an alternative pleading to the [previous] motion. Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. [12] Judge Greer denied the second motion on March 8, saying "it has become clear that the [second] motion is part and parcel of [the previous] motion on medical evaluations. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). On February 28, the Schindlers filed a motion, asking for permission to attempt to provide Schiavo with "Food and Water by Natural Means." This second motion asked for permission to "attempt to feed" Schiavo by mouth. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. on Friday, March 18, 2005." [11].

Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Anderson argued that Greer did not specify "artificial nutrition and hydration" versus "oral nutrition and hydration" and stated that "the withholding of food and water...was not ordered by the Court but by Michael Schiavo." [10] In his order, Greer also set a time and date for the removal of the feeding tube: "1:00 p.m. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. [7] [8] Patricia Fields Anderson, the Schindler family attorney, still held out hope "that Terri might be able to take nourishment orally, despite past findings that she is incapable." [9] Judge Greer formally denied the motion and ordered the "removal of nutrition and hydration from the ward" . Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. The motion was accompanied by thirty-three affidavits from doctors in several specialties, speech pathologists and therapists, and a few neuropsychologists, all urging that new tests be undertaken. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). On February 23, 2005, the Schindlers filed a motion for relief from judgment pending medical evaluations[6] The Schindlers wanted Schiavo to be tested with an fMRI and given a swallowing therapy called VitalStim.

Killed over 25,000. No stay was granted by the appellate courts, and on March 18, 2005, Schiavo's feeding tube was removed for a third time. Armenian earthquake (1988). The Schindlers filed two motions in an effort for forestall the removal of Terri's feeding tube. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). In addressing the issue of law surrounding the case, Wolfson concluded "that the trier of fact and the evidence that served as the basis for the decisions regarding Theresa Schiavo were firmly grounded within Florida statutory and case law, which clearly and unequivocally provide for the removal of artificial nutrition in cases of persistent vegetative states.". 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). Of suggestions that Michael Schiavo refused to relinquish his guardianship because of financial interests or to cover up previous abuse, Wolfson reported that "there is no evidence in the record to substantiate any of these perceptions or allegations.".

Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). That the Schindlers would keep their daughter alive to the point of her "limbs being amputated," was not accurate according to Wolfson. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. Wolfson addressed two criticisms that media attention had affixed to the Schindlers and Michael Schiavo, respectively. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. In examining medical records and consultations surrounding the case, Wolfson concluded: "(that there is) well documented information that she is in a persistent vegetative state with no likelihood of improvement, and that the neurological and speech pathology evidence in the file support the contention that she cannot take oral nutrition or hydration and cannot consciously interact with her environment." He observed further that while there appeared to be agreement about Schiavo and PVS: "the Schindlers have adopted what appears to be a position that Theresa is not in a persistent vegetative state, and/or that they do not support the fact that such a medical state exists at all.". Tangshan earthquake (1976). His central finding was: "The GAL was not able to independently determine that there were consistent, repetitive, intentional, reproducible interactive and aware activities." He notes further, that when joined by her parents no success was gained in eliciting a repetitive or consistent response from Schiavo.

Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. In December, 2003, he submitted his report, referring to himself in the third person as "the GAL". Sylmar earthquake (1971). Wolfson visited Schiavo at least daily over the course of a month. Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. By the start of 2005, feeding tube removal again seemed imminent and the case again began to reach a national audience. Ancash earthquake (1970). Throughout 2004, the legal struggle continued, but it received less publicity.

Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. Wolfson's report did not change Michael's role as Terri's legal guardian and did not otherwise obstruct him legally. Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. Jay Wolfson, to "deduce and represent the best wishes and best interests" of Schiavo, and report them to Governor Bush. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Part of the legislation required the appointment of a guardian ad litem, Dr. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). [5] She was then returned to the hospice.

On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. She was taken to a hospital, where her feeding tube was surgically reinserted. Great Kanto earthquake (1923). Bush immediately sent the Florida Department of Law Enforcement to remove Schiavo from the hospice. San Francisco Earthquake (1906). See "Government involvement" for additional details. Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. Within a week, the Florida legislature passed and Florida Governor Jeb Bush signed "Terri's Law", enabling Bush to intervene.

Charleston earthquake (1886). On October 15, 2003, Schiavo's feeding tube was removed. Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). Iyer for the January 2000 evidentiary hearing had Iyer contacted them [in 1996] as her affidavit alleges." [4]. New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Schindler would not have subpoenaed Ms. Lisbon earthquake (1755). and Mrs.

Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). Schindler...It is impossible to believe that Mr. Cascadia Earthquake (1700). and Mrs. Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. Iyer details what amounts to a 15-month cover-up [April 1995 through July 1996] which include the staff of Palm Garden of Largo Convalescent Center, the Guardian of the Person, the guardian ad litem, the medical professionals, the police and, believe it or not, Mr. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). The exhibits relied upon by them clearly demonstrate this to be true." Regarding Iyer's statements, Greer wrote that they were "incredible to say the least" and that "Ms.

San Andreas Fault. It is not even a veiled or disguised attempt. New Madrid Fault Zone. Schindler to re-litigate the entire case. North Anatolian Fault Zone. and Mrs. Hayward Fault Zone. On September 17, Judge George Greer denied the petition, and wrote that "the Petition is an attempt by Mr.

Calaveras Fault. Iyer stated that standing orders were not to contact the Schindler family, but that she "would call them anyway." Iyer stated that she eventually called the police and was fired the next day. Alpine Fault. She stated that it was medically possible that Michael injected his wife with insulin in an attempt to kill her. Earthquake prediction. One of the nurses, Carla Sauer Iyer said in her affidavit that her initial training in 1996 consisted solely of the instruction, "do what Michael Schiavo tells you or you're terminated." She stated that on five different occasions, she tested Schiavo's blood sugar levels after Michael visited her, and she found that her blood sugar levels were so low it wouldn't even register a number. Seismic retrofit. At the hearing the Schindlers' counsel read into the record additional affidavits from three speech professionals and two nurses.

Household seismic safety. Gimon. Emergency preparedness. Alexander T. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. Accompanying the petition were four affidavits from members of the Schindler family and one from Dr. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. The petition was denied.

an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year. On September 11, 2003, the Schindlers petitioned the court to forestall removal of the feeding tube to provide for "eight weeks' therapy". In the fall of 2002, their first child was born. In 1995, Michael began a relationship with another woman, Jodi Centonze. By the summer of 2003, Michael's pursuit of having Terri's feeding tube removed had progressed to the point where removal seemed imminent.

Pro-life groups had begun to actively come to the aid of the Schindlers and the story was receiving increasing publicity at the state level. As the legal conflict escalated to the state level, the Schindlers began to use Randall Terry as their spokesman. The Schindlers released an influential video of Terri and her mother in what appeared to be some form of interaction. They would do so again in 2005.

In March of 2000, the Schindlers filed a motion to permit oral feeding of Schiavo, which is not considered a life-prolonging procedure under Florida law. There were many legal conflicts over the next five years between Michael Schiavo and Terri's parents. The courts determined that Terri was in a persistent vegetative state from which she had little chance of ever recovering. In 1998, Michael requested that Terri's nutrition be withheld with the obvious intention that Terri's life should come to an end in the near future.

Terri's parents and, in several cases, medical administrative staff moved to opposed these measures and thus began a long and complicated legal struggle. He requested that treatment for infections be halted. In 1994, Michael Schiavo indicated that he saw no hopes for his wife's recovery, and that she would not want to continue her life under those circumstances. The Schindler's continue to present statements to the public that question this diagnosis, but the issue has not further been addressed by the courts.

Michael fought and won a malpractice suit with a large monetary award against Terri's obstetrician based on the premise that Terri had an undiagnosed eating disorder. That latter pursuit was not successful. She was diagnosed as being in persistent vegetative state and was provided with standard care for such a case and was also provided with some extraordinary procedures in pursuit of a cognitive recovery. She was fitted with a feeding tube for nutrition and hydration.

Terri Schiavo suffered a cardiac arrest at her home in 1990.
. The physician who examined her did not take a complete medical history, which might have indicated an eating disorder. At this time Schiavo's weight had dropped to 120 pounds, and she had stopped menstruating.

In 1989, the Schiavos began visiting an obstetrician and receiving fertility services and counseling in the hopes of having a child. In Florida, she worked as an insurance claims clerk for the Prudential insurance company, and Michael was a restaurant manager. Petersburg three months later. Schiavo's parents also moved to St.

Petersburg, Florida, in April 1986. They moved to St. They were married on November 10, 1984, at Our Lady of Good Counsel Church in Southampton, Pennsylvania. After dating for five months, the couple became engaged.

He was her first boyfriend. She met Michael Schiavo in 1982 in a sociology class at Bucks County Community College. She went on a NutriSystem diet and lost about 55 pounds (25 kg).[2] She may have developed an eating disorder around this time.[3] In 1981, she graduated from Archbishop Wood Catholic High School. By her senior year in high school, Schiavo was overweight, with a height of 5 feet, 3 inches (160 cm) and a weight of around 200 pounds (90 kg).

(Bobby) and Suzanne (now Suzanne Vitadamo). Her younger siblings were Robert Jr. Schiavo grew up in the Huntingdon Valley area of Lower Moreland Township, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as the eldest of three children of Robert and Mary Schindler. .

She died at a Pinellas Park, Florida hospice on March 31, 2005, at the age of 41. Her feeding tube was removed a third and final time on March 18, 2005. Despite these interventions, the courts continued to find that Schiavo was in a PVS with no hope for recovery, and would want to cease life support. By March 2005, the legal history around the Schiavo case included fourteen appeals and numerous motions, petitions, and hearings in the Florida courts; five suits in Federal District Court; Florida legislation struck down by the Supreme Court of Florida; a subpoena by a congressional committee in an attempt to qualify Schiavo for "witness protection"; federal legislation (Palm Sunday Compromise); and four denials of certiorari from the Supreme Court of the United States.[1].

By 2003, the matter, while still local to Florida, had received some national attention. The courts consistently found that Schiavo was in a PVS and had made credible statements that she would not wish to be kept alive on a machine. Beginning in 1998, Terri's husband and guardian Michael Schiavo petitioned the courts to remove the gastric feeding tube keeping Schiavo alive; Schiavo's parents Robert and Mary Schindler fought a series of legal battles opposing Michael. Within three years, she was diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) with little chance of recovery.

She remained in a coma for ten weeks. Schiavo experienced cardiac arrest due to a potassium imbalance and collapsed in her home in 1990, incurring massive brain damage. Petersburg, Florida whose medical circumstances and attendant legal battles fueled significant media attention and led to several high-profile court decisions and involvement by politicians and interest groups. Theresa Marie "Terri" Schiavo (December 3, 1963 – March 31, 2005) was a woman from St.

"Schiavo abuse claims were old," Saint Petersburg Times, June 4, 2005 link. ^ Tisch, Chris and Krueger, Curtis. "Statement from Gloria Allred, Attorney-at-Law, Representing Robert Herring, Sr.:," Christian Wire Service, March 10, 2005 link. ^ Allred, Gloria, Esq.

"Money Trail in the Schiavo Case: Bioethics for Sale?," The Daily Kos, March 22, 2005 link. ^ Zúniga, Markos Moulitsas. "A REPORT TO GOVERNOR JEB BUSH AND THE 6TH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT IN THE MATTER OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO," Abstract Appeal Legal Blog, December 1, 2003 link. ^ Wolfson, Jay, DrPH, JD.

6th Judicial Circuit, February 11, 2000 link. 90-2908GD-003, Fla. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated," File No. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge.

"The Terri Schiavo Case: Vatican official enters Schiavo feeding tube fray," Saint Petersburg Times, February 26, 2005 link. ^ Moore, Waveney Ann. "Schiavo's Remains Buried Amid Acrimony: Acrimony Between Terri Schiavo's Parents and Husband Continues As Her Remains Buried in Florida," Associated Press, June 21, 2005 link. ^ Stacy, Mitch.

"Schiavo's parents planning a funeral Mass for today," Saint Petersburg Times, April 5, 2005 link. ^ By Times Staff. "REPORT OF AUTOPSY" for Theresa Schiavo, Case #5050439, June 13, 2005 link. ^ Thogmartin, Jon R., M.D.

"Autopsy: No sign Schiavo was abused: Findings show woman's brain 'profoundly atrophied'," CNN, June 17, 2005 link. ^ Phillips, Rich, Producer. "REPORT OF AUTOPSY" for Theresa Schiavo, Case #5050439, June 13, 2005 link. ^ Thogmartin, Jon R., M.D.

"Attorney: Terri's husband cradled her: 'It was a very emotional moment for many of us there'," CNN, April 1, 2005 link. ^ An Unsigned News Story. "KCBS Report: State Tried Schiavo Grab," WCBS-TV, March 26, 2005 (WCBS-TV New York, reprinting a KCBS-TV Los Angeles Story) link. ^ An Unsigned "AP" News Story.

"GOP memo says issue offers political rewards," The Washington Post, April 4, 2005 link. ^ An Unsigned News Story. "Lawyers for Bush, lawmakers worked at exhausting pace on Schiavo," The Associated Press, May 24, 2005 link. ^ Farrington, Brendan.

"Schiavo's Feeding Tube Removed," TBO.com News, March 18, 2005 link. ^ An Unsigned "AP" News Story. "Schiavo's feeding tube removed despite congressional intervention," USA Today, March 18, 2005 link. ^ An Unsigned "AP" News Story.

"Docs Remove Terri Schiavo's Feeding Tube: Tube Was Scheduled To Be Removed Friday," CBS 2 Chicago, WBBM-TV, March 17, 2005 link. ^ An Unsigned News Story. House of Representatives, March 18, 2005 link. "SUBPOENA," Committee on Government Reform, U.S.

^ Davis, Tom, Chairman, (for The Committee). MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Guardian of Theresa Schiavo, Appellee," Case Number: SC04-925, Florida Supreme Court, September 23, 2004 link. "JEB BUSH, Governor of Florida, et al., Appellants, vs. ^ Pariente, Barbara, Chief Justice (for The Court).

"Schiavo News," Abstract Appeal Legal Web Log, June 10, 2004 link. ^ Conigliaro, Matt, Esq. "Order Relinquishing Case for Entry of Final Judgment and Order to Show Cause Why this Proceeding Should Not be Certified to the Supreme Court As Requiring Immediate Resolution," Case Number: 2D04-2045, Florida Second District Court of Appeal, May 12, 2004 (Pages 6 & 7 of the 7-page Brief at the link following) link. ^ Birkhold, James, Clerk (for The Court).

6th Judicial Circuit, May 5, 2005 link. 03-008212-CI-20, Fla. Jeb BUSH, Governor of the State of Florida, and Charlie Crist, Attorney General of the State of Florida, Respondents," Case No. "Michael SCHIAVO, as Guardian of the person of Theresa Marie Schiavo, Petitioner, v.

Douglas, Circuit Judge. ^ Baird, W. "News Coverage of Terri Schiavo's family's challenge to Mike Schiavo's guardianship," Purple Moose Marie Web log, June 16, 2004 link. ^ Ford, Cheryl, R.N.

"Case Docket," Case Number: 2D04-1528, Florida Second District Court of Appeal, link. ^ State of Florida. "Lakeland Appeals Court holds Oral Arguments for Terri's Law," Purple Moose Marie Web log, June 14, 2004 link. ^ Anonymous.

Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, March 17, 2004 link. "Judge Baird Again Denies Schindlers' Request To Intervene In "Terri's Law" Case," Fla. ^ Reynolds, Dave, Inclusion Daily Express. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, as Guardian of the person of THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Appellee," Case Number: 2D03-5200, Florida Second District Court of Appeal, February 13, 2004 link.

"ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, parents of THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Appellants, v. ^ David, Charles A., Jr., Judge (for The Court). 35-E, which later was passed into Law as Florida Public Law, Chapter 2003-418, commonly known as "Terri's Law," link. House Bill No.

^ State of Florida. 6th Judicial Circuit, March 9, 2005 link. 90-2908-GD-003, Fla. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No.

MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. 6th Judicial Circuit, March 8, 2005 link.

90-2908-GD-003, Fla. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated.

^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. "EMERGENCY EXPEDITED MOTION FOR PERMISSION TO PROVIDE THERESA SCHIAVO WITH FOOD AND WATER BY NATURAL MEANS," File Number: 90-2908GD-003, February 27, 2005 link. ^ Gibbs, David C., III, Esq. 6th Judicial Circuit, February 25, 2005 link.

90-2908-GD-003, Fla. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated.

^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. "Judge Greer and Michael Schiavo: Collusive Law Breaking in Attempts to End Terri's Life," Liberty To The Captives, October 31, 2003 link. ^ Ruby, Lisa. "Too thin a line between life, death for Schiavo," Saint Petersburg Times, September 15, 2003 link.

^ Troxler, Howard. "On Face the Nation, Family Research Council's Perkins misrepresented Schindler family's 33 affidavits calling for more medical treatment for Terri Schiavo," Media Matters for America, March 28, 2005 link. ^ An Unsigned Editorial. 6th Judicial Circuit, March 9, 2005 link.

90-2908-GD-003, Fla. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated.

^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. "RESPONDENTS' FLA.R.CIV.P.1.540(b)(5) MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT PENDING CONTEMPORARY MEDICAL/PSYCHIATRIC/REHABILITATIVE EVALUATION OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO," File Number: 90-2908GD-003, February 23, 2005 link. ^ Gibbs, David C., III, Esq. "Transcript: Michael Schiavo on 'Nightline': Husband at the Heart of the 'Right to Die' Case Speaks to Chris Bury," ABC News, March 15, 2005 link.

^ Bury, Chris. 6th Judicial Circuit, September 17, 2003 link. 90-2908GD-003, Fla. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No.

MICHAEL SCHIAVO, as Guardian of the person of THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Petitioner, v. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. "Terri Schiavo case reveals the dangers of eating disorders," The Johns Hopkins Newsletter, March 24, 2005 link.

^ Nair, Sandya. "The Legacy of Terri Schiavo," Newsweek, April 4, 2005 link. ^ Campo-Flores, Arian. "RESPONDENT MICHAEL SCHIAVO'S OPPOSITION TO APPLICATION FOR INJUNCTION," Case No.: 04A-825, March 24, 2005 link.

^ Felos, George J., Esq. note: See peace symbol. Ed.

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