Ducati Motor Holding

Ducati logo all black

Ducati Motor Holding (NYSE: DMH) is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer located in Bologna.

Ducati motorcycles have long been known for their excellence in design and performance. From the first post-war bicycle-like low-displacement motorbikes Ducati has grown over the years into a racing giant that is consistently competitive in both the racing arena and the world motorcycle marketplace.

In the 1960s, Ducati earned its place in motorcycling history by producing the fastest 250cc road bike available, the Mach 1. In the 1970s Ducati began producing large-displacement L-twin motorcycles and in 1973 released a L-twin with the trademark desmodromic valve design. In 1985, Cagiva bought Ducati. In 1996, Texas Pacific Group bought 51% of the company for $325 million and renamed the company Ducati Motor SpA. In December 2005 Ducati went back into Italian hands with the sale of Texas Pacific's stake to Investindustrial Holdings, the investment fund of Carlo and Andrea Bonomi. Ducati is best known for high performance motorcycles characterized by trellis-style frames and large capacity four-stroke, 90-degree L-twin engines featuring a desmodromic valve design. Modern Ducatis remain among the dominant performance motorcycles available today despite the aging technology of Desmo engine, which is nearing its 50th year in production. (Desmodromic valves are those which are positively closed by a leverage system, rather than relying on the more conventional springs to close the valves). While most other manufacturers have adopted wet-clutches (with the spinning parts bathed in oil) Ducati uses dry clutches in most of its motorcycles. This eliminates the power loss from oil viscosity drag on the engine even though the engagement may not be as smooth as the oiled versions. Although the exorbitant cost of servicing the Ducati's finicky engine can shock some owners, most will still agree that the improved ride quality, performance, and styling of Ducatis is worth the extra cost.

Product History

The chief designer of Ducati motorcycles was the late Fabio Taglioni (1920-2001). He introduced the Pantah 500 in 1979; its engine was updated in the 1990s in the supersport series. [1] In 1993, Miguel Angel Galuzzi introduced the Ducati Monster, a naked bike with exposed trellis and engine. Today the Monster accounts for almost half of the company's worldwide sales. The Monster, which has been out since 1994, has undergone the most changed of any motorcycle that Ducati has ever produced. After more than a decade of manufacturing, Ducati continues to create innovative changes to this classic motorcycle.

In 1995, the company introduced the Ducati 916 model designed by Massimo Tamburini, a water-cooled version that allowed for higher output levels and a striking new bodywork that featured aggressive lines, underseat exhausts, and a single-sided swingarm. Ducati has since ceased production of what many called the bike of the 1990s, supplanting it with the 749 and 999. Ducati now manufactures several lines of motorcycles, from the nakeds Ducati Monster, to the supersport 600, 750, 900 Sport and Supersport, superbike 749 and 999, adventure-tourer Multistrada 600 and 1000 and tourer ST3S.

Racing History

The company has enjoyed nine World Superbike championships in recent years. The company also races its motorcycles in MotoGP where it returns from a hiatus of over 30 years.


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The company also races its motorcycles in MotoGP where it returns from a hiatus of over 30 years. Go away.". The company has enjoyed nine World Superbike championships in recent years. On the top beam located on the south side of the bridge is a sign that says "There are no Easter Eggs up here. Ducati now manufactures several lines of motorcycles, from the nakeds Ducati Monster, to the supersport 600, 750, 900 Sport and Supersport, superbike 749 and 999, adventure-tourer Multistrada 600 and 1000 and tourer ST3S. One of the biggest easter eggs in the game is located on top of the Gant Bridge in San Fierro which is based on the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. Ducati has since ceased production of what many called the bike of the 1990s, supplanting it with the 749 and 999. The player can also hear about the Epsilon Group in the WCTR radio show Entertaining America with Lazlow in which the host interviews Epsilon's founder, Chris Fromage, who refers Kifflom as well.

In 1995, the company introduced the Ducati 916 model designed by Massimo Tamburini, a water-cooled version that allowed for higher output levels and a striking new bodywork that featured aggressive lines, underseat exhausts, and a single-sided swingarm. Epsilon has scientifically ridiculous beliefs, such as "The World is 157 years old", and hidden information that one can only read if one pays money to the Epsilon Group (despite the fact that the "Epsilon Tract" has not even been written yet), popular celebrity endorsements (Jezz Torrent claiming the Group aided him in giving up drugs), an openly shameless leader. After more than a decade of manufacturing, Ducati continues to create innovative changes to this classic motorcycle. It has yet to be proven that these comments are intended for any purpose other than adding flavor to pedestrian dialog but even one of your girlfriends from San Fierro, Katie, a nurse obsessed with death who practices martial arts, refers to the group on one the many random comments when you take her out for a ride/walk by saying: "Those Epsilon nut-jobs freak me out". The Monster, which has been out since 1994, has undergone the most changed of any motorcycle that Ducati has ever produced. Players have found pedestrians who talk about Kifflom (the Epsilon Program's "deity") in San Andreas, such as a barber and backpackers. Today the Monster accounts for almost half of the company's worldwide sales. Epsilon appears to be closely modeled on the Church of Scientology.

[1] In 1993, Miguel Angel Galuzzi introduced the Ducati Monster, a naked bike with exposed trellis and engine. Following the Epsilon Program website and related "clues", players have been looking over San Andreas for the Epsilon cult and its meeting locations. He introduced the Pantah 500 in 1979; its engine was updated in the 1990s in the supersport series. The magazine called the creature a Yeti instead of Bigfoot. The chief designer of Ducati motorcycles was the late Fabio Taglioni (1920-2001). In the next issue of EGM, a subscriber sent in a photograph of such a mythical creature appearing on his game in the countryside. . The CEO of Rockstar, Terry Donovan, denied the existence of Bigfoot: "There is no Bigfoot, just like in real life." Rockstar also denied the existence of CJ's mother's ghost, as well as miscellaneous rumors.

Although the exorbitant cost of servicing the Ducati's finicky engine can shock some owners, most will still agree that the improved ride quality, performance, and styling of Ducatis is worth the extra cost. The January 2005 issue of Electronic Gaming Monthly included a story on the San Andreas rumors. This eliminates the power loss from oil viscosity drag on the engine even though the engagement may not be as smooth as the oiled versions. Also in the cemetery, is a crypt containing a television, recliner & pizza boxes - in Buffy the Vampire Slayer Spike had a similar set-up. While most other manufacturers have adopted wet-clutches (with the spinning parts bathed in oil) Ducati uses dry clutches in most of its motorcycles. There are also other gangs' graffiti around the cemetery. (Desmodromic valves are those which are positively closed by a leverage system, rather than relying on the more conventional springs to close the valves). The graffiti ("Grove Street 4 Life") disappears once the sun comes up, this is mainly for those with sharp memories though, as at the start of the game, Sweet mentions that a lot of Grove Street gang members are buried there.

Modern Ducatis remain among the dominant performance motorcycles available today despite the aging technology of Desmo engine, which is nearing its 50th year in production. For example, the cemetery in Los Santos mysteriously becomes covered in graffiti at night. Ducati is best known for high performance motorcycles characterized by trellis-style frames and large capacity four-stroke, 90-degree L-twin engines featuring a desmodromic valve design. Though no ghosts have been proven to exist in the game, there are "ghostly" occurrences. In December 2005 Ducati went back into Italian hands with the sale of Texas Pacific's stake to Investindustrial Holdings, the investment fund of Carlo and Andrea Bonomi. Another popular but unconfirmed myth is that CJ's mother and other ghosts may appear in photos taken in graveyards. In 1996, Texas Pacific Group bought 51% of the company for $325 million and renamed the company Ducati Motor SpA. It is the building with the giant DNA strand model in the center (this is one of San Fierro's "Photo Ops").

In 1985, Cagiva bought Ducati. If you want to find the building, it is in downtown, just up the road from the construction lot. In the 1970s Ducati began producing large-displacement L-twin motorcycles and in 1973 released a L-twin with the trademark desmodromic valve design. This has started unconfirmed rumors of zombies late at night in San Fierro. In the 1960s, Ducati earned its place in motorcycling history by producing the fastest 250cc road bike available, the Mach 1. A corporate building called "ZomboTech" (Sinister Zombie Virus Research Corporation) in San Fierro is a joking reference to the Umbrella Corporation from the Resident Evil franchise. From the first post-war bicycle-like low-displacement motorbikes Ducati has grown over the years into a racing giant that is consistently competitive in both the racing arena and the world motorcycle marketplace. In what some call a hint at DMA's Lemmings, pedestrians will sometimes appear on a ledge and walk off to their deaths.

Ducati motorcycles have long been known for their excellence in design and performance. For example, photographer NPCs may take pictures and then drown themselves. Ducati Motor Holding (NYSE: DMH) is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer located in Bologna. Many in-game pedestrians die in what seem to be bizarre suicides, although these may be due to oversights in the scripting of the pedestrians' movement rather than intentional Easter eggs. Much like Liberty City, many cutscene and unused interiors have unsolid areas also. The interiors for the girlfriend's houses can be found there also.

Only a small portion is solid though. Mark's Bistro," where CJ flies back to Liberty City to do a hit for Salvatore Leone. The partial Liberty City model is used in the mission "St. Many unused and cutscene only interiors can be found here, such an incomplete model of Liberty City from Grand Theft Auto III, and secret interior spaces.

Aside from Blue Hell, there is the interior hell. The name Hell part is derived from the fact that if you go in unprepared, you will most likely find yourself falling for some time before you reappear above the city. Like all 3D GTA games, San Andreas contains an "underworld", an in-game limbo popularly dubbed "Oblivion", or "Blue Hell", though it is not always blue. Currently, many Easter egg-seeking search parties have websites with further information.

These and other myths in the game have brought a new level of depth to the GTA games. Most easter eggs appear in San Fierro, mostly dealing with the Golden Gate-inspired bridge and the video game and movie series Resident Evil (ZomboTech). Billboards in Los Santos are made to look like the cover for the True Crime: Streets of LA game and refer to the game as trash ("Get rid of old rubbish, fast! True Grime: Street Cleaners"). There are also the commonplace Rockstar Easter eggs, such as hits at competitor games, or the classic signs.

Oddly enough, with the disproof of Bigfoot, many of these people took back their claims, saying that they may have been mistaken. This would support one of the early claims that fans made in the very beginning of the game, of animals in the woods and an appearance of a dinosaur. Some fans soon found objects within the game's textures, such as deer and what they claim to be dinosaur skin. Rockstar has not said anything about the orbs, and its intentions with them are still unclear.

This leads to mass-less 'airplanes', with active running lights, flying in the sky. Many fans claim these to be Rockstar's implementation of UFOs, while others point out a much more terrestrial explanation: Rockstar used the same style to animate commercial air traffic in Vice City (bright lights, contrails, etc) but forgot to modify the names of the aircraft. There are also flying orbs that frequent the San Andreas skies. Though this is often thought to be plausible by fans, no reports or claims have been made.

The letters also detailed the idea of UFO landings in the game's desert. The most popular picture of a masked man holding a chainsaw in one hand turned out to be nothing more than a picture of the main character wearing a gimp suit and an ice hockey mask. Many of these claims were unsupported by video or picture evidence, and soon lost credibility with the community. Many rumors of a "piggsy" (from Rockstar's Manhunt) or Leatherface-type character (from The Texas Chainsaw Massacre) soon sprung up.

However, the letter mentioned that there was something in the woods. Having been the shining light of the many search teams, many fans were dismayed. The most important claim of the letter was that Bigfoot was false, and is not present in the game. This pattern continued, and some speculate that it is just a plot of Rockstar to create more publicity among the fan community.

Shortly after these claims were made the address owner soon issued a new return letter that validated new claims, but denied some of the ones in previous letters. The first automated return letters had a minor typo in it which led many fans to believe it was not an official Rockstar employee. After the initial letter, it is assumed that the address received many letters from fans, as it soon switched to an automated response system. Many questioned the authenticity of the letter, but upon further inspection, it did indeed seem to be from Rockstar Games.

Weeks after the myths had begun, and search teams formed, an e-mail message (message currently suspended) was received from "Mouthoff@rockstargames.com" and posted on several fan forums. This was programmed intentionally by Rockstar to add a feel of realism. Crashes also take place in other areas, including the lowland. Chilliad.

Those that occur most often are crashes into Mt. Several WWII planes crash occasionally throughout San Andreas, and disappear seconds after doing so. They are also some in the trailer park opposite the Lil' Probe Inn, and one at the Angel Pine Junkyard in Whetstone. There are several "Ghostly" Glendales scattered across the badlands, one is not too far from the actual ghost car, but parked in one location and reppears if taken away or destroyed.

Also they cannot be taken to a mod garage. They do not take damage like other cars, they stay intact until they are blown up, even then the front and back windscreens aren't destroyed. If you destroy it or take it somewhere else, another one will reappear and repeat the proccess. You can get inside one and drive it, it is always set back to the radio station Playback FM.

They are on a nearby hill and roll down it without any visible driver, then spawn to the side of the horseshoe hill and it stays there. It is near the horseshoe shaped hills seen on the map. Only one exists in the remote forest region of Back O Beyond in Flint County, it is a beat up Glendale. They are cars without visible drivers moving with damage that isn't repairable.

The ghost cars were infamous, but brought hope to the fanbase. One spot on the map also is pointed in the forest areas of San Fierro, some fans thought the infamous Bigfoot was hiding here. Since Las Venturas is based on Las Vegas, and there are missions where you work for the Mafia, it is not strange that Rockstar included this. This easter egg is a simple reference to Casino, in which both Sam Rothstein (Robert DeNiro) and Nicky Santoro (Joe Pesci) mention the fact that the mobsters get rid of their "problems" by burying them in the desert.

A typical thing to do for Rockstar Games, since they like referring to the movies that inspired the games. In The Introduction film (which can be seen when you purchase the soundtrack), there are two Mafia members who have just dumped the bodies in the hole, and even mention that they got rid of those "problems". It has nothing to do with aliens or conspiracies. However, even this is something that can be easily explained.

There is a hole between some rocks that has 6 bodybags inside it with a Bobcat parked near it. Even though there seem to be no UFOs near the Area 69 besides the fake one in the "Lil Probe Inn", you can find an easter egg to the northwest near the El Castillo del Diablo. Encountered onboard of a cargo plane, these black-suited characters (clearly based on a popular urban legend/UFO conspiracy "theory") proceed to attack the player and shout out numerous utterances signifying their contempt for the inferior human race ("Carbon-based buffoon", "You evolved from shrews!" and more). The single obvious and confirmable presence of living extraterrestrials in the game comes during the mission "Stowaway", in the form of a group of "Men in Black".

The number 69 is also found on all airport runways in the game (despite the fact that it is not a valid runway number), on various price tags, and is part of the name of the San Fierro 69ers, a football team in San Fierro, San Andreas, clearly based on the San Francisco 49ers. Area 69 is a reference to the 69 sex position. Fans initially thought the map was a key to the UFO appearances; however, Rockstar claims the map means nothing. A large map of San Andreas, found in Mike Toreno's home and in a diner called the "Lil Probe Inn" (a cameo to "The Little A'le'Inn" located in the tiny town Rachel, Nevada which is the nearest settlement to the real world Area 51 made famous for displaying a time capsule received from the production crew of Independence Day), has markers scattered randomly across the state.

This led to more speculation in the fan community about UFOs and aliens. There is a "restricted area" in the desert at the Area 69 military base, which is a parody of the real world Area 51. Shortly after the release of the game, several message boards sprouted claims of alleged Bigfoot sightings, and several alleged photographs were released, all of which have been proven to be faked. San Andreas is distinct from the first two PlayStation 2 GTA games in its easter eggs and player-propagated myths.

Rockstar has since vowed legal action against any subsequent sources that reveal how to access this part of the game, mainly cheat device code sites. It is also combined with another upcoming controversial game, 25 to Life, a cops and robbers simulator. Also, the fake game is actually pre-rendered with models from Poser. The fictional game title was Murder One: San Fransisco and the box art looks similar to San Andreas and Vice City but with badly drawn art.

Other parts of it shows us that teenagers are playing it and the worst thing is unlocking sexually explicit scenes and mini-games (aka Hot Coffee Scandal) caused the detectives to find the creator of the game, get information and stop the murderer who's been playing the game for hours (a la Devin Moore). In November 11, 2005, FOX program Killer Instinct's latest episode focuses on a hit online video-game with explicit violence that can cause players to murder people. Consumers who had already purchased the game were allowed to keep it in certain areas, but with the patch installed, although many serious players refused to use it as it did little but block out an unused part of the game's code. On August 24, 2005, Rockstar announced a mandatory recall for all games still owned by the general public.

However, the "Hot Coffee" mod dashed financial expectations for TakeTwo Games, which lost $28.8 million in its fiscal 3rd quarter of 2005 (May to July) partly because of the rerating; the company lost $14.4 million in the same quarter in 2004. The game has since been re-released with the "Hot Coffee" scenes removed (Grand Theft Auto:San Andreas 1.01), allowing the game to return to its "M" rating. However, the most major addition was that the patch disabled the controversial "Hot Coffee" scenes, even if the "Hot Coffee" mod was reinstalled. Nicknamed the "Cold Coffee Patch" by some, the patch fixed many performance issues and bugs.

On August 10, 2005, Rockstar Games officially released a patch for San Andreas. The effect on San Andreas sales is as of yet unknown, but Take Two Interactive has revised its projected financial statement for the quarter to reflect a further anticipated loss. As of July 23, 2005, however, the PEGI rating for the game has remained unchanged, although it is likely that the PEGI sexual content label will be added to the game cover. The patched version was given an "MA15+" classification on September 12, 2005.

On July 29, 2005, as a result of the newly-discovered scenes, the OFLC revoked the game's "MA15+" classification (the highest currently available for computer games in Australia), and changed the game's status to "RC" (Refused Classification) meaning that the original version could no longer be sold in Australia. Due to the new AO rating, many major retail outlets, including Sears, Hollywood Video, Best Buy, Wal-Mart, Blockbuster, Target and GameStop, have pulled the PC and console versions of the game from their shelves. Rockstar has halted production of all versions of San Andreas and plans to release a censored version of the game, which is intended to conform to the initial "M" rating, later this year. On July 20, 2005, San Andreas was rerated as "AO" (Adults Only) by the ESRB.

Confusing the issue is a recent version of the Hot Coffee mod which replaces the semi-nude girlfriends' textures with unclothed bitmaps that cannot be seen without the mod. However, this claim was undermined when codes were released on web forums for the PlayStation 2 Gameshark and AR Max cheating devices that demonstrated that the controversial content was, indeed, built into the console versions. Initially, Rockstar released a statement that strongly suggested that the Hot Coffee content was entirely created by "hackers". In the middle of July 2005, the ESRB, as well as various politicians including Senator Hillary Clinton (D-NY), launched an investigation into the Hot Coffee mod.

In the unmodified game, the player takes his girlfriend to her front door and she asks him if he would like to come in for "some coffee." He agrees, and the camera stays outside, swaying back and forth a bit, while moaning sounds are heard. The name "Hot Coffee" refers to the way the released game alludes to the unseen sex scenes. After installing the patch/mod, users can enter the main character's girlfriends' houses and engage in a crudely rendered, partially clothed sexual intercourse mini-game. In mid-June 2005, a file modifying the game dubbed "Hot Coffee" was released.

Similarly, around the time of release of the game in the UK, a leaked PAL version of the game was published. Six days before its release, a leaked edition of the game, along with its manual and its cover, were published illegally, DVD images of which are still available via a number of P2P networks. The city of Los Santos also goes up in smoke close to the end of the game much like Los Angeles did during the race riots of 1992, though in this game the main police antagonist is also black, and acquitted on drugs charges instead of racial motivation. However, proponents say it was a smart choice to make CJ a black protagonist, since all of the other main characters in the series so far had been white.

Some argued that it racially stereotyped black people as criminals, while some just simply discriminated CJ for not being a white character. As well, when Rockstar announced that CJ would be a black character, there was some disagreement amongst forums. CJ, however, is a much more fleshed-out character in general than Tommy Vercetti or the various mutes of the other GTA games. In essence, when one is playing the game (and not doing missions), anything one does cannot be credited to CJ, but to the player.

Certainly, killing innocent people on the street isn't necessary. However, Johnson is portrayed as a nice guy who's caught up with the wrong crowd; who only does what's necessary. Tommy Vercetti (the character) was portrayed as a brutal killer and made man in the Mafia, being released from prison shortly before the game's events. In Vice City, the main character had dialog and an established personality.

As such, a person could kill random people in the game without compromising their own morals, stating that such actions would be done by the character anyway. In previous GTA games (except Vice City), the playable character was mute with little to no character development, with the development present portraying him as a petty thug and bank robber. Another criticized aspect of the game is Carl Johnson (the playable character) himself. Compared to what was possible at that time, the game looked slightly dated, but nevertheless better than the console versions.

When the game came out for PC in early June 2005, titles such as Half-Life 2 were already available. The engine used for the game is essentially the same as the engine used for Grand Theft Auto III. Although some gaming websites like GameSpot have praised the graphics in San Andreas, there is some criticism of the graphical aspect of the PC version of the game. However, others feel the freeform camera is a very powerful tool once the player is used to using it, and some find it difficult to go back to the fixed camera of Vice City and GTA3 afterwards.

However, you can still fully complete the game. There is an in-game cheat that allows players to drive-by through using the mouse camera, but doing so will harm your record in the in-game statistics. As such, a number of players have complained that this new 'feature' makes much of the controls more complex than is required. In San Andreas, however, the camera is freeform.

Previous editions of GTA games had the camera 'slaved' to the player. A new criticism of San Andreas lies in its camera. This mission is made more frustrating as you are being attacked at the time. The most noticeable missions in which this is apparent are the mission where you have to rescue a girl from a burning building, and the final story mission of the game which takes place in a torched factory.

As a result, the frame rate can drop dramatically when you are in a situation where fire is present. Another performance issue with San Andreas is that the game engine is not efficient at producing smoke effects. Unless the resolution is set to minimum, the visual cues for when to move will be out of synch, so rendering success or failure a matter of luck. A similar problem also exists in missions that require dancing or lowrider car bouncing.

Even if the plane "jumps" up the runway. The mission can be completed without that: If you start your bike and thrust CJ back, so the bike can accelerate on the back wheel - you should have no problems getting on the plane. One mission, "Stowaway", is impossible on some PCs unless video quality is dropped to the lowest setting (640x480, 16-bit color), as the plane will otherwise always leave the runway well before you reach it. For the ships, one can switch to VTOL mode so as to hover while destroying them.

The aiming of your weapons is also automatic provided you press a certain key, which locks on to the target. In addition, launching countermeasures is usually an unneeded feature, as missiles are easy to shake off. It is fairly simple to take on each of these targets individually - the difficulty occurs when one attempts to engage them all at once and in the wrong order. However, the difficulty of this mission is often overstated.

While some have completed this mission by remapping the entire control scheme, some players have found that the effects of "key jam" - the inability of a keyboard to understand more than 3 simultaneous keys - preclude this as a viable option. Some are finding that, without another person to control one or more aspects of the plane, the mission is essentially impossible. The player must fly an extremely fast plane, aim and fire missiles at 4 ships and 3 armed aircraft, launch countermeasures, and then land the plane safely. Another example is in the "Vertical Bird" mission, near the end of the game.

Some will require the joypad however and in any case, being able to control the camera effectively, as with a joypad, is likely to make the mission easier for many players. However, most people should be able to effectively fly a plane with the default controls after some practice, as they will rarely need to control the camera in mid-flight. Because the mission was designed for a console game, some PC users believe that three hands are typically required to complete the mission under a mouse/keyboard setup: one to control the camera, one to control the plane, and one to control commands such as landing gears, weapons, and precise flying controls. In one of the most infamous missions in the series, the player must circle an airfield.

The most salient example of this issue is in the mandatory flying-oriented missions. The resulting gameplay is virtually identical to the PS2 version. This way, the console-based controls can easily be mapped to joypad buttons. The best way to solve this problem is to use a PlayStation 2-style USB joypad.

Many users have discovered that a mission requires the user to press three or more keys at the same time, something the typical keyboard is simply unable to do. Much like earlier Grand Theft Auto games, some PC users have strongly criticized Rockstar for not substantially reworking the console-based controls for the mouse/keyboard computer gaming. The movie chronicles the events leading up the events in San Andreas, and provided insight on the development of the characters of the game, to the point when Carl learns of his mother's death in a phone call from Sweet and returns to Los Santos. The Introduction, a machinima video, was provided in a DVD along with San Andreas standalone soundtrack set, as well as the Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas Special Edition re-release for the PlayStation 2.

NOTE: Due to a model error, the GLOCK looks like a M1911A1 except during the cinematic for the first Ryder mission . * denotes weapon can be dual-wielded. Just like in Vice City, weapons are categorized by type, and the player can carry only one weapon in each "slot" at a time. The weapon selection in San Andreas is approximately the same as in Vice City, with a few additions or replacements.

Both the players are required to remain on the same screen and within a reasonable proximity of one another. Two human players will be able to go in a car or on foot. Setting foot on one of these icons and pressing any button on a second controller starts up a series of special objectives similar to a "Rampage" in previous Grand Theft Auto games. Two-player icons are found in several key locations in the San Andreas world.

A two-player cooperative mode has also been added for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox. Rockstar claims that CJ has a total of about 4200 lines of spoken dialog. CJ's level of respect among his fellow Grove Street gang members varies according to his actions, as do his relationships with his girlfriends. The player can also voluntarily enable CJ to conduct dialog with a number of pedestrians in the game, including drug dealers, prospective girlfriends, and fellow gang members.

This would make the previously mentioned home invasions more difficult than one would expect because the occupants will resist, and in some cases, draw weapons. No longer can the player beat a pedestrian to death on a busy street in broad daylight and have bystanders not do anything: while most pedestrians will flee or duck for cover, some armed civilians and enemy gang members will attack CJ, and friendly gang members will shoot at and pursue his opponents. Another improvement to the game is the AI. Numerous minigames are also available for play in San Andreas, including basketball, pool, rhythm-based challenges involving dancing and hydraulic vehicles, and video game machines that pay homage to classic arcade games such as Gyruss, Defender and Gradius, in addition to the aforementioned methods of gambling.

Under cover of night, CJ is able to sneak into a residence, and cart off valuables or shake down the occupants. A new activity that continues the Grand Theft Auto series' tradition of controversy is home invasion [5]. CJ may also learn three different styles of unarmed combat at the gyms in each of the game's three cities. San Andreas also features skills, in areas such as driving, firearms handling, stamina, and lung capacity, which improve through use in the game.

If CJ eats too much in a short period, he will get sick and throw up; if he overeats periodically, he'll get fat and move more slowly while on foot; if he fails to eat, he will become less muscular and, eventually, will lose health. The balance of food and exercise has an effect on his muscularity and appearance. Players must also ensure CJ eats to stay healthy, obtaining food from fast food restaurants such as Cluckin' Bell, street vendors, diners, bars and nightclubs. Clothing and accessories (which players can buy at some of the game's many clothing stores), haircuts and tattoos are now available for purchase by CJ, and have more effect on NPCs' reactions than the clothing in Vice City.

Rockstar has emphasized the personalization of the main character. The camera, fighting, and targeting controls were reworked with concepts from another Rockstar game, Manhunt, including improved target crosshairs that change colors from green to red to black, depending on the target's health. For greater firepower, players can also wield dual firearms or perform a drive-by shooting with several gang members. New to the player's character is the ability to swim and climb up and over short walls and fences.

New vehicles include bicycles (which feature a new control scheme), trucks with detachable trailers, police motorcycles, operable tow trucks, combine harvesters, quad bikes, airplanes, VTOLs military jet fighters and trains. Many new features have been included in the game. Since characters from Vice City appear and the events of the game are hinted at having really happened, this might indicate that Tommy Vercetti's adventures in Vice City gained considerable notoriety in the following years. Interestingly, some real-world promotional material Rockstar created for Vice City can also be found in this game.

Many characters, locations and fictional elements of Vice City were kept, sometimes with minor modifications to account for changes that would have occurred in the 6 years that separate both games' fictional worlds. One mission requires the player to visit a low-rider mod-shop and then to use the car in a hydraulics competition. Vehicles can be divided into four categories: Cars that can be modified but are not low-rider or "street racer" cars can only be modified at a TransFender, low-rider cars can only be modified at Loco Low Co., street racing types are modified at Wheel Arch Angels, and unmodifiable cars (most emergency vehicles and some off-road vehicles) cannot be modified at all. Common modifications include nitrous tanks, hydraulics, and paintjobs.

Many, but not all, vehicles can be modified in GTA:SA. Most car mods are strictly visual because they only add aesthetic appeal, as opposed to those which improve the performance. TransFender ranges in a wide variety of mods for a vehicle from nitro to hydraulics. TransFender is a fictitious car modification shop in San Andreas.

Many real Las Vegas Strip casinos are faithfully interpreted on Las Ventura's Strip, including the Excalibur Hotel and Casino ("Come-a-Lot"), the Sphinx and pyramid of the Luxor Hotel ("The Camel's Toe"), and the Pioneer Club ([4]), with Vegas Vic and Vicki replaced by Grand Theft Auto: Vice City characters Avery Carrington and Candy Suxxx, respectively. In addition to gambling, strip clubs are also prevalent in Las Venturas. Off-track betting parlors are also available in the game's other regions. One is able to play various casino games such as poker, roulette, and slot machines.

In Las Venturas (one of the biggest cities in San Andreas), the player is able to visit and even take over casinos. There is a district known as "Garcia", an ode to Grateful Dead frontman and San Francisco native Jerry Garcia, and San Fierro's City Hall closely resembles San Francisco's ornate city hall. Several other familiar landmarks have been recreated from the Embarcadero clock tower and the "Big Pointy" Transamerica Pyramid to Lombard Street, and Scottish landmarks such as the Forth Bridge and the Forth Road Bridge. San Fierro features Rockstar's interpretations of the Haight-Ashbury district ("Hashbury"), the gay Castro district ("Queens"), Chinatown, and the Golden Gate Bridge, as well as the city's prominent cable cars and hilly terrain.

The city of Los Santos has several important areas, including the gang-ridden Ganton, Idlewood and East Los Santos – based on the N.W.A-era Compton, Inglewood; and East Los Angeles, busy downtown, wealthy Rodeo and Mulholland, and glitzy Vinewood (complete with giant VINEWOOD sign in the hills). Los Santos features landmarks reminiscent of the Watts Towers, the Los Angeles Convention Center, the Capitol Tower, and Grauman's Chinese Theater. San Andreas is almost four times as large as Vice City, and five times as large as Liberty City. Players can climb Mount Chiliad (based on Mount Diablo) , a half mile (800 m) tall mountain casting a vast shadow, parachute from various peaks and skyscrapers, and visit 12 rural towns and villages located in three counties: Red County, Flint County, and Bone County, a massive dam, a large secret military base, a microwave dish, and many other geographical features.

Where Las Venturas and the surrounding desert correspond to Las Vegas and the Nevada desert; and Los Santos, San Fierro and the badlands correspond Los Angeles, San Francisco and the Californian badlands. The state San Andreas is generally based on California and Nevada comprising three major cities. CJ returns to find disarray in his family and in his old gang, the Grove Street Families (named for their home territory, Grove Street), which prompts him to stay. The murder of his mother causes him to return for her funeral.

Carl left Los Santos after being blamed for the death of his younger brother, Brian, by his older brother, Sean (nicknamed "Sweet"). Set in the early 1990s, the player controls main character Carl "CJ" Johnson, an African American man in his mid to late twenties returning to Los Santos after five years residing in Liberty City. Many of the missions which take place in the game are fairly obvious imitations of California-based phenomena from the early 90s, such as the movie Terminator 2: Judgment Day and the 1992 Los Angeles riots. This game has a soundtrack of period artists, as Vice City did, as well as "classic" rap and rock stations and a country station.

The game is set in 1992. In interviews, Rockstar's designers have reported that the map is between four and six times the size of the area in Vice City. Intercity travel is facilitated not only by a huge freeway system but also by airports and a system of passenger trains, the Brown Streak Railroad, both of which have vehicles that can be operated by the player. Information about the game began circulating in magazines and on websites on May 11, 2004, including that the game world of San Andreas would be not just one city, but an entire state, encompassing three metropolises (Los Santos, San Fierro, and Las Venturas, based on Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Las Vegas, respectively), and the countryside in between.

The PlayStation 2 and Xbox versions have also been re-released in a GTA Trilogy Pack for Xbox, and a Special Edition for PlayStation 2. Rockstar North released a Cold Coffee patch for the PC version and re-released San Andreas with a Mature rating. Many retailers pulled the game off their shelves in compliance with their own store regulations that kept them from selling AO games. Rockstar has given distributors the option of applying an Adults Only ESRB rating sticker to copies of the game, or returning them to be replaced by versions without the Hot Coffee content.

This was the result of the release of a modification allowing access to the hidden "Hot Coffee" portion of the game. On July 20, 2005 production of the game was suspended and the game received a revised ESRB Rating of Adults Only, making San Andreas the only mass-released AO console game in the U.S. Also, it turns out there is a retired pastor named Carl Johnson in the real San Andreas (Carl Johnson, the protagonist of GTA: San Andreas, shares the same name). The Calaveras Enterprise newspaper reported on November 3, 2004 that the Merchants' Association in the real-life town of San Andreas, California has become alarmed about the popularity of the video game, but has conceded that there is little it can do.

Both the PS2 and Xbox versions also have a 2-player option for certain missions; however, this feature was removed from the PC version. Similar to past iterations of the GTA games, both versions have higher-resolution textures, the ability to have custom soundtracks from MP3s, and a 30 second instant replay feature. In Europe, the release date was June 10th, 2005. The Xbox and PC ports of San Andreas released on June 7, 2005 in the U.S.

In the same release, Take-Two announced a PC and Xbox version would be released on June 7, 2005. Nonetheless, the Australian version has been on sale on October 29 and proved to be the multilanguage European PAL (UK) version. However, on September 9, 2004 Take-two announced in its third quarter financial results for 2004 that the release date of the PlayStation 2 version of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas would be pushed back to October 26, 2004 in North America and October 29, 2004 for Europe and November 15, 2004 in Australia to allow Rockstar to remove questionable content that would have the game banned there. On March 1, 2004, Take-Two announced in a press conference that Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas would be released Tuesday, October 19, 2004 in the US, and three days later, October 22, in Europe [3] and October 29 for Australia.

After the information was divulged on January 12, 2004, it seemed likely that most of the titles were either red herrings or possible future incarnations of the franchise. On December 17, and December 21, 2003, Take-Two had registered 10 GTA-related trademarks (GTA5, GTA6, GTA: San Andreas, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, GTA: Sin City, Grand Theft Auto: Sin City, GTA: Bogota, Grand Theft Auto: Bogota, GTA: Tokyo, and Grand Theft Auto: Tokyo) [2]. By this time, pundits online had two theories about the plot of the game; it would either be based in the city of San Andreas, California (based on San Francisco) in the modern day, or in Sin City, Nevada (based on Las Vegas) in the 1970s, as both would be ideal regarding new innovative ways to commit crimes, and new storylines that could grow. The first hint at there even being a new installment was on October 30, 2003, when Take-Two Interactive announced that an untitled "GTA5" game was set for release in the "latter half of the fiscal fourth quarter 2004" [1].

Most theories were shot down when Rockstar had given no announcement of a new game by summer of that year. Following the success of Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, many gamers eagerly anticipated a new Grand Theft Auto game on the PlayStation 2 in late 2003. . Following a press release issued near the end of 2004, it was released for the PC and Xbox on June 7, 2005 in North America and June 10, 2005 in Europe.

It was released for the PlayStation 2 on October 26, 2004 in North America and on October 29, 2004 in Europe and Australia. It is the third 3D game in the Grand Theft Auto franchise; including previously released 2D titles bearing the Grand Theft Auto name, it is the seventh to be released. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is a video game that was developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. Slot 12: Special Items - Thermal goggles, Night vision goggles, parachute.

Slot 11: Gifts - flowers, a cane, dildos, and vibrators which can be given to CJ's girlfriends. Slot 10: Handheld Items - Fire extinguisher, Spray paint, Camera. Slot 9: Explosives and Incendiaries - Hand grenade, Tear gas grenade, Molotov Cocktail, Remote satchel charge. Slot 8: Heavy Weapons - Rocket launcher, Flame thrower, Heat-seeking rocket launcher, Minigun.

Slot 7: Rifles - Hunting rifle, Sniper rifle. Slot 6: Assault Rifles - AK-47, M4 Carbine. Slot 5: Sub-Machine Guns - TEC-9*, Micro-SMG (IMI Micro-Uzi)*, SMG (H&K MP5). Slot 4: Shotguns - Pump-action shotgun, Sawn-off shotgun*, Combat shotgun (SPAS-12).

Slot 3: Handguns - GLOCK 17*, Silenced GLOCK 17, Desert Eagle. Slot 2: Melee Weapons - Baseball bat, shovel, cue stick, Katana, Golf club, Nightstick, knife, chainsaw. Slot 1: Hand - bare fist, brass knuckles. Lazlow says I'll cry when I'm done killing during an interview on WCTR.

The tag line of the movie "Exploder", a popular movie that was advertised on radio stations and billboards across Vice City, is still popular. Vice City characters featured as playing cards in the poker machines of Las Venturas include Lance Vance (Jack of Spades), Candy Suxxx (Queen of Hearts), Ricardo Diaz (King of Hearts) and Sonny Forelli (King of Spades). There is also a billboard in Los Santos promoting her new movie "Vinewood Callgirls". Also, pictures of her are found on the walls of some of CJ's safehouses and she is also placed as a neon sign on the Old Venturas Strip located in Las Venturas.

A picture of her can be seen on the box of "Return of the Anaconda", and she is mentioned by name on the box of "That Can't Be Legal!: 80's Pornstar's Finest Yo!". Two of her movies can be found in the Las Venturas sex store. Candy Suxxx, the porn-star, is still making movies. The Tiki statues that symbolized the hidden packages found all over Vice City is now the sign of a store in Los Santos.

Maps of Vice City can be found in the trash cans outside the Clucking Bell of Angel Pine. "Juank Air" and "Wang Cars" are also a straightforward pun on a common UK insult. Notably, certain vans in Vice City which are signed "R S and L Bows" are referring to the crude UK phrase "to know one's arse from one's elbow", or to have a basic level of common sense. Similarly, British slang is used as the inspiration for further puns in the GTA series.

Specifically, Viz comic's "Profanisaurus" section describes the full meaning of phrases such as The Camel's Toe, and words such as "Jizz" which are referred to in the game. This reflects the humor of the popular UK adult comic Viz, which provides the basis for many of the puns and colloquialisms used to humorous effect in the game. Similarly, Jezz Torrent is a corruption of Jizz Torrent. Love Fist is a reference to a sexual practice.

Jezz Torrent can be heard in a radio ad for the Epsilon Tract sect, crediting the group for aiding him in giving up drugs. On the radio station K-DST, the host Tommy wonders "Whatever happend to Love Fist?", and CJ hides the specs of the Caligula Casino behind a Love Fist poster. They are still remembered though. Love Fist, the fictional hard-rock band, seems to have split and disappeared from the public eye.

It is now the V-Rock Hotel in Las Venturas. However, it's not a radio station anymore. A franchise of the Vice City radio station V-Rock is still around, and still uses the old V-Rock triangular logo and the vulture mascot. One of them calls in on the Area 53 show.

It seems they rebelled and escaped human oppression, and now live hidden in a remote camp. The Domestibots sold in radio ads in Vice City, still exist. This is almost certainly a reference to the Polybius urban legend of the 1980's. On the show Area 53, Marvin Trill accuses the console of implanting subliminal messages in the brains of people in the 80s.

The game console Degenatron', mentioned in commercials and interviews on Vice City radio stations, is still remembered. Also, an unused restaurant that shares its name has been found in the game's code. Some pedestrians mention Rusty Brown in their chatter. The donut shop Rusty Brown's Ring Donuts, mentioned in a radio ad on Flash FM, still exists.

Another billboard in the game suggests that Sprunk also refers to spunk, which can be a synonym for ejaculate. Or it could be that it resembles spunk, meaning that it is also an energy drink. Sprunk cans resemble grenades, owing to the marketing tagline given for the beverage, which says it has an "explosive, bursting" flavor. The popular fictional drink Sprunk, a parody of the carbonated lemon-lime drink Sprite found all around Vice City, is still being sold in San Andreas.

Jack Howitzer who appeared only as a movie trailer in Grand Theft Auto: Vice City for the Rambo/Vietnam war movie parody Exploder as Tim, also appears in WCTR promoting his film Special Needs Cop, a parody of Kindergarten Cop. At one point in the WCTR show "Area 53", Wave 103 DJ Adam First calls in reporting a strange incident involving a Domestabot he saw while hang-gliding over the San Andreas desert. Besides, the caller, with whom Lazlow talked to on Chatterbox 2001, calls in in the "Gardening with Maurice Show". The show also references GTA III, where a caller to the "Chatterbox" radio station was told by Lazlow "this isn't Gardening With Maurice, that's on later!", to which the caller replied "No, they took him off the air!".

During the WCTR show "Gardening with Maurice", someone calls in and asks why so many radio personalities are named Maurice, a reference to Maurice Chavez, a significantly different radio personality hosting the "Pressing Issues" show on VCPR. This is a parody of the late eighties sitcom My Two Dads, about two brothers raising one brother's teenage daughter. Timmy's show was cancelled and replaced by a new sitcom called My Five Uncles, about five gay men who adopt an orphan girl. Whether this is real or Timmy can't break character after so many years is unknown.

In the interview on WCTR, we learn that he still looks like a child, although he claims to be 52 years old now, and that he still has the nasty temper his character had on the show. In his sitcom ad in Vice City, he played a bad-tempered child who claimed to be a 42 year old investment banker with a rare disease that made him look 12. He's attending a child-actor conference at the Four-Dragons Casino in Las Venturas. Timmy, one of the characters of the popular sitcom Just the Five of us back in the 80s, can be heard in a radio interview on WCTR News.

He also says "I wish I could take phone in calls", a hint at the fact that he will eventually become the DJ for the radio phone-in show "Chatterbox" in Grand Theft Auto III and Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories. He no longer enjoys the rock music he played in the 80s. In between this and V-Rock, it is hinted that Lazlow spent years living on the streets, slept with his best friend's wife, signed up for the army, and did something to his grandmother that is illegal in most states. Lazlow, the host of V-Rock in Vice City, started hosting a show called Entertaining America on WCTR after the former host was shot.

Fernando, the host of the Vice City radio station Emotion 98.3, hijacks the Lonely Hearts Show from its host (and former lover, though their relationship seems to have ended very badly) on WCTR. Maria Latore, Salvatore Leone's mistress in GTA III also makes an appearance as a waitress in Caligula's, who Leone takes a shine to. He provides Carl with a few jobs, until Carl and his crew rob Caligula's vault, which enrages Leone. Salvatore Leone, the big boss of the Liberty City Mafia (until Claude kills him in GTA III) makes an appearance as the Mafia-head of the Caligula's Palace Casino.

After she tries to kill Claude in GTA III, he kills her as she tries to escape in a helicopter. She's a profit-driven lady, who hooks up with Claude just to spite CJ. She is generally hostile towards all men, except to CJ (although she really doesn't show it much). Catalina is Cesar Vialpando's cousin and CJ's girlfriend (for a brief time).

When CJ sees how run-down the garage is, he calls Claude a "mute asshole" and a "fucking snake without a tongue". CJ beats him in a cross-country race and receives his San Fierro garage as his winnings. Claude shows up as Catalina's new boyfriend, after she "dumps" CJ. They now hold small-time mechanic jobs in San Fierro.

Jethro and Dwaine owned the boat yard in Vice City, until Tommy bought it from them. He now handles the Gurning Chimps. Kent Paul is still a music group manager, though no longer for Love Fist. When he got out, he was picked as a neutral party to manage a mob casino shared by three families.

He became a big shot after the events in Vice City, then lost it all because of his cocaine addiction and went into rehab. Ken Rosenberg still works for the mafia. Posters featuring the game's box cover art can be seen on some walls, most notably in Denise's room (the Hot Coffee mod is required to get there). Action figures of Tommy Vercetti and Lance Vance can be found on the shelves of Zero's shop in San Fierro.

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