Ducati Motor Holding

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Ducati Motor Holding (NYSE: DMH) is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer located in Bologna.

Ducati motorcycles have long been known for their excellence in design and performance. From the first post-war bicycle-like low-displacement motorbikes Ducati has grown over the years into a racing giant that is consistently competitive in both the racing arena and the world motorcycle marketplace.

In the 1960s, Ducati earned its place in motorcycling history by producing the fastest 250cc road bike available, the Mach 1. In the 1970s Ducati began producing large-displacement L-twin motorcycles and in 1973 released a L-twin with the trademark desmodromic valve design. In 1985, Cagiva bought Ducati. In 1996, Texas Pacific Group bought 51% of the company for $325 million and renamed the company Ducati Motor SpA. In December 2005 Ducati went back into Italian hands with the sale of Texas Pacific's stake to Investindustrial Holdings, the investment fund of Carlo and Andrea Bonomi. Ducati is best known for high performance motorcycles characterized by trellis-style frames and large capacity four-stroke, 90-degree L-twin engines featuring a desmodromic valve design. Modern Ducatis remain among the dominant performance motorcycles available today despite the aging technology of Desmo engine, which is nearing its 50th year in production. (Desmodromic valves are those which are positively closed by a leverage system, rather than relying on the more conventional springs to close the valves). While most other manufacturers have adopted wet-clutches (with the spinning parts bathed in oil) Ducati uses dry clutches in most of its motorcycles. This eliminates the power loss from oil viscosity drag on the engine even though the engagement may not be as smooth as the oiled versions. Although the exorbitant cost of servicing the Ducati's finicky engine can shock some owners, most will still agree that the improved ride quality, performance, and styling of Ducatis is worth the extra cost.

Product History

The chief designer of Ducati motorcycles was the late Fabio Taglioni (1920-2001). He introduced the Pantah 500 in 1979; its engine was updated in the 1990s in the supersport series. [1] In 1993, Miguel Angel Galuzzi introduced the Ducati Monster, a naked bike with exposed trellis and engine. Today the Monster accounts for almost half of the company's worldwide sales. The Monster, which has been out since 1994, has undergone the most changed of any motorcycle that Ducati has ever produced. After more than a decade of manufacturing, Ducati continues to create innovative changes to this classic motorcycle.

In 1995, the company introduced the Ducati 916 model designed by Massimo Tamburini, a water-cooled version that allowed for higher output levels and a striking new bodywork that featured aggressive lines, underseat exhausts, and a single-sided swingarm. Ducati has since ceased production of what many called the bike of the 1990s, supplanting it with the 749 and 999. Ducati now manufactures several lines of motorcycles, from the nakeds Ducati Monster, to the supersport 600, 750, 900 Sport and Supersport, superbike 749 and 999, adventure-tourer Multistrada 600 and 1000 and tourer ST3S.

Racing History

The company has enjoyed nine World Superbike championships in recent years. The company also races its motorcycles in MotoGP where it returns from a hiatus of over 30 years.


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The company also races its motorcycles in MotoGP where it returns from a hiatus of over 30 years. The FrostWire developers emphasize that they will never place any sharing-related restrictions on the client. The company has enjoyed nine World Superbike championships in recent years. The FrostWire project has a beta release, which is claimed to be equivalent in power to the nonfree version of Limewire. Ducati now manufactures several lines of motorcycles, from the nakeds Ducati Monster, to the supersport 600, 750, 900 Sport and Supersport, superbike 749 and 999, adventure-tourer Multistrada 600 and 1000 and tourer ST3S. An October 12 2005 report [4] states that some of the LimeWire open source contributors have forked the project and called it FrostWire. Ducati has since ceased production of what many called the bike of the 1990s, supplanting it with the 749 and 999. [3].

In 1995, the company introduced the Ducati 916 model designed by Massimo Tamburini, a water-cooled version that allowed for higher output levels and a striking new bodywork that featured aggressive lines, underseat exhausts, and a single-sided swingarm. On September 25, it was reported that Lime Wire LLC was working on a version of the program which will refuse to share files that lack valid license information. After more than a decade of manufacturing, Ducati continues to create innovative changes to this classic motorcycle. However, new versions are being released (4.9 released on August 26) with smarter search results, optimized downloads and other features. The Monster, which has been out since 1994, has undergone the most changed of any motorcycle that Ducati has ever produced. Grokster. Today the Monster accounts for almost half of the company's worldwide sales. According to a 28 June 2005 report in The New York Times, LimeWire LLC may stop distributing LimeWire due to the outcome of MGM v.

[1] In 1993, Miguel Angel Galuzzi introduced the Ducati Monster, a naked bike with exposed trellis and engine. Researchers at Cornell University developed a reputation management add-in called Credence that allows users to distinguish between "genuine" and "suspect" files before downloading them. He introduced the Pantah 500 in 1979; its engine was updated in the 1990s in the supersport series. Being open source, LimeWire has spawned several forks, including LionShare, an experimental software development project at Penn State University, FrostWire, and Acquisition, a popular Macintosh-based Gnutella client with a proprietary interface. The chief designer of Ducati motorcycles was the late Fabio Taglioni (1920-2001). With the removal of all bundled software in LimeWire 4.0 (released May 14, 2004[2]), these objections were addressed. . Uninstallation of LimeWire would not remove LimeShop.

Although the exorbitant cost of servicing the Ducati's finicky engine can shock some owners, most will still agree that the improved ride quality, performance, and styling of Ducatis is worth the extra cost. Among other things, LimeShop monitored online purchases in order to redirect sales commissions to LimeWire LLC. This eliminates the power loss from oil viscosity drag on the engine even though the engagement may not be as smooth as the oiled versions. Prior to April 2004, the free version of LimeWire was distributed with a bundled program called "LimeShop" (a variant of TopMoxie), which was considered by computer security experts to be spyware. While most other manufacturers have adopted wet-clutches (with the spinning parts bathed in oil) Ducati uses dry clutches in most of its motorcycles. Lime Wire LLC, the developer of LimeWire, distributes two versions of the program; a basic, free version, and an enhanced version sold for a small fee, which the developers claim [1] offers faster downloads. (Desmodromic valves are those which are positively closed by a leverage system, rather than relying on the more conventional springs to close the valves). The Windows version of LimeWire installer includes a stripped-down version of Sun's Java installer which will download and install version 1.5 of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) if it detects the machine doesn't have Java, or has a version of Java below version 1.4.1.

Modern Ducatis remain among the dominant performance motorcycles available today despite the aging technology of Desmo engine, which is nearing its 50th year in production. Although researchers have identified possible vulnerabilities in the SHA1 algorithm, because LimeWire does not rely on SHA1 alone these vulnerabilities do not have many adverse implications for LimeWire's verification of downloaded files. Ducati is best known for high performance motorcycles characterized by trellis-style frames and large capacity four-stroke, 90-degree L-twin engines featuring a desmodromic valve design. LimeWire uses the SHA-1 and Tiger tree hash cryptographically secure hash functions to ensure that downloaded data is uncompromised. In December 2005 Ducati went back into Italian hands with the sale of Texas Pacific's stake to Investindustrial Holdings, the investment fund of Carlo and Andrea Bonomi. Classic Mac OS (Mac OS 9 and before) support has been dropped with LimeWire 4.0.10. In 1996, Texas Pacific Group bought 51% of the company for $325 million and renamed the company Ducati Motor SpA. To facilitate installation for casual users, the developers release installation packages for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and for Linux, in RPM format.

In 1985, Cagiva bought Ducati. LimeWire is written in Java and hence runs on any computer with the Java virtual machine installed. In the 1970s Ducati began producing large-displacement L-twin motorcycles and in 1973 released a L-twin with the trademark desmodromic valve design. It was the first file sharing program to support firewall-to-firewall file transfers, a feature introduced in version 4.2, which was released in November 2004. In the 1960s, Ducati earned its place in motorcycling history by producing the fastest 250cc road bike available, the Mach 1. The program allows users to share files using the Gnutella peer-to-peer protocol. From the first post-war bicycle-like low-displacement motorbikes Ducati has grown over the years into a racing giant that is consistently competitive in both the racing arena and the world motorcycle marketplace. LimeWire is a free and open source Gnutella peer-to-peer network client released under the GNU General Public License.

Ducati motorcycles have long been known for their excellence in design and performance. Harvard Business School Working Knowledge, 2004. Ducati Motor Holding (NYSE: DMH) is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer located in Bologna. Silverthorne, Sean. Music Downloads: Pirates- or Customers?. MIT Sloan School of Management, 2002.

Ghosemajumder, Shuman. Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models. Retrieved July 8, 2005. 'SHA1 Break Rumored', Freedom To Tinker Discussion Forum (2004).

Felten, Edward W.

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