Delphi

The theatre, seen from above

Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. 61, 84).

Location

Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Parnassus. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf.

Apollo

The Temple of Apollo, seen from below View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. The stone steps on the right were added under the Romans.

The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back.

Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe.

Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias.

When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees.

The Pythian Games comprised a chariot race, thus this magnificent statue, the Charioteer of Delphi.

Oracle

The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe.

This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire).

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess".

In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes.

The Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon

Footnote

1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. 707; see e.g. here for a popular science coverage)

Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves.

Treasuries

From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury.

Tholos

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs.

Modern Delphi

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Delphi

General

  • Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek)
  • Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi
  • The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding
  • Delphi guide
  • Delphi (in Greek)
  • C. Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls"
  • Livius Picture Archive: Delphi
  • Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle"
  • "The Delphic oracle"

Geology of Delphi

  • John R. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003
  • John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001
  • Geology of Delphi
  • The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi"

Reference

  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.

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The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa. The patient's body rejected the face, and it had to be removed. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). 2005: Facial transplant surgery was featured in a 2005 episode of Nip/Tuck. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. 2003: The villain in the movie Once Upon A Time In Mexico underwent a face transplant. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. 1997: The plot of the 1997 movie Face/Off was based on a face transplant operation that involved changing the underlying structure and actual face shape.

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. His novel was made into a movie by Hiroshi Teshigahara in 1964 (Teshigahara made a film of Abe's novel Woman of the Dunes). Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs. With a new face, the protagonist sees the world in a new way and even goes so far as to have an clandestine "affair" with his estranged wife. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. 1964: Kobo Abe, Japanese author and playwright, wrote The Face of Another (novel) (1964) about a plastics scientist who loses his face in an accident and proceeds to construct a new face for himself. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. 1960: The procedure was very grotesquely, yet somewhat accurately, highlighted in Georges Franju's 1960 cult horror masterpiece called Les Yeux sans visage which translates to "Eyes Without a Face".

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. Only the skin of the face is transferred from the donor, not the three dimensional shape nor the personality it expresses. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury. Facial movements are due to the brain so the personality as expressed by the face remains that of the patient. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. The transplant does not give the patient's face the appearance of the deceased donor's face because the underlying musculature and bones are different. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. Psychological effects of the procedure may include remorse, disappointment, or grief or guilt toward the donor.

These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The surgery may result in complications such as infections that would turn the new face black and require a second transplant or reconstruction with skin grafts. From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. Long-term immunosuppression increases the risk of developing life-threatening infections, kidney damage, and cancer. Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves. After the procedure a lifelong regimen of immunosuppressive drugs is necessary to suppress the patient's own immune systems and prevent rejection. here for a popular science coverage). The surgery may last anywhere from 8 to 15 hours, followed by a 10–14 day hospital stay.

707; see e.g. With issues of tissue type, age, sex, and skin color taken into consideration, the patient's face is removed and replaced (including the underlying fat, nerves and blood vessels, but no musculature). (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. The procedure consists of a series of operations requiring rotating teams of specialists. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. Maria Siemionow's group, located at the Cleveland Clinic, is searching for its first patient. 1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. Dr.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes. In 2004 the Cleveland Clinic became the first institution to approve this surgery. In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there. Scientists at the Utrecht University and the University of Louisville are seeking approval for this experimental face transplant operation to be performed in the Netherlands. Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess". Experts say the mouth and nose are the most difficult parts of the face to transplant." [7]. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". However, the claim is the first for a mouth and nose transplant.

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. "Scientists elsewhere have performed scalp and ear transplants. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire). A triangle of face tissue from a brain-dead human's nose and mouth was grafted onto the patient [5] [6]. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Isabelle Dinoire [4] underwent surgery to replace her original face that had been ravaged by her dog. This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. The world's first partial face transplant on a living human was carried out on November 27, 2005 [3] by a team of surgeons led by Professor Jean-Michel Dubernard (the surgeon who performed the first successful hand transplant in 1998) and Professor Bernard Devauchelle in Amiens, France.

Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe. In 1997, a similar operation was performed in the Australian state of Victoria, when a woman's face and scalp, torn off in a similar accident, was packed in ice and successfully reattached.[2]. Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Her parents raced to the hospital with her face in a plastic bag and a surgeon managed to reconnect the arteries and replant the skin." [1] The operation was successful, although the child was left with some muscle damage as well as scarring around the perimeter where the facial skin was sutured back on. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". An article in The Guardian recounts: "In 1994, a nine-year-old child in northern India lost her face and scalp in a threshing machine accident. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Photos.

Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. In 2004 Sandeep was training to be a nurse. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Sandeep's doctor was Abraham Thomas, one of India's top microsurgeons. The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. Sandeep arrived at the hospital unconscious with her face was in two pieces in a plastic bag. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees. Sandeep's mother witnessed the accident.

The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The machine caught one of Sandeep's braids and then pulled her head in. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The grass-cutting machine completely amputated her face and scalp. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. The world's first full-face replant operation was on nine year-old Sandeep Kaur, whose face was ripped off when her hair was caught in a thresher. When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. Scott Levin, chief of plastic and reconstructive surgery at the Duke University Medical Center, has described the procedure as "the single most important area of reconstructive research.".

Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. L. Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Dr. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe. The alternative to a face transplant is to move the patient's own skin from their back, buttocks or thighs to their face in a series of as many as 50 operations to regain even limited function and a face that is often likened to a mask or a living quilt. Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. People with faces disfigured by burns, trauma, disease or birth defects might benefit from the procedure.

The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. . either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". A face transplant is a skin graft that involves replacing a patient's entire face with a donor face. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. BBC News - Woman has first face transplant. The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. New York Times.

Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf. Doctors say they're ready to perform face transplant. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Face transplants 'on the horizon'. Parnassus. Face transplants inch toward reality. Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. University of Louisville Plastic Surgery Research.

. 61, 84). After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned.

Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.

The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi". Geology of Delphi. John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003.

John R. "The Delphic oracle". Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle". Livius Picture Archive: Delphi.

Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls". C. Delphi (in Greek). Delphi guide.

The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding. Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi. Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek).

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