Delphi

The theatre, seen from above

Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. 61, 84).

Location

Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Parnassus. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf.

Apollo

The Temple of Apollo, seen from below View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. The stone steps on the right were added under the Romans.

The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back.

Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe.

Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias.

When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees.

The Pythian Games comprised a chariot race, thus this magnificent statue, the Charioteer of Delphi.

Oracle

The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe.

This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire).

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess".

In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes.

The Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon

Footnote

1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. 707; see e.g. here for a popular science coverage)

Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves.

Treasuries

From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury.

Tholos

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs.

Modern Delphi

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Delphi

General

  • Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek)
  • Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi
  • The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding
  • Delphi guide
  • Delphi (in Greek)
  • C. Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls"
  • Livius Picture Archive: Delphi
  • Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle"
  • "The Delphic oracle"

Geology of Delphi

  • John R. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003
  • John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001
  • Geology of Delphi
  • The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi"

Reference

  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.

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The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa. Mobile phone theft is also a popular petty theft crime when tourists leave their phones on tabletops. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). It is not uncommon for thieves to cut bags and backpack straps. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. Internet cafes are a popular target in general. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. Areas where one should be particularly careful are the Barri Gòtic, El Raval, and the Ramblas.

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. The problem is compounded by the few policemen "walking the beat" in Barcelona, even though the city has one of the highest police to citizen ratios in Europe. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs. Stealing money or goods worth less than about $360 without the use or threat of violence is classified as hurto or petty theft under Spanish law and is treated as a minor misdemeanor no matter how many times it is repeated. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Many pickpockets are known to the police and some have been arrested hundreds of times only to be released once the police have filled in a report. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. They usually work in groups whereby the victim is distracted by one party while being robbed by another party.

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. Barcelona, like other big cities, has a large number of criminals who mainly prey on tourists. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury. The urban design by Eduard Bru created a terraced sequence of belvedere-like platforms with views of the city. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. One notable site is the Vall d'Hebron, a deep ravine in the foothills of the Collserola range north of the city. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. For example, the upgrades to Montjuïc and the seaside industrial areas for the 1992 Olympic Games were accompanied by the building of recreational facilities in other parts of the city lacking development.

These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. This program of planned parks is often among the civic improvements for which the city actively seeks international events as spurs for redevelopment. From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. Some examples (note that many are not in Barcelona per se but on its metro area):. Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves. Though the budgets may be small, the level of ingenuity and care in design and implementation is often very high. here for a popular science coverage). Typically these new parks are carefully designed by architects, planners and landscape architects concerned not just with functional elements, but also with the unique characteristics of the site and its position in a layered understanding of the city.

707; see e.g. The purpose of this program has been to reclaim space for the public which is threatened either by neglect or overdevelopment. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. Since 1983 a formal program of park creation has been carried out by the Mancomunitat de Municipis de l'Àrea Metropolitana de Barcelona. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. This park, designed by Luis Peña Ganchegui and Francesc Rius Camps and completed in 1985 integrated the industrial shapes of the site with a dominant water feature and displays of sculpture. 1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. At the same time, the neighboring Vapor Nou factory, was converted into the Parc de la Espanya Industrial for public recreation.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes. In 1983 the Plaça dels Països Catalans in front of the Sants railway station was redesigned by Helio Piñon Pallares and Albert Vaiplana Vea in pink granite paving with an undulating metal pergola and various hard furnishings that have become popular with skateboarders. In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there. Montjuïc Stadium was renovated and expanded by Vittorio Gregotti for the 1992 Olympic Games. Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess". The German Pavilion, a landmark of modern architecture designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for this Exhibition was exhaustively reconstructed on its original site in 1986. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". It is chiefly notable now for the cultural institutions that use the former palaces and exposition buildings.

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. Rubio Tuduri. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire). Forestier and architect Nicolas M. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. N. This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. The site of the Barcelona International Exhibition in 1929 and 1930, the Parc de Montjuïc was laid out by engineer Jean C.

Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe. See separate article on Parc Güell (1914), the large fantastical park designed by Antoni Gaudí for a housing estate and opened to the public in 1922. Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. See above for a description of the Rambles. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Besides the beaches, the Rambles and Parc Güell are the most famous of these. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Barcelona, with its mild weather and dense medieval centre, is renowned for its parks and open spaces.

Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. Barcelona has recently adopted another transport option with two new tram lines known as Trambaix and Trambesòs. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. See List of Barcelona metro stations. The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. Barcelona's transit company, Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona (TMB), runs the Barcelona Metro system and city bus. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees. Renfe and the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) run Barcelona's widespread commuter train service.

The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The AVE high-speed rail system was recently extended from Madrid to Lleida in western Catalonia, and is expected to reach Barcelona by 2007. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. Barcelona is a hub for RENFE, the Spanish state railway network, and its main suburban train station is Sants-Estació (which is under renovation and enlargement at present in order to prepare for the arrival of the AVE system). This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. In addition to its port, of great historical and contemporary commercial importance, Barcelona is served by El Prat International Airport ('El Prat') in the town of El Prat de Llobregat. When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Barcelona:.

Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. In addition to the University of Barcelona, the city is home to the Universitat Pompeu Fabra, the Autonomous University of Barcelona, the Technical University of Catalonia, the Ramon Llull University and the International University of Catalonia. Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Near Barcelona, in Montmeló, the Circuit de Catalunya racetrack hosts the Formula One Spanish Grand Prix. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe. FC Barcelona has also internationally known basketball and handball teams that play at the Palau Blaugrana, situated in the same complex as the Camp Nou. Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. Barcelona is the home city of two internationally-known football teams: FC Barcelona, also known as Barça, who play at the 100,000 capacity Camp Nou stadium, and RCD Espanyol, who play at the 56,000 capacity Olympic Stadium.

The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. There's also the Torre de Collserola, a telecommunications tower designed by Norman Foster which also has a windowed balcony with a great view over the city. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The church mosaics provide a curious example of the religious art style much in vogue during the dictatorship. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. Uptown is the hill of the Tibidabo, 512 meters high, with an amusement park (which, after a long economic struggle, now belongs to the city council) and a monumental church on its summit. The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. On the way down, there could be found the Botanical Gardens and the Costa i Llobera gardens, with an unique cactus collection.

Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf. Around the hill are a group of installations known as the "olympic ring" and that were the heart of the 1992 summer olympics: the Lluis Companys Olympic Stadium (originally built in 1929 but completely refurbished for the 1992 olympics), the Palau Sant Jordi (a multi-purpose installation designed by Japanese architect Arata Isozaki, used primarily for all kinds of indoor sport events but also for concerts and other cultural activities) and the Bernat Picornell Pools. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. On its top is an old fortress which used to guard the entrance to the port. Parnassus. One, Montjuïc hill, is next to the harbour and perched above a large container terminal. Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. For spectacular views over the city and the coast line there are two hills.

. Visitors should note that the opening times of Barcelona's museums vary considerably and are often highly inconvenient; careful planning is recommended to avoid wasted trips. 61, 84). The Fundació Antoni Tàpies holds a collection of Tàpies works. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. The building was designed by the American architect Richard Meier. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. The Contemporary Art Museum is also worth a visit, not only because of its paintings and sculptures, but because of its architecture.

Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. The National Museum of Art of Catalonia (in the Palau Nacional left behind by the 1929 Ibero-American Exposition) possesses a well-known collection of Romanesque art, including wall-paintings of Romanesque churches and chapels around Catalonia that have been transferred to the museum. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. There is also a unique museum featuring the lesser known works of Pablo Picasso from his earlier period. Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. Art visits include the museum of the Fundació Joan Miró,hi where several paintings and sculptures of this artist are shown, together with guest exhibitions from other museums around the world. Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985. Many of these have now been levelled to make room for the city's ill-starred "22@" project to build an area for ICT-based firms.

The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi". Property speculation is also blighting other areas of the city, including the 19th century Poble Nou district with its many interesting buildings dating from Catalonia's Industrial Revolution. Geology of Delphi. In recent years, office developments along Passeig de Gràcia have been allowed to break up the architectural unity of the 19th and early 20th century buildings lining the avenue - a process which shows no signs of slackening. John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001. Several of these buildings and indeed the Sagrada Familia church itself are threatened by Mayor Clos' plans to build a large railway tunnel for high-speed trains under the city's shaky 19th century foundations. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003. The most elegant avenue is the Passeig de Gràcia, where two Gaudí buildings are situated, the Casa Milà (La Pedrera) and the Casa Batlló, along with buildings by other famous modernista architects: Casa Ametller by Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Casa Lleó Morera by Domènech i Montaner.

John R. In the modern districts of the city are several avenues on which most of the international merchants offering clothing, jewelry, leather goods and other items have their stores. "The Delphic oracle". Another very notable modernist building in the older part of the city is the Palau de la Música Catalana, designed by Lluís Domènech i Montaner and built in 1908. Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle". The Sagrada Família is billed for completion in 2020. Livius Picture Archive: Delphi. Outstanding is the legacy of architect Antoni Gaudí, who lived and worked in Barcelona, and who left several famous works like the Palau Güell in the city's old center, the Parc Güell at the northern tip of Gràcia, and the immense but still unfinished church of the Sagrada Família, which has been under construction since 1882, financed by popular donations like the cathedrals in the Middle Ages (However, it is not a cathedral: the cathedral of Barcelona is the Cathedral of Santa Eulàlia, a Gothic building of the late Middle Ages).

Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls". The park also contains science museums, like the zoology museum, housed in a modernist building. C. One of Barcelona's most famous residents, the late albino gorilla Copito de Nieve ("Snowflake"), lived and died recently at the zoo. Delphi (in Greek). To the north of downtown is the Parc de la Ciutadella, which includes both the Parlament de Catalunya (Catalan Parliament) and the Parc Zoològic de Barcelona (zoo). Delphi guide. The old harbour offers all kinds of other amenities, including the second largest aquarium in the Mediterranean area and an IMAX cinema.

The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding. The buildings of the museum are the medieval Drassanes (shipyards), where the ships which sailed the Mediterranean were built. Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi. Next to it is the Museu Marítim (naval museum), which chronicles the history of life on the Mediterranean, including a full-scale model of a galley. Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek). Les Rambles ends at the old harbour, where a statue of Christopher Columbus points eastwards across the Mediterranean Sea to his birth place of Genoa. It is also worth keeping an eye out for pickpockets, for whom the boulevard is a favourite haunt.

There's also a Wax Museum near the end. Walking along Les Rambles one can see the world-famous opera house El Liceu, the food market of La Boqueria and the Plaça Reial (literally Royal square), with its arches and palm trees, amongst other interesting buildings. A notable feature is Les Rambles, a boulevard that runs from the city center to the waterfront, thronged with crowds until late at night and lined by florists, bird sellers in the higher part, craft sellers in the lowest, street entertainers, cafeterias, and restaurants. The historic city center is fairly flat, while the modern city fans out towards the surrounding hills, bordered by steep streets that are vaguely reminiscent of those found in San Francisco.

Barcelona offers a unique opportunity for the tourist on foot to walk from Roman remains to the medieval city, and then to the modern city with its open thoroughfares and grid-iron street pattern. The following list favors Catalan-language names over Spanish-language names; as of 2004, they are the most commonly used and the only official ones:. Barcelona is divided into several districts. Tibidabo, a prominent peak to the northwest, is visible from much of the city.

To its north, the city borders the Besòs river and the municipalities of Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Sant Adrià de Besòs; to the south it borders the Zona Franca, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat and Esplugues de Llobregat; to the east is the Mediterranean; and to the west are Montcada i Reixach and Sant Cugat del Vallès. There are vast amounts of Moroccan, Pakistani's and Eastern Europeans, particularly immigrants from Romania and the Ukraine. Many of them are from Spain's former posessions in Latin America, mostly Ecuador, Argentina, and Colombia. The city of Barcelona being the second largest in Spain, has a fair amount of immigrants numbering 230,942.

See also: List of Counts of Barcelona. Famous people who have lived and worked in Barcelona include: master painters Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, Salvador Dali, Antoni Tàpies, Enrique Tábara, Eugenio Granell, Antonio Saura, Manolo Millares architect Antoni Gaudi. The city's controversial 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures was held between May and September of the same year, lasting a marathon 141 days. Barcelona was the site of the 1992 Summer Olympics.

Despite massive immigration of Castilian speakers from other parts of Spain in the second half of the 20th century, there has been notable success in the increased use of Catalan in everyday life. The city has been the focus of the revival of the Catalan language. A decline in the inner city population and displacement towards the outskirts and beyond raises the threat of urban sprawl. While it may still be the second city of Spain, it has a charm and air that is unique and prized.

The protest movement of the 1970s and the demise of the dictatorship turned Barcelona into a centre of cultural vitality, enabling it to become the thriving city it is today. It was overrun by Francisco Franco's forces in 1939, which ushered in a reign of cultural and political repression that lasted decades. Barcelona was a stronghold for the anarchist cause -anarchist opposition to the call-up of reservists led to the city's Tragic Week in 1909- siding with the Republic's democratically elected government during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). The beginning of the 20th century marked Barcelona's resurgence, while Catalan nationalists clamoured for political autonomy and greater freedom of cultural expression.

The fields that had surrounded the artificially constricted city became the Eixample ("extension"), a bustling modern city surrounding the old. The exposition also left behind the Arc de Triomf and the Museu de Zoologia (a building originally used during the fair as a cafe-restaurant). During a period of weaker control by the Madrid authorities, the medieval walls were torn down and the citadel of La Ribera was converted into an urban park: the modern Parc de la Ciutadella, site of the 1888 "Universal Exposition" (World's Fair). During the 19th century, Barcelona grew with the industrial revolution and the introduction of many new industries.

It was returned to Spain after Napoleon's downfall. Barcelona and the province of Catalonia were annexed by the French Empire of Napoleon after he invaded Spain and put his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne. Official use of Catalan language was forbidden, and the University withdrew. King Philip V of Spain demolished half of the merchants' quarter (La Ribera) to build a military citadel, as a way of both punishing and controlling the rebel city.

The city was devastated after the Catalonian Republic of 1640 - 1652, and again during the War of the Spanish Succession in 1714. The city is home to the University of Barcelona, founded in 1450. The forging of a dynastic link between the Crown of Aragon and Castile marked the beginning of Barcelona's decline. The counts of Barcelona became increasingly independent and expanded their territory to include all of Catalonia, later formed the Crown of Aragon who conquered many overseas possessions, ruling the western Mediterranean Sea with outlying territories as far as to Athens in the 13th century.

Barcelona was still a Christian frontier territory when it was sacked by Al-Mansur in 985. The city was conquered by the Visigoths in the early 5th century, by the Moors in the early 8th century, reconquered from the emir in 801 by Charlemagne's son Louis who made Barcelona the seat of Carolingian "Spanish Marches" (Marca Hispanica), a buffer zone ruled by the Count of Barcelona. Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated in the cathedral butted up against them [1]; the basilica La Seu is credited to have been founded in 343. The Roman Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino was outshone by the province's capital Tarragona but some important Roman remains are exposed under the Plaça del Rei, entrance by the city museum, Museu d'Història de la Ciutat and the typically Roman grid-planning is still visible today on the map of the historical centre, the Barri Gótic ("Gothic Quarter").

About 15 BC, Romans redrew the town as a castrum (a Roman military camp) centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill nearby the contemporary city hall (Plaça de Sant Jaume). Legend attributes the Carthaginian foundation of Barcino to Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal. . The mayor of Barcelona is Joan Clos.

2005), although this only covers 7,733 km² (3,000 mi²) around the city. Population of the province of Barcelona is 5,226,354 (est. 2005). 2005), while the population of the metropolitan area is 4,686,701 (est.

The population of the city proper is 1,593,075 (est. It is 160 km (100 mi) south of the Pyrenees mountain range. It is located in the comarca of Barcelonès, along the Mediterranean coast (41°23′N 2°11′E) between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs. Barcelona is the capital city of Catalonia.

Parc Nou del Prat, on the Llobregat delta, adjoining Sant Cosme and the airport. Once a quarry, now boasts an artificial lake that converts to public swimming pool in summer, and magnificent statue by Basque artist Eduardo Chillida. Parc de la Creueta del Coll, 1987, Oriol Bohigas, Josep Martorell, David Mackay, architects. Parc del Litoral, at the mouth of the River Besos.

Parc de les Planes, located at the boundary of three districts. Parc del Besós, La Mina housing estate. Fontsana, Sant Joan Despí on the site of a former refuse dump. Upgrading of Parc de Torreblanca, the historical site of an urban farm.

A narrow linear park defined by hedge walls and a grid of trees on the bank of the Congost River. Parc de Torrent Congost (Granollers), 1996, Enric Battle and Joan Roig. Parc de Canserra (Barberà del Vallès), 1996, Studio BCQ. Trees and a pool strengthen the sensual escape from the surrounding city.

The design recaptures the pattern of agricultural use using beds of flowering plants. Parc del Torrent Ballesters (Viladecans), 1997, Arturo Frediani/SOB Associates. A ramble built over parking spaces. Carrer Brasil, 1996, Olga Tarraso and Jordi Hernrich.

Parc Güell. Palau de la Música Catalana. Palau Güell. Hospital de Sant Pau.

Casa Milà (La Pedrera). Sant Martí: Fort Pius, Sant Martí de Provençals, Poble Nou, La Verneda, el Clot. Sant Andreu: Barri del Congrés, Sant Andreu de Palomar. Nou Barris: Can Peguera, Porta, Canyelles, Ciutat Meridiana, Guineueta, Prosperitat, Vallbona, Verdum, Vilapicina, Roquetes, Trinitat Vella, Trinitat Nova, Torre Baró, Torre Llobeta and Turó de la Peira.

Horta-Guinardó: Horta, El Carmel, La Teixonera, El Guinardó. Gràcia: Vallcarca, Barri de la Salut, Gràcia, El Camp d'en Grassot. Sarrià - Sant Gervasi: Pedralbes, Sarrià, Sant Gervasi, Vallvidrera. Les Corts.

Sants - Montjuïc: Can Tunis, Montjuïc, Hostafrancs, Sants, Poble Sec. The Eixample: Sant Antoni, Esquerra de l'Eixample ("the left side of the Eixample" with the sea at your back), Dreta de l'Eixample ("the right side of the Eixample"), Barri de la Sagrada Família. Ciutat Vella (old city): El Raval (also known as the Barri Xinès), the Barri Gòtic, and the Barri de la Ribera. 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures.

1992 Summer Olympics. 1982 Hosted eight matches of the twelfth Football World Cup. 1962 In late September, major flooding kills 800+ people in the surroundings. 1952 Eucharistic Congress.

1936 People's Olympiad, cancelled because of the Spanish Civil War. 1929 International Exposition (World's Fair). 1909 Tragic Week. 1888 Universal Exposition (World's Fair).

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