Delphi

The theatre, seen from above

Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. 61, 84).

Location

Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Parnassus. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf.

Apollo

The Temple of Apollo, seen from below View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. The stone steps on the right were added under the Romans.

The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back.

Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe.

Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias.

When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees.

The Pythian Games comprised a chariot race, thus this magnificent statue, the Charioteer of Delphi.

Oracle

The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe.

This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire).

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess".

In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes.

The Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon

Footnote

1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. 707; see e.g. here for a popular science coverage)

Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves.

Treasuries

From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury.

Tholos

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs.

Modern Delphi

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Delphi

General

  • Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek)
  • Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi
  • The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding
  • Delphi guide
  • Delphi (in Greek)
  • C. Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls"
  • Livius Picture Archive: Delphi
  • Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle"
  • "The Delphic oracle"

Geology of Delphi

  • John R. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003
  • John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001
  • Geology of Delphi
  • The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi"

Reference

  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.

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The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa. However, even with all this success, on October 21st, 2005, the BMW Films were taken offline. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). These videos are very popular within the enthusiast community and have opened the eyes of many owners looking for a sporty/fun car. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. In the summer of 2001, BMW even went as far as starting the BMW Films website, showcasing some sporty models being driven to extremes. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. They're one of the few automakers that support driving their cars to their limits, suggesting "spirited driving" in certain operation manuals.

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. BMW has always had a very tight and loyal community following. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs. Interestingly, in the German language, the correct pronunciation of the term "bimmer" is "beemer.". The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. As such, use of the word "beemer" to refer to a BMW automobile is frowned upon by BMW enthusiasts, because it is the term used for motorcycles, though the distinction is somewhat arbitrary. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. The term "bimmer" was later coined to refer (exclusively) to BMW automobiles.

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. Over time, the term became closely associated with BMW motorcycles. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury. The term "beemer" started as a pronunciation of the acronym "BMW," adapted from the early-20th-Century British pronunciation of BSA (as "beeser" or "beezer"), whose motorcycles were often racing BMW's. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. BMW has also gained a reputation as part of an Internet prank, in that it is intentionally referred to erroneously as "British Motor Works" in order to get a charge out of newbies. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. In Germany:.

These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The Telelever significantly reduces dive under braking, and is sometimes criticized by sport riders as insulating the rider from road inputs, therefore reducing the rider's "feel" for the roadway. From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. Their trademark front suspension design, called the Telelever, was first seen in the early 1990s. Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves. Most modern examples use single-sided rear swingarms. here for a popular science coverage). BMW is an innovator in motorcycle suspension design.

707; see e.g. BMW was one of the earliest manufacturers to offer anti-lock brakes on production motorcycles. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. Innovations include a unique electronically adjustable front and rear suspension, and a Hossack-type front fork BMW calls Duolever. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. It was BMW's latest attempt to keep up with the pace of development of sports machines from the likes of Honda, Kawasaki and Suzuki. 1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. It is both powerful (the engine is a 167 bhp unit derived from the company's work with the Williams F1 team) and significantly lighter than previous K models.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes. In 2004, BMW introduced the new K1200S Sports Bike which marked a departure for BMW. In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there. (Older Rs are principally air-cooled, and called airheads.) In 2004, BMW updated the oilhead boxer engine, adding double spark plugs per cylinder, a built-in balance shaft, an increased capacity to 1200 cc and enhanced performance to 100 hp (75 kW) for the R1200GS, compared to 85 hp (63 kW) of the previous oilhead s R1150GS. Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess". These new bikes were principally oil-cooled (hence, called oilheads) and had 4 valves per cylinder. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". BMW updated the traditional R design in 1993.

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. All BMW motorcycles except for the F series (which have a chain or belt drive) use shaft drive, a characteristic of BMW motorcycles since 1923. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire). BMW motorcycles tend to be relatively large and heavy, and relaxed and comfortable to ride. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Combined with a lockable differential, this made the vehicle very capable off-road, an equivalent in many ways to the Jeep. This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. Unusually, the sidecar's wheel was also driven.

Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe. This motorcycle was essentially an 80% interchangeable copy of the ZUndapp KS750, made by BMW to avoid producing the KS750 under licence. Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. During WWII BMW produced the BMW R75 motorcycle with a sidecar attached. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". The R series currently designates machines with a boxer-twin engine, the K series has an I4 engine (1000 and 1200cc) or an I3 (750cc), and the F series has a single cylinder Rotax engine. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Prior to this BMW built the "Flink" 2- stroke and "Helios" motorcycles, as well as supplying M2B15 motors to other companies such as Victoria.

Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. BMW branded motorcycles were first produced in 1923 and had an unusual "boxer twin" engine, with two air-cooled cylinders protruding from opposite sides of the machine. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. BMW has competed and won many of the most coveted and prestigious races and motoring events. The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. BMW has been engaged in motorsport activities since the dawn of the first BMW motorcycle. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees. These "chassis codes" only change to signify a major redesign of a series, or the introduction of a new series.

The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. Internally, BMW associates an "e-code" for each generation of a series ("E" stands for Entwicklung, German for development or evolution). Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. BMW made many cars over the years which have had great impact on the world of motoring. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. A possible future V Series will offer MPV practicality for large families, similar to the Renault Scenic. When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. BMW calls its SUV models Sports Activity Vehicles.

Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. With the advent of the SUV, BMW also added the X5 - and in 2004 the X3 - to their model range to capitalize on this growing market. Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. The M3 and M5 are based respectively on the 3 and 5 Series and are recognised by enthusiasts all over the world as truly excellent sports cars while retaining the practicality of the models they extend. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe. BMW M GmbH now makes sporty models based on the production cars with very extensive chassis and engine upgrades. Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. As these models started gaining popularity the Motorsport division was split into a separate company.

The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. The first such car was the M535i of 1979. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". Later the M letter was used as a prefix to top-of-the-range models which had received special treatment by the BMW Motorsport division. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. The M letter was used prior to the shift to Series-named cars to designate special "Motorsport" models, beginning with the M1 supercar. The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. The company had considered renaming future 2-door derivatives of the 3 Series as 4 Series cars, but this plan has reportedly been shelved.

Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf. Coupe versions of the 3 Series sedans have always been named 3 Series vehicles, as well. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. This practice was revived as the Z4 replaced the aging Z3 roadster in 2003 and continues as the new 6 Series augments the existing BMW 5 Series. Parnassus. This convention started informally in 1976 with the introduction of the 6 Series and later continued in 1989 with the 8 Series, but died off when the latter was discontinued in 1999. Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. In 2004 BMW announced plans to make odd-numbered models sedans and estates or wagons (BMW calls its estates/wagons Touring models), while even-numbered models will be two-door coupes and cabriolets.

. the 3 Series. 61, 84). The current BMW model lineup is split into what they call "Series", traditionally identified by a single digit - e.g. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. The model, priced around US$330,000, has experienced disappointing sales worldwide. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. The new factory at Goodwood produced the new Rolls-Royce Phantom, unveiled on January 2, 2003, and officially launched at the Detroit Auto Show on January 5, 2003.

Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In the meantime, BMW was faced with the need to build a new factory and develop a new model. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Volkswagen was permitted to build Rolls-Royces at its Crewe factory only until 2003, but quickly shifted its emphasis to the Bentley brand. Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. Consequently, BMW was allowed to acquire the rights to the grille and mascot, and licensed the name and "RR" logo after 2003 for £40 million. Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985. Rolls-Royce plc (the aero-engine business) retained the rights over the Rolls-Royce trademark and wished to strengthen its existing business partnership with BMW which extended to the BMW Rolls-Royce joint venture.

The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi". Although Volkswagen had bought rights to the "Spirit of Ecstasy" mascot and the shape of the radiator grille, it lacked rights to the Rolls-Royce name. Geology of Delphi. Volkswagen outbid BMW and bought the company for £430 million, but BMW outflanked its German rival. John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001. In 1998, both BMW and Volkswagen tried to purchase Rolls-Royce Motors. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003. In the early 1990s, BMW and Rolls-Royce Motors began a joint venture that would see the new Rolls-Royce Silver Seraph and Bentley Arnage adopt BMW engines.

John R. BMW has established a joint venture with Chinese manufacturer Brilliance to build BMW 3 Series and 5 Series vehicles for the local market. "The Delphic oracle". Starting from October 2003, BMWs are produced in Shenyang, China. Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle". The plant now exports over 50,000 3 Series cars a year, mostly to the USA, Japan, Australia, Africa and the Middle East. Livius Picture Archive: Delphi. In the mid-1990s, BMW invested R1 billion to make Rosslyn a world-class facility.

Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls". After a period of local assembly, BMW's Rosslyn, South Africa plant now manufactures cars, with over 70 percent of its output destined for export. C. It employs about 4,700 people and manufactures over 500 vehicles daily. Delphi (in Greek). The Spartanburg plant is open six days a week, producing automobiles approximately 110 hours a week. Delphi guide. Today, the plant manufactures the BMW X5 and BMW Z4 Roadster.

The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding. BMW started producing automobiles at its Spartanburg, South Carolina plant in 1994. Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi. The first X5 sketches (which highly resembled the production car), were designed by him, and under his tenure the E46 came to be. Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek). What is not well known, however is that Bangle was indeed responsible for many 'conservative' BMW designs and has worked at BMW for almost a decade. Despite the controversy, BMW sales have increased year after year, showing the buying public's embrace of the new design philosophy.

While Bangle did not pen all of these designs, and has indeed been promoted within the company, some question what long term effect the disaffection of BMW traditionalists for these designs will have on sales, and on the company's future. These designs, which were much curvier and 'swoopier' -- a design cue called "flame surfacing" by Bangle, did not rest well at all with BMW enthusiasts or the automotive press which referred to the new designs as "Bangled" or "Bangle-ized". In the early part of the 2000s, BMW undertook another of its periodic cycles of redoing the styling design of its various series of vehicles, under the auspices of newly promoted design chief Christopher Bangle. MINI has been a highly successful business, though the Triumph name has not been used.

BMW retained the Mini and Triumph marques. Even the British press was not particularly sympathetic toward Rover. BMW itself, protected by its product range's image, was largely spared the blame — even though it was the serious marketing issues that brought Rover down. The German press ridiculed the English firm as "The English Patient", after a film at the time.

In the press, many years of under-investment by Rover before BMW's ownership were mainly blamed for the debacle; productivity and industrial relations were generally good during this period. In 2000, BMW disposed of Rover after years of losses, with Rover cars going to the Phoenix Venture Holdings for a nominal £10 and Land Rover going to the Ford Motor Company. BMW was more successful with the Mini and Land Rover brands, which did not have parallels in its own range at the time. In the six years under BMW, Rover was positioned as a premium automaker, a mass-market automaker, a division of BMW and an independent unit.

BMW found it difficult to reposition the English automaker alongside its own products and the Rover division was faced with endless changes in its marketing strategy. For years, Rover tried to rival BMW, if not in product, then in market positioning and "snob appeal". The venture was not successful. This brought the Rover, Mini, Land Rover and Triumph brands under BMW ownership.

Between 1994 and 2000, under the leadership of Bernd Pischetsrieder, BMW owned the Rover Group in an attempt to get into mass market production, buying it from British Aerospace. Other cars, like the 6 Series coupes that replaced the CS and the M1, were also added to the mix as the market demanded. Thus the three-tier sports sedan range was formed, and BMW essentially followed this formula into the 1990s. The New Class coupes were replaced by the 3 Series in 1975, and the New Six became the 7 Series in 1977.

In 1972, the 5 Series was launched to replace the New Class sedans, with a body styled by Marcello Gandini. By the 1970s, BMW was commercially successful and in December 1971, moved in to its present HQ in Munich, architecturally modelled after four cylinders. In 1968, BMW launched its large "New Six" sedans, the 2500, 2800, and American Bavaria, and coupés, the 2.5 CS and 2800 CS. These models were called the '02' series—the 2002 being the most famous—and began the bloodline that later developed into the BMW 3 Series.

In 1966, the two-door version of the 1600 was launched, along with a convertible in 1967. The "New Class" 1500 was developed into 1600 and 1800 models. It was the first BMW to officially feature the "Hofmeister kink", the rear window line that has been the hallmark of all BMWs since then. This modern specification further cemented BMW's reputation for sporting cars.

At the Frankfurt show in 1961, BMW launched the 1500, a powerful compact sedan, with front disc brakes and four-wheel independent suspension. Competition successes in the 700 began to secure BMW's reputation for sports sedans. There was also a more powerful RS model for racing. Its bodywork was designed by Giovanni Michelotti and the 2+2 model had a sporty look.

That same year, BMW launched the 700, a small car with an air-cooled, rear-mounted 697 cc boxer engine from the R67 motorcycle. Instead Quandt increased his share in BMW to 50% against the advice of his bankers, and he was instrumental in turning the company around. Major shareholder, Herbert Quandt was close to agreeing such a deal, but changed his mind at the last minute because of opposition from the workforce and trade unions and advice from the board chairman, Kurt Golda. In 1959 BMW's management suggested selling the whole concern to Daimler-Benz.

By the late 1950s, it was making bubble cars such as the Isetta. In 1952, BMW produced its first passenger car since the war, but its attempts to get into the premium sector were not commercially successful; models such as the acclaimed BMW 507 were too expensive to build profitably and were low volume. These plans, which became official war reparations, along with BMW engineer Fritz Fiedler allowed the newly formed Bristol Cars to produce a new, high-quality sports saloon (sedan), the 400 by 1947, a car so similar to the BMW 327 that it even kept the famous BMW grille. In the west, representatives from the Bristol Aeroplane Company inspected the factory, and returned to Britain with plans for the 326, 327 and 328 models.

Production continued until 1955. That company produced cars called "BMW" until in 1951 the Bavarian company prevented use of the trademarks — the BMW name, the logo and the "double-kidney" radiator grille — the cars being then rebranded EMW. In the east, the company's factory at Eisenach was taken over by the soviet Awtowelo group which finally formed Eisenacher Motor-Werke. BMW was banned from manufacturing for three years by the Allies and did not produce a car model until 1952.

After the war the Munich factory took some time to restart production in any volume. The factory in Munich was largely destroyed. Of its sites, those in eastern Germany (Eisenach-Dürrerhof, Wandlitz-Basdorf and Zühlsdorf) were seized by the Soviets. The BMW works were heavily bombed towards the end of the war.

BMW has admitted to using between 25,000 and 30,000 slave labourers during this period, consisting of both inmates of infamous concentration camps such as Dachau and prisoners of war. BMW also researched jet engines, producing the BMW 003, and rocket-based weapons. Over 30,000 were manufactured up to 1945. Planes used the aero-engines included the 801, one of the most powerful available.

BMW was also a major supplier of engines to the Luftwaffe and of engines and vehicles, especially motorcycles, to the Wehrmacht. BMW motorcycles, specifically the BMW R 12 and the BMW R 75 combination were used extensively by the Reconnaissance formations of German panzer and motorised divisions of the Heer, Waffen SS and Luftwaffe. The pre-war cars culminated in the 327 saloon and 328 roadster, fast 2.0 L cars, both very advanced for their time. By 1933 BMW were producing cars that could be called truly theirs, offering steadily more advanced I6 sports and saloons (sedans).

BMW bought the Dixi Company the following year, and this became the company's first car, the BMW 3/15. In 1927 the tiny Dixi, an Austin Seven produced under licence, began production in Eisenach. This had a 500 cc air-cooled horizontally-opposed engine, a feature that would resonate among their various models for decades to come, albeit with displacement increases and newer technology. In 1923 BMW built their first model motorcycle, the R32.

In 1919 BMW designed their first motorcycle engine to be used in a model called the Victoria which was built by a company in Nuremburg. Otto closed his factory and BMW switched to manufacturing railway brakes. After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles (1919) prohibited the production of aircraft in Germany. Over-expansion caused difficulties; Rapp left and the company was taken over by the Austrian industrialist Franz Josef Popp in 1917, and named BMW AG in 1918.

Needing extra financing, Rapp gained the support of Camillo Castiglioni and Max Friz, the company was reconstituted as the Bayerische Motoren Werke GmbH. In 1916 the company secured a contract to build V12 engines for Austria-Hungary. The blue-and-white circular logo BMW still uses (illustrated above right) alludes to the blue and white checkered flag of Bavaria and also indicates a spinning white propeller on a blue-sky background. The Milbertshofen district of Munich location was chosen because it was close to the Gustav Otto Flugmaschinenfabrik site, a German aircraft manufacturer.

BMW was founded by Karl Friedrich Rapp in October 1913, originally as an aircraft engine manufacturer, Bayerische Flugzeug-Werke. . BMW's main competitors include Alfa Romeo, Audi, Cadillac, Infiniti, Jaguar, Lexus and Mercedes-Benz. The company's taglines in English are "The Ultimate Driving Machine" and "Sheer Driving Pleasure." The original German slogan is "Freude am Fahren," which translates to "Joy in Driving" in English.

Jamaica), BMW cars are referred to as "bimmers," [1]while BMW motorcycles are called "beemers". In German, the acronym BMW is pronounced "bay emm vay." In North America and some other regions (i.e. BMW is the parent company of the BMW MINI and Rolls-Royce car brands, and, formerly, Rover. BMW AG (an abbreviation for Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, or in English, Bavarian Motor Works), is a German company and manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles.

Bring mich Werkstatt - Roughly translates: Get me to a workshop. Bayerische Mistwagen - Roughly translates: Crappy Bavarian car. Bembara - The nickname used in Serbia. B M - This is what people say in Arab countries.

Beba - This is the word many BMW fans use for BMWs in Greece. Bummer - When you get a speeding ticket. Beamer/Beemer - slang for BMW motorcycles. Bimmer - slang for BMW cars [2] (may be pronounced "bimmer" or "beemer," depending on whether or not the original German pronunciation is used).

Paris Dakar Rally. Nürburgring. Mille Miglia. Le Mans 24 Hours.

Touring car racing. Team McLaren. Brabham Racing Organisation. WilliamsF1.

BMW Sauber F1 Team. Softlab GmbH: IT consulting and systems integration. Bavaria Wirtschaftsagentur GmbH: BMW Group subsidiary that offers insurance services. One of the latest designs is computer keyboard and mouse, which were sold by BenQ as x700 Pro keyboard, x730 Pro wireless keyborard and mouse combo, M306 wireless mouse.

DesignworksUSA has worked on various designs for BMW and other companies, not just automobile. Pelly, and owned by BMW AG since May 1995. DesignworksUSA: Design studio founded in 1972 by Charles W. Wiesmann: A company making sporty 2-seater coupes for which BMW supplies the engines.

BMW MINI: a small hatchback; inspired by the original Mini, which was the British competitor to the Volkswagen Beetle. Land Rover: sold to Ford; the current Range Rover was developed mostly by BMW during their ownership of the company and until recently was powered by their 4.4 L V8 petrol (gasoline) engine and continues to use the BMW 3.0 L I6 diesel engine. Rover: briefly owned by BMW, which retained the Mini after selling off the rest of the company (see MG Rover Group). Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited: BMW subsidiary that owns the Rolls-Royce trademark.

Glas. Isetta. Automobilwerk Eisenach. BMW E91 - (2005-present) 3 Series Wagon.

BMW E90 - (2005-present) 3 Series. BMW E87 - (2004-present) 1 Series. BMW E85 - (2003-present) Z4. BMW E83 - (2004-present) X3.

BMW E70 - future X5. BMW E66 - (2002-present) 7 Series long wheel base. BMW E65 - (2002-present) 7 Series short wheel base. BMW E64 - (2004-present) 6 Series convertible.

BMW E63 - (2004-present) 6 Series coupe. BMW E60 - (2004-present) 5 Series. BMW E53 - (2000-present) X5. BMW E52 - (2000-2004) Z8.

BMW E46 - (1998-2005) 3 Series. BMW E39 - (1996-2003) 5 Series. BMW E38 - (1994-2001) 7 Series. BMW E36 - (1991-1999) 3 Series/Z3 (as E36/7) (1999 model as M3 only).

BMW E34 - (1988-1995) 5 Series. BMW E32 - (1986-1994) 7 Series. BMW E31 - (1990-1999) 8 Series. BMW E30 - (1982-1991) 3 Series.

BMW E28 - (1981-1988) 5 Series. BMW E26 - (1978-1981) M1. BMW E24 - (1976-1989) 6 Series. BMW E23 - (1977-1986) 7 Series.

BMW E21 - (1975-1983) 3 Series. BMW E12 - (1972-1981) 5 Series. BMW E9 - (1969-1975) 2800CS, 3.0CS, 3.0CSL "New Six" coupés. BMW E3 - (1968-1977) 2.5, 2.8, 3.0, 3.3 "New Six" sedans.

New Class (1500/1502/1600/1800/1802/2000/2002) - Acknowledged as the first modern sports saloon and the predecessor to BMW's core product, the 3 Series. New Sixes (2500/2800/Bavaria/2.5/2.8/3.0/3.3) - Predecessor to today's 7 Series. 3200 CS, 2000 CS. 501, 502, 503, 507.

Isetta, 600, 700. Dixi, 3/20, 303, 309, 315, 319, 320, 321, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 335. This exciting roadster was built on a aluminium space frame design. Only 5000 were built, the last 500 being a special edition built by Alpina but sold directly from BMW.

Z8: flagship sports car; design based on the classic 507 roadster from the 1950s. Best known for the feature of the vertically sliding doors. Z1: a late 1980s two-seater with innovative modular construction; only 8,000 were made. 8 Series: a fast, high-technology coupe of the 1990s meant to replace the older 6 Series.

M coupé and roadster: high-performance hard-top and soft-top versions of the Z3, very popular with enthusiasts. Z3: a compact two-seater roadster.

    . As Lamborghini went into bankruptcy the production was shifted to the German Karmanwerke. M1: a 1970s mid-engine sports car, designed in conjunction with Lamborghini.

    Z10: A 2+2 coupe to succeed the Z8, to be produced in 2008. M Z4 The BMW M Z4 coupe is planned for production as a 2006 model. Available in 2.5 L and 3.0 L models.

      . Z4: a two-seater roadster and coupe that succeeded the Z3.

      X5: BMW's first SUV (called SAV or Sports Activity Vehicle by BMW) competing against the Porsche Cayenne and Mercedes M-Class. X3: a small SUV with emphasis on practicality and affordability. The 760Li is also made in a bulletproof version for clients who need extra protection. The 7 series comes in the 750i and 750Li with the same engine as the 550i, and in the 760i and 760Li, with a 6.0 L V12 producing 438 bhp.

      7 Series: a full-size, executive-class, luxury car competing with the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Audi A8, and Jaguar XJ. Developed by BMW's M Division, it powered by the same 5.0 L V10 507 bhp engine seen in the BMW M5. M6: A high performance version of the 6 Series. For the 2007 model year, the 630i (with the same engine as the 530i) and the 650i (with the same engine as the 550i) will be available.

        .

        6 Series: The coupe verson of the 5 series, the 6 series is currently available only in the 645i version with a 4.4 L V8 producing 325 bhp. The new M5 (E60) is powered by an F1-inspired V10 engine, producing 507 bhp and is mated with a 7-speed Sequential Manual Gearbox (SMG) transmission. M5: The motorsport division's version of the 5 Series. Other models, including diesel models, are available outside of the United States.

          .

          For the 2006 model year, the 545i will be phased out in favour of the 550i, with a 4.8 L V8 producing 360 bhp. This series has is available with three different engines: the 525i with the same engine as the 325i, the 530i with the same engine as the 330i, and the 545i with a 4.4 L V8 producing 325 bhp. 5 Series: a midsize sports/luxury sedan. A new revision is expected in 2007 with a 400 horsepower V8.

          Currently available only in the fourth generation E46 body style and with a 3.2 L engine producing 333 bhp. M3: The motorsport division's race-inspired version of the 3 Series. Other models, including diesel models, are available outside of the United States.

            . Also available is the all wheel drive Touring (wagon) model, the 325xiT.

            Currently the 3 series coupe and convertible is only available in the fourth generation E46 body style (with a 2.5 L I6 producing 184 bhp for the 325ci/cic and a 3.0 L I6 producing 225 bhp for the 330ci/cic) until the middle of 2006 when the E90 coupes will be available. The E90 is currently available in the 325i (with a detuned 3.0 L I6 engine producing 215 bhp) and the 330i (with a 3.0 L I6 engine producing 255 bhp) as well as the AWD-versions of these 2 models, named 325xi and 330xi. The E90 line (starting with the 2006 model year) is available now in the United States. 3 Series: the successor to the 2002; a compact entry-level luxury sedan, now in its fifth generation (E90).

            Plans to label these variants as 2 Series have reportedly been scrubbed. A coupe has been announced for 2006, and there are concepts of a hatchback and a minivan. It is the only rear wheel drive vehicle in its class. 1 Series: a small car launched in autumn 2004 in Europe; autumn 2006 in the USA.

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