Delphi

The theatre, seen from above

Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. 61, 84).

Location

Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Parnassus. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf.

Apollo

The Temple of Apollo, seen from below View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. The stone steps on the right were added under the Romans.

The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back.

Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe.

Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias.

When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees.

The Pythian Games comprised a chariot race, thus this magnificent statue, the Charioteer of Delphi.

Oracle

The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe.

This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire).

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess".

In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes.

The Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon

Footnote

1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. 707; see e.g. here for a popular science coverage)

Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves.

Treasuries

From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury.

Tholos

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs.

Modern Delphi

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Delphi

General

  • Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek)
  • Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi
  • The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding
  • Delphi guide
  • Delphi (in Greek)
  • C. Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls"
  • Livius Picture Archive: Delphi
  • Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle"
  • "The Delphic oracle"

Geology of Delphi

  • John R. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003
  • John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001
  • Geology of Delphi
  • The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi"

Reference

  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.

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The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa. The company's loftiest efforts have been in the supercar market. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The later Testarossa remains one of the most famous Ferraris. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. Ferrari entered the mid-engined 12-cylinder fray with the Berlinetta Boxer in 1971. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. The company has also produced front-engined 2+2 cars, culminating in the current 612 Scaglietti.

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. Although they looked quite different from their 2-seat counterparts, both the GT4 and Mondial were very closely-related to the 308 GTB. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs. For a time, Ferrari built 2+2 versions of its mid-engined V8 cars. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Ferrari quickly moved into the Gran Turismo market, and the bulk of the company's sales remain in this area. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. V6 and V8 Ferrari models make up well over half of the marque's total production.

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. This layout would go on to be used in most Ferraris of the 1980s and 1990s. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury. The Dino was the first mid-engined Ferrari. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Ferrari's earliest models were pure sports cars, not the exotics we know today. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon.
.

These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories.
. From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries.
. Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves.
. here for a popular science coverage). In the mid 1990s, Ferrari added the letter "F" to the beginning of all models (a practice quickly abandoned after the F512M and F355, but recently picked up again with the F430).

707; see e.g. The various Dino models were named for Enzo's son. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. This was probably to avoid confusion with the multiple 250 models produced before the GTO. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. As well, the 250 GTO's famous acronym, which means Gran Turismo Omologato, was simply a name the Italian press gave the car which referred to the way Ferrari had, in a sense, avoided the rules and successfully homologated the car for racing purposes (Somehow, Ferrari had convinced the FIA, the 250 GTO was the same car as previous 250's). 1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. (North American Racing Team, who raced Ferrari's in America) won the famous 24 hour race of the same name.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes. The 365 GTB4 model only became known as a Daytona after racing variants run by N.A.R.T. In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there. Many such names are actually not official factory names. Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess". Many Ferraris also had other names affixed (like Daytona) to identify them further. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". This naming system can be confusing, as some entirely different vehicles used the same engine type and body style.

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. In general, the following conventions were used:. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire). Most Ferraris were also given designations referring to their body style. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Until the mid-1990s, Ferrari followed a three-number naming scheme based on engine displacement:. This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. This was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car.

Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe. Curiosly, Ferrari won the 1964 World championship with John Surtees by competing the last two races in cars painted white&blue, as these were not entered by the Italian factory themselves, but the US-based NART team. Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. When BMW re-entered F1 in 2000, they also made sure that the cars of WilliamsF1 were painted white and blue. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". the green Jaguar Racing in F1 as well as the blue on current Renault F1 cars, which was originally contributed by a tobacco sponsor. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. In recent years, these traditional colors have resurfaced in some cases, eg.

Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. Since 1996, the Ferrari F1 cars are said to be painted in a brighter, nearly orange red, in order to fit better to their tobacco sponsor. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. The shade of the color varies, though. The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. These national colors were mostly replaced by sponsor liveries since 1968, but unlike most other teams, Ferrari always kept the traditional red. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees. For example, a yellow Ferrari 156 was entered and driven in the 1961 Belgian Grand Prix by Olivier Gendebien from Belgium, scoring 4th behind 3 other Ferrari 156 painted in red, as they were entered by the Scuderia Ferrari itself, but driven by Americans Phil Hill&Richie Ginther as well as German Wolfgang von Trips.

The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The color was not determined by the country the car was made in, nor by the nationality of the driver(s), but by the nationality of the team that entered the vehicle. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. In that scheme, French cars like Bugatti were blue, German like BMW and Porsche white (since 1934 also Silver Arrows), British racing green etc. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. This was the customary national racing color of Italy, as recommended between the World Wars by the organisations that later would become the FIA. When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. Since the 1920s, Italian race cars of Alfa Romeo, Maserati and later Ferrari and Abarth were (and often still are) painted in "race red" (Rosso Corsa).

Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. One example is quite prominent next to roads in Austria and Eastern European countries, as an Austrian company, named "avanti" (http://www.avanti.at) since 1972, operates over 100 filling stations marked with a prancing horse logo which is nearly identical to Ferrari's. Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Yet, other companies use similar logos. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe. The prancing horse is now a trademark of Ferrari. Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. But, as Ferrari's fame grew, Ducati abandoned the horse; this may have been the result of a private agreement between the two brands.

The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. Taglioni's father was, in fact, a companion of Baracca's and fought with him in the 91st Air Squad. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The prancing horse has not always been uniquely identified with the Ferrari brand: Fabio Taglioni used it on his Ducati motorbikes. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. Ever since, the cavallino was shown on the Alfas that were competing against the Silver Arrows of Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union, among others. The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. The first race at which Alfa Romeo would let Ferrari use the horse on the Alfas entered by his Scuderia Ferrari was eleven years later at Spa 24 Hours in 1932, which the Ferrari-led Alfa team won.

Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf. Baracca using the Stuttgart horse from a shot-down plane ties in with the fact that his family owned many horses. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. This is supported by the evidence Barraca's horse looks more similar to the one of Stuttgart (not changed since 1938) than the current Ferrari design, especially as the legs of the horses are concerned. Parnassus. Another theory suggests Baracca copied the rampant horse design from a shot-down German pilot who had the emblem of the city of Stuttgart on his plane. Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. It has been supposed the choice of a horse was perhaps partly because his noble family was known for having many horses on their estates at Lugo di Romagna.

. Ferrari left the horse black as it had been on Baracca's plane; however, he added a canary yellow background as this is the color of the city of Modena, his birthplace. 61, 84). The Countess asked Enzo to use this horse on his cars, suggesting that it would grant him good luck. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. On June 17, 1923, Enzo Ferrari won a race at the Savio track in Ravenna where he met the Countess Paolina, mother of Count Francesco Baracca, a legendary asso (ace) of the Italian air force and national hero during World War I, who used to paint a horse on the side of his planes. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. Enzo Ferrari met these competitors many times since the 1920s while competing for Alfa.

Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. Stuttgart, called Stoccarda by the Italians, is the home of Mercedes-Benz and Ferrari's rival Porsche, which also uses the Stuttgart sign in its corporate logo, centered in the emblem of the state of Württemberg just like the city is placed within the state. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. This name is derived from Stutengarten, an ancient form of the modern German word Gestüt, which translates into English as stud farm and into Italian as scuderia. Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. Curiously, a similar black horse on a yellow shield is the Coat of Arms of the German city of Stuttgart. Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985. The road cars have a rectangular badge on the front hood (see picture above).

The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi". The famous symbol of the Ferrari race team is a black prancing horse on yellow shield-shaped background, usually with the letters S F for Scuderia Ferrari, and with three stripes of the Italian national colors green-white-red on top. Geology of Delphi. Famous drivers include Tazio Nuvolari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Alberto Ascari, Phil Hill, Mike Hawthorn, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Gilles Villeneuve, Nigel Mansell, Alain Prost and Michael Schumacher. John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001. As of 2004, the team's records include fourteen World Drivers Championship titles (1952, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1961, 1964, 1975, 1977, 1979, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004), fourteen World Constructors Championship titles (1961, 1964, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004), 179 grand prix victories, 3445 and a half points, 544 podium finishes, 174 pole positions, 11,182 laps led, and 180 fastest laps in 1622 grands prix contested. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003. Ferrari is the oldest team left in the championship, not to mention the most successful: the team holds nearly every Formula One record.

John R. Alberto Ascari gave Ferrari its first World Championship a year later. "The Delphic oracle". José Froilán González gave the team its first victory at the 1951 British Grand Prix. Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle". The Scuderia joined the Formula One World Championship in the first year of its existence, 1950. Livius Picture Archive: Delphi. After Ferrari's departure from Alfa, he began to design and produce cars of his own; the Ferrari team first appeared on the European grand prix scene after the end of World War II.

Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls". His Scuderia started as an independent sponsor for drivers in various cars, but soon became the Alfa Romeo in-house racing team. C. Enzo Ferrari's true passion, despite his extensive road car business, was always auto racing. Delphi (in Greek). Main article: Scuderia Ferrari. Delphi guide. As of 2004, FIAT owns 56% of Ferrari, Mediobanca 15%, Commerzbank 10%, Lehman Brothers 7%, and Enzo's son Piero Ferrari 10%.

The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding. Other design houses that have done work for Ferrari over the years include Scaglietti, Bertone, Touring, Ghia, and Vignale. Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi. Ferrari road cars, noted for nice styling by design houses like Pininfarina, have long been one of the ultimate accessories for the rich. Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek). While his beautiful and blazingly fast cars quickly gained a reputation for excellence, Enzo maintained a famous distaste for his customers, most of whom he felt were buying his cars for the prestige and not the performance. Image:Ferrarimascot.jpg The first Ferrari road car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine; Enzo reluctantly built and sold his automobiles to fund the Scuderia.

"Scuderia Ferrari" literally means "Ferrari Stable" in keeping with the prancing horse emblem; the name is figuratively translated as "Team Ferrari." (It is correctly pronounced "skoo dee ry ah".). Right up to Il Commendatore's death, this would remain little more than a source of funding for his first love, racing. The factory was bombed in 1944 and rebuilt in 1946 to include a works for road car production. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since.

Because he was prohibited by contract from racing for several years, the Scuderia briefly became Auto Avio Costruzioni Ferrari, which ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories.Also known as SEFAC Ferrari did in fact produce one racecar, the Tipo 815, in the non-competition period; it was thus the first actual Ferrari car (it debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia), but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1940, upon learning of the company's plan to absorb his beloved Scuderia and take control of his racing efforts, he quit Alfa. Ferrari prepared and successfully raced various drivers in Alfa Romeo cars until 1938, when he was officially hired by Alfa as head of their racing department. Enzo Ferrari never intended to produce road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929 as a sponsor for amateur drivers headquartered in Modena.

. The company is based in Maranello, near Modena, Italy. At first, Scuderia Ferrari sponsored drivers and manufactured racecars; the company went into independent car production in 1946, eventually became Ferrari S.p.A., and is now controlled by the Fiat group. Ferrari is an Italian manufacturer of high-end race cars and high-performance sports cars formed by Enzo Ferrari in 1929.

1996 F50 GT. 1994 333 SP. 1971 312 PB. 1969 512 S and 512 M.

1969 312 P. 1967 412 P. 1967 330 P4. 1966 330 P3.

1965 330 P2. 1964 330 P. 1964 250 LM. 1963 250 P.

1963 P/LM series

    . 1963 330 LMB. 1962 250 GTO. 1962 GTO
      .

      1960 250 TR60/61. 1956 250 Testa Rossa. 1954 250 Monza. 1954 750 Monza.

      1953 375 MM. 1953 340 MM. 1952 250MM. 1951 340 America.

      1949 125 F1. 1948 166. 1947 125 Sport. FXX.

      575 GTC. 360 Challenge. 360 GTC. 2003 Enzo.

      1995-1997 ( till 1999 with the introduction of the F50 GT) F50. 1988-1992 F40. 1984 288 GTO. 1962 250 GTO.

      1994-1996 F512M. 1992-1994 512TR. 1984-1992 Testarossa. 1984-1996 Testarossa

        .

        1981 512iBB. 1976 512BB. 1971 365 GT4 BB. 1971-1984 512 Berlinetta Boxer

          .

          2004-2005 612 Scaglietti. 1998-2003 456M GT Coupe. 1992-1997 456 GT/GTA Coupe. 1992-2003 456/456M

            .

            1985 412. 1979 400i. 1976 400 Automatic. 1976-1989 400/412

              .

              1972-1976 365 GT4 2+2. 1971-1972 365 GTC4. 1968-1973 365 Daytona

                . 1967-1971 365 GT 2+2.

                1967-1971 365

                  . 1964-1967 330 GT 2+2. 1964-1967 330
                    . 1960-1963 250 GT 2+2.

                    1960-1963 250

                      . 1989 Mondial T. 1985 3.2 Mondial/3.2 Cabriolet. 1983 Mondial Cabriolet.

                      1982 Mondial Quattrovalvole. 1980 Mondial 8. 1980 Mondial

                        . 1975 208 GT4.

                        1976-1980 308GT4. 1974-1975 Dino 308GT4. 1974-1980 208/308 GT4

                          . 2007 Ferrari 599 GTB.

                          2005 Superamerica. 2004 Barchetta. 2002-2006 575M Maranello

                            . 2001 550 Barchetta.

                            1996-2000 550 Maranello Coupe. 1996-2001 550 Maranello

                              . 1968 365 GTB4/365 GTS4. 1968-1973 Daytona
                                .

                                1969-1970 365 GTS Spider. 1968-1969 365 GTC Coupe. 1968 365

                                  . 1966-1968 275 GTB/4.

                                  1964-1965 275 GTB/GTS. 1964-1968 275

                                    . 1966 330 GTS Spider. 1966 330 GTC Coupe.

                                    1964 330

                                      . 1957-1960 250 GT Berlinetta/Cabriolet/California Spyder/SWB. 1954-1963 250 GT Europa/Boano/Ellena/Coupe Pininfarina/Lusso. 1953 250 Export/Europa.

                                      1952 250S/250MM. 1953-1962 250

                                        . 1966 365 California. 1964 500 Superfast.

                                        1960 400 superamerica. 1957 410 superamerica III. 1956 410 superamerica. 1953 375 America.

                                        1952 340 America. 1952-1967 America

                                          . 2005 F430. 2003-2004 Challenge Stradale.

                                          1999-2004 360 Modena/Spider. 1999-2004 Ferrari 360

                                            . 1997 355 F1. 1994 F355/GTS.

                                            1995-1998 F355

                                              . 1993 348 GTB/GTS. 1989 348 TB/TS. 1989 348
                                                .

                                                1986 GTB/GTS Turbo. 1985 328 GTB Berlinetta. 1982 308 GTB/GTS Quattrovalvole. 1982 208 GTB/GTS Turbo.

                                                1980 308 GTBi/GTSi. 1980 208 GTB/GTS. 1975 308 GTB/GTS. 1975-1989 208/308/328 GTB/GTS

                                                  .

                                                  1968-1973 Dino 246GT/GTS. 1968-1973 Dino 206GT. 1968-1975 Dino

                                                    . 1952 340 MM Berlinetta/Spider.

                                                    1951-1952 212 Coupe/Cabriolet. 1951 195 Coupe. 1948-1950 166. The convertible models now use the suffix "Spider" (see F355 Spider, and Ferrari 360 Spider).

                                                    GTS models, in older models, are convertibles (see 365 GTS4); however, in late models, this suffix is used for targa top models (see 348 GTS, and F355 GTS; exception being the 348 TS, which is the only targa named differently). GTB models are closed Berlinettas, or coupes. M standing for "Modificata," this suffix is placed to the end of a model's number designation to denote that it is a modified version of its predecessor and not a complete evolution (see F512M and 575M Maranello). Therefore, the 512BB was five liter flat 12 (a Berlinetta Boxer, in this case).

                                                    Flat twelve (boxer) models used the displacement in liters. Therefore, the famed 365 Daytona had a 4380 cc V12. V12 models used the displacement (in cubic centimeters) of one cylinder. Thus, the 206 was a 2.0 L V6-powered vehicle, while the 348 used a 3.4 L V8.

                                                    V6 and V8 models used the total displacement (in deciliters) for the first two digits and the number of cylinders as the third.

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