Delphi

The theatre, seen from above

Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. 61, 84).

Location

Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Parnassus. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf.

Apollo

The Temple of Apollo, seen from below View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. The stone steps on the right were added under the Romans.

The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back.

Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe.

Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias.

When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees.

The Pythian Games comprised a chariot race, thus this magnificent statue, the Charioteer of Delphi.

Oracle

The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe.

This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire).

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess".

In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes.

The Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon

Footnote

1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. 707; see e.g. here for a popular science coverage)

Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves.

Treasuries

From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury.

Tholos

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs.

Modern Delphi

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Delphi

General

  • Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek)
  • Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi
  • The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding
  • Delphi guide
  • Delphi (in Greek)
  • C. Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls"
  • Livius Picture Archive: Delphi
  • Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle"
  • "The Delphic oracle"

Geology of Delphi

  • John R. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003
  • John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001
  • Geology of Delphi
  • The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi"

Reference

  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.

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The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa. Spongebob Superpants Z. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The Misadventures of Spongebob Squarepants. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow.
. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. He also likes to blow bubbles, surf, sun bathe, play the ukulele, watch his favorite TV show, The New Adventures of Mermaidman and Barnacleboy and do his job at the Krusty Krab.

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. Many times he sings some songs in a different voice, probably by a different voice actor. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs. In several episodes, most SpongeBob video games, and The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie, it is suggested he has brilliant guitar and singing skills. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. She then takes it back realizing how much chaos he could cause with his license. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. Puff becomes so frustrated she gives SpongeBob his boating license by allowing him to do "extra credit".

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. At one point, Mrs. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury. Puff. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Despite this, he perpetually and continuously attends boating school in an attempt to get his license (and because he enjoys it), much to the woe and frustration of his boating instructor Mrs. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. Puff's Boating School, mainly due to a tendency to become nervous once behind the wheel (he has been shown to know what he's doing everywhere but inside the boat).

These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. SpongeBob has yet to keep a boating license (analogous to a driver's license) because he fails every driver's test at Mrs. From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. To date, he has caught (and let go) every jellyfish in Bikini Bottom. Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves. He spends his free time with his friend Patrick Star (a rather dimwitted Starfish), and especially enjoys practicing karate with his other friend Sandy Cheeks (a squirrel from Texas who wears a space suit to breathe underwater), as well as catching jellyfish at Jellyfish Fields. here for a popular science coverage). And SpongeBob has never been a minute late ever for his job (except in "Hooky" he was two minutes late because he got hooked, and in "Have You Seen This Snail" he was fifteen minutes late because he was so tired from searching for Gary.).

707; see e.g. In another episode, he is offered a job as Neptune's fry cook, but turns it down because Patrick couldn't come too. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. In an episode where SpongeBob and Squidward go on strike, he is referred to as a "legend" by a young fry cook who wants to take his job and is asked to sign the young boy’s spatula. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. SpongeBob, in some episodes, seems to have attained a celebrity like status in Bikini Bottom for his masterful fry cooking. 1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. Eugene Krabs.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes. He works alongside Squidward (much to Squidward's dismay), who manages the cash register for his money obsessed boss, Mr. In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there. Because of labor laws, this puts his minimum age around 52 years, 2 months. Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess". Then, in The Spongebob Squarepants Movie, he has had 374 consecutive employee-of-the-month awards, which would mean he has worked there for at least 31 years and 2 months. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". He was employee of the month over twenty six times, which would mean he has worked there at least two years.

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. He takes his job very seriously and is very good at it. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire). SpongeBob has a career as a fry cook at the Krusty Krab restaurant, home of the Krabby Patty. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Gary and SpongeBob live together in a pineapple under the sea. This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. Gary's meows are generally understood by most all residents of Bikini Bottom.

Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe. SpongeBob has one pet, a snail named Gary (the analogous of a cat on land, it is also thought that a worm is the analogous of a dog on land). Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. His skeleton varies from a simple spine to a perfect square. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". when he appears 'dead' in some future 'flashbacks'), but every time they appear different. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. SpongeBob's insides and skeleton have been shown various times (eg.

Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. Normally though he can function at a reasonable level. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. He has been known to have enormous difficulty lifting even the lightest of objects. The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. Although malleable, SpongeBob's body is generally incredibly weak. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees. Puff and Squidward Tentacles.

The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. This, along with his repetitive talking and loud dolphin-like laughter makes him a huge annoyance to others, especially Mrs. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. SpongeBob is very easily overexcited about almost everything, like many different or simple/regular tasks, or even things he doesn't know what they mean (like when Squidward invited him to a strike, SpongeBob celebrated for it although he never heard the word before). This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Although a good-natured and loving sponge, many characters seem to avoid him. When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. Although he is an adult, he has a very childish nature.

Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. He dislikes scary things and stinky things. Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. However, he has been known to shout and curse (even "obscenities") when angry or frustrated. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe. SpongeBob will rarely knowingly do wrong or harm to anyone and never without remorse. Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. He has a buck-toothed grin, tremendously expressive face and square body that complement his pure and good nature.

The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. SpongeBob is extremely sweet, generous, friendly, and most of all, trusting. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". He also wears a red bowtie in exchange for his necktie on special occasions, such as his house party or at the Krusty Krab telling Squirrel Jokes. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. When he goes "swimming", he wears a pair of blue swimming trunks (although he still wears his underpants underneath). The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. At night, he sometimes has a green bathrobe on but mostly goes to sleep with his underwear and nothing else.

Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf. He usually wears a pair of white briefs underneath his pants, although he has been seen wearing blue, green, and red briefs (all at the same time, nonetheless) and even pink to honor his best friend, Patrick. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. As a part of the attire, his shoes are shining black, with a spheric bulge at the front (although still a part of the shoe proper, unlike the balls of the clown shoes). Parnassus. SpongeBob typically wears a white business shirt, red tie and brown pants, although he has been known to run naked or in his underwear. Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Like the rest of SpongeBob's body (excluding his eyes, mouth and brain), his hands and feet are made of sponge.

. He has six long black wiry eyelashes, and his eyes have sky-blue irises with very dilated pupils. 61, 84). His arms can become variable in length and shape at will, are retractable, and can be re-grown at will. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. SpongeBob has the ability to transform into other shapes at will, absorb physical blows as well as large amounts of water, and reassemble pieces which fall off of him. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. He has disproportionally thin and short extremities extending from his body (arms and legs), and resembles a kitchen sponge more than a sea sponge.

Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. SpongeBob is an anthropomorphic, yellow, porous, sponge with a face. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. . Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. The character was designed by marine biologist and animator Stephen Hillenburg, and is voiced by Tom Kenny. Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985. SpongeBob SquarePants is the principal character in the animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants, which first aired in July 1999 on Nickelodeon.

The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi". The Spanish theme song on the British SpongeBob DVD is not the same as the American DVD Spanish version of the theme song. Geology of Delphi. Before he was drawn like a luffa. John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001. SpongeBob wasn't always a square. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003. The creator of SpongeBob SquarePants, Stephen Hillenburg says he didn't want SpongeBob to just be named Bob, because then people would confuse him with a piece of cheese.

John R. SpongeBob was originally going to be called SpongeBoy, but the name was already trademarked. "The Delphic oracle". SpongeBob's character was influenced by Jerry Lewis, Pee Wee Herman, and Charlie Chaplin. Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle". SpongeBob's voice is described as a combination of the mayor of Munchkinland from The Wizard of Oz and Elroy Jetson from The Jetsons. Livius Picture Archive: Delphi. SpongeBob's name is written in the CamelCase word style.

Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls". It should be noted, however, that in this case "Esponja" is the character's last name, while the "Squarepants" portion of the original english name is dropped altogether. C. In the Latin America version of the show, SpongeBob's name is "Bob Esponja", which is a literal translation of the English name. Delphi (in Greek). In the French version of the show, SpongeBob's name is Bob L'éponge, which literally means Bob the Sponge. Delphi guide. In the German version of the show, SpongeBob's last name is "Schwammkopf" meaning "SpongeHead".

The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding. Sherm SquarePants, SpongeBob's uncle (also voiced by Tom Kenny). Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi. Grandma SquarePants, SpongeBob's grandmother (voiced by Marion Ross). Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek). Grandpa SquarePants, SpongeBob's grandfather (also voiced by Tom Kenny). SquarePants, SpongeBob's mother (voiced by Sirena Irwin).

Mrs. SquarePants, SpongeBob's father (voiced by Tom Kenny). Mr.

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