Delphi

The theatre, seen from above

Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. 61, 84).

Location

Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Parnassus. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf.

Apollo

The Temple of Apollo, seen from below View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. The stone steps on the right were added under the Romans.

The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back.

Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe.

Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias.

When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees.

The Pythian Games comprised a chariot race, thus this magnificent statue, the Charioteer of Delphi.

Oracle

The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe.

This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire).

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess".

In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes.

The Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon

Footnote

1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. 707; see e.g. here for a popular science coverage)

Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves.

Treasuries

From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury.

Tholos

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs.

Modern Delphi

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Delphi

General

  • Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek)
  • Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi
  • The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding
  • Delphi guide
  • Delphi (in Greek)
  • C. Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls"
  • Livius Picture Archive: Delphi
  • Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle"
  • "The Delphic oracle"

Geology of Delphi

  • John R. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003
  • John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001
  • Geology of Delphi
  • The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi"

Reference

  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.

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The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa. Outside of these groups however, the pronunciation porsh (IPA /pɔɹʃ/) is standard. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). There is a habit in American English towards over-compensating the e, which then results into pronouncing it as Pors-scha (IPA /ˈpɔɹʃa/). The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. In English, the German form is often heard from official Porsche sources and from some Porsche owners and enthusiasts. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. In German "Porsche" is pronounced porsh-uh (IPA /ˈpɔɹʃə/).

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. See: Category:Porsche vehicles. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs. Major Victories and Championships. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Based on LMP2 homologaton regulations, the RS Spyder made its debut at Laguna Seca during the final race of the 2005 ALMS season and immediately garnering a class win in the LMP2 class and finishing 5th overall. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. Porsche dropped its factory motorsports programs during the turn of the century (preferring to support privateers) for financial reasons and has only recently made a comeback with the new RS Spyder prototype.

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. Stock and lightly-modified Porsches are raced in many competitions around the world; some of these are primarily amateur classes for enthusiasts, but the Porsche Michelin Supercup is a wholly professional category raced as a support category for European Formula One rounds. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury. Porsche returned to F1 again in 1991 as an engine supplier, however this time with disastrous results: Porsche-powered Footwork cars failed to score a single point, and failed to even qualify for over half the races that year; Porsche has not participated in Formula One since. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Porsche-powered cars took two constructor championships in 1984 and 1985 and three driver crowns in 1984, 1985 and 1986. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. Porsche returned in 1983 after nearly two decades away, supplying engines badged as TAG units for the McLaren Team.

These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. Privateers continued to enter out-dated Porsche 718 in F1 until 1964. From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. At the end of the season, Porsche retired from F1 due to the high costs. Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves. One week later, he repeated the success in front of Porsche's home crowd on Stuttgart's Solitude in a non-championship race. here for a popular science coverage). Porsche has also participated in Formula One racing, with mixed results; its first foray (as a constructor) from 1961 to 1962 produced just one win in a championship race, claimed by Dan Gurney at the 1962 French Grand Prix.

707; see e.g. The Paris Dakar Rally was won twice, too using the 911 derived Porsche 959 Group B supercar. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. Jean-Pierre Nicolas even managed to win the 1978 Monte Carlo Rally with a private 911 SC. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. Porsche official team was only present in seldom occasion in Rally, but the best private 911s were often close to other brand works car. 1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. The various version versions of the 911 also proved to be serious competitor in Rally as long as the regulations allowed them to compete.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes. Recently, 996-generation 911 GT3s have dominated their class at Le Mans and similar endurance and GT races. In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there. Many Porsche race cars are run successfully by customer teams, financed and run without any factory support - often they have beaten the factory itself. Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess". The Porsche 917 is considered one of the most iconic sports racing cars of all time and gave Porsche their first Le Mans win while the Group C Porsche 956/962C is one of the most successful sports prototype racers ever produced. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". Also, they did well in the Mille Miglia and especially 24 hours of Le Mans where they have won 16 times overall (more than any other company), plus many class wins.

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. Particular success has been in sports car racing, notably the Carrera Panamericana and Targa Florio, races which were later used in the naming of street cars. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire). As Porsche offered only small capacity cars in the 1950s and 1960s, they scored many wins in their classes, and occasionally also overall victories against bigger cars. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Porsche has been successful in many branches of motor-racing, scoring a total of more than 23,000 victories. This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. In early October 2005 the company announced acquisition of an 18.53% stake in Volkswagen AG and disclosed intentions to acquire additional VW shares in the future.

Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe. As of 2005, the extended Porsche and Piech families controlled all of Porsche AG's voting shares. Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. In 2004, production of the Porsche Carrera GT commenced in Leipzig, and at EUR 450,000.00 it is the most expensive production model Porsche ever built. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Porsche's 2002 introduction of the Cayenne also marked the unveiling of a new production facility in Leipzig, Saxony, which today accounts for nearly half of Porsche's annual output. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. With half of all voting shares, he also remains the largest individual shareholder of Porsche AG.

Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. Ferdinand Porsche's grandson, Ferdinand Piëch, was chairman and CEO of the Volkswagen Group from 1993 to 2002. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Porsche hired Toyota to assist in Japanese production methods, Toyota are also assisting Porshce with Hybrid technology. The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. Both Audi and Škoda are wholly-owned subsidiaries of VW. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees. The Porsche Cayenne, introduced in 2002, shares the entire body with VW Touareg, which are built at the Škoda factory in Bratislava.

The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. Most 944 were also done there even though they used many fewer VW components. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The two companies collaborated in 1969 to make the VW-Porsche 914 and 914-6, in 1976 with the Porsche 924, which used many Audi components and was built at an Audi Neckarsulm factory. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. The company has always had a close relationship with Volkswagen, and as already mentioned, the first Porsche cars used many Volkswagen components. When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. A cost-reduced model with the same body but 356-derived running gear (including its four-cylinder engine) was sold as the 912.

Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. It remains in production; however, after several generations of revision, current-model 911s share only the basic mechanical concept of a rear-engined, six=cylinder coupe, and basic styling cues with the original car. Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Far more than any other model, the Porsche brand is defined by the 911. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe. The car has become their most well-known model, successful on the race-track, in rallies, and in terms of sales. Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. In 1963, after some success in motor-racing (namely with the Porsche 550 Spyder), the company launched the Porsche 911, another air-cooled, rear-engined sports car, this time with a 6-cylinder "boxer" engine.

The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. The sleek bodywork was designed by Erwin Komenda who had also designed the body of the Beetle. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The last 356s were powered by 100% Porsche designed engines. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. However, the 356 had several evolutions while in production and many VW parts were replaced by Porsche-made parts. The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. Again, the car used components from the Beetle including its engine, gearbox and suspension.

Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf. Ferdinand Porsche worked with his son Ferry Porsche in designing the 356 but died soon after the first prototype was built. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Many people regard the 356 as the first Porsche simply because it was the first model sold by the fledgling company. Parnassus. The second Porsche model, the Porsche 356 sports car of 1948, was initially built in Gmünd, Austria, where the company was evacuated to during war times, but after building 49 cars the company relocated back to Zuffenhausen. Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. The first Porsche, the Porsche 64 from 1938, used many components from the Volkswagen Beetle.

. . 61, 84).
. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. Porsche's main competition is derived from Jaguar, BMW, Maserati, Aston Martin and arguably Mercedes-Benz. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. Porsche also helped Harley-Davidson design their new engine in their newer V-Rod motorcycle.

Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. Studebaker, SEAT, Daewoo, Subaru and Yugo have consulted Porsche on engineering for their cars or engines. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Porsche has for many years offered consultancy services to various other car manufacturers. Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. Some Boxster and Cayman production is outsourced to Valmet Automotive in Finland. Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985. The headquarters and main factory are still at Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen, but for the Cayenne and Carrera GT there is a new plant at Leipzig, in the east of Germany.

The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi". As a company, Porsche is known for weathering changing market conditions with great financial stability, while retaining most production in Germany during an age when most other German car manufacturers have moved at least partly to Eastern Europe or overseas. Geology of Delphi. Future plans include a high performance luxury sedan. John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001. The current Porsche lineup includes everything from an entry-level roadster (Boxster) to a Supercar (Carrera GT). Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003. Porsche has a reputation for producing high-end sports vehicles that, despite their high performance, are reliable and tractable enough to be used for daily driving, and of high manufacturing quality and durability.

John R. The company is located in Zuffenhausen, a city district of Stuttgart. "The Delphic oracle". Porsche AG), pronounced as a two syllable word (porsh-uh, IPA: pɔrʃʌ) , is a German manufacturer of sports cars, founded in 1931 by Ferdinand Porsche, the engineer who created the first Volkswagen. Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle". F. Livius Picture Archive: Delphi. c.

Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls". h. C. Ing. Delphi (in Greek). Porsche (Dr. Delphi guide. The correct pronunciation of 'Porsche'.

The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding. Porsche E2. Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi. Porsche Carrera GT Concept. Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek). Porsche Boxster Concept. Porsche Varrera.

Porsche 989. Porsche Panamericana. Porsche 969. Porsche 942.

Porsche 959 Prototype. Porsche 916 (flat-6 914). Porsche 901 (911 prototype). Porsche 695 (911 prototype).

Porsche 356/1. Porsche 114. Porsche 911 (Racing versions). Porsche RS Spyder.

Porsche 911 GT1. TWR-Porsche of Joest Racing. Porsche 966. Porsche Indy March (89P and 90P).

Porsche 961. Porsche 959 (Rally). Porsche 944 (Racing versions). Porsche 956/962C.

Porsche 954. Porsche 924 (Racing versions). Porsche 936. Porsche 935.

Porsche 934. Porsche 917. Porsche 910. Porsche 909 (Bergspyder).

Porsche 908. Porsche 907. Porsche 906 (Carrera 6). Porsche 904.

Porsche W-RS (Spyder). Porsche 804 F1. Porsche 718 F2. Porsche 718 RSK.

Porsche 550. Porsche 360 (Cisitalia). Porsche 64. Porsche Panamera.

Porsche Cayman. Porsche Carrera GT. Porsche 959 (911 based Group B supercar). Porsche Cayenne.

Porsche Boxster (986 and 987). Porsche 968. Porsche 951 (944 Turbo). Porsche 944

    .

    Porsche 928. Porsche 931 (924 Turbo). Porsche 924

      . Porsche 912E (1976 USA model only).

      Porsche 914 and 914-6. Porsche 912 (1.6-liter 911). Porsche 997 (From 2005). Porsche 996 (1998 - 2005).

      Porsche 993 (1994 - 1998). Porsche 965 (964 Turbo). Porsche 964 (1989-1994)

        . Porsche 930 (1975-1989 911 Turbo).

        Porsche 911

          . Porsche 550 Spyder. Porsche 356. Porsche AP16.

          Porsche R22. Porsche 108F. Porsche 312. Porsche Master (50 hp).

          Porsche Super (38 hp). Porsche Standard (25 hp). Porsche Junior (14 hp). Porsche AP Series.

          Porsche Type 110. 2 Paris-Dakar Rallye (1984, 1986). 4 Rallye Monte Carlo (1968, 1969, 1970, 1978). 11 Targa Florio (1956, 1959, 1960, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1973).

          17 Sebring 12 Hour (1960, 1968, 1971, 1973, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988). 16 Le Mans 24 Hour (1970, 1971, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998). 15 IMSA Supercar-Race (USA). 20 Daytona 24 Hour (1968, 1970, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1991, 1995, 2003).

          26 Formula 1 victories (1962, 1 win; 1984, 12 wins; 1985, 6 wins; 1986, 4 wins; 1987, 3 wins). 2 Formula 1 Constructor World Championship (1984, 1985). 3 Formula 1 Driver World Championship (1984, 1985, 1986). 20 European Hill Climbing Championship.

          6 German Racing Championship (1977, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985). 3 IMSA Supercar-Series (1991, 1992, 1993). 8 Long Distance World Championship. 14 Makes and Team World Championship (1964, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1994).

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