Delphi

The theatre, seen from above

Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. 61, 84).

Location

Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Parnassus. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf.

Apollo

The Temple of Apollo, seen from below View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. The stone steps on the right were added under the Romans.

The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back.

Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe.

Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias.

When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees.

The Pythian Games comprised a chariot race, thus this magnificent statue, the Charioteer of Delphi.

Oracle

The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe.

This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire).

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess".

In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes.

The Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon

Footnote

1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. 707; see e.g. here for a popular science coverage)

Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves.

Treasuries

From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury.

Tholos

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs.

Modern Delphi

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Delphi

General

  • Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek)
  • Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi
  • The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding
  • Delphi guide
  • Delphi (in Greek)
  • C. Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls"
  • Livius Picture Archive: Delphi
  • Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle"
  • "The Delphic oracle"

Geology of Delphi

  • John R. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003
  • John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001
  • Geology of Delphi
  • The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi"

Reference

  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.

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The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa. The biggest foreign exchange trading centre is London, followed by New York and Tokyo. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The Bank for International Settlements reported that global foreign exchange market turnover daily averages in April was $650 billion in 1998 (at constant exchange rates) and increased to $1.9 trillion in 2004 (Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and Derivatives Market Activity 2004 - Final Results). The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. The foreign exchange markets are usually highly liquid as the world's main international banks provide a market around-the-clock. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. The spot market represents current exchange rates, whereas options are derivatives of exchange rates.

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. Currencies can be traded at spot and foreign exchange options markets. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs. Like the stock exchange, money can be made or lost on the foreign exchange market by investors and speculators buying and selling at the right times. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. When China announced plans for its first manned space mission, synthetic futures on Chinese yuan jumped (since China's currency is officially pegged, synthetic markets have emerged that can behave as if the yuan was floating). It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. For example, when Russian President Vladimir Putin dismissed his Government on February 24, 2004, the price of the Ruble dropped.

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. A currency will tend to lose value, relative to other currencies, if the country's level of inflation is relatively higher, if the country's level of output is expected to decline, or if a country is troubled by political uncertainty. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury. Most people will not be interested in a currency if they think it will devalue. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. In choosing what type of asset to hold, people are also concerned that the asset will retain its value in the future. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. It has been argued that currency speculation can undermine real economic growth, in particular since large currency speculators may deliberately create downward pressure on a currency in order to force that central bank to sell their currency to keep it stable (once this happens, the speculator can buy the currency back from the bank at a lower price, close out their position, and thereby take a profit).

These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The higher a country's interest rates, the greater the demand for that currency. From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. An investor may choose to buy a currency if the return (that is the interest rate) is high enough. Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves. The speculative demand for money is much harder for a central bank to accommodate but they try to do this by adjusting interest rates. here for a popular science coverage). Central banks typically have little difficulty adjusting the available money supply to accommodate changes in the demand for money due to business transactions.

707; see e.g. The more people there are out of work, the less the public as a whole will spend on goods and services. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. The transaction demand for money is highly correlated to the country's level of business activity, gross domestic product (GDP), and employment levels. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. Increased demand for a currency is due to either an increased transaction demand for money, or an increased speculative demand for money. 1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. It will become less valuable whenever demand is less than available supply (this does not mean people no longer want money, it just means they prefer holding their wealth in some other form, possibly another currency).

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes. A currency will tend to become more valuable whenever demand for it is greater than the available supply. In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there. A market based exchange rate will change whenever the values of either of the two component currencies change. Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess". For example, in 1983 the Hong Kong dollar was linked to the United States dollar. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". If the value of the currency is "pegged" its value is maintained by the government; in question at a fixed rate relative to the other currency.

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. Exchange rates for such currencies are likely to change almost constantly as quoted on financial markets, mainly by banks, around the world. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire). If a currency is free-floating, its exchange rate is allowed to vary against that of other currencies. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Conversely if the price currency is strengthening, the exchange rate number decreases and the unit currency is depreciating. This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. Note that, using direct quotation, if a unit currency is strengthening (i.e., appreciating, or becoming more valuable) then the exchange rate number increases.

Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe. Quotes using a country's home currency as the unit currency (e.g., $1.4368 = £1) are known as indirect quotation or quantity quotation and are used in British newspapers and are also common in Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Quotes using a country's home currency as the price currency (e.g., £0.6960 = $1) are known as direct quotation or price quotation (from that country's perspective) ([1]) and are used by most countries. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". For example, in a quotation that says the EUR-USD exchange rate is 1.2 USD per EUR, the price currency is USD and the unit currency is EUR. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. An exchange rate quotation is given by stating the number of units of a price currency that can be bought in terms of 1 unit currency.

Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. By some estimates, about USD 2 trillion worth of currency changes hands every day. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. The foreign exchange market is one of the largest markets in the world. The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. For example an exchange rate of 120 Japanese yen (JPY, ¥) to the United States dollar (USD, $) means that JPY 120 is worth the same as USD 1. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees. In finance, the exchange rate (also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate) between two currencies specifies how much one currency is worth in terms of the other.

The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. . Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. In cases where tariffs become an issue, this would be less the case. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. For example, say the price of a good increases 10% in the UK, and there is also a 10% appreciation in the Japanese currency against the UK currency, the price of the good remains constant for someone in Japan despite increase in price for people in the UK. When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. The real exchange rate is the rate at which an organization can trade goods and services of one country for those of another.

Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. The nominal exchange rate is the rate at which an organization can trade the currency of one country for the currency of another. Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. indirect quotation: Foreign Currency / Home Currency. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe. direct quotation: Home Currency / Foreign Currency. Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him.

The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site.

Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Parnassus. Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt.

. 61, 84). After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned.

Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.

The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi". Geology of Delphi. John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003.

John R. "The Delphic oracle". Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle". Livius Picture Archive: Delphi.

Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls". C. Delphi (in Greek). Delphi guide.

The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding. Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi. Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek).

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