Delphi

The theatre, seen from above

Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. 61, 84).

Location

Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Parnassus. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf.

Apollo

The Temple of Apollo, seen from below View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. The stone steps on the right were added under the Romans.

The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back.

Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe.

Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias.

When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees.

The Pythian Games comprised a chariot race, thus this magnificent statue, the Charioteer of Delphi.

Oracle

The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe.

This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire).

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess".

In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes.

The Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon

Footnote

1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. 707; see e.g. here for a popular science coverage)

Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves.

Treasuries

From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury.

Tholos

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs.

Modern Delphi

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Delphi

General

  • Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek)
  • Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi
  • The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding
  • Delphi guide
  • Delphi (in Greek)
  • C. Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls"
  • Livius Picture Archive: Delphi
  • Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle"
  • "The Delphic oracle"

Geology of Delphi

  • John R. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003
  • John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001
  • Geology of Delphi
  • The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi"

Reference

  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.

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The communities include Chrysso which in ancient times was Crissa. Using the pull of the wind, snowkiters are able to make massive jumps and travel uphill. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum and a square (plateia). The combination of kiteboarding technology with snowboarding has led to the creation of a new sport, snowkiting. The two main streets are each one-way and narrow. CRYSTAL (cookie) IS BEAUTIFUL !!!!. It is passed by a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. shralp! - Die aktuelle Snowboard-Wochenschau auf Deutsch.

The modern Delphi or Delfi or Delfoi is situated west of the archaeological site. Effective Edge TV - Video podcast that covers all aspects of snowboarding from music, resorts, and new products. Three of the Doric colums have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs. Hood, HCSC has been the world's leading summer camp since 1989. The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. High Cascade - Located on Mt. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diamater of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. Northeast Skiing Video Podcast - Video podcast about skiing in the Northeast of the US.

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 B.C. Ridertech.com - Skiing and snowboarding video blog from the Pacific Northwest. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, who had ammassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury. Snowflix - Your video iPod-ready weekly snow fix from the Alps. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" – taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Regularly updated video content that is available for download via any aggregator. The most impressive is the now-restored Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. SNOWBOAD YA BABY.

These were built by the various states – those overseas as well as those on the mainland – to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for advice important to those victories. On December 2, 2005, a feature film was released called "First Descent", which documented the history of the sport as well as its modern day stars. From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, is a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. Production companies work all year developing these videos. Other archaeologists believe that the oracle also inhaled fumes of burning bay leaves. Each season, many different snowboard films are released, usually in September. here for a popular science coverage). Snowboard videos have become a huge part of the sport.

707; see e.g. It is almost certain that one of the origins of animosity is the average age disparity between skiiers and snowboarders. (de Boer et al., Geology 29 (2001) pp. Mitigating factors may include different blind spot locations for skiiers and boarders, different riding styles and different philosphies on what snow riding is about. However, recent geological research indicates that the site of the oracle shows young geological faults, and it seems plausible that these emitted in ancient times light hydrocarbon gases, possibly ethylene, from bituminous limestone which do have an intoxicating effect. There has been much debate as to the origins of the clash. 1 After investigating the site, archeologists were convinced that these vapours are only a myth, as no evidence for them could be found, and — so the then standard opinion in geology — gaseous emissions from rock only occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. The culture clash has shown significant signs of diminishing as more and more snow sport enthusiasts are choosing to snowboard and more parks/resorts are allowing it.

The temple to Apollo at Delphi was built by Trophonius and Agamedes. There is a known culture clash between skiers and snowboarders. In the 3rd century A.D., the oracle (perhaps bribed) declared that the god would no longer speak there. General safety tips for winter sports, alpine conditions and skiing should also be respected. Another famous motto of Delphi is Meden Agan (Μηδέν Άγαν): "nothing in excess". They can be useful for the many times that a snowboard rider may wish to rest on the knees, such as after coming to a stop. This claim is related to one of the most famous mottos of Delphi, which Socrates said he learned there, Gnothi Seauton (Γνώθι Σεαυτόν): "know thyself". For example, knee pads used for volleyball can be useful for snowboarding.

The oracle is also said to have proclaimed Socrates the wisest man in Greece, to which Socrates said that if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. Padding can be specialized for snowboarding, or it can cross sports. Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire). Padding can be useful on other body parts like hips, knees, spine and shoulders. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Useful safety gear includes wrist guards, padded or protected snowboard pants and a helmet. This oracle exerted considerable influence across the country, and was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. The body parts most affected by injuries are the wrists, the tailbone and the head.

Still others claimed the Sibyl received her powers from Gaia originally, who passed the oracle to Themis, who passed it to Phoebe. Wearing safety gear is highly recommended. Others said she was sister or daughter to Apollo. As students progress in ability they can seek out specialized instruction in areas such as terrain park skills (jumps, rails, and pipes), mogul technique, off-piste riding, powder riding, and racing. Pausanias claimed that the Sibyl was "born between man and goddess, daughter of sea monsters and an immortal nymph". More advanced techniques that are taught in later lessons are linking turns, edge control, weight distribution, edge pressure, and eventually carving. The Sibyl sat on the Sibylline Rock, breathing in vapors from the ground1 and gaining her often puzzling predictions from that. Other important beginner skills to learn are the falling leaf technique, side-slipping, and lift procedures.

Later, "Sibyl" became a title given to whichever priestess manned the oracle at the time. Then students learn how to turn and stop with both feet in. She sang her predictions, which she received from Gaia. The first lesson often begins with basic safety policies, stretching, and learning to fall, then progresses to snowboarding with one foot on the board (particularly skating and J-turns). The first oracle at Delphi was commonly known as Sibyl or Pythia, though her name was Herophile. Typically, beginner snowboard lessons focus on very basic, common snowboarding skills. The oracle at that time predicted the future based on the lapping water and leaves rustling in the trees. The rapport developed between an instructor and a student who returns for multiple lessons is the real benefit derived from private lessons; one is taught better by a teacher who knows them, and a student is more likely to heed the advice of someone they trust.

The shrine dedicated to Apollo was probably originally dedicated to Gaia and then Poseidon. Private lessons are often far more expensive than group, as it is the snowboarding analogue of being privately tutored. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. Private lessons can be taught one-on-one or between a small group. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Group lessons are often cheaper, but often have a high student-teacher ratio, resulting in less individual attention. When young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, which lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. Snowboard lessons, as with ski lessons, can either be group or private lessons.

Even in Roman times hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. Professional instruction is a good way to learn proper technique, safety policies, mountain etiquette and resort rules. Delphi was the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and a famous oracle. Snowboard instruction is available at almost every ski resort from certified snowboard instructors. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a laurel wreath picked in Tempe. For a more detailed description, see Board construction. Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him. The various components of a snowboard are:.

The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo Εις Απόλλωνα Πύθιον, 400), telling how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. Courses in avalanche safety are also available. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". Avalanche equipment can be purchased or rented at outdoor equipment stores. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. Backcountry riders are advised to take extreme caution in all conditions, to carry avalanche equipment including a probe, beacon, and shovel, and never to ride alone in the backcountry. The name Delphoi is connected with δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of an Earth Goddess at the site. Snow can be extremely unstable, often leading to avalanches.

Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf. Safety is key when hiking and riding in the backcountry, especially after a fresh 'dump' of powder. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades; it overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Often snowboarders use snowmobiles to make jumps into the powder. Parnassus. If the hill is too steep a snowmobile may not make it up the hill. Delphi is located in a plateau on the side of Mt. Snowboarders also use snowmobiles to ride in the backcountry.

. Those that don't make use of the split-board will usually strap their board to their back and hike with snowshoes. 61, 84). At the top of the run, the halves are recombined, and the bindings rotated back into their sideways positions. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi (Burkert, 1985, pp. When apart, the two halves can be used like cross-country skis to shuffle up the hill. In the inner εστία (hestia), or hearth, of the Temple of Delphic Apollo (Απόλλων Δελφίνιος - Apollon Delphinios), an άσβεστος φλόγα (eternal flame) burned. The split-board is exactly that, a snowboard cut right down the middle.

Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the ομφαλός (omphalos) stone, the centre of the universe. Some of those more cash-endowed riders can even hire snowcats or helicopters to take them where they want to go; this is known as catboarding or heliboarding respectively. In ancient times it was the site of the Delphic Sibyl, dedicated to the god Apollo. Donning snowshoes or a split-board with skins, the backcountry snowboarder cuts a new path up the side of the mountain in search of the very best vistas and untouched snow. Delphi (Greek Δελφοί - Delphoi; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece. Today, backcountry snowboarding is often for those who have enough cash to afford trips to Alaska or the mountain ranges of the West, to ride outside resorts. Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985. In fact, before snowboarding was allowed at resorts, this was the only form of snowboarding; Jake Burton, one of the original pioneers of snowboarding, never even considered resorts; backcountry was what he envisioned as the future of snowboarding.

The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi". This type of boarding started out with fresh powder-craving snowboarders who, most likely, didn't have the cash to spend at crowded upscale ski parks. Geology of Delphi.
. John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001. The only bad part of skiing or snowboarding in powder is that if you fall, sometimes it can be very difficult to get yourself out of the very deep powder snow. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003. Powder also makes for softer landings and reduced chances of injury compared to man made terrain parks, though landing in deep snow can take some practice.

John R. Powder makes for much smoother turns and in all smoother riding. "The Delphic oracle". In places where almost all of the runs are groomed, and powder is a rare find, you must venture into the tree trails. Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle". Generally colder climates sport the lightest, driest powder, and countries like Japan are becoming known as powder havens. Livius Picture Archive: Delphi. Even though it is hard to categorize areas in terms of powder, Powder on the east coast (USA) is generally not as common or as good as the powder on the west (USA).

Osborne , "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls". The bad thing about powder is that is if it sits for too long it gets compacted and becomes much harder and sometimes even icy. C. Powder is very famous for being the most fun and sometimes challenging ski and snowboarding, solely because it is so soft. Delphi (in Greek). Powder, which occurs after a heavy snowstorm, is a specific type of snow that is very light, fluffy, and most likely deep. Delphi guide. Alpine snowboarding is significantly less popular than other kinds of snowboarding, especially in the United States.

The Oracle of Delphi and Ancient Oracles, annotated guide edited by Tim Spalding. Short slalom boards with very short sidecut radii, for example, are alpine boards but can only be carved at slow speeds. Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi. In fact, the only real defining characteristic of alpine snowboarding is that alpine snowboarders turn often and very hard while engaging the board in a carve. Homepage of the modern municipality (in English or Greek). A common misconception is that alpine snowboarding necessitates riding very quickly or racing. (Hence riding a freestyle snowboard on groomed slopes is like riding a dirtbike on a road track or what is called SuperMoto).

An analogy made by some alpine enthusiasts is that freeride and freestyle snowboards are like dirt bikes, and alpine/carving snowboards are like road bikes. The hard plastic boots stiffens the ankle joint up significantly, making it more difficult to make small ankle adjustments while making skid turns, but making the board much more stable and powerful at higher speeds and the much higher g-forces typically felt by an alpine snowboarder in carved turns. Alpine boards are usually, but not always, longer and much stiffer than freeride boards, as the particular demands of carving usually require as much usable edge length as possible. They tend to angle their feet much more forward than other snowboarders, and so also ride narrower boards.

Alpine riders use hard plastic snowboarding boots, which resemble ski boots, except that they tend to be less stiff in the ankles and have a shortened heel, to minimize hanging over the edge of the snowboard. Both traditional snowboard racers (though not necessarily boardercross racers) and recreational carvers are alpine snowboarders. Alpine snowboarding is the practice of turning by carving the snowboard (such that the board is tracking along the edge of the board), as opposed to skidding the snowboard (where the board is traveling in a different direction than it is pointing). Many ski resorts operate terrain parks which often simulate the urban skateboard environment, complete with handrails, funboxes, and machine-formed jumps.

Freestyle snowboarding is influenced greatly by skateboarding. Freestyle snowboarding can be done almost anywhere that has snow. Most snowboarders are thrill seekers and love to do tricks in terrain parks, which has inherent risks. Freestyle is probably most demanded because of the thrill.

Freestyle snowboarding is arguably the most popular discipline, and is certainly the focus of most of the lifestyle marketing in the snowboarding industry. Softer boots and boards also allow riders more flexibility in body movement and the ability to reach very convoluted or stretched out, stylish body positions (known as tweaking it). This is important because many freestyle snowboarders are landing switch from how they hit their jumps or their tricks, and they need to be able to ride away with ease. Also, freestyle snowboards most likely have a true twin tip, in that the sidecut radius is equal on both sides of the board.

Freestyle snowboarders typically use shorter, softer boards and softer boots than other snowboarders, as the shorter board length reduces the weight and moment of inertia, making it easier to spin and maneuver, and the softer gear makes the board more forgiving to control for the particular demands of freestyle riding, such as slower speeds, high landing impacts, quick turns, and imperfect landings. spins, flips, grabs). jibbing, bonking, grinding, pressing, buttering, ground spins etc.) or in the air (e.g. Tricks can either occur on the ground (e.g.

Freestyle snowboarding is the practice of doing different kinds of tricks on a snowboard. Many freeride purists attach an almost spiritual connotation to carving down the mountain. Freeride snowboarding, where the focus is on riding cleanly and enjoying the freedom to go and explore anywhere is influenced significantly by surfing. A variant of freeriding focusing on extremely difficult lines is extreme snowboarding.

Freeriding is also known as all-mountain snowboarding. Most snowboarders aspire to be freeriders and will explore the mountain through trees, in powder bowls or anywhere else they feel comfortable riding. Freeriding is using the natural terrain of the mountain for recreation, without focusing on technical tricks or racing. There are four primary sub-disciplines or sub-styles within snowboarding with each favoring a slightly different snowboard design.

For more on the history of snowboarding, see this Snowboard History Timeline. It wasn't until the mid 1980s when snowboarding exploded into the main stream when the first snowboard magazine, "Absolutely Radical", hit the racks, soon to be followed by "International Snowboard Magazine". In the early 1980's films by Warren Miller began to feature clips of snowboarders boosting the popularity of the sport among the skiing community. Burton, Sims, Winterstick, and Avalanche snowboards originated from other parts of the country.

In the early 1980's, snowboard companies began emerging across the country. Jake Burton is the founder of Burton Snowboards, one of the largest, and most established snowboard companies in the world. The snowboard evolved from early pioneering work by people such as Sherman Poppen (who invented the "Snurfer" in his North Muskegon, Michigan home), Tom Sims, and Jake Burton. .


. These events are hosted by various winter resorts in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Open Snowboarding Championships and the Winter X-Games. Other events that focus on snowboarding are the annual European and U.S.

Snowboarding became a Winter Olympic Games medal-eligible sport in 1998. A snowboarder's equipment consists of a snowboard, snowboarding boots, bindings to attach their boots to the board, as well as snowboarding-specific winter clothing. Snowboarding is an increasingly common winter sport throughout the world where participants attach a wooden board to their feet and slide down a snow-covered mountain. Snowboarding is a boardsport on snow similar to skiing, but inspired by surfing and skateboarding.

This construction feature is not included in all board designs. there is also the "dgb" which is wood that goes in different directions over the core of the board to increase control. Kinking, rusting, or general dulling of the edge will significantly hinder the ability for the edge to grip the snow, so it is important that this feature is maintained. This sharp edge is necessary to be able to produce enough friction to ride on ice, and the radius of the edge directly affects the radius of carving turns, and in turn the responsiveness of the board.

an edge: a strip of metal, tuned normally to just less than 90-degrees, that runs the length of either side of the board. If the base becomes significantly damaged, the board may become sluggish, or if the damage is deep enough, it may even weaken the core. If the board is damaged, a new base pattern can be stone-ground into the board. For this reason, different base waxes are available for different snow conditions.

Because the base of the board comprises the bulk of the board's interaction with the snow, it is important that it be as slippery with respect to the snow as possible. a base: this is the bottom of the board which is made of a graphitic material that is saturated with a wax that creates a very quick smooth, hydrophobic surface. The properties of the core directly affect important characteristics of the board, such as flexibility and weight. It is typically comprised of a solid material, normally either wood, foam, or some composite plastic.

a core: the bulk of a snowboard, the core is the interior of the snowboard.

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