Cingular Wireless

Cingular Wireless LLC is the largest United States mobile phone company, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Cingular operates a network of multiple technologies. The most widely used of these technologies is called Global Systems for Mobile, or GSM. On top of their GSM network they run a data network called GPRS (general packet radio service) and an upgrade for faster speeds called EDGE (enhanced data rates for global evolution). Cingular supports their legacy networks of TDMA and Analog. Former networks include various paging services and the Cingular Interactive division that became Velocita Wireless.


History

Cingular Wireless was formed in 2001 as a joint venture of SBC (now AT&T) and BellSouth. The joint venture created the nations second largest carrier. Cingular grew out of a conglomeration of 11 regional companies. these companies include BellSouth Mobility, BellSouth Mobility DCS, Cellular One, Houston Cellular, BellSouth Wireless Data, Southwestern Bell, Pacific Bell, Nevada Bell, Ameritech Cellular, SNET and SBC Wireless. With the exception of Pacific Bell and BellSouth Mobility DCS, the digital network consisted of TDMA Technology. The Pacific Bell and BellSouth Mobility DCS networks used GSM technology on the PCS frequency (1900 Mhz). In 2002 Cingular began an initiative called "Project Genesis" which the code name for the GSM/GPRS overlay of the entire network. Project Genesis was completed by the end of 2004.

AT&T Wireless merger

After a bidding war with Britain's Vodefone PLC, Cingular announced in February, 2004 that they would purchase AT&T Wireless for 41 Billion dollars. The merger was completed on October 16, 2004. The combined company had a customer base of 46 million people which placed Cingular as the largest wireless provider in the United States.

Universal Telephone Service UMTS high-speed network known as "BroadbandConnect", the first to utilize High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSPDA), to counter Verizon's EV-DO network. UMTS was launched on December 6, 2005 in Seattle, Portland, San Fransico, Salt Lake City, San Jose, San Diego, Las Vegas, Phoenix, Austin, Houston, Dallas, Chicago, Boston, Baltimore and Washington D.C. Cingular is expected to launch UMTS in all major metropolitan areas by the end of 2006.


The Cingular Wireless logo prior to the acquisition of AT&T Wireless, which is still used in some contexts.


GSM Facilities

In California, Nevada, northern New Jersey and New York City, Cingular and T-Mobile USA maintained and shared a GSM-1900 network prior to the acquisition of AT&T Wireless, through a joint venture known as GSM Facilities. The network sharing agreement allowed Cingular to offer local service in northern New Jersey and New York City and T-Mobile to offer service in California and Nevada. On May 25, 2004, Cingular and T-Mobile USA announced their intention to dissolve the agreement contingent on Cingular's successful acquisition of AT&T Wireless.

First announced on June 23, 2005 Cingular Wireless announced the intention to divest its Caribbean and Bermuda operations and licenses which it acquired from the acquisition of AT&T Wireless, to Bermuda-based Digcel Group under undisclosed financial terms. [1], [2], [3], [4]

Cingular outsources some of their Customer Care to companies in Canada and overseas.

On August 25, Cingular was removed from the New York Better Business Bureau because of a large number of complaints that were not handled in a timely manner. The company is in the process of restructuring its customer care procedures and has appealed the decision.[5] It remains a member of the BBB in other states in which it operates.

In 2004, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) reported logging more than 14,000 complaints (or 289 per million subscribers) against Cingular Wireless. The most common of which included number portability issues, over billing, poor customer support and network reliability.

Possible Name Change

On 20 November 2005, Ed Whitacre, CEO of the newly-merged SBC/AT&T, announced plans to market the service under the AT&T banner. [6] BellSouth spokesman Jeff Battcher countered that the terms of the joint venture allow either party to sell the service under another name, and that he believes they will be using the brand to market to business customers. [7] Cingular president Stan Sigman concurred with BellSouth's position, indicating that the Cingular brand would continue but be sold under the AT&T brand where offered in packages with other AT&T services, such as data and wireline telephony.

Adelante

Recently, Cingular has launched a new ad campaign "Adelante". In Spanish it means literally "forward". It is aimed at the Hispanic and Spanish speaking communities in the US to boost sales and consists of newspaper ads, commercials, and magazine ads. Also, part of "Adelante" is to now start offering bilingual support at its stores for English and Spanish.

Trivia

  • In 2005, Communications Workers of America, the union which represents over half of Cingular's employees, specifically recognized Cingular for excellence as a union employer, in direct contrast to competitor Verizon, which CWA singled out as an aggressive union-buster.
  • A sales boost is expected following January 2006, when RadioShack (the top wireless retailer in the US) will no longer sell Verizon phones and instead will sell Cingular phones.
  • Cingular Wireless is the wireless carrier of the street racers in Electronic Arts' street racing video games Need for Speed Underground 2 and Need for Speed: Most Wanted. It is used to receive SMS messages from other racers.



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. At some time in the future, it will undoubtedly erupt violently again. Also, part of "Adelante" is to now start offering bilingual support at its stores for English and Spanish. Santorini was also struck by a devastating earthquake in 1956. It is aimed at the Hispanic and Spanish speaking communities in the US to boost sales and consists of newspaper ads, commercials, and magazine ads. In 1704 an undersea volcano breached the sea surface forming the current centre of activity at Nea Kameni, and eruptions centred on it continue—three times in the twentieth century, the last being in 1950. In Spanish it means literally "forward". Also unique is the red, sweet and extremely strong Vinsanto.

Recently, Cingular has launched a new ad campaign "Adelante". They are trained in the shape of baskets, with the grapes hanging inside to protect them from the winds. [7] Cingular president Stan Sigman concurred with BellSouth's position, indicating that the Cingular brand would continue but be sold under the AT&T brand where offered in packages with other AT&T services, such as data and wireline telephony. They are adopted to their native habitat by being planted far apart and their principal source of moisture is dew. [6] BellSouth spokesman Jeff Battcher countered that the terms of the joint venture allow either party to sell the service under another name, and that he believes they will be using the brand to market to business customers. Assyrtiko vines are extremely old, as they are resistant to phylloxera and have consequently not needed to be replaced during the great phylloxera epidemic of the early 20th century. On 20 November 2005, Ed Whitacre, CEO of the newly-merged SBC/AT&T, announced plans to market the service under the AT&T banner. Santorini is home to a small but flourishing wine industry, based on the indigenous grape variety, Assyrtiko.

The most common of which included number portability issues, over billing, poor customer support and network reliability. The pumice quarries have been closed since 1986 in order to preserve the caldera of Santorini. In 2004, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) reported logging more than 14,000 complaints (or 289 per million subscribers) against Cingular Wireless. The primary industry of Santorini is tourism. The company is in the process of restructuring its customer care procedures and has appealed the decision.[5] It remains a member of the BBB in other states in which it operates. Nowadays, there is a desalination plant that provides running, yet nonpotable, water to most houses. On August 25, Cingular was removed from the New York Better Business Bureau because of a large number of complaints that were not handled in a timely manner. Until the early nineties locals used to fill water cisterns from the rain that fell on their roofs and courts, from small springs as well as by importing it from other areas of Greece.

Cingular outsources some of their Customer Care to companies in Canada and overseas. The island has no rivers and water is scarce. [1], [2], [3], [4]. Akrotiri is a major archaeological site with ruins from the Minoan era. First announced on June 23, 2005 Cingular Wireless announced the intention to divest its Caribbean and Bermuda operations and licenses which it acquired from the acquisition of AT&T Wireless, to Bermuda-based Digcel Group under undisclosed financial terms. Major settlements in Santorini include Fira (Phira), Oia, Emporio, Kamari, Imerovigli, Pyrgos and Therasia. On May 25, 2004, Cingular and T-Mobile USA announced their intention to dissolve the agreement contingent on Cingular's successful acquisition of AT&T Wireless. Santorini was annexed to Greece in 1912.

The network sharing agreement allowed Cingular to offer local service in northern New Jersey and New York City and T-Mobile to offer service in California and Nevada. The island came under Ottoman rule in 1579.
. In California, Nevada, northern New Jersey and New York City, Cingular and T-Mobile USA maintained and shared a GSM-1900 network prior to the acquisition of AT&T Wireless, through a joint venture known as GSM Facilities. As with other Greek territories, Santorini then was ruled by the Romans, the Byzantines, and the Franks. GSM Facilities. According to Herodotus (4.149-165), following a drought of seven years, Thera sent out colonists who founded a number of cities in northern Africa, including Cyrene.
. Thera, the main Hellenic city of the island, on Mesa Vouno, 396 m above sea level was founded in the 9th century BC by Dorian colonists whose leader was Theras, according to tradition, and continued to be inhabited until the early Byzantine period.


. Over the following centuries, first Phoenicians, then Dorians, came to control the island. Cingular is expected to launch UMTS in all major metropolitan areas by the end of 2006. 1450 BC. UMTS was launched on December 6, 2005 in Seattle, Portland, San Fransico, Salt Lake City, San Jose, San Diego, Las Vegas, Phoenix, Austin, Houston, Dallas, Chicago, Boston, Baltimore and Washington D.C. These significantly smaller values would make Atlantis the size of Crete's Messara Plain and the fall of the Atlantis c. Universal Telephone Service UMTS high-speed network known as "BroadbandConnect", the first to utilize High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSPDA), to counter Verizon's EV-DO network. Galanopoulos argue that the error in date and size could be caused by a mistranscription of the Ancient Egyptian or Mycenaean Linear B symbol for "hundred" as "thousand" (the former is unlikely because there would be little confusion in the visual appearance of hieroglyphic symbols of Egyptian numeric values).

The combined company had a customer base of 46 million people which placed Cingular as the largest wireless provider in the United States. G. The merger was completed on October 16, 2004. Scholars such as James Luce and A. After a bidding war with Britain's Vodefone PLC, Cingular announced in February, 2004 that they would purchase AT&T Wireless for 41 Billion dollars. Detractors of the theory say that Santorini and Crete combined would not be the size of Plato's Atlantis, and the date of the Minoan collapse does not match Plato's dates for the fall of Atlantis. AT&T Wireless merger. Starting with Spyridon Marinatos' 1939 landmark paper, this cataclysm at Santorini and its possibility to have caused the fall of the Minoan Civilization centered on Crete is sometimes regarded as a likely source or inspiration for Plato's story of Atlantis.

Project Genesis was completed by the end of 2004. Suggestions have also been made that the eruption of Thera and volcanic fallout inspired myths of the Titanomachy in Hesiod's Theogony and calamities of the Admonitions of Ipuwer of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. In 2002 Cingular began an initiative called "Project Genesis" which the code name for the GSM/GPRS overlay of the entire network. Santorini ash deposits were at one time claimed to have been found in the Nile delta, but this is now known to be a misidentification [5]. The Pacific Bell and BellSouth Mobility DCS networks used GSM technology on the PCS frequency (1900 Mhz). Oddly, there seem to be no surviving Egyptian records of the eruption. With the exception of Pacific Bell and BellSouth Mobility DCS, the digital network consisted of TDMA Technology. Per the Bamboo Annals, the collapse of the dynasty and the rise of the Shang dynasty (independently approximated to 1618 BC) was accompanied by "'yellow fog, a dim sun, then three suns, frost in July, famine, and the withering of all five cereals".

these companies include BellSouth Mobility, BellSouth Mobility DCS, Cellular One, Houston Cellular, BellSouth Wireless Data, Southwestern Bell, Pacific Bell, Nevada Bell, Ameritech Cellular, SNET and SBC Wireless. Some scientists correlate a volcanic winter from the Minoan eruption with Chinese records documenting the collapse of the Xia dynasty in China. Cingular grew out of a conglomeration of 11 regional companies. It is still hoped, though, that Santorini ash might be found in another layer of the ice core, which would fix the date of the eruption. The joint venture created the nations second largest carrier. While an eruption as large as Thera can leave signals in tree rings and ice cores, the absence of such a signal does not mean the absence of an eruption. Cingular Wireless was formed in 2001 as a joint venture of SBC (now AT&T) and BellSouth. At the present time no hard evidence linking or refuting the 1628 BC tree-ring date with Thera has been found.

. However, no firm evidence links these two events and, while unlikely but plausible, the two signals could be separate events.
. Tree ring data shows that a large event interfering with normal tree growth occurred in 1629-1628 BC, which may be the same event as the 1644 BC signal in the Greenland ice cores. Former networks include various paging services and the Cingular Interactive division that became Velocita Wireless. Volcanic ash was retrieved from an ice core, and this was shown not to be from Santorini[4]; so the 1644 BC date is incorrect. Cingular supports their legacy networks of TDMA and Analog. A large eruption, identified in ice cores and dated to 1644 +/- 20 BC years was suspected to be Santorini.

On top of their GSM network they run a data network called GPRS (general packet radio service) and an upgrade for faster speeds called EDGE (enhanced data rates for global evolution). It has long been hoped that information from Greenland ice cores would determine the date exactly. The most widely used of these technologies is called Global Systems for Mobile, or GSM. The debate about the date continues. Cingular operates a network of multiple technologies. Re-scaling archaeological chronologies is controversial, because revising the Aegean Bronze Age chronology could require, by association, revising the well-established conventional Egyptian chronology. Cingular Wireless LLC is the largest United States mobile phone company, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Others look for a compromise between the archaeological and radiocarbon dates for best fits of both sets of data.

It is used to receive SMS messages from other racers. Some suggest re-scaling archaeological chronologies with the radiocarbon dates. Cingular Wireless is the wireless carrier of the street racers in Electronic Arts' street racing video games Need for Speed Underground 2 and Need for Speed: Most Wanted. Some scholars believe the radiocarbon dates to be completely wrong. A sales boost is expected following January 2006, when RadioShack (the top wireless retailer in the US) will no longer sell Verizon phones and instead will sell Cingular phones. These dates, however, conflict with the usual date from archaeology, which is between about 1500 BC and 1450 BC. In 2005, Communications Workers of America, the union which represents over half of Cingular's employees, specifically recognized Cingular for excellence as a union employer, in direct contrast to competitor Verizon, which CWA singled out as an aggressive union-buster. Current opinion based on radiocarbon dating indicates that the eruption occurred between about 1650 and 1600 BC.

The Minoan eruption provides a fixed point for aligning the entire chronology of the 2nd millennium in the Aegean, because evidence of the eruption occurs throughout the region; however, its exact date is unknown. (The VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) of the Thera eruption was thus about 6.) Every vestige of life is likely to have been eliminated or smothered in the Thera ashfall, leaving an island that had essentially been sterilized, as was Krakatau. The volume of ejecta is estimated to have been up to four times what was blown into the stratosphere by Krakatau in 1883, a well-recorded event. (Ash found in Crete is now known to have been from a precursory phase of the eruption, some weeks or months before the main eruptive phases, and would have had little impact [3].).

Ash layers in cores drilled from the seabed and from lakes in Turkey, though, show that the heaviest ashfall was towards the east and northeast of Santorini. Elsewhere in the Mediterranean there are pumice deposits that could be caused by the Thera eruption [2]. On the island of Anaphi, 27 km to the east, ash layers 10 feet deep have been found, as well as pumice layers on slopes 250 meters above sea level. The tsunami would also certainly have eliminated every timber of the Minoan fleet along Crete's northern shore.

The impact of the tsunami pummelled coastal towns such as Amnisos, where building walls have been knocked out of alignment. The eruption also generated a 35 to 150 m high tsunami (estimates vary) that devastated the north coast of Crete, 110 km (70 mi) away. In a classic Plinian eruption marked by columns of smoke and ash extending high into the stratosphere, the Minoan eruption created a plume 30-35 km in height, and magma coming into contact with the shallow marine embayment would have caused a violent phreatic eruption. It remains to be seen if further excavations will show bodies of people huddled along the coast, too late to get off in a boat to escape the volcano's fury, akin to the finds at Herculaneum, which was buried by the much smaller eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD.

The thinness of the first ash layer and the likelihood of this layer being eroded by winter rains indicate that the volcano may have given warning at most months in advance and not years as previously believed [1]. (The single body found on Therasia has now been identified as a much earlier funerary burial). A series of warning earthquakes must have been alarming enough and early enough before the eruption for all the residents to pack up and move out, as not a single body has been found at the Akrotiri site. The layer is divided into three fairly distinct bands indicating different phases of the eruption.

On Santorini, there is a deposit of white tephra thrown from the eruption; it is up to 60 metres thick overlying the soil marking the ground level before the eruption. The eruption destroyed the sections of the ring between Aspronisi and Therasia, and between Therasia and Thera, creating two new channels. Before the Minoan eruption, the caldera formed a nearly continuous ring with the only entrance between the tiny island of Aspronisi and Thera. The northern part of the caldera was refilled by the volcano and then collapsed again during the Minoan eruption.

It has been filled several times by ignimbrite since then and the process repeated, most recently 21,000 years ago. The caldera itself was formed several hundred thousand years ago by collapse of the centre of a circular island caused by the emptying of the magma chamber during an eruption. The violent eruption was centred on a small island just north of the existing island of Nea Kameni in the centre of the caldera. It was one of the biggest volcanic eruptions on Earth in the last few thousand years.

The eruption would have caused a significant climate upset for the eastern Mediterranean region. The devastating volcanic eruption of Thira has become the most famous single event in the Aegean before the fall of Troy. Instead, the Minoan frescoes depict "Saffron-Gatherers", who offer their crocus-stamens to a seated lady, perhaps a goddess; in another house two antelopes, painted with a kind of confident, flowing decorative, calligraphic line; the famous fresco of a fisherman with his double strings of fish strung by their gills; the flotilla of pleasure boats, accompanied by leaping dolphins, where ladies take their ease in the shade of light canopies. Fragmentary wall-paintings at Akrotiri lack the insistent mythological content familiar in both Greek and Christian decor.

The hot water's origin was probably geothermic, given the volcano's proximity. The pipes run in twin systems, indicating that the Therans used both hot and cold water supplies. Pipes with running water and water closets found on Thera are the oldest such utilities discovered. The oldest signs of human settlement are Late Neolithic (4th millennium BC or earlier), but ca 2000–1650 BC Akrotiri developed into one of the Aegean's major Bronze Age ports, with recovered objects that had come not just from Crete but also from Anatolia, Cyprus, Syria and Egypt, from the Dodecanese and the Greek mainland.

A loom-workshop suggests organized textile weaving for export. The site was not a palace-complex such as are found in Crete, but its excellent masonry and fine wall-paintings show that this was no conglomeration of merchants' warehousing either. Only the southern tip of a large town has been uncovered, yet it has revealed complexes of multi-level buildings, streets and squares, with remains of walls standing as high as 8 meters, all entombed in the solidified ash of the famous eruption of Thera. The island was not called Thera at the time.

Spyridon Marinatos have made Thera the best-known "Minoan" site outside of Crete, the homeland of the culture. Excavations starting in 1967 at the site called Akrotiri under the late Prof. .
.

The eruption left a large caldera surrounded by volcanic ash deposits hundreds of feet deep, and its effects may have indirectly led to the collapse of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete, 110 km (70 mi) to the south. The island was the site of one of the largest volcanic eruptions of the last several thousand years when it erupted cataclysmically about 3,500 years ago. Before then it was called Kallisti, Strongili or Thera. The name Santorini was given to it by the Venetians in the 13th century and is a reference to Saint Irene.

It is the most active volcanic centre in the Aegean Arc, though what remains today is largely a caldera. It is the southernmost member of the Cyclades group of islands, with an area of approximately 73 km² (28 sq mi), and in 2001 had an estimated population of 13,600. It is also known by the name of the largest island in the archipelago, Thira or Thera (Θήρα; see also List of traditional Greek place names). Santorini (Greek Σαντορίνη) is a small, circular group of volcanic islands located in the Aegean Sea, about 200 km south-east from the mainland of Greece (latitude: 36.40°N - longitude: 25.40°E).

Thera (Santorin) - Catholic Encyclopedia article. 79-88. The Thera Foundation, London, p. (ed.) Thera and the Aegean World III, v.2.

A. In: Hardy, D. (1990) Precursory Activity to the Minoan Eruption, Thera, Greece. and McCoy, F.

^  Heiken, G. 4. (2004), Volcanic ash retrieved from the GRIP ice core is not from Thera, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, v. ^  Keenan D.J.

610. 363, p. (1993), Tephra from the Minoan eruption of Santorini in sediments of the Black Sea, Nature, v. et al.

^  Guichard F. (2003), Scientists Revisit an Aegean Eruption Far Worse Than Krakatoa, October 21, 2003, The New York Times. Broad, William J. A historical account of the eruption and its effects from a geological point of view with many drawings, figures and pictures.

McBirney (Translator): Fire in the Sea: Natural History and the Legend of Atlantis, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom 1999. Friedrich, Alexander R. Walter L. ISBN 0820448893.

Forsyth, Phyllis Y.: Thera in the Bronze Age, Peter Lang Pub Inc, New York 1997.

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