Cancún

Satellite photo of Cancún

Cancún is a coastal city in Mexico's easternmost state, Quintana Roo. It is the municipal seat of Benito Juárez municipality and a world renowned tourist resort.

Geography

The average temperature in Cancún is 27° C (80° F) with more than 240 days of sunshine, and rain is rare, with late August through early October being the rainy season. The beaches are almost 100 percent limestone; the porous quality of the limestone makes for cool sand even under the intense tropical sun. Cancún is divided into two parts: The narrow 23-kilometer-long (14-mile) island section (Cancún Island) is lined with modern beachfront hotels surrounded by the Bahía de Mujeres (Bay of Women), the Caribbean Sea, and the Nichupte and Bojorquez lagoons. The mainland downtown commercial section (Cancún City), connected to the island by two bridges, has broad avenues lined with whitewashed shops, restaurants, and hotels.

History

In the early 1950s Cancun was an almost unpopulated and undeveloped island just off the Caribbean Sea coast of the Yucatán peninsula, home to three caretakers of a coconut plantation and small Pre-Columbian ruins of the Maya civilization. The government of Mexico decided to develop a tourist resort on Cancun, which was originally financed by a USD $27 million loan from the Inter-American Development Bank. A causeway was built to link Cancun to the mainland, and an international airport was built, along with what was at first a model city for workers, complete with housing, schools and medical facilities. On the opposite side of the island from the Caribbean Sea is Nichupte Lagoon, which is used for boat and snorkelling tours of the area.

Although many international publications now spell Cancun as Cancún, in the area itself it is usually Cancún in Spanish and Cancun in English. This is probably a result of the fact that English-language type faces available in the early days of Cancun did not have accented characters, or the operators did not know how to access them because the keyboard codes were different from the ones they were accustomed to using. The Spanish is not really correct either. In Spanish, the accent usually falls on the second syllable. In the case of a two-syllable word, you would only use an accent to indicate that the stress falls on the first syllable, as in López.

The earliest known reference to Cancun called it Cancuen. There's also a site in Guatemala called Cancuen. Cancuen refers to a snake totem, usually identified with Kukulcan or Quetzalcoatl (the Plumed Serpent). The romanization of Mayan words varies, but it is common to use an apostrophe to indicate a kind of glottal stop. It is probable that some Yucatecan or Mexican Mayanist wrote the name as Cancu'en, which was turned into Cancún by someone at the predecessor of Fonatur, the Mexican government tourism development fund that created Cancun. The belief that Cancun means "nido de viboras" (nest of snakes) is modern folklore, according to according to long-time resident Jules Siegel, author of the Cancun User's Guide.

Development of Cancun started in 1970 and grew rapidly in the 1980s. Unfortunately, the original very sensible master plan was repeatedly modified and, on the mainland, often ignored. Siegel who was the translator of Fernando Martí's "Cancun, Fantasy of Bankers," municipal authorities have struggled to provide public services for the constant influx of people, as well as to control squatters and irregular developments, which now occupy an estimated ten to fifteen percent of the mainland area on the fringes of the city, he says.

Despite initial skepticism that forced the Mexican government to finance the first eight hotels, Cancún soon attracted investors from all over the world, but approximately 70% of the Hotel Zone properties are owned by Mexicans, many of them local residents, Siegel says. The figure is close to 100% for the mainland. Some observers believe that the resort is foreign-owned because they are confused by the hotel operating companies, which are international companies that supply administration and marketing services. They do not usually own the hotels themselves. Even outlets of restaurant chains such as McDonald's and Domino's Pizza are Mexican-owned.

The city has grown rapidly over the past thirty years to become a city of approximately 750,000 residents, covering the former island and the nearby mainland. Most 'cancunenses' here are from Yucatán and other Mexican states. A growing number are from the rest of America and Europe.

The city Cancun and its flourishing tourism industry were heavily damaged by Hurricane Wilma, which hit the area on October 22, 2005.

Environmental concerns

Although some environmentalists claim that Cancún is an environmental disaster, Siegel says that is not true. There has obviously been environmental damage and the situation could deteriorate rapidly, he reports, but at present (February 2005) Cancún's main problem is a breakdown of garbage collection and disposal as a result of political conflicts that will hopefully be solved by a new administration elected February 6, 2005. Sewage treatment is another danger point, he says. Although approximately 75% of the city has public sewer lines, many homes rely on septic tanks. The underground water table is beginning to show symptoms of contamination, but by the standards of most populated areas in the United States the water is still relatively clean.

"You can see the bottom of the Caribbean off Cancún in satellite photographs," Siegel says. He discusses this and other issues at length on his website, http://www.cafecancun.com.

Tourism in Cancún

The beach in Cancún

In Cancún there are about 140 hotels with 24,000 rooms and 380 restaurants. Four million visitors arrive each year in an average of 190 flights daily. The hotel zone is one of the most exclusive internationally, with upmarket restaurants, bars, and the like which have catered for quite a number of the rich and famous. The hotel zone tends to be rather expensive as it is aimed at visitors and relies on the all inclusive hotels to keep them all in this area allowing prices to soar. Downtown is home to less expensive places to shop like Walmart, Comercial Mexicana and Soriana, not to mention several flea markets like the one in the hotel zone.

Around March and April, Cancún experiences a flood of college students (usually from the United States) who travel to Cancún to party. For just about all of these students, drinking alcohol is usually the reason why they come to Cancún. The drinking age in Mexico is 18; while in the United States, it is 21.

Downtown Cancún gives us a different aspect. There are also many clubs for all types of people, including gay clubs like Karamba or Glow, but the hotels are more accessible to all types of travelers, including some with lower rates. International brands in Downtown area are Radisson Hacienda Cancún, Best Western Plaza Caribe, Oasis America.

Ruins in Cancún

The temperature of the city is warm, moderated by the marine breeze which circulates through its avenues. The temperatures are typically between 26°C and 36°C (78.8°F and 96.8°F).

Cancún's hotel zone also has an interactive aquarium where visitors can see the marine diversity of the area, swim with dolphins and feed sharks. Here and there in the hotel zone are some ancient ruins.

The main language in Cancún is Spanish, although English is widely spoken throughout the tourist areas. Mayan dialects are also spoken between some workers and people born in the Yucatán peninsula.

Cancún is served by Cancún International Airport.

Hurricane Wilma

Wilma was the twenty-first named storm, twelfth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was also the third Category 5 hurricane of the season, beating the records set by the 1960 and 1961 seasons. At its peak, it was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin and the tenth most intense globally, with the lowest atmospheric pressure ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere of 882 millibars (26.05 inHg) at sea level, exceeding the record previously held by Hurricane Gilbert that also impacted the Peninsula of Yucatán some years ago.

Visible image of Hurricane Wilma near record intensity with a central pressure of 882 millibars. Image captured by satellite at 1315Z (9:15 EDT) on October 19, 2005.

On October 21, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula as a powerful Category 4 hurricane, with winds in excess of 150 mph. The hurricane's eye first passed over the island of Cozumel, and then made an official landfall near Playa del Carmen in the state of Quintana Roo at around midnight on October 22 EDT with winds near 140 mph. Portions of the island of Cozumel experienced the calm eye of Wilma for several hours with some blue skies and sunshine visible at times. The eye slowly drifted northward, with the center passing just to the west of Cancún, Quintana Roo. Some portions of the Yucatán Peninsula experienced hurricane force winds for well over 24 hours. The hurricane began accelerating in the early morning hours of October 23, exiting the northeastern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula and entering the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 storm.

Wilma made several landfalls, with the most destructive effects felt in the Yucatán Peninsula, particularly in Cancun. At least three deaths have been reported, numerous people have disappeared, and the insured damage is estimated at between US$5 and US$8 billion. The devastation was almost total with many of the principal roadways from the Hotel Zone completely flooded and damaged. It has been estimated that 95% of the tourism infrastructure was seriously damaged. Once the storm left the peninsula, some of the beautiful beaches of Cancun had been washed away. Thousands of local and foreign tourists were hosted in improvised refuges. All the Airport and Harbor Operations were cancelled between October 21 to the 25 due to the worst weather conditions.

Photo taken from the balcony of a Cancún hotel at the height of the storm.

It is estimated that after Wilma left Cancun, the local tourist industry lost over US $15 Million daily. Many houses were devastated, and many jobs were lost. However, thanks to the aid and support of local and state governments, the federal government, the Red Cross, and civil associations. reconstruction has been possible. American actor Mel Gibson donated an important amount of money to help the people in distress.

There was an exhaustive campaign by the media that featured public figures, including the President Vicente Fox, actors, musicians, etc. to aid people who suffered. The people's response was immediate and impresionant. People from all social strata helped carry water bottles to donate money in special bank accounts that principal banks created. It was estimated that Cancun will be completely ready to face the demanding vacationist wave on December 2005.

Today, Cancun once more lives and remains an attractive option to local and foreign tourists from all over the world.

Sister cities

  • Miami, Florida, United States
  • Wichita, Kansas, United States

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Today, Cancun once more lives and remains an attractive option to local and foreign tourists from all over the world. Such a subtype could cause a global pandemic similar to the Spanish Flu that killed up to 50 million people in 1918. It was estimated that Cancun will be completely ready to face the demanding vacationist wave on December 2005. If a human infected with influenzavirus also acquires H5N1, a mutant strain of bird flu that can be transmitted from human to human could form. People from all social strata helped carry water bottles to donate money in special bank accounts that principal banks created. It is feared that if a strain of avian influenza virus to which humans have not been previously exposed undergoes antigenic shift to the point where it can cross the species barrier from birds to humans, the new subtype created could be both highly contagious and highly lethal in humans. The people's response was immediate and impresionant. Avian influenzavirus H5 and H7 strains are found in both "low pathogenic” or “high pathogenic” forms; influenza H9 virus has been identified only in a “low pathogenic” form.

to aid people who suffered. In addition, avian influenza viruses may fall into one of 2 pathotypes: low (LPAI) and high (HPAI) pathogenicity, based on their virulence in poultry populations. There was an exhaustive campaign by the media that featured public figures, including the President Vicente Fox, actors, musicians, etc. There are 16 H types, each with up to 9 N subtypes, yielding a potential for 144 different H and N combinations. American actor Mel Gibson donated an important amount of money to help the people in distress. Influenzavirus type A is subdivided into subtypes based on hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) protein spikes from the central virus core. reconstruction has been possible. All avian influenza (AI) viruses are type A influenza virus in the virus family of Orthomyxoviridae and all known strains of influenza A virus infect birds.

However, thanks to the aid and support of local and state governments, the federal government, the Red Cross, and civil associations. The avian influenza subtypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human deaths, are: H1N1 caused "Spanish Flu", H2N2 caused "Asian Flu", H3N2 caused "Hong Kong Flu", H5N1 is the current pandemic threat, H7N7 has unusual zoonotic potential, H1N2 is currently endemic in humans and pigs, H9N2, H7N2, H7N3, H10N7. Many houses were devastated, and many jobs were lost. [22]. It is estimated that after Wilma left Cancun, the local tourist industry lost over US $15 Million daily. In one case, a boy with H5N1 experienced diarrhea followed rapidly by a coma without developing respiratory or flu-like symptoms, suggesting non-standard symptoms. All the Airport and Harbor Operations were cancelled between October 21 to the 25 due to the worst weather conditions. The severity of the infection will depend to a large part on the state of the infected person's immune system and if the victim has been exposed to the strain before, and is therefore partially immune.

Thousands of local and foreign tourists were hosted in improvised refuges. [21] These include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, conjunctivitis and, in severe cases, severe breathing problems and pneumonia that may be fatal. Once the storm left the peninsula, some of the beautiful beaches of Cancun had been washed away. In humans, avian flu viruses cause similar symptoms to other types of flu. It has been estimated that 95% of the tourism infrastructure was seriously damaged. Genetic factors in distinguishing between "human flu viruses" and "avian flu viruses" include:. The devastation was almost total with many of the principal roadways from the Hotel Zone completely flooded and damaged. [19].

At least three deaths have been reported, numerous people have disappeared, and the insured damage is estimated at between US$5 and US$8 billion. H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are the only known avian flu virus subtypes currently circulating among humans. Wilma made several landfalls, with the most destructive effects felt in the Yucatán Peninsula, particularly in Cancun. "Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans. The hurricane began accelerating in the early morning hours of October 23, exiting the northeastern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula and entering the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 storm. "[C]ontemporary human H3N2 influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern China and can reassort with avian H5N1 viruses in this intermediate host." [18]. Some portions of the Yucatán Peninsula experienced hurricane force winds for well over 24 hours. H5N1 is endemic in birds in southeast Asia and represents a long term pandemic threat.

The eye slowly drifted northward, with the center passing just to the west of Cancún, Quintana Roo. 2005: Tens of millions of birds died of H5N1 influenza and hundreds of millions of birds were culled to protect humans from H5N1. Portions of the island of Cozumel experienced the calm eye of Wilma for several hours with some blue skies and sunshine visible at times. CDC detailed analysis. The hurricane's eye first passed over the island of Cozumel, and then made an official landfall near Playa del Carmen in the state of Quintana Roo at around midnight on October 22 EDT with winds near 140 mph. As of April 2004, 18 farms had been quarantined to halt the spread of the virus. On October 21, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula as a powerful Category 4 hurricane, with winds in excess of 150 mph. 2004: In North America, the presence of avian influenza strain H7N3 was confirmed at several poultry farms in British Columbia in February 2004.

At its peak, it was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin and the tenth most intense globally, with the lowest atmospheric pressure ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere of 882 millibars (26.05 inHg) at sea level, exceeding the record previously held by Hurricane Gilbert that also impacted the Peninsula of Yucatán some years ago. [17]. It was also the third Category 5 hurricane of the season, beating the records set by the 1960 and 1961 seasons. 2003: In Netherlands H7N7 influenza virus infection broke out in poultry on several farms. Wilma was the twenty-first named storm, twelfth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. 2000: "In California, poultry producers kept their knowledge of a recent H6N2 avian influenza outbreak to themselves due to their fear of public rejection of poultry products; meanwhile, the disease spread across the western United States and has since become endemic." [15] [16]. Cancún is served by Cancún International Airport. Most recently, H3N8 viruses from horses have crossed over and caused outbreaks in dogs." [14].

Mayan dialects are also spoken between some workers and people born in the Yucatán peninsula. However, in 1997, H3N2 viruses from humans were introduced into the pig population and caused widespread disease among pigs. The main language in Cancún is Spanish, although English is widely spoken throughout the tourist areas. pig population. Here and there in the hotel zone are some ancient ruins. For example, until 1997, only H1N1 viruses circulated widely in the U.S. Cancún's hotel zone also has an interactive aquarium where visitors can see the marine diversity of the area, swim with dolphins and feed sharks. 1997: "Influenza A viruses normally seen in one species sometimes can cross over and cause illness in another species.

The temperatures are typically between 26°C and 36°C (78.8°F and 96.8°F). In Mexico, for example, mass vaccination of chickens against epidemic H5N2 influenza in 1995 has had to continue in order to control a persistent and evolving virus (Lee et al., 2004)." [13]. The temperature of the city is warm, moderated by the marine breeze which circulates through its avenues. Intensive surveillance is required to detect these “silent epidemics” in time to curtail them. International brands in Downtown area are Radisson Hacienda Cancún, Best Western Plaza Caribe, Oasis America. 1995: "[V]accinated birds can develop asymptomatic infections that allow virus to spread, mutate, and recombine (ProMED-mail, 2004j). There are also many clubs for all types of people, including gay clubs like Karamba or Glow, but the hotels are more accessible to all types of travelers, including some with lower rates. 1979: "More than 400 harbor seals, most of them immature, died along the New England coast between December 1979 and October 1980 of acute pneumonia associated with influenza virus, A/Seal/Mass/1/180 (H7N7)." [12].

Downtown Cancún gives us a different aspect. [11]. The drinking age in Mexico is 18; while in the United States, it is 21. Avian influenza viruses that the OIE and others test for in order to control poultry disease include: H5N1, H7N2, H1N7, H7N3, H13N6, H5N9, H11N6, H3N8, H9N2, H5N2, H4N8, H10N7, H2N2, H8N4, H14N5, H6N5, H12N5 and others. For just about all of these students, drinking alcohol is usually the reason why they come to Cancún. [10]. Around March and April, Cancún experiences a flood of college students (usually from the United States) who travel to Cancún to party. "Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is on every top ten list available for potential agricultural bioweapon agents".

Downtown is home to less expensive places to shop like Walmart, Comercial Mexicana and Soriana, not to mention several flea markets like the one in the hotel zone. Symptoms in animals vary, but virulent strains can cause death within a few days. The hotel zone tends to be rather expensive as it is aimed at visitors and relies on the all inclusive hotels to keep them all in this area allowing prices to soar. The incubation period is 3 to 5 days. The hotel zone is one of the most exclusive internationally, with upmarket restaurants, bars, and the like which have catered for quite a number of the rich and famous. It can also be transmitted by contaminated feed, water, equipment and clothing; however, there is no evidence that the virus can survive in well cooked meat. Four million visitors arrive each year in an average of 190 flights daily. Avian influenza virus spreads in the air and in manure and survives longer in cold weather.

In Cancún there are about 140 hotels with 24,000 rooms and 380 restaurants. [9]. He discusses this and other issues at length on his website, http://www.cafecancun.com. Laboratory mice have been successfully infected with a variety of avian flu genotypes. "You can see the bottom of the Caribbean off Cancún in satellite photographs," Siegel says. H3N8 viruses from horses have crossed over and caused outbreaks in dogs. The underground water table is beginning to show symptoms of contamination, but by the standards of most populated areas in the United States the water is still relatively clean. [8] H5N1 has been shown to be also transmitted to tigers, leopards, and domestic cats who were fed uncooked domestic fowl (chickens) with the virus.

Although approximately 75% of the city has public sewer lines, many homes rely on septic tanks. Prior to the current H5N1 epizootic, strains of avian influenza virus had been demonstrated to be transmitted from wild fowl to only birds, pigs, horses, seals, whales and humans; and only between humans and pigs and between humans and domestic fowl; and not other pathways such as domestic fowl to horse. Sewage treatment is another danger point, he says. Wild fowl act as natural asymptomatic carriers of avian flu virus. There has obviously been environmental damage and the situation could deteriorate rapidly, he reports, but at present (February 2005) Cancún's main problem is a breakdown of garbage collection and disposal as a result of political conflicts that will hopefully be solved by a new administration elected February 6, 2005. The assembled virion cores leave the nucleus and migrate towards the cell membrane, with patches of viral transmembrane proteins (hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and M2 proteins) and an underlying layer of the M1 protein, and bud through these patches, releasing finished enveloped viruses into the extracellular fluid. Although some environmentalists claim that Cancún is an environmental disaster, Siegel says that is not true. The RNA synthesis and its assembly with the nucleoprotein takes place in the cell nucleus, the synthesis of proteins takes place in the cytoplasm.

The city Cancun and its flourishing tourism industry were heavily damaged by Hurricane Wilma, which hit the area on October 22, 2005. The +RNA strands also serve for synthesis of -RNA strands for new virions. A growing number are from the rest of America and Europe. After transcription from negative-sense to positive-sense RNA the +RNA strands get the cellular 5' cap added, allowing its processing as messenger RNA by ribosomes. Most 'cancunenses' here are from Yucatán and other Mexican states. The genome segments have common terminal sequences, and the ends of the RNA strands are partially complementary, allowing them to bond to each other by hydrogen bonds. The city has grown rapidly over the past thirty years to become a city of approximately 750,000 residents, covering the former island and the nearby mainland. The 8 genes are:.

Even outlets of restaurant chains such as McDonald's and Domino's Pizza are Mexican-owned. The segmented nature of the genome also allows for the exchange of entire genes between different viral strains when they cohabitate the same cell. They do not usually own the hotels themselves. Each segment contains a single gene, but some can be read twice at different starting points to create two distinct proteins. Some observers believe that the resort is foreign-owned because they are confused by the hotel operating companies, which are international companies that supply administration and marketing services. Influenza A viruses contain their genome in eight separate linear segments of negative-sense RNA, which code for ten proteins (eleven for type A if including the novel PB1-F1 protein). The figure is close to 100% for the mainland. [4] [5] "[C]ontemporary human H3N2 influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern China and can reassort with avian H5N1 viruses in this intermediate host." [6].

Despite initial skepticism that forced the Mexican government to finance the first eight hotels, Cancún soon attracted investors from all over the world, but approximately 70% of the Hotel Zone properties are owned by Mexicans, many of them local residents, Siegel says. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005. Siegel who was the translator of Fernando Martí's "Cancun, Fantasy of Bankers," municipal authorities have struggled to provide public services for the constant influx of people, as well as to control squatters and irregular developments, which now occupy an estimated ten to fifteen percent of the mainland area on the fringes of the city, he says. [3] The dominant strain in January 2006 is H3N2. Unfortunately, the original very sensible master plan was repeatedly modified and, on the mainland, often ignored. The annually updated trivalent flu vaccine consists of hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza H3N2, H1N1, and B influenza viruses. Development of Cancun started in 1970 and grew rapidly in the 1980s. The annual flu (also called "seasonal flu" or "human flu") kills an estimated 36,000 people in the United States each year.

The belief that Cancun means "nido de viboras" (nest of snakes) is modern folklore, according to according to long-time resident Jules Siegel, author of the Cancun User's Guide. Until recently, 15 HA types had been recognized, but a new type (H16) was isolated from black-headed gulls caught in Sweden and the Netherlands in 1999 and reported in the literature in 2005." [2]. It is probable that some Yucatecan or Mexican Mayanist wrote the name as Cancu'en, which was turned into Cancún by someone at the predecessor of Fonatur, the Mexican government tourism development fund that created Cancun. "There are 16 different HA antigens (H1 to H16) and nine different NA antigens (N1 to N9) for influenza A. The romanization of Mayan words varies, but it is common to use an apostrophe to indicate a kind of glottal stop. Avian influenza viruses are negative sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses. Cancuen refers to a snake totem, usually identified with Kukulcan or Quetzalcoatl (the Plumed Serpent). The avian influenzavirus subtypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human deaths, are: H1N1 caused "Spanish Flu", H2N2 caused "Asian Flu", H3N2 caused "Hong Kong Flu", H5N1 is the current pandemic threat, H7N7 has unusual zoonotic potential, H1N2 is currently endemic in humans and pigs, H9N2, H7N2, H7N3, H10N7.

There's also a site in Guatemala called Cancuen. For example, the annual flu subtype H3N2 no longer contains the strain that caused the Hong Kong Flu. The earliest known reference to Cancun called it Cancuen. Most known strains are extinct strains. In the case of a two-syllable word, you would only use an accent to indicate that the stress falls on the first syllable, as in López. Each subtype virus has mutated into a variety of strains with differing pathogenic profiles; some pathogenic to one species but not others, some pathogenic to multiple species. In Spanish, the accent usually falls on the second syllable. The avian flu virus subtypes are labeled according to an H number (for hemagglutinin) and an N number (for neuraminidase).

The Spanish is not really correct either. . This is probably a result of the fact that English-language type faces available in the early days of Cancun did not have accented characters, or the operators did not know how to access them because the keyboard codes were different from the ones they were accustomed to using. Variants are sometimes also labeled according to:. Although many international publications now spell Cancun as Cancún, in the area itself it is usually Cancún in Spanish and Cancun in English. [1]. On the opposite side of the island from the Caribbean Sea is Nichupte Lagoon, which is used for boat and snorkelling tours of the area. It was first identified in Italy in the early 1900s and is now known to exist worldwide.

A causeway was built to link Cancun to the mainland, and an international airport was built, along with what was at first a model city for workers, complete with housing, schools and medical facilities. It is hosted by birds, but may infect several species of mammals. The government of Mexico decided to develop a tourist resort on Cancun, which was originally financed by a USD $27 million loan from the Inter-American Development Bank. Influenza A virus causes "avian influenza" (also known as bird flu, avian flu, influenzavirus A flu, type A flu, or genus A flu). In the early 1950s Cancun was an almost unpopulated and undeveloped island just off the Caribbean Sea coast of the Yucatán peninsula, home to three caretakers of a coconut plantation and small Pre-Columbian ruins of the Maya civilization. Influenzavirus A has only one species in it; that species is called "influenza A virus". The mainland downtown commercial section (Cancún City), connected to the island by two bridges, has broad avenues lined with whitewashed shops, restaurants, and hotels. Influenzavirus A is a genus of a family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae in virus classification.

Cancún is divided into two parts: The narrow 23-kilometer-long (14-mile) island section (Cancún Island) is lined with modern beachfront hotels surrounded by the Bahía de Mujeres (Bay of Women), the Caribbean Sea, and the Nichupte and Bojorquez lagoons. Global Pandemic News : 24 X 7 online news feeds on the threat of Bird Flu and a Global Pandemic. The beaches are almost 100 percent limestone; the porous quality of the limestone makes for cool sand even under the intense tropical sun. Flu Breaking News Avian flu, common symptom, flu vaccine and flu shot and latest news. The average temperature in Cancún is 27° C (80° F) with more than 240 days of sunshine, and rain is rare, with late August through early October being the rainy season. Current status (Google news of avian+OR+bird+flu+OR+influenza). . Links to Bird Flu pictures (Hardin MD/Univ of Iowa).

It is the municipal seat of Benito Juárez municipality and a world renowned tourist resort. Bird Flu is a Real Pandemic Threat to Humans by Leonard Crane, author of Ninth Day of Creation. Cancún is a coastal city in Mexico's easternmost state, Quintana Roo. Is a Global Flu Pandemic Imminent? from Infection Control Today. Wichita, Kansas, United States. 'The Threat of Bird Flu' : HealthPolitics.com. Miami, Florida, United States. Avian flu, bioterror, animals (page in an online book) "Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is on every top ten list available for potential agricultural bioweapon agents".

A Variety of Avian Flu Images and Pictures. A guide to bird flu and its symptoms from BBC Health. Overview of H5N1 from New England Journal of Medicine. Special issue on avian flu from Nature.

Government's avian influenza information website. U.S. Avian influenza FAQ from the World Health Organization. Avian influenza and Influenza Pandemics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Retrieved November 16th, 2005. World Health Organization. "Avian Influenza Factsheet". 28.

New Straits Times, p. 5, 2005). (Nov. "Three million Asians may die".

F18. New Sunday Times, p. 6, 2005). (Nov.

"Reining in bird flu: Answer may lie with reverse engineering". 23–31. Scientific American, p. "Preparing for a Pandemic".

2005). Waut & Soares, Christine (Nov. Gibbs, W. PB2 gene encoding an RNA polymerase.

PB1 gene encoding an RNA polymerase and PB1-F2 protein (induces apoptosis) by using different reading frames from the same RNA segment. PA gene encoding an RNA polymerase. NS gene encoding two distinct non-structural proteins by using different reading frames from the same RNA segment. M gene encoding two matrix proteins (the M1 and the M2) by using different reading frames from the same RNA segment (about 3000 matrix protein molecules are needed to make one virion).

Influenza A, B, and C are distinguished by their nucleoproteins. NP gene encoding nucleoprotein. NA gene encoding neuraminidase (about 100 molecules of neuraminidase are needed to make one virion). However HAs of H5 and H7 pantropic avian viruses subtypes can be cleaved by furin and subtilisin-type enzymes, allowing the virus to grow in other organs than lungs." [7].

The reason is that HA is cleaved by tryptase clara which is restricted to lungs. bronchial epithelial cells) into lumen of lungs and are therefore usually pneumotropic. Influenza viruses bud from the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells (e.g. HA gene encoding hemagglutinin (about 500 molecules of hemagglutinin are needed to make one virion) "The extent of infection into host organism is determined by HA.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) (also called: deadly flu or death flu). Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). deadliness

    . dog flu.

    horse flu. swine flu. human flu. species it is endemic in

      .

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