Cancún

Satellite photo of Cancún

Cancún is a coastal city in Mexico's easternmost state, Quintana Roo. It is the municipal seat of Benito Juárez municipality and a world renowned tourist resort.

Geography

The average temperature in Cancún is 27° C (80° F) with more than 240 days of sunshine, and rain is rare, with late August through early October being the rainy season. The beaches are almost 100 percent limestone; the porous quality of the limestone makes for cool sand even under the intense tropical sun. Cancún is divided into two parts: The narrow 23-kilometer-long (14-mile) island section (Cancún Island) is lined with modern beachfront hotels surrounded by the Bahía de Mujeres (Bay of Women), the Caribbean Sea, and the Nichupte and Bojorquez lagoons. The mainland downtown commercial section (Cancún City), connected to the island by two bridges, has broad avenues lined with whitewashed shops, restaurants, and hotels.

History

In the early 1950s Cancun was an almost unpopulated and undeveloped island just off the Caribbean Sea coast of the Yucatán peninsula, home to three caretakers of a coconut plantation and small Pre-Columbian ruins of the Maya civilization. The government of Mexico decided to develop a tourist resort on Cancun, which was originally financed by a USD $27 million loan from the Inter-American Development Bank. A causeway was built to link Cancun to the mainland, and an international airport was built, along with what was at first a model city for workers, complete with housing, schools and medical facilities. On the opposite side of the island from the Caribbean Sea is Nichupte Lagoon, which is used for boat and snorkelling tours of the area.

Although many international publications now spell Cancun as Cancún, in the area itself it is usually Cancún in Spanish and Cancun in English. This is probably a result of the fact that English-language type faces available in the early days of Cancun did not have accented characters, or the operators did not know how to access them because the keyboard codes were different from the ones they were accustomed to using. The Spanish is not really correct either. In Spanish, the accent usually falls on the second syllable. In the case of a two-syllable word, you would only use an accent to indicate that the stress falls on the first syllable, as in López.

The earliest known reference to Cancun called it Cancuen. There's also a site in Guatemala called Cancuen. Cancuen refers to a snake totem, usually identified with Kukulcan or Quetzalcoatl (the Plumed Serpent). The romanization of Mayan words varies, but it is common to use an apostrophe to indicate a kind of glottal stop. It is probable that some Yucatecan or Mexican Mayanist wrote the name as Cancu'en, which was turned into Cancún by someone at the predecessor of Fonatur, the Mexican government tourism development fund that created Cancun. The belief that Cancun means "nido de viboras" (nest of snakes) is modern folklore, according to according to long-time resident Jules Siegel, author of the Cancun User's Guide.

Development of Cancun started in 1970 and grew rapidly in the 1980s. Unfortunately, the original very sensible master plan was repeatedly modified and, on the mainland, often ignored. Siegel who was the translator of Fernando Martí's "Cancun, Fantasy of Bankers," municipal authorities have struggled to provide public services for the constant influx of people, as well as to control squatters and irregular developments, which now occupy an estimated ten to fifteen percent of the mainland area on the fringes of the city, he says.

Despite initial skepticism that forced the Mexican government to finance the first eight hotels, Cancún soon attracted investors from all over the world, but approximately 70% of the Hotel Zone properties are owned by Mexicans, many of them local residents, Siegel says. The figure is close to 100% for the mainland. Some observers believe that the resort is foreign-owned because they are confused by the hotel operating companies, which are international companies that supply administration and marketing services. They do not usually own the hotels themselves. Even outlets of restaurant chains such as McDonald's and Domino's Pizza are Mexican-owned.

The city has grown rapidly over the past thirty years to become a city of approximately 750,000 residents, covering the former island and the nearby mainland. Most 'cancunenses' here are from Yucatán and other Mexican states. A growing number are from the rest of America and Europe.

The city Cancun and its flourishing tourism industry were heavily damaged by Hurricane Wilma, which hit the area on October 22, 2005.

Environmental concerns

Although some environmentalists claim that Cancún is an environmental disaster, Siegel says that is not true. There has obviously been environmental damage and the situation could deteriorate rapidly, he reports, but at present (February 2005) Cancún's main problem is a breakdown of garbage collection and disposal as a result of political conflicts that will hopefully be solved by a new administration elected February 6, 2005. Sewage treatment is another danger point, he says. Although approximately 75% of the city has public sewer lines, many homes rely on septic tanks. The underground water table is beginning to show symptoms of contamination, but by the standards of most populated areas in the United States the water is still relatively clean.

"You can see the bottom of the Caribbean off Cancún in satellite photographs," Siegel says. He discusses this and other issues at length on his website, http://www.cafecancun.com.

Tourism in Cancún

The beach in Cancún

In Cancún there are about 140 hotels with 24,000 rooms and 380 restaurants. Four million visitors arrive each year in an average of 190 flights daily. The hotel zone is one of the most exclusive internationally, with upmarket restaurants, bars, and the like which have catered for quite a number of the rich and famous. The hotel zone tends to be rather expensive as it is aimed at visitors and relies on the all inclusive hotels to keep them all in this area allowing prices to soar. Downtown is home to less expensive places to shop like Walmart, Comercial Mexicana and Soriana, not to mention several flea markets like the one in the hotel zone.

Around March and April, Cancún experiences a flood of college students (usually from the United States) who travel to Cancún to party. For just about all of these students, drinking alcohol is usually the reason why they come to Cancún. The drinking age in Mexico is 18; while in the United States, it is 21.

Downtown Cancún gives us a different aspect. There are also many clubs for all types of people, including gay clubs like Karamba or Glow, but the hotels are more accessible to all types of travelers, including some with lower rates. International brands in Downtown area are Radisson Hacienda Cancún, Best Western Plaza Caribe, Oasis America.

Ruins in Cancún

The temperature of the city is warm, moderated by the marine breeze which circulates through its avenues. The temperatures are typically between 26°C and 36°C (78.8°F and 96.8°F).

Cancún's hotel zone also has an interactive aquarium where visitors can see the marine diversity of the area, swim with dolphins and feed sharks. Here and there in the hotel zone are some ancient ruins.

The main language in Cancún is Spanish, although English is widely spoken throughout the tourist areas. Mayan dialects are also spoken between some workers and people born in the Yucatán peninsula.

Cancún is served by Cancún International Airport.

Hurricane Wilma

Wilma was the twenty-first named storm, twelfth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was also the third Category 5 hurricane of the season, beating the records set by the 1960 and 1961 seasons. At its peak, it was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin and the tenth most intense globally, with the lowest atmospheric pressure ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere of 882 millibars (26.05 inHg) at sea level, exceeding the record previously held by Hurricane Gilbert that also impacted the Peninsula of Yucatán some years ago.

Visible image of Hurricane Wilma near record intensity with a central pressure of 882 millibars. Image captured by satellite at 1315Z (9:15 EDT) on October 19, 2005.

On October 21, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula as a powerful Category 4 hurricane, with winds in excess of 150 mph. The hurricane's eye first passed over the island of Cozumel, and then made an official landfall near Playa del Carmen in the state of Quintana Roo at around midnight on October 22 EDT with winds near 140 mph. Portions of the island of Cozumel experienced the calm eye of Wilma for several hours with some blue skies and sunshine visible at times. The eye slowly drifted northward, with the center passing just to the west of Cancún, Quintana Roo. Some portions of the Yucatán Peninsula experienced hurricane force winds for well over 24 hours. The hurricane began accelerating in the early morning hours of October 23, exiting the northeastern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula and entering the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 storm.

Wilma made several landfalls, with the most destructive effects felt in the Yucatán Peninsula, particularly in Cancun. At least three deaths have been reported, numerous people have disappeared, and the insured damage is estimated at between US$5 and US$8 billion. The devastation was almost total with many of the principal roadways from the Hotel Zone completely flooded and damaged. It has been estimated that 95% of the tourism infrastructure was seriously damaged. Once the storm left the peninsula, some of the beautiful beaches of Cancun had been washed away. Thousands of local and foreign tourists were hosted in improvised refuges. All the Airport and Harbor Operations were cancelled between October 21 to the 25 due to the worst weather conditions.

Photo taken from the balcony of a Cancún hotel at the height of the storm.

It is estimated that after Wilma left Cancun, the local tourist industry lost over US $15 Million daily. Many houses were devastated, and many jobs were lost. However, thanks to the aid and support of local and state governments, the federal government, the Red Cross, and civil associations. reconstruction has been possible. American actor Mel Gibson donated an important amount of money to help the people in distress.

There was an exhaustive campaign by the media that featured public figures, including the President Vicente Fox, actors, musicians, etc. to aid people who suffered. The people's response was immediate and impresionant. People from all social strata helped carry water bottles to donate money in special bank accounts that principal banks created. It was estimated that Cancun will be completely ready to face the demanding vacationist wave on December 2005.

Today, Cancun once more lives and remains an attractive option to local and foreign tourists from all over the world.

Sister cities

  • Miami, Florida, United States
  • Wichita, Kansas, United States

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Today, Cancun once more lives and remains an attractive option to local and foreign tourists from all over the world. It was titled The Roar of Love. It was estimated that Cancun will be completely ready to face the demanding vacationist wave on December 2005. A musical retelling of the The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was released in 1980 by Contemporary Christian group 2nd Chapter of Acts. People from all social strata helped carry water bottles to donate money in special bank accounts that principal banks created. The movie achieved critical and box office success, and it seems likely that Disney will produce a sequel The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian with an expected release date of December 2007. The people's response was immediate and impresionant. Principal photography for the film took place in Poland, Czech Republic and New Zealand.

to aid people who suffered. The screenplay was written by Ann Peacock. There was an exhaustive campaign by the media that featured public figures, including the President Vicente Fox, actors, musicians, etc. It was directed by Andrew Adamson. American actor Mel Gibson donated an important amount of money to help the people in distress. A film version of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, titled The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, produced by both Walt Disney Pictures and Walden Media, was released in December 2005. reconstruction has been possible. Adaptations were created by Irita Kutchmy [6]; Jules Tasca, Thomas Tierney & Ted Drachman[7]; Adrian Mitchell[8]; Joseph Robinette[9]; and Aurand Harris[10].

However, thanks to the aid and support of local and state governments, the federal government, the Red Cross, and civil associations. There are also other dramatisations including musicals of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and The Magician's Nephew that have been performed in various community playhouses in recent years. Many houses were devastated, and many jobs were lost. Dramatized by Adrian Mitchell and originally directed by Adrian Noble with revival directed by Lucy Pitman-Wallace, the production was well received and ran during the holiday season from 1998 to 2002.[5] The London Evening Standard wrote:. It is estimated that after Wilma left Cancun, the local tourist industry lost over US $15 Million daily. In 1998 the Royal Shakespeare Theatre premiered The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. All the Airport and Harbor Operations were cancelled between October 21 to the 25 due to the worst weather conditions. From the Focus on the Family website:.

Thousands of local and foreign tourists were hosted in improvised refuges. Lewis, hosts the series. Once the storm left the peninsula, some of the beautiful beaches of Cancun had been washed away. Douglas Gresham, the stepson of C.S. It has been estimated that 95% of the tourism infrastructure was seriously damaged. Total running time is slightly over 22 hours. The devastation was almost total with many of the principal roadways from the Hotel Zone completely flooded and damaged. Production included a cast of over 100 actors, an original orchestral score and cinema-quality digital sound design.

At least three deaths have been reported, numerous people have disappeared, and the insured damage is estimated at between US$5 and US$8 billion. Between 1999 and 2002 Focus on the Family produced radio dramatizations of all 7 books[4]. Wilma made several landfalls, with the most destructive effects felt in the Yucatán Peninsula, particularly in Cancun. Collectively titled Tales of Narnia it covers the entire series and is approximately 15 hours long. The hurricane began accelerating in the early morning hours of October 23, exiting the northeastern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula and entering the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 storm. The critically acclaimed BBC Radio 4 dramatization was produced in the 1980s. Some portions of the Yucatán Peninsula experienced hurricane force winds for well over 24 hours. The four miniseries were later edited into three feature-length films (combining Prince Caspian and The Voyage of the Dawn Treader) and released on DVD.

The eye slowly drifted northward, with the center passing just to the west of Cancún, Quintana Roo. Only The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe, Prince Caspian, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, and The Silver Chair were filmed. Portions of the island of Cozumel experienced the calm eye of Wilma for several hours with some blue skies and sunshine visible at times. They were nominated for a total of 14 awards, including an Emmy in the category of Outstanding Children's Program. The hurricane's eye first passed over the island of Cozumel, and then made an official landfall near Playa del Carmen in the state of Quintana Roo at around midnight on October 22 EDT with winds near 140 mph. The Chronicles of Narnia were turned into a series of successful BBC television miniseries in 1988–1990 (see The Chronicles of Narnia (TV miniseries)). On October 21, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula as a powerful Category 4 hurricane, with winds in excess of 150 mph. It won the Emmy award for Outstanding Animated Program that year.

At its peak, it was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin and the tenth most intense globally, with the lowest atmospheric pressure ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere of 882 millibars (26.05 inHg) at sea level, exceeding the record previously held by Hurricane Gilbert that also impacted the Peninsula of Yucatán some years ago. Connell. It was also the third Category 5 hurricane of the season, beating the records set by the 1960 and 1961 seasons. The screenplay was by David D. Wilma was the twenty-first named storm, twelfth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was a co-production of Bill Melendez (Charlie Brown) and the Children's Television Workshop (Sesame Street and The Electric Company). Cancún is served by Cancún International Airport. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was turned into an animated television special in 1979.

Mayan dialects are also spoken between some workers and people born in the Yucatán peninsula. Unlike subsequent adaptations, it is currently unavailable to purchase for home viewing. The main language in Cancún is Spanish, although English is widely spoken throughout the tourist areas. The screenplay was written by Trevor Preston. Here and there in the hotel zone are some ancient ruins. The ten episodes, each thirty minutes long, were directed by Helen Standage. Cancún's hotel zone also has an interactive aquarium where visitors can see the marine diversity of the area, swim with dolphins and feed sharks. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was first turned into a television series in 1967.

The temperatures are typically between 26°C and 36°C (78.8°F and 96.8°F). Narnia itself is populated by a wide variety of creatures most of whom would be recognizable to those familiar with Roman/Norse mythology and Irish/English fairy tales. The temperature of the city is warm, moderated by the marine breeze which circulates through its avenues. Visitors to Narnia observe that the passage of time while they are away is unpredictable. International brands in Downtown area are Radisson Hacienda Cancún, Best Western Plaza Caribe, Oasis America. Passage between these worlds is possible though rare and may be accomplished in various fashions. There are also many clubs for all types of people, including gay clubs like Karamba or Glow, but the hotels are more accessible to all types of travelers, including some with lower rates. The Narnian world itself is one world in a multiverse of countless worlds including our own.

Downtown Cancún gives us a different aspect. Most of The Chronicles of Narnia take place in the world of Narnia. The drinking age in Mexico is 18; while in the United States, it is 21. According to Jacobs, "Those who dislike Christianity itself can be far more harsh: Thus the English novelist Philip Hensher chastised Lewis a few years ago because his books 'corrupt the minds of the young with allegory,' and suggested (only half-jokingly, I think) that parents should give their children 'Last Exit to Brooklyn' to read rather than a Narnia tale.". For just about all of these students, drinking alcohol is usually the reason why they come to Cancún. Some of the criticism may be related to Narnia's Christian content. Around March and April, Cancún experiences a flood of college students (usually from the United States) who travel to Cancún to party. Read the stories, ask questions, and remember that the person who wrote this story was altogether too human.".

Downtown is home to less expensive places to shop like Walmart, Comercial Mexicana and Soriana, not to mention several flea markets like the one in the hotel zone. We don't. The hotel zone tends to be rather expensive as it is aimed at visitors and relies on the all inclusive hotels to keep them all in this area allowing prices to soar. O'Connor writes, "In his time, people thought it was amusing to make fun of other cultures. The hotel zone is one of the most exclusive internationally, with upmarket restaurants, bars, and the like which have catered for quite a number of the rich and famous. Tolkien and Charles Williams remained popular over such a long period of time suggests to some that many of the criticisms which have been voiced are minority views, not thought to be significant by the reading public. Four million visitors arrive each year in an average of 190 flights daily. The fact that Lewis and other similar-minded contemporaries such as J.R.R.

In Cancún there are about 140 hotels with 24,000 rooms and 380 restaurants. Lewis supporters point to the fact that Lewis writings have a particularly British Victorian era flavour that was much in fashion during his lifetime, but that may be seen as politically incorrect nowadays. He discusses this and other issues at length on his website, http://www.cafecancun.com. B14). "You can see the bottom of the Caribbean off Cancún in satellite photographs," Siegel says. (Nelson 2005, pp. The underground water table is beginning to show symptoms of contamination, but by the standards of most populated areas in the United States the water is still relatively clean. In The Last Battle, the Calormene Emeth is accepted by Aslan although he is a worshiper of Tash.

Although approximately 75% of the city has public sewer lines, many homes rely on septic tanks. In The Horse and His Boy, one of the main characters, Aravis, is a female Calormene princess that ends up marrying an Archenlander prince of white ethnicity. Sewage treatment is another danger point, he says. There are Calormene characters portrayed in a positive light throughout the series. There has obviously been environmental damage and the situation could deteriorate rapidly, he reports, but at present (February 2005) Cancún's main problem is a breakdown of garbage collection and disposal as a result of political conflicts that will hopefully be solved by a new administration elected February 6, 2005. The Calormenes worship a main "false god" Tash, who is portrayed as a stereotypical Satanic being requiring evil deeds and sacrifices from his followers. Although some environmentalists claim that Cancún is an environmental disaster, Siegel says that is not true. This depiction has been cited as a blatant comparison to the traditional attire of Islam and Sikhism, although critics ignore the fact that the polytheistic Calormene religion bears no resemblance to Islam.

The city Cancun and its flourishing tourism industry were heavily damaged by Hurricane Wilma, which hit the area on October 22, 2005. The Calormenes are described as dark-skinned people who wear turbans and pointy slippers and are armed with scimitars. A growing number are from the rest of America and Europe. The racism critique is based on a perceived negative representation of other races and religions, particularly the Calormenes, as enemies of Aslan and Narnia (Hensher 1998). Most 'cancunenses' here are from Yucatán and other Mexican states. He writes:. The city has grown rapidly over the past thirty years to become a city of approximately 750,000 residents, covering the former island and the nearby mainland. In addition to the sexism accusation, Pullman has also implicated The Chronicles of Narnia series in fostering racism.

Even outlets of restaurant chains such as McDonald's and Domino's Pizza are Mexican-owned. (Anderson 2005), (Rilstone 2005), (Jacobs 2005). They do not usually own the hotels themselves. It is asserted that Lucy is the most admirable of the human characters, and that in general the girls come off better than the boys through the stories. Some observers believe that the resort is foreign-owned because they are confused by the hotel operating companies, which are international companies that supply administration and marketing services. They also cite the positive roles of women in the series, like Lucy Pevensie and Aravis Tarkheena, who are main characters in the The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and The Horse and His Boy, respectively. The figure is close to 100% for the mainland. Moreover, in The Horse and his Boy, Susan's adulthood and sexual maturity is portrayed in a positive light.

Despite initial skepticism that forced the Mexican government to finance the first eight hotels, Cancún soon attracted investors from all over the world, but approximately 70% of the Hotel Zone properties are owned by Mexicans, many of them local residents, Siegel says. But others oppose this view, arguing that the "lipsticks, nylons and invitations" quote is taken out of context and that Susan is excluded from Narnia in The Last Battle specifically because she no longer believes in it. Siegel who was the translator of Fernando Martí's "Cancun, Fantasy of Bankers," municipal authorities have struggled to provide public services for the constant influx of people, as well as to control squatters and irregular developments, which now occupy an estimated ten to fifteen percent of the mainland area on the fringes of the city, he says. Philip Pullman author of the His Dark Materials trilogy, interprets it this way:. Unfortunately, the original very sensible master plan was repeatedly modified and, on the mainland, often ignored. Rowling, author of the Harry Potter series, has said:. Development of Cancun started in 1970 and grew rapidly in the 1980s. J.K.

The belief that Cancun means "nido de viboras" (nest of snakes) is modern folklore, according to according to long-time resident Jules Siegel, author of the Cancun User's Guide. Lewis characterizes Susan as being "no longer a friend of Narnia" and interested "in nothing nowadays except lipstick, nylons and invitations". It is probable that some Yucatecan or Mexican Mayanist wrote the name as Cancu'en, which was turned into Cancún by someone at the predecessor of Fonatur, the Mexican government tourism development fund that created Cancun. Allegations of sexism centre around the description of Susan Pevensie in The Last Battle. The romanization of Mayan words varies, but it is common to use an apostrophe to indicate a kind of glottal stop. Lewis and the Chronicles of Narnia series have received various criticisms over the years, much of it by fellow authors. Cancuen refers to a snake totem, usually identified with Kukulcan or Quetzalcoatl (the Plumed Serpent). C.S.

There's also a site in Guatemala called Cancuen. In addition to appearances in mainstream pop-culture, references to Narnia are even more prevalent among Christian recording artists — for example, the Christian melodic metal band Narnia. The earliest known reference to Cancun called it Cancuen. Recently, Chris Parnell and Andy Samberg from Saturday Night Live did a skit where they rapped about a trip to see The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe at a movie theater. In the case of a two-syllable word, you would only use an accent to indicate that the stress falls on the first syllable, as in López. References to the lion Aslan, travelling via wardrobe, and direct references to The Chronicles of Narnia occur in books, television, songs, games and graphic novels. In Spanish, the accent usually falls on the second syllable. As one would expect with any popular, long lived work, references to The Chronicles of Narnia are relatively common in pop-culture.

The Spanish is not really correct either. The story uses several Narnian allegories to explore issues of religion and faith versus science and knowledge. This is probably a result of the fact that English-language type faces available in the early days of Cancun did not have accented characters, or the operators did not know how to access them because the keyboard codes were different from the ones they were accustomed to using. Science fiction author Greg Egan's short story 'Oracle' depicts a parallel universe with an author nicknamed "Jack" who has written novels about the fictional Kingdom of Nesica, and whose wife is dying of cancer. Although many international publications now spell Cancun as Cancún, in the area itself it is usually Cancún in Spanish and Cancun in English. Additionally, Gaiman's Sandman graphic novel series, in its story arc entitled "A Game of You", features a Narnia-like "dream island". On the opposite side of the island from the Caribbean Sea is Nichupte Lagoon, which is used for boat and snorkelling tours of the area. The short story The Problem of Susan[3] written by Neil Gaiman tells the story of Susan Pevensie long after the conclusion of Lewis' series (available in Flights: Extreme Visions of Fantasy edited by Al Sarrantonio).

A causeway was built to link Cancun to the mainland, and an international airport was built, along with what was at first a model city for workers, complete with housing, schools and medical facilities. Pullman's series favours science and reason over religion, wholly rejecting the themes of Christian theology which permeate the Narnia series, but has many of the same issues, subject matter, and types of characters (including talking animals) as the Chronicles of Narnia. The government of Mexico decided to develop a tourist resort on Cancun, which was originally financed by a USD $27 million loan from the Inter-American Development Bank. A more recent British series of novels, Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials, has been seen as an "answer" to the Narnia books. In the early 1950s Cancun was an almost unpopulated and undeveloped island just off the Caribbean Sea coast of the Yucatán peninsula, home to three caretakers of a coconut plantation and small Pre-Columbian ruins of the Maya civilization. (Ford 2005). The mainland downtown commercial section (Cancún City), connected to the island by two bridges, has broad avenues lined with whitewashed shops, restaurants, and hotels. However, since Lewis's first successes at Oxford were in the classics and ancient history, it is quite possible that he came across at least seven references to Narnia in Latin literature.

Cancún is divided into two parts: The narrow 23-kilometer-long (14-mile) island section (Cancún Island) is lined with modern beachfront hotels surrounded by the Bahía de Mujeres (Bay of Women), the Caribbean Sea, and the Nichupte and Bojorquez lagoons. According to Paul Ford's Companion to Narnia: There is no indication that Lewis was alluding to the ancient Umbrian city Nequinium, renamed Narnia (after the river Nar, a tributary of the Tiber) by the conquering Romans in 299 BC. The beaches are almost 100 percent limestone; the porous quality of the limestone makes for cool sand even under the intense tropical sun. The Inklings were also known to gather at a local pub, The Eagle and Child. The average temperature in Cancún is 27° C (80° F) with more than 240 days of sunshine, and rain is rare, with late August through early October being the rainy season. Lewis's college rooms at Magdalen College. . S.

It is the municipal seat of Benito Juárez municipality and a world renowned tourist resort. These readings and discussions were usually held on Thursday evenings in C. Cancún is a coastal city in Mexico's easternmost state, Quintana Roo. Readings and discussions of the members' unfinished works were the principal purposes of meetings. Wichita, Kansas, United States. Tolkien, Charles Williams and Hugo Dyson. Miami, Florida, United States. R.

R. Its members included such notables as J. Lewis was part of the Inklings, a literary discussion group associated with the University of Oxford, England. (Wilson 2005).

Some of these children stayed with Lewis at his home in Oxford. During World War II, many children were evacuated from London because of air raids. Like Caspian and Tirian, Lewis lost his mother at an early age, and like Edmund, Jill and Eustace, he spent a long, miserable time in English boarding schools. The house contained long hallways and empty rooms, and Lewis and his brother invented make-believe worlds while exploring their home.

Born in Belfast, Ireland in 1898, Lewis' family moved to a large house in the country when he was seven. Lewis' early life has echoes within the Chronicles. CS Lewis himself stated in an essay called Is Theism Important?:. Assuming that Lewis did indeed base aspects of The Chronicles of Narnia on the New Testament, Lewis might have, in fact, been infusing pagan symbolism, allegory, and supposition into The Chronicles of Narnia.

MacDonald, PhD, who teaches at the Claremont School of Theology, has written numerous books stating that portions of the New Testament are actually derived from Classical pagan Greek literature like the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer(MacDonald 2000), (MacDonald 2003) though the actual resemblance between the two are very mild, and in the stories are woven deep and unique biblical elements. A religious studies professor, Dennis R. [1] Joseph Campbell himself felt that the New Testament adhered to the archetypal monomyth and was but "one version of mythic stories that can be found in many cultures."[2] Both The Chronicles of Narnia and the New Testament are rife with Jungian archetypal imagery. Drew Trotter, PhD, president of the Center for Christian Study, noted that the producers of the film version of The Chronicles of Narnia felt that The Chronicles of Narnia closely follows the archetypal pattern of the monomyth as detailed in Joseph Campbell's The Hero With a Thousand Faces.

Therefore the Lion was was King over all in Narnia, including the pagan Gods, which is why many christians don't find the mythology offensive.[citation needed] In any case, most childrens fantasy contain mythological creatures.[citation needed]. (Chattaway 2005), (Berit 2005) According to Josh Hurst from Christianity Today, "not only was Lewis hesitant to call his books Christian allegory, but the stories borrow just as much from pagan mythology as they do the Bible."(Hurst 2005) However, the mythological creatures in the stories are portrayed just as normal an animal as all the other, real species talking animals, and not in a pagan-religious light.[citation needed] The Pagan Gods seem to be under the rule of Aslan (and not as great) and perhaps were supposed to be seen as mortal. Even an animistic "River god" is portrayed in a positive light. Satyrs, fauns, centaurs, dwarves, werewolves, giants, and even the pagan god Bacchus and the Maenads are depicted in a positive light, when they are distinctly pagan motifs.

There are many Christians who feel that The Chronicles of Narnia promotes soft sell paganism and occultism, because of the recurring pagan themes and the heretical depictions of Christ as an anthropomorphic lion. In the Bible, Jesus is also referred to as the Lion of the Tribe of Judea. The thorn is symbolic of the crown of thorns, and that Eustace pricked his paw is symbolic of how man put Christ on the cross. This is symbolic of how only Jesus's blood when he died on the cross could bring man to heaven (and give them life), and the water that purifies.

Aslan commands Eustace to prick his paw with a thorn, and Aslan lets the blood drop on Caspian, who in turn comes alive. Also, in The Silver Chair, the dead King Caspian is brought to Aslan's terriritory, where Caspian lay in a river. Christ was called the Lamb of God in Bible, and it is almost certain that he meant the name Jesus. In the 5th book in the series, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, Aslan turns from a lamb into a lion and tells the children that he brought them to Narnia to learn his other name on Earth.

Many parts of the books may seem rather out-of-place, but make sense in light of the symbolism they carry. (Kent 2005). Some Christians see the chronicles as excellent tools for Christian evangelism. Lewis, says flatly that Lewis has become "a pawn in America's culture wars" (Jacobs 2005).

(Toynbee 2005) Alan Jacobs, author of The Narnian: The Life and Imaginaton of C.S. Some find them distasteful, while noting that they are easy to miss if you are not familiar with Christianity. With the release of 2005 Disney movie there has been renewed interest in the Christian parallels found in the books. Hook in December of 1958:.

As he wrote in a letter to a Mrs. This is similar to what we would now call alternative history. Lewis, an expert on the subject of allegory, himself maintained that the books were not allegory, and preferred to call the Christian aspects of them "suppositional". As he wrote in Of Other Worlds:.

Although he did not set out to do so, in the process of writing his fantasy works, Lewis (an adult convert to Christianity) found himself incorporating Christian theological concepts into his stories. Because of this, The Chronicles of Narnia have become favourites with both children and adults, Christians and non-Christians. The Chronicles of Narnia contain many allusions to Christian ideas which are easily accessible to younger readers; however, the books are not weighty, and can be read for their adventure, colour, and mythological ideas alone. Ironically, Douglas Gresham, who pushed the publishers to reorder the books, is now the co-producer of the Narnia film series—which is being made in the original order.

For re-reading, as Lewis said, "perhaps it does not matter very much". It is important to keep in mind that this dispute only applies to the first reading of the books. This argument hinges partly on the claim that Chronology is not equivalent to Narrative. For this reason, many think that children are deprived of the mystery that could have existed for them had the original order been used.

Story events such as the creation story, the origin of the White Witch, the active wood of which the wardrobe is made, and the identity of the professor are all described before the reader knows much about Narnia or the story of the White Witch. Another argument put forth by fans of the original order is that an early reading of The Magician's Nephew spoils much of the wonder felt upon discovering Narnia through the wardrobe in LWW. and ends,. It begins,.

By contrast, in The Magician's Nephew, Lewis is filling in some of the back-story of the series. Prince Caspian, which is subtitled "The Return to Narnia", refers to "the other story". and the story ends,. For instance, in The Lion, when Aslan is first mentioned, Lewis says,.

(Brady 2005) It's clear from the texts that The Lion was the first book—and that The Magician's Nephew was not. Fans of the series who appreciate the original order believe that Lewis was only being polite to a child and that he could have changed the order in his lifetime had he so desired.
Gresham quoted Lewis's reply to a letter from an American fan in 1957 who was having an argument with his mother about the order:. When HarperCollins took over the series, the books were renumbered using the internal chronological order, as suggested by Lewis's stepson, Douglas Gresham.

The first American publisher, Macmillan, put numbers on the books in the order in which they were published. When the books were originally published, they were not numbered. Fans of the series often have strong opinions over the correct ordering of the books. Jill and Eustace are returned to Narnia to help save it from treacherous invaders and a false Aslan.

Published in 1956 and awarded the Carnegie Medal, The Last Battle chronicles the end of the world of Narnia. Many mysteries of Narnia are revealed as another group of children stumble into Narnia via an entirely different route. Published in 1955, the prequel The Magician's Nephew brings us back to the very beginning of Narnia where we learn how Aslan created the world and how evil first entered it. This chronicle is set during the reign of the Pevensie Children as Kings and Queens of Narnia.

On their journey they discover that the Calormenes are about to invade Narnia and sound the alarm. By chance, one day they meet and plan their return to Narnia and freedom. Published in 1954, The Horse and His Boy tells the story of Bree, a talking horse, and Shasta, a young boy, who have been held in bondage in a country to the South of Narnia. Eustace and Jill face danger before finding Rilian and breaking him free from the spell of the Emerald Witch.

There they are given four clues to find Prince Rilian who is missing. Instead, Aslan calls Eustace back to Narnia together with his fellow student Jill Pole. Published in 1953, The Silver Chair is the first book without the Pevensie children. This perilous journey brings them face to face with many wonders and dangers as they sail toward Aslan's country at the end of the world.

Once there they accompany King Caspian on a voyage to find the seven lords who were banished when Caspian's evil uncle Miraz stole the throne. Published in 1952, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader returns Edmund and Lucy Pevensie, along with their priggish cousin, Eustace Scrubb, to Narnia. The four children help the young Prince Caspian organize his army of Talking Beasts, and, with the help of the great lion Aslan, Narnia is once more freed of evil. This foreign ruler has tried to kill off the magical creatures of Narnia, but there are still many hiding in the remote corners of the land.

Published in 1951, Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia tells the story of the Pevensie children's second trip to Narnia where they discover that an evil king from Telmar has taken control of Narnia. The tale culminates in an epic battle against the forces of the witch. They are helped in their quest by several creatures, including Aslan the Lion, the guardian of Narnia. They discover that a professor's wardrobe leads to the magical land of Narnia, and help to save it from the evil White Witch.

Lewis, tells the story of four ordinary children, Peter, Susan, Edmund and Lucy Pevensie. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, published in 1950 by C.S. (Guthmann 2005). Lewis' works having sold more than 95 million copies in 41 languages.

They are by far the most popular of C.S. The books that make up The Chronicles of Narnia are presented below in the order in which they were originally published (see reading order below). . The Chronicles present the adventures of children who play central roles in the unfolding history of the realm of Narnia, a place where animals talk, magic is common, and good is fighting evil.

Pauline Baynes illustrated the original books in the series. The books have been adapted for radio, television, stage and cinema. Written by Lewis between 1950 and 1956, The Chronicles of Narnia contains Christian themes and borrows from Greek and Roman mythology as well as traditional English and Irish fairy tales. More than 95 million copies of the books have been sold in 41 languages.

It is considered a classic of children's literature and is perhaps the author's best known work. Lewis. The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children written by C.S. Campbell, Joseph (1972), The Hero With a Thousand Faces, ISBN 0691017840.

Campbell, Joseph (1991), The Masks of God: Occidental Mythology, ISBN 014019441X. Hurst, Josh (2005), Nine Minutes of Narnia, Christianity Today. (2005), Narnia 'baptizes' - and defends - pagan mythology, Canadian Christianity, ISBN. Chattaway, Peter T.

(2003), Does the New Testament Imitate Homer?, IISBN 0300097700. MacDonald, Dennis R. (2000), The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark, IISBN 0300080123. MacDonald, Dennis R.

Kjos, Berit (2005), Narnia: Blending Truth and Myth, Kjos Ministries. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 0802808689. B. (1994), God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics, Wm.

Lewis, C.S. Jacobs, Alan (2005), "The professor, the Christian, and the storyteller", The Boston Globe. Guthmann, Edward (2005), "'Narnia' tries to cash in on dual audience", San Francisco Chronicle. Wilson, Tracy (2005), "How Narnia Works", How Stuff Works.

Ford, Paul (2005), Companion to Narnia, Revised Edition, Harper, SanFrancisco, ISBN 0-0607-9127-6. Brady, Erik (2005), "A Closer Look at the World of 'Narnia'", The USA Today. Gopnik, Adam (2005), "Prisoner of Narnia", The New Yorker. November/December.

Kent, Keri Wyatt (2005), "Talking Narnia to Your Neighbors", Christianity Today, no. Toynbee, Polly (2005), "Narnia represents everything that is most hateful about religion", The Guardian. OConnor, Kyrie (2005), "5th Narnia book may not see big screen", The Indianapolis Star. Rilstone, Andrew (2005), "Lipstick on My Scholar", The Life and Opinions of Andrew Rilstone.

(2005), "The Problem with Susan", Parabolic Extensions. Anderson, R.J. Swinton, Tilda (2005), "Narnia Christian link played down", BBC News. 4.

166, no. Rowling Hogwarts And All", Time, vol. Grossman, Lev (2005), "J.K. B14.

15, pp. 52, no. Nelson, Michael (2005), "For the Love of Narnia", The Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. Lewis's books are racist and misogynist", The Independent(London).

Hensher, Philip (1998), "Don't let your children go to Narnia: C.S. Pullman, Philip (1998), "The Darkside of Narnia", The Guardian [11]. Smith, Neil (2005), "Narnia Christian link played down", BBC News. Lewis' Letters to Children, Scribner, ISBN 0-6848-2372-1.

S. Dorsett, Lyle & Mead, Marjorie (1996), C. Martindale, Wayne & Root, Jerry (1990), The Quotable Lewis, Tyndale House, ISBN 0-8423-5115-9. HarperSanFrancisco, 2005.

Lewis. The Narnian: The Life and Imagination of C.S. Jacobs, Alan. Progeny Press, 2003.

Prince Caspian Study Guide. Progeny Press, 1997. The Magician's Nephew Study Guide. Progeny Press, 1993.

The Lion, Witch & Wardrobe Study Guide. Teacher Created Resources, 2000. A Guide for Using The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe in the Classroom. For Dummies, 2005.

Lewis & Narnia For Dummies. C.S. Wagner, Richard. W Publishing Group, 2005.

The Heart of the Chronicles of Narnia: Knowing God Here by Finding Him There. Williams, Thomas. Tyndale House Publishers, 2005. Finding God in the Land of Narnia.

Bruner, Kurt & Ware, Jim. Crossway Books, 2003. Lewis's the Chronicles of Narnia. A Family Guide to Narnia: Biblical Truths in C.S.

Ditchfield, Christin. HarperSanFrancisco, revised edition 2005. Companion to Narnia, Revised Edition. Ford, Paul.

InterVarsity Press, 2004. A Field Guide to Narnia. Duriez, Colin.

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