Cancún

Satellite photo of Cancún

Cancún is a coastal city in Mexico's easternmost state, Quintana Roo. It is the municipal seat of Benito Juárez municipality and a world renowned tourist resort.

Geography

The average temperature in Cancún is 27° C (80° F) with more than 240 days of sunshine, and rain is rare, with late August through early October being the rainy season. The beaches are almost 100 percent limestone; the porous quality of the limestone makes for cool sand even under the intense tropical sun. Cancún is divided into two parts: The narrow 23-kilometer-long (14-mile) island section (Cancún Island) is lined with modern beachfront hotels surrounded by the Bahía de Mujeres (Bay of Women), the Caribbean Sea, and the Nichupte and Bojorquez lagoons. The mainland downtown commercial section (Cancún City), connected to the island by two bridges, has broad avenues lined with whitewashed shops, restaurants, and hotels.

History

In the early 1950s Cancun was an almost unpopulated and undeveloped island just off the Caribbean Sea coast of the Yucatán peninsula, home to three caretakers of a coconut plantation and small Pre-Columbian ruins of the Maya civilization. The government of Mexico decided to develop a tourist resort on Cancun, which was originally financed by a USD $27 million loan from the Inter-American Development Bank. A causeway was built to link Cancun to the mainland, and an international airport was built, along with what was at first a model city for workers, complete with housing, schools and medical facilities. On the opposite side of the island from the Caribbean Sea is Nichupte Lagoon, which is used for boat and snorkelling tours of the area.

Although many international publications now spell Cancun as Cancún, in the area itself it is usually Cancún in Spanish and Cancun in English. This is probably a result of the fact that English-language type faces available in the early days of Cancun did not have accented characters, or the operators did not know how to access them because the keyboard codes were different from the ones they were accustomed to using. The Spanish is not really correct either. In Spanish, the accent usually falls on the second syllable. In the case of a two-syllable word, you would only use an accent to indicate that the stress falls on the first syllable, as in López.

The earliest known reference to Cancun called it Cancuen. There's also a site in Guatemala called Cancuen. Cancuen refers to a snake totem, usually identified with Kukulcan or Quetzalcoatl (the Plumed Serpent). The romanization of Mayan words varies, but it is common to use an apostrophe to indicate a kind of glottal stop. It is probable that some Yucatecan or Mexican Mayanist wrote the name as Cancu'en, which was turned into Cancún by someone at the predecessor of Fonatur, the Mexican government tourism development fund that created Cancun. The belief that Cancun means "nido de viboras" (nest of snakes) is modern folklore, according to according to long-time resident Jules Siegel, author of the Cancun User's Guide.

Development of Cancun started in 1970 and grew rapidly in the 1980s. Unfortunately, the original very sensible master plan was repeatedly modified and, on the mainland, often ignored. Siegel who was the translator of Fernando Martí's "Cancun, Fantasy of Bankers," municipal authorities have struggled to provide public services for the constant influx of people, as well as to control squatters and irregular developments, which now occupy an estimated ten to fifteen percent of the mainland area on the fringes of the city, he says.

Despite initial skepticism that forced the Mexican government to finance the first eight hotels, Cancún soon attracted investors from all over the world, but approximately 70% of the Hotel Zone properties are owned by Mexicans, many of them local residents, Siegel says. The figure is close to 100% for the mainland. Some observers believe that the resort is foreign-owned because they are confused by the hotel operating companies, which are international companies that supply administration and marketing services. They do not usually own the hotels themselves. Even outlets of restaurant chains such as McDonald's and Domino's Pizza are Mexican-owned.

The city has grown rapidly over the past thirty years to become a city of approximately 750,000 residents, covering the former island and the nearby mainland. Most 'cancunenses' here are from Yucatán and other Mexican states. A growing number are from the rest of America and Europe.

The city Cancun and its flourishing tourism industry were heavily damaged by Hurricane Wilma, which hit the area on October 22, 2005.

Environmental concerns

Although some environmentalists claim that Cancún is an environmental disaster, Siegel says that is not true. There has obviously been environmental damage and the situation could deteriorate rapidly, he reports, but at present (February 2005) Cancún's main problem is a breakdown of garbage collection and disposal as a result of political conflicts that will hopefully be solved by a new administration elected February 6, 2005. Sewage treatment is another danger point, he says. Although approximately 75% of the city has public sewer lines, many homes rely on septic tanks. The underground water table is beginning to show symptoms of contamination, but by the standards of most populated areas in the United States the water is still relatively clean.

"You can see the bottom of the Caribbean off Cancún in satellite photographs," Siegel says. He discusses this and other issues at length on his website, http://www.cafecancun.com.

Tourism in Cancún

The beach in Cancún

In Cancún there are about 140 hotels with 24,000 rooms and 380 restaurants. Four million visitors arrive each year in an average of 190 flights daily. The hotel zone is one of the most exclusive internationally, with upmarket restaurants, bars, and the like which have catered for quite a number of the rich and famous. The hotel zone tends to be rather expensive as it is aimed at visitors and relies on the all inclusive hotels to keep them all in this area allowing prices to soar. Downtown is home to less expensive places to shop like Walmart, Comercial Mexicana and Soriana, not to mention several flea markets like the one in the hotel zone.

Around March and April, Cancún experiences a flood of college students (usually from the United States) who travel to Cancún to party. For just about all of these students, drinking alcohol is usually the reason why they come to Cancún. The drinking age in Mexico is 18; while in the United States, it is 21.

Downtown Cancún gives us a different aspect. There are also many clubs for all types of people, including gay clubs like Karamba or Glow, but the hotels are more accessible to all types of travelers, including some with lower rates. International brands in Downtown area are Radisson Hacienda Cancún, Best Western Plaza Caribe, Oasis America.

Ruins in Cancún

The temperature of the city is warm, moderated by the marine breeze which circulates through its avenues. The temperatures are typically between 26°C and 36°C (78.8°F and 96.8°F).

Cancún's hotel zone also has an interactive aquarium where visitors can see the marine diversity of the area, swim with dolphins and feed sharks. Here and there in the hotel zone are some ancient ruins.

The main language in Cancún is Spanish, although English is widely spoken throughout the tourist areas. Mayan dialects are also spoken between some workers and people born in the Yucatán peninsula.

Cancún is served by Cancún International Airport.

Hurricane Wilma

Wilma was the twenty-first named storm, twelfth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was also the third Category 5 hurricane of the season, beating the records set by the 1960 and 1961 seasons. At its peak, it was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin and the tenth most intense globally, with the lowest atmospheric pressure ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere of 882 millibars (26.05 inHg) at sea level, exceeding the record previously held by Hurricane Gilbert that also impacted the Peninsula of Yucatán some years ago.

Visible image of Hurricane Wilma near record intensity with a central pressure of 882 millibars. Image captured by satellite at 1315Z (9:15 EDT) on October 19, 2005.

On October 21, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula as a powerful Category 4 hurricane, with winds in excess of 150 mph. The hurricane's eye first passed over the island of Cozumel, and then made an official landfall near Playa del Carmen in the state of Quintana Roo at around midnight on October 22 EDT with winds near 140 mph. Portions of the island of Cozumel experienced the calm eye of Wilma for several hours with some blue skies and sunshine visible at times. The eye slowly drifted northward, with the center passing just to the west of Cancún, Quintana Roo. Some portions of the Yucatán Peninsula experienced hurricane force winds for well over 24 hours. The hurricane began accelerating in the early morning hours of October 23, exiting the northeastern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula and entering the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 storm.

Wilma made several landfalls, with the most destructive effects felt in the Yucatán Peninsula, particularly in Cancun. At least three deaths have been reported, numerous people have disappeared, and the insured damage is estimated at between US$5 and US$8 billion. The devastation was almost total with many of the principal roadways from the Hotel Zone completely flooded and damaged. It has been estimated that 95% of the tourism infrastructure was seriously damaged. Once the storm left the peninsula, some of the beautiful beaches of Cancun had been washed away. Thousands of local and foreign tourists were hosted in improvised refuges. All the Airport and Harbor Operations were cancelled between October 21 to the 25 due to the worst weather conditions.

Photo taken from the balcony of a Cancún hotel at the height of the storm.

It is estimated that after Wilma left Cancun, the local tourist industry lost over US $15 Million daily. Many houses were devastated, and many jobs were lost. However, thanks to the aid and support of local and state governments, the federal government, the Red Cross, and civil associations. reconstruction has been possible. American actor Mel Gibson donated an important amount of money to help the people in distress.

There was an exhaustive campaign by the media that featured public figures, including the President Vicente Fox, actors, musicians, etc. to aid people who suffered. The people's response was immediate and impresionant. People from all social strata helped carry water bottles to donate money in special bank accounts that principal banks created. It was estimated that Cancun will be completely ready to face the demanding vacationist wave on December 2005.

Today, Cancun once more lives and remains an attractive option to local and foreign tourists from all over the world.

Sister cities

  • Miami, Florida, United States
  • Wichita, Kansas, United States

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Today, Cancun once more lives and remains an attractive option to local and foreign tourists from all over the world. Many people outside of those circles view those works as being too focused on the American anime subculture, and not focused enough on telling stories that resonate with a wider audience. It was estimated that Cancun will be completely ready to face the demanding vacationist wave on December 2005. For the most part, these artists are not yet recognized outside of the anime and manga fan community. People from all social strata helped carry water bottles to donate money in special bank accounts that principal banks created. Many of these have their own small publishing houses, and some webcomics and webmanga in this style have become very popular (see Megatokyo). The people's response was immediate and impresionant. In addition, there are many amateur artists who are influenced exclusively by the manga style.

to aid people who suffered. While the movement also involves Japanese artists, a handful of French cartoonists other than Boilet have decided to embrace its ideal. There was an exhaustive campaign by the media that featured public figures, including the President Vicente Fox, actors, musicians, etc. In France there is a "Nouvelle Manga" movement started by Frédéric Boilet which seeks to combine mature sophisticated daily life manga with the artistic style of traditional Franco-Belgian comics. American actor Mel Gibson donated an important amount of money to help the people in distress. As a result his work features a strong influence from manga without influences from international otaku culture. reconstruction has been possible. as Heavy Liquid.

However, thanks to the aid and support of local and state governments, the federal government, the Red Cross, and civil associations. Before he was fired (due to an editorial change at Kodansha) he was developing many ideas for the anthology that he would later publish in the U.S. Many houses were devastated, and many jobs were lost. American artist Paul Pope worked in Japan for Kodansha on the manga anthology Afternoon. It is estimated that after Wilma left Cancun, the local tourist industry lost over US $15 Million daily. These artists have their roots in the anime/manga subculture of their particular regions. All the Airport and Harbor Operations were cancelled between October 21 to the 25 due to the worst weather conditions. These artists have many other influences that make their work more palatable to non-manga readers.

Thousands of local and foreign tourists were hosted in improvised refuges. Other artists such as Americans Brian Wood and Becky Cloonan (Demo) and Canadian Bryan Lee O'Malley (Lost At Sea) are heavily influenced by the mainstream manga style and have received acclaim for their work outside of anime/manga fan circles. Once the storm left the peninsula, some of the beautiful beaches of Cancun had been washed away. American alternative comics artists such as Frank Miller and Scott McCloud were somewhat influenced by manga in a few of their works. It has been estimated that 95% of the tourism infrastructure was seriously damaged. Manga has long had an influence on international comics and animation the world over. The devastation was almost total with many of the principal roadways from the Hotel Zone completely flooded and damaged. Many of these genres apply equally well to anime (which very often includes adaptations of manga) and Japanese computer games (some of which are also adaptations of manga).

At least three deaths have been reported, numerous people have disappeared, and the insured damage is estimated at between US$5 and US$8 billion. Some dōjinshi continue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction. Wilma made several landfalls, with the most destructive effects felt in the Yucatán Peninsula, particularly in Cancun. Unofficial fan made comics are also called dōjinshi. The hurricane began accelerating in the early morning hours of October 23, exiting the northeastern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula and entering the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 storm. Comiket, the largest comic book convention in the world with over 400,000 gathering in 3 days, is devoted to dōjinshi. Some portions of the Yucatán Peninsula experienced hurricane force winds for well over 24 hours. Dōjinshi is produced by small amateur publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market in a similar fashion to small-press independently published comic books in the United States.

The eye slowly drifted northward, with the center passing just to the west of Cancún, Quintana Roo. "sketches"). Portions of the island of Cozumel experienced the calm eye of Wilma for several hours with some blue skies and sunshine visible at times. They might also publish their unfinished drawings or sketches, known as oekaki (lit. The hurricane's eye first passed over the island of Cozumel, and then made an official landfall near Playa del Carmen in the state of Quintana Roo at around midnight on October 22 EDT with winds near 140 mph. "bonus" or "extra"). On October 21, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula as a powerful Category 4 hurricane, with winds in excess of 150 mph. Some manga artists will produce extra, sometimes unrelated material, which are known as omake (lit.

At its peak, it was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin and the tenth most intense globally, with the lowest atmospheric pressure ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere of 882 millibars (26.05 inHg) at sea level, exceeding the record previously held by Hurricane Gilbert that also impacted the Peninsula of Yucatán some years ago. Some publishers of translated manga keep that format, but some switch the direction to left to right, so as not to confuse Western readers. It was also the third Category 5 hurricane of the season, beating the records set by the 1960 and 1961 seasons. Traditionally, manga are written from right to left. Wilma was the twenty-first named storm, twelfth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Many things appear in manga format, including wanted posters for criminals. Cancún is served by Cancún International Airport. At a manga kissaten, people drink coffee and read manga.

Mayan dialects are also spoken between some workers and people born in the Yucatán peninsula. Japan also has manga cafés, or manga kissaten. The main language in Cancún is Spanish, although English is widely spoken throughout the tourist areas. In particular, books and magazines sold to boys (shōnen) and girls (shōjo) have distinctive cover art and are placed on different shelves in most bookstores. Here and there in the hotel zone are some ancient ruins. Manga are primarily classified by the age and gender of the target audience. Cancún's hotel zone also has an interactive aquarium where visitors can see the marine diversity of the area, swim with dolphins and feed sharks. Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen each to compete with the used book market.

The temperatures are typically between 26°C and 36°C (78.8°F and 96.8°F). Recently, "deluxe" versions have also been printed as readers have gotten older and the need for something special grew. The temperature of the city is warm, moderated by the marine breeze which circulates through its avenues. These volumes use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive. International brands in Downtown area are Radisson Hacienda Cancún, Best Western Plaza Caribe, Oasis America. When a series has been running for a while, the stories are usually collected together and printed in dedicated book-sized volumes, called tankōbon. There are also many clubs for all types of people, including gay clubs like Karamba or Glow, but the hotels are more accessible to all types of travelers, including some with lower rates. If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued.

Downtown Cancún gives us a different aspect. Manga artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their name out. The drinking age in Mexico is 18; while in the United States, it is 21. Manga series can run for many years if they are successful. For just about all of these students, drinking alcohol is usually the reason why they come to Cancún. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). Around March and April, Cancún experiences a flood of college students (usually from the United States) who travel to Cancún to party. These manga magazines, or "anthology magazines", as they are also known (colloquially "phone books"), are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages long.

Downtown is home to less expensive places to shop like Walmart, Comercial Mexicana and Soriana, not to mention several flea markets like the one in the hotel zone. Manga magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue. The hotel zone tends to be rather expensive as it is aimed at visitors and relies on the all inclusive hotels to keep them all in this area allowing prices to soar. The Tenchi series in particular is known for this; there are more than thirteen different unrelated story arcs based around Tenchi and his friends. The hotel zone is one of the most exclusive internationally, with upmarket restaurants, bars, and the like which have catered for quite a number of the rich and famous. in one set of stories ("story arc") only to have another story arc run where the same characters do not know each other. Four million visitors arrive each year in an average of 190 flights daily. So a set of characters may build relationships, jobs, etc.

In Cancún there are about 140 hotels with 24,000 rooms and 380 restaurants. A fair number of manga artists do not feel that their stories and characters are set in stone. He discusses this and other issues at length on his website, http://www.cafecancun.com. Being a very diverse artform, however, not all manga artists adhere to the conventions most popularized in the west through anime such as Akira, Sailor Moon, Dragon Ball Z, and Ranma ½. "You can see the bottom of the Caribbean off Cancún in satellite photographs," Siegel says. Large eyes have become a permanent fixture in manga and anime since the 1960s when Osamu Tezuka(see above) started drawing them in this way, mimicking the style of Disney cartoons from the United States. The underground water table is beginning to show symptoms of contamination, but by the standards of most populated areas in the United States the water is still relatively clean. While the art can be incredibly realistic or cartoonish, it is often noted that the characters look "Western", or have large eyes.

Although approximately 75% of the city has public sewer lines, many homes rely on septic tanks. Panels and pages are typically read from right to left, consistent with traditional Japanese writing. Sewage treatment is another danger point, he says. Emphasis is often placed on line over form, and the storytelling and panel placement differs from those in Western comics. There has obviously been environmental damage and the situation could deteriorate rapidly, he reports, but at present (February 2005) Cancún's main problem is a breakdown of garbage collection and disposal as a result of political conflicts that will hopefully be solved by a new administration elected February 6, 2005. The popular and recognizable style of manga is very distinctive. Although some environmentalists claim that Cancún is an environmental disaster, Siegel says that is not true. However, there have been no official inquiries or laws trying to limit what can be drawn in manga, except for vague decency laws applying to all published materials, stating that "overly indecent materials should not be sold." This freedom has allowed artists to draw manga for every age group and for about every topic.

The city Cancun and its flourishing tourism industry were heavily damaged by Hurricane Wilma, which hit the area on October 22, 2005. For example, a number of film adaptation of manga such as Ichi the Killer or Old Boys were rated Restricted or Mature in the west. A growing number are from the rest of America and Europe. Like its American counterpart, some manga has been criticized for being violent and sexual. Most 'cancunenses' here are from Yucatán and other Mexican states. Manga is well respected both as an art form and as a form of popular literature though it has not reached acceptance of "higher" art genre like film or music. The city has grown rapidly over the past thirty years to become a city of approximately 750,000 residents, covering the former island and the nearby mainland. Several major manga magazines sell several million copies each per week.

Even outlets of restaurant chains such as McDonald's and Domino's Pizza are Mexican-owned. In economic terms, a weekly sales of comics in Japan outsell entire annual output of the American comic industry. They do not usually own the hotels themselves. Though roughly equivalent to the American comic book, manga holds more importance in Japanese culture than comics do in American culture. Some observers believe that the resort is foreign-owned because they are confused by the hotel operating companies, which are international companies that supply administration and marketing services. The most famous gekiga style manga in the West is Akira. The figure is close to 100% for the mainland. Eventually, gekiga was absorbed into manga and now are used to describe manga style which does not use cartoonish drawing.

Despite initial skepticism that forced the Mexican government to finance the first eight hotels, Cancún soon attracted investors from all over the world, but approximately 70% of the Hotel Zone properties are owned by Mexicans, many of them local residents, Siegel says. However, gekiga's rental business model eventually died out in the 1970s, while comic artists in manga format significantly improved their graphic quality and story. Siegel who was the translator of Fernando Martí's "Cancun, Fantasy of Bankers," municipal authorities have struggled to provide public services for the constant influx of people, as well as to control squatters and irregular developments, which now occupy an estimated ten to fifteen percent of the mainland area on the fringes of the city, he says. For this reason, gekiga was considered to be much more artistically superior. Unfortunately, the original very sensible master plan was repeatedly modified and, on the mainland, often ignored. Gekiga on the other hand did not have any deadline so the artist could use much more detailed drawing and more realistic portraial of character with a greatly complex and mature story line. Development of Cancun started in 1970 and grew rapidly in the 1980s. Consequently, most manga artist adopted Tezuka-style drawing where characters are drawn in a simpler but exagerated manner - most typified by large round eyes which is regarded as a defining feature of Japanese comic in the west.

The belief that Cancun means "nido de viboras" (nest of snakes) is modern folklore, according to according to long-time resident Jules Siegel, author of the Cancun User's Guide. Manga was based on weekly or biweekly magazine publications so the demand for prompt production and deadline was paramount. It is probable that some Yucatecan or Mexican Mayanist wrote the name as Cancu'en, which was turned into Cancún by someone at the predecessor of Fonatur, the Mexican government tourism development fund that created Cancun. The other, gekiga, was based on a rental format, much in the same line as the modern movie rental systems. The romanization of Mayan words varies, but it is common to use an apostrophe to indicate a kind of glottal stop. One, the manga format, was based on sales of comic magazine. Cancuen refers to a snake totem, usually identified with Kukulcan or Quetzalcoatl (the Plumed Serpent). Between the 1960s and the 1970s, there were two forms of comic serialisation.

There's also a site in Guatemala called Cancuen. Another important trend in manga was gekiga. The earliest known reference to Cancun called it Cancuen. He also mentored a number of important comic artists, such as Fujiko Fujio (creator of Doraemon), Akatuka Fujio and Shotaro Ishinomori. In the case of a two-syllable word, you would only use an accent to indicate that the stress falls on the first syllable, as in López. His qualification as a medical doctor as well as his serious story lines were used to deflect criticism that manga was vulgar and undesirable for children. In Spanish, the accent usually falls on the second syllable. Tezuka also contributed to the social acceptace of manga.

The Spanish is not really correct either. As the manga generation of children grew up, the market for comics expanded accordingly and manga soon become a major cultural force of Japan. This is probably a result of the fact that English-language type faces available in the early days of Cancun did not have accented characters, or the operators did not know how to access them because the keyboard codes were different from the ones they were accustomed to using. Some criticise Tezuka's somewhat excessive use of tragic dramatisation in his stories. Although many international publications now spell Cancun as Cancún, in the area itself it is usually Cancún in Spanish and Cancun in English. Hyakkimaru in Dororo was born severly crippled because his father offered 48 parts of Dororo's infant body to 48 demons. On the opposite side of the island from the Caribbean Sea is Nichupte Lagoon, which is used for boat and snorkelling tours of the area. Kimba's father was killed by human hunters and the theme of conflict between man and nature was a reccuring theme for the comic.

A causeway was built to link Cancun to the mainland, and an international airport was built, along with what was at first a model city for workers, complete with housing, schools and medical facilities. Atom (Astro Boy) was created by a grieving scientist trying to create an imitation of his dead son, who then later abandoned the boy. The government of Mexico decided to develop a tourist resort on Cancun, which was originally financed by a USD $27 million loan from the Inter-American Development Bank. Most of his comics' central characters had a tragic background. In the early 1950s Cancun was an almost unpopulated and undeveloped island just off the Caribbean Sea coast of the Yucatán peninsula, home to three caretakers of a coconut plantation and small Pre-Columbian ruins of the Maya civilization. Though he is known in the West as a creator of the children's animation Astro Boy, many of his comics had some very mature and sometimes dark undertones. The mainland downtown commercial section (Cancún City), connected to the island by two bridges, has broad avenues lined with whitewashed shops, restaurants, and hotels. It is often commented that any manga genre which Tezuka did not create was done by someone who was desperately trying to find something Tezuka wasn't doing.

Cancún is divided into two parts: The narrow 23-kilometer-long (14-mile) island section (Cancún Island) is lined with modern beachfront hotels surrounded by the Bahía de Mujeres (Bay of Women), the Caribbean Sea, and the Nichupte and Bojorquez lagoons. Dororo, Mitumega Tooru.). The beaches are almost 100 percent limestone; the porous quality of the limestone makes for cool sand even under the intense tropical sun. Astro Boy), horror (eg. The average temperature in Cancún is 27° C (80° F) with more than 240 days of sunshine, and rain is rare, with late August through early October being the rainy season. Black Jack) to science fiction (eg. . Kimba the White Lion (Jungle Emperor Leo)) to serious drama (eg.

It is the municipal seat of Benito Juárez municipality and a world renowned tourist resort. His manga series cover from action adventure (eg. Cancún is a coastal city in Mexico's easternmost state, Quintana Roo. Tezuka adopted his comic to almost all film genres at the time. Wichita, Kansas, United States. Soon, it became a specialised weekly or monthly comic magazine, which is now the foundation of the Japanese comic industry. Miami, Florida, United States. Initially, his comic was published in a children's magazine.

This somewhat revived the old ukiyo-e like tradition where the picture is a projection of an idea rather than actual physical reality. Tezuka also adopted Disney like facial feature where eyes, mouth, eyebrows or nose are drawn in a very exagerated manner to add more distinct characterisation with fewer lines which made his prolific output possible. Moreover, each of the pictures in pages flow from top right to bottom left so that people could see and read comic in speed reading manner (note that vertical Japanese is written in top-right down to bottom left order). And just like film, the only text in Tezuka's comic was character's spoken line.

Tezuka introduced film like story telling and character in comic format in which each short-film like episode is part of larger story arch. Before Tezuka, most Japanese comics were drawn on one or four picture format dealing with social or political satire or humour. He later commented that a part of reason he went to medical school was to avoid conscription and he actually didn't like seeing blood. Tezuka was greatly inspired by the film and later decided to become a comic artist, which at the time (and somewhat even now) was an unthinkable choice for someone who qualified as a medical doctor and Ph.D in medicine.

Though a war propaganda film, it was also a children's film, so the main theme of the film was peace and hope in the time of darkness. In 1945, Tezuka who was studying medicine, saw a war propaganda animation film called "Momotarou Uminokaihei" whose style was largely copied from Disney's Fantasia. Osamu Tezuka, widely acknowledged to be the father of story-based manga, became popular. Manga as people know it in the 20th and 21st centuries only really came into being after Dr.

Manga at this period was known as Ponchi-e (Punch-picture) and, like its British counterpart Punch magazine, mainly depicted humour and political satire in short 1 or 4 picture format. Thus, they imported Western artists to teach their students things such as line, form and colour (things which were never concentrated on in ukiyo-e as the idea behind the picture was normally considered more important). When the United States began trading with Japan, Japan tried to modernise itself and catch up with the rest of the world. Manga developed from a mixture of ukiyo-e and Western art movements.

However, gi-ga (literally "funny pictures") drawn in the 12th century by various artists contain many manga-like qualities such as emphasis on story and simple, artistic lines. The word first came into common usage after the publication of the 19th century Hokusai manga, containing assorted drawings from the sketchbook of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. Literally translated, manga means "random (or whimsical) pictures". .

Stories are often modified to appeal to a more mainstream market. A small amount of the total Manga output of Japan is adapted into anime, which is usually created afterwards, once a market interest has been established. It comes mainly in black and white, except for the covers and maybe the first few pages. Manga developed from a mixture of ukiyo-e and Western styles of drawing, and took its current form shortly after World War II.

Manga (漫画) is the Japanese word for comics and/or cartoons it usually refers specifically to Japanese comics. Mangaka (漫画家) Literally "Manga professional" is a Japanese term for a manga author/artist. It is also commonly called コミック(komikku, from comic) in Japanese. Because nouns in Japanese do not have a plural form, manga is the form for both plural and singular.

Densha Otoko (Comedy/Drama). MONSTER (Horror/Drama). Lone Wolf and Cub (Samurai Drama). Ghost in the Shell (Sci-Fi).

Blade of the Immortal (Samurai Drama). Berserk (Medieval/Fantasy). Angel Densetsu (Drama). Oh My Goddess! (Fantasy/Action).

Akira (Sci-Fi). 3x3 Eyes (Mythology/Comedy/Horror). Bishoujo Senshi Sailormoon (fantasy/romance/action). Cardcaptor Sakura(Action/Fantasy).

X/1999 (Paranormal). Revolutionary Girl Utena (Action/Drama). Please Save My Earth (Sci-fi/Drama). Marmalade Boy (Comedy/Romance/Drama).

Kareshi Kanojo no Jijō) (Comedy/Romance/Drama). Kare Kano (His and Her Circumstances a.k.a. Hana-Kimi (Hanazakari no Kimi-tachi e) (Comedy/Romance/Drama). Fruits Basket (Comedy/Romance/Paranormal).

Boys Over Flowers (Hana Yori Dango) (Drama/Romance). Ceres, Celestial Legend (Ayashi no Ceres) (Paranormal/Romance). Nana (Drama/Romance). Inuyasha (action/adventure/comedy).

Saint Seiya (Mythological/Adventure/Action). Rurouni Kenshin (Historical Fiction/Romantic Comedy/Action). Negima (Harem/Magic/Comedy). Great Teacher Onizuka (High School Comedy/Action).

Dragon Ball (Super-Powered Martial Arts). One Piece (Pirate Action/Comedy). Samurai Deeper Kyo (Samurai Epic). Naruto (Fantasy/Ninja).

Fullmetal Alchemist (Action/Adventure/Comedy). Bleach (Action/Adventure/Fantasy). Shōnen-ai (or Yaoi, gay romance). Shōjo-ai (or Yuri, lesbian romance).

Moé (also mahō kanojo or magical girlfriend). Mecha (giant robots). Magical girl (mahō shōjo). Dōjinshi Fan-art or self-published manga.

Battling companion (not an official name). Semi-alternative (popular publication individualistic style). La nouvelle manga (Franco-Belgian/Japanese artistic movement). Gekiga (dramatic pictures).

Alternative (See also: Garo)

    . Shōnen young and teenage boys. Shōjo young and teenage girls. Seinen men.

    Kodomo children. Josei (or redikomi) women.

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