Call of Duty 2

Call of Duty 2 is a first-person shooter video game and sequel to the critically acclaimed game, Call of Duty. It was developed by Infinity Ward, with contributions from Pi Studios, and was published by Activision on October 25, 2005 for the PC and November 22, 2005 for the Xbox 360. Call of Duty 2 takes place during World War II and features three campaigns where the player can be a soldier for the Soviet Army, the British Army, or the American Army. There is a Zboard available for the PC version of this game.

Call of Duty 2 was the highest selling Xbox 360 launch title selling 250,000 units in its first week of availability [1].

A single player demo featuring a mission in El Daba, Egypt (entitled "The End of the Beginning") from a British perspective was released on September 26, 2005. A special DVD Collectors' Edition also exists, which includes 'making of' documentaries and interviews.

Overview

Call of Duty 2 was designed with the intent to be less linear than its predecessor, with notably more open-ended environments and less scripted events that were a prominent aspect in Call of Duty. For this, a new advanced AI-system was developed, called "Battle Chatter System" that consists of more than 20,000 lines of dialogue that your comrades and enemies use. These lines aren't activated by scripted sequences: instead, the soldiers react to the environment and use the Battle Chatter System to communicate with each other, instead of having the AI-controlled characters communicate to each other via a form of telepathy. The player will also have to cope with problems in many different ways such as flanking an enemy position.

The gameplay is also more varied. The player has to take on unique tasks, such as repairing severed communication cables in the city of Stalingrad. In addition, the standard health meter in a first-person shooter was removed and replaced with a "shock" system. The new system allows the player to take a hit or two before blood seeps onto the screen. If the player manages to find cover and stay safe for approximately 5 seconds, the soldier will then become fully healed.

The game engine is built from scratch and supports bump mapping and dynamic lighting. It features a filter to produce realistic lighting, leading to special tactical gameplay elements, such as making it difficult to shoot enemies on a rooftop because of bright light.

The game features several key vehicles and fifteen new weapons.

Campaigns

Private Vasili Ivanovich Koslov (Red Army, 13th Guards Division)

  • Battle of Moscow Dec 1941/Battle of Stalingrad, Dec 1942
  • Battle of Stalingrad, Dec 1942
  • Battle of Stalingrad, Feb 1943

Sergeant John Davis (British Army, 7th Armoured Division)

  • Second Battle of El Alamein, Oct-Nov 1942
  • Tunisia Campaign, March 1943
  • Battle of Normandy, June 1944

Tank Commander David Welsh (British Army, 7th Armoured Division)

  • Libya, Jan 1943

Corporal Bill Taylor (US Army, 2nd Ranger Battalion)

  • Pointe du Hoc, June 1944
  • Battle of Hurtgen Forest/Hill 400, Dec 1944
  • Crossing the Rhine, March 1945

Single Player

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

In the first set of missions, the player becomes a soldier on the Russian front, Vasili Ivanovich Koslov. The first Russian mission is a training mission. Simulating the poor economy of the Russians at the time, and poor training, the player is forced to use potatoes as grenades. After finishing the 'training' by beating off a German assault, the player takes part in house to house fighting across Stalingrad.

In the second set of missions, the player becomes a British soldier, Sergeant John Davis, commanded by Captain Price, whom is seen also in the original Call of Duty. The character must take over buildings, towns, and facilities and defend against counterattacks each time.

An addendum to the second set of missions has the player taking on the role of a British Tank commander, David Welsh. It is only one campaign (2 levels) long, but the player takes part in the 7th Armoured Division's advance across Libya, harrying the retreating Germans.

The final missions are American based. As Cpl. Bill Taylor the player starts off by playing a part in a World War II standard level, D-Day, except in this mission the character is not on Omaha beach, but, rather four miles west at Pointe du Hoc. The Americans have no more than twenty feet of beach to charge up before having to climb ropes up a cliff to sabotage artillery aimed at Utah Beach and Omaha Beach. On arriving at the top of the cliffs the guns are discovered to be removed, so the player has to go and find them. The remainder of the campaign sees you take part in the brutal fighting on Hill 400, and then securing the Rhine crossing into Germany. In the last scene, a Colonel promotes Bill Taylor to sergeant.

The end credits depict the dramatic rescue of Capt. Price from German hands by American soldiers and after the credits end the words, "No cows were harmed in the making of this game" appear.

Multiplayer

The Infinity Ward team has been blamed for incorrectly implementing the multiplayer aspect on the Xbox 360 version and have received protest threats from gamers.

Since November 22 2005 The Xbox 360 gamers have been suffering with Lag, the inability to bring friends into the lobby and no ability to make your own lobbies.

The Xbox 360 version can support 8 players per server. On the PC, players can join servers that support as many as 62 players.

A number of maps returned from the original Call of Duty such as:

  • Carentan, France
  • Brecourt, France
  • Saint Mère Eglise, France (Dawnville)
  • Stalingrad, USSR (Railyard)
  • POW Camp, France (only available on the Xbox 360 version)

Reaction

Call of Duty 2 received numerous perfect and near-perfect reviews from the media upon its release, as well as praise from many others. However, some reviews had minor criticisms. In general, some complained that the new health system, which allows players to regenerate health if they go under cover, makes the game less realistic than the original [2]. Others say that while the remakes of the original game's maps were interesting, the game could have had more original maps [3]. For the PC version, some said that the game's performance is occasionally slow [4]. Others, who reviewed the Xbox version, complained that the multiplayer wasn't as good as it was on the PC version because it was restricted to 8 players [5].

Gallery

References

  • ^  Duty 2 Tops Xbox 360 Launch Sales. URL accessed on December 28, 2005.

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Others, who reviewed the Xbox version, complained that the multiplayer wasn't as good as it was on the PC version because it was restricted to 8 players [5]. Instead, the agency relies on other methods, including death certificates and urging physicians to send suspicious cases to the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC) at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, which is funded by the CDC. For the PC version, some said that the game's performance is occasionally slow [4]. In the U.S., the CDC has refused to impose a national requirement that physicians and hospitals report cases of the disease. Others say that while the remakes of the original game's maps were interesting, the game could have had more original maps [3]. In the UK anyone with possible vCJD symptoms must be reported to the UK Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit and so it is unlikely that any cases would be missed. In general, some complained that the new health system, which allows players to regenerate health if they go under cover, makes the game less realistic than the original [2]. As for vCJD in humans, autopsy tests are not always done and so those figures too are likely to be too low, but probably by a lesser fraction.

However, some reviews had minor criticisms. It is noticeable that there are no cases reported in Australia and New Zealand where cattle are mainly fed outside on grass pasture and, mainly in Australia, non-grass feeding is done only as a final finishing process before the animals are processed for meat. Call of Duty 2 received numerous perfect and near-perfect reviews from the media upon its release, as well as praise from many others. Even so, currently the only reliable test is examination of tissues during an autopsy. A number of maps returned from the original Call of Duty such as:. Newer tests are faster, more sensitive, and cheaper, so it is possible that future figures may be more comprehensive. On the PC, players can join servers that support as many as 62 players. Tests are also difficult as the altered prion protein has very small levels in blood or urine, and no other signal has been found.

The Xbox 360 version can support 8 players per server. At the opposite end of the scale, Japan tests all cattle at the time of slaughter. Since November 22 2005 The Xbox 360 gamers have been suffering with Lag, the inability to bring friends into the lobby and no ability to make your own lobbies. For instance, in the EU the cattle tested are older (30 months+), while many cattle are slaughtered earlier than that. The Infinity Ward team has been blamed for incorrectly implementing the multiplayer aspect on the Xbox 360 version and have received protest threats from gamers. The tests used for detecting BSE vary considerably as do the regulations in various jurisdictions for when, and which cattle, must be tested. Price from German hands by American soldiers and after the credits end the words, "No cows were harmed in the making of this game" appear. The figures given above for BSE are certainly too low, and most likely by a considerable amount.

The end credits depict the dramatic rescue of Capt. BSE is the disease in cattle, whilst vCJD is the disease in people. In the last scene, a Colonel promotes Bill Taylor to sergeant. The following table summarizes reported cases of BSE and of vCJD by country. The remainder of the campaign sees you take part in the brutal fighting on Hill 400, and then securing the Rhine crossing into Germany. Indeed, US meat producer Creekstone Farms alleges that the USDA is preventing BSE testing from being conducted [10]. On arriving at the top of the cliffs the guns are discovered to be removed, so the player has to go and find them. Even so, critics call the partial prohibitions insufficient.

The Americans have no more than twenty feet of beach to charge up before having to climb ropes up a cliff to sabotage artillery aimed at Utah Beach and Omaha Beach. [9] Compliance with the regulations was shown to be extremely poor before the discovery of the Washington cow, but industry representatives report that compliance is now 100%. Bill Taylor the player starts off by playing a part in a World War II standard level, D-Day, except in this mission the character is not on Omaha beach, but, rather four miles west at Pointe du Hoc. In February 2001, the USGAO reported that the FDA, which is responsible for regulating feed, had not adequately policed the various bans. As Cpl. [8] A proposal to end the use of cow blood, restaurant scraps, and chicken litter (fecal matter, feathers) in January 2004 was eventually scrapped, despite the efforts of some advocates of such a policy, who cite the fact that cows are herbivores, and that blood and fecal matter could potentially carry BSE. The final missions are American based. In addition, it is legal for ruminants to be fed byproducts from some of these animals.

It is only one campaign (2 levels) long, but the player takes part in the 7th Armoured Division's advance across Libya, harrying the retreating Germans. However, the byproducts of ruminants can still be legally fed to pets or other livestock and poultry such as pigs and chickens. An addendum to the second set of missions has the player taking on the role of a British Tank commander, David Welsh. In 1997, regulations prohibited the feeding of mammalian byproducts to ruminants such as cows and goats. The character must take over buildings, towns, and facilities and defend against counterattacks each time. regulations only partially prohibit the use of animal byproducts in feed. In the second set of missions, the player becomes a British soldier, Sergeant John Davis, commanded by Captain Price, whom is seen also in the original Call of Duty. However, U.S.

After finishing the 'training' by beating off a German assault, the player takes part in house to house fighting across Stalingrad. As a result, the use of animal byproduct feeds was never common, as it was in Europe. Simulating the poor economy of the Russians at the time, and poor training, the player is forced to use potatoes as grenades. Soybean meal is cheap and plentiful in the United States. The first Russian mission is a training mission. [7]. In the first set of missions, the player becomes a soldier on the Russian front, Vasili Ivanovich Koslov. Trace-backs revealed that this cow originated from a herd in Texas, making it the first BSE cow native to the United States.

Corporal Bill Taylor (US Army, 2nd Ranger Battalion). Tests carried out at the USDA laboratory in Ames, Iowa indicated the presence of BSE, and after subsequent confirmation from the Weybridge Veterinary Laboratory in the United Kingdom, the USDA acknowledged the second case of BSE on June 24. Tank Commander David Welsh (British Army, 7th Armoured Division). On June 10, 2005, the USDA reported a possible case of BSE in the United States. Sergeant John Davis (British Army, 7th Armoured Division). No case of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has occurred in North America so far, except among those who have traveled to Europe. Private Vasili Ivanovich Koslov (Red Army, 13th Guards Division). [6].

The game features several key vehicles and fifteen new weapons. Japanese inspectors found material from cattle backbone in three of 41 boxes in a 858-pound shipment of beef from Atlantic Veal & Lamb. It features a filter to produce realistic lighting, leading to special tactical gameplay elements, such as making it difficult to shoot enemies on a rooftop because of bright light. Brooklyn-based Atlantic Veal & Lamb inspectors failed to notice there was bone material included in a shipment of veal to Japan. The game engine is built from scratch and supports bump mapping and dynamic lighting. [5] It was, however, quick to reinstate the ban. If the player manages to find cover and stay safe for approximately 5 seconds, the soldier will then become fully healed. Japan lifted its ban on US beef in December 2005.

The new system allows the player to take a hit or two before blood seeps onto the screen. [4]. In addition, the standard health meter in a first-person shooter was removed and replaced with a "shock" system. Notwithstanding, Japanese beef exports, chiefly the expensive wagyu, have been banned in the United States since Japan experienced its first case of BSE in January 2001. The player has to take on unique tasks, such as repairing severed communication cables in the city of Stalingrad. Since Japan and South Korea are the first- and third-largest importers of US beef, respectively, the economic impact of their bans is significant both for American cattle ranchers and for Japanese and Korean beef consumers. The gameplay is also more varied. beef until the authorities can be assured of its safety.

The player will also have to cope with problems in many different ways such as flanking an enemy position. discovery of BSE in 2003, Japan and South Korea instituted temporary bans on the import of U.S. These lines aren't activated by scripted sequences: instead, the soldiers react to the environment and use the Battle Chatter System to communicate with each other, instead of having the AI-controlled characters communicate to each other via a form of telepathy. Shortly after the U.S. For this, a new advanced AI-system was developed, called "Battle Chatter System" that consists of more than 20,000 lines of dialogue that your comrades and enemies use. surveillance relied on a test that gave results only after two weeks, after which time the meat from an animal usually has all been sold. Call of Duty 2 was designed with the intent to be less linear than its predecessor, with notably more open-ended environments and less scripted events that were a prominent aspect in Call of Duty. Until the switch, U.S.

. authorities called for a switch to the testing procedure that is used in the United Kingdom, which yields its results in one day. A special DVD Collectors' Edition also exists, which includes 'making of' documentaries and interviews. U.S. A single player demo featuring a mission in El Daba, Egypt (entitled "The End of the Beginning") from a British perspective was released on September 26, 2005. The meat of the BSE-positive cow went to market, but some of it was successfully recalled before it was sold to consumers. Call of Duty 2 was the highest selling Xbox 360 launch title selling 250,000 units in its first week of availability [1]. Only 200,000 cows slaughtered in 2003 were downers.

There is a Zboard available for the PC version of this game. [3] Therefore it is not clear how effective the ban is in reducing the number of infected cattle consumed. Call of Duty 2 takes place during World War II and features three campaigns where the player can be a soldier for the Soviet Army, the British Army, or the American Army. Furthermore, there is some dispute as to whether the cow was a downer or not. It was developed by Infinity Ward, with contributions from Pi Studios, and was published by Activision on October 25, 2005 for the PC and November 22, 2005 for the Xbox 360. While the Washington cow that tested positive for BSE was reportedly unable to stand, veterinarians say the condition was unrelated to BSE. Call of Duty 2 is a first-person shooter video game and sequel to the critically acclaimed game, Call of Duty. The government plans to double the number of cattle tested in 2004, and has banned the use of "downer cows" for human consumption.

URL accessed on December 28, 2005.. authorities have very little idea of how many American beef cattle might have the disease. ^  Duty 2 Tops Xbox 360 Launch Sales. As a result, U.S. POW Camp, France (only available on the Xbox 360 version). Therefore, it is possible that even among those cattle that are tested and classified as negative, a proportion nevertheless may be contagious. Stalingrad, USSR (Railyard). Current tests reveal the presence of misshaped prions when they are abundant, but it is not known how far the disease must progress in an individual to transmit it to others.

Saint Mère Eglise, France (Dawnville). [2] Agriculture Secretary Ann Veneman called the discovery "a clear indication that our surveillance and detection program is working." However, the United States tested only 20,526 cows in 2003 out of the roughly 35 million slaughtered. Brecourt, France. On December 23, 2003, the first case of BSE in the United States was found in a single Holstein cow in Mabton, Washington, although trace-backs later revealed that this cow originated from a Canadian herd. Carentan, France. The United States also issued a temporary ban on all Canadian beef. Crossing the Rhine, March 1945. The animal was destroyed after being declared unfit for consumption.

Battle of Hurtgen Forest/Hill 400, Dec 1944. It occurred in a single older cow that may have contracted the disease from contaminated feed in earlier years. Pointe du Hoc, June 1944. The second was reported in Canada on May 20, 2003. Libya, Jan 1943. The first was in 1993, involving an animal born in Britain. Battle of Normandy, June 1944. As of January 2005, five BSE-infected cattle have been identified in North America.

Tunisia Campaign, March 1943. regarding a possible risk of transmission of the BSE agent in gelatin products.". Second Battle of El Alamein, Oct-Nov 1942. that there were some licensed surgical sutures derived from French bovine material." Concerns were also raised: ".. Battle of Stalingrad, Feb 1943. expressed concerns about the possible transmission of the BSE/scrapie agent to man through use of certain cosmetic treatments." Sources in France reported to the British Medicines Control Agency: ".. Battle of Stalingrad, Dec 1942. there was no insulin sourced from cattle in the UK or Ireland and that the situation in other countries was being monitored." In 1991 a European Community Commission: "..

Battle of Moscow Dec 1941/Battle of Stalingrad, Dec 1942. no licensing action is required at present in regard to products produced from bovine material or using prepared bovine brain in nutrient media and sourced from outside the United Kingdom, the Channel Isles and the Republic of Ireland provided that the country of origin is known to be free of BSE, has competent veterinary advisers and is known to practise good animal husbandry." In 1990 the British Diabetic Association became concerned regarding the safety of bovine insulin and the government licensing agency assured them that: ".. use of bovine insulin in a small group of mainly elderly patients was noted and it was recognised that alternative products for this group were not considered satisfactory." A medicines licensing committee report that same year recommended that: ".. identify relevant manufacturers and obtain information about the bovine material contained in children’s vaccines, the stocks of these vaccines and how long it would take to switch to other products." It was further reported that the: ".. "..

On May 7, 1999 in his written statement number 476 to the BSE Inquiry, David Osborne Hagger reported on behalf of the Medicines Control Agency that in a previous enquiry the Agency had been asked to:. During the course of the investigation into the BSE epidemic, an enquiry was also made into the activities of the Department of Health and its Medicines Control Agency. [1]. In 2005 a controversial paper in The Lancet suggested that BSE might have originated in British cattle when they ate imported animal feed that included infected human remains from Hindu funeral ceremonies in India.

So far nothing is known about the relative transmissibility of the two disease strains of BSE prion. But cruder measures yield a "biochemical signature" by which the newly discovered cattle strain appears different from the familiar one, but similar to the clumped prions in humans with traditional CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease).The finding of a second strain of BSE prion raises the possibility that transmission of BSE to humans has been underestimated, because some of the individuals diagnosed with spontaneous or "sporadic" CJD may have actually contracted the disease from tainted beef. Very little is known about the shape of disease-causing prions, because their insolubility and tendency to clump thwarts application of the detailed measurement techniques of structural biology. In other words, this implies a second strain of BSE prion.

In 2004 researchers reported evidence of a second contorted shape of prions in a rare minority of diseased cattle. As a result the full extent of the human vCJD outbreak is still not fully known. This is attributed to the long incubation period for prion diseases, which are typically measured in years or decades. Although the BSE epidemic was eventually brought under control by culling all suspect cattle populations, people are still being diagnosed with vCJD each year (though the number of new cases currently seems to be dropping).

It is estimated that 400,000 cattle infected with BSE entered the human food chain in the 1980s. Disease incidence also appears to correlate with slaughtering practices that led to the mixture of nervous system tissue with hamburger and other beef. For many of the vCJD patients, direct evidence exists that they had consumed tainted beef, and this is assumed to be the mechanism by which all affected individuals contracted it. Up to date statistics on all types of CJD are published by the UK CJD Surveillance Centre in Edinburgh.

There is also some concern about those who work with (and therefore inhale) cattle meat and bone meal, such as horticulturists, who use it as fertilizer. Three cases of vCJD occurred in people who had lived in or visited Britain--one each in Ireland, Canada and the United States. Of the 157 cases of vCJD in humans so far, 148 occurred in the United Kingdom, 6 in France, and one in Italy. This is a separate disease from 'classical' Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, which is not related to BSE and has been known about since the early 1900s.

Following an epidemic of BSE in Britain, 157 people (as of 2004) acquired and died of a disease with similar neurological symptoms subsequently called vCJD, or (new) variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. While other European countries like Germany required said animal byproducts to undergo a high temperature steam boiling process, this requirement had been eased in Britain as a measure to keep prices competitive. A contributing factor seems to have been a change in British laws that allowed a lower temperature sterilization of the protein meal. A change to the rendering process in the early 1980s may have resulted in a large increase of the infectious agents in the cattle feed.

However, soybeans do not grow well in Europe, so cattle raisers throughout Europe turned to the less expensive animal byproduct feeds as an alternative. Worldwide, Soybean meal is the primary plant-based protein supplement fed to cattle. The use of meat and bone meal as a protein supplement in cattle feed was widespread in Europe prior to about 1987. The tissues that contain most of the pathogenic molecules are those of the brain and the nervous system, although infectious amounts have been shown experimentally to be present elsewhere, such as in blood.

As more animals became ill, more infectious tissue got into the feed, and so the number of cases reached epidemic proportions. This practice allowed the accumulation of prions over many generations. Prior to the BSE epidemic, cattle were fed with meat and bone meal, a high-protein substance obtained from the remnants of butchered animals, including cows and sheep. However, sheep and cattle TSEs are quite different and it is now thought more likely that BSE could have originated with a case of sporadic BSE in a single bovine.

It was first believed to have originated in sheep, in which the related prion disease scrapie is common (such diseases collectively are called "transmissible spongiform encephalopathies" or TSEs). The British BSE epidemic in cattle was recognised in 1986. These aggregate to form dense plaque fibers, which lead to the microscopic appearance of "holes" in the brain, degeneration of physical and mental abilities and ultimately death. In the brain these proteins cause native cellular prion protein to deform into the infectious state which then goes on to deform further prion protein in an exponential cascade.

Transmission can occur when healthy animals consume tainted tissues from others with the disease. Most TSEs, however, occur sporadically in animals that do not have a prion protein mutation. TSEs can arise in animals that carry a rare mutant prion allele, which expresses prions that contort by themselves into the disease-causing shape. BSE is a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE).

Misshapen ("misfolded") prion proteins carry the disease between individuals and cause deterioration of the brain. Unlike other kinds of infectious disease which are spread by microbes, the infectious agent in BSE is a specific type of protein. . While never having killed cattle on a scale comparable to other dreaded livestock diseases, such as foot and mouth and rinderpest, BSE has attracted wide attention because people assume humans can contract the disease, but it has never been proven that BSE has any link to variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (vCJD), sometimes called new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (nvCJD), a human brain-wasting disease.

The disease appears transmissible to humans. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle, which infects by a mechanism that shocked biologists on its discovery in late 20th century.

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