Bonnaroo Music Festival

The Bonnaroo Music Festival, Bonnaroo or 'Roo for short, is an annual rock festival by Superfly Productions and AC Entertainment, first held in 2002. The festival is held on a 700 acre (2.4 km²) farm in Manchester, Tennessee, 60 miles southeast of Nashville, Tennessee. The main attractions of the festival are the multiple stages of live music, featuring mostly jam bands (categorized as progressive fusion), but also including hip hop and other alternative music. The festival also features craftsman and artisans selling unique products, several food and drink vendors, and many other activities from various sponsors. The festival is reminiscent of popular music festivals like Woodstock & Isle Of Wight Festival.

2006

The 2006 Bonnaroo Festival will be held June 16–June 18, 2006. Tickets for the 2006 Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival will go on sale Saturday, February 11, at 10:00 AM Eastern Time through Bonnaroo.com. More artists to be announced with the line up estimated to be 80 plus artists.

Lineup

Radiohead, Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers, Phil Lesh & Friends, Beck, Elvis Costello & The Imposters, Bonnie Raitt, Death Cab for Cutie, moe., Bright Eyes, The Neville Brothers, Béla Fleck & the Flecktones, Buddy Guy, Damian Marley, Ben Folds, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Dr. John, Matisyahu, G. Love & Special Sauce, My Morning Jacket, Ricky Skaggs & Kentucky Thunder, Steel Pulse, Mike Gordon and Ramble Dove, Cat Power, Medeski Martin & Wood, Nickel Creek, Gomez, Atmosphere, Steve Earle, Blues Traveler, Amadou & Mariam, Stephen Malkmus & The Jicks, The Dresden Dolls, Son Volt, Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, Jerry Douglas, Soulive, Rusted Root, Devendra Banhart Band, Donavon Frankenreiter, Mike Doughty, Sasha, [[Grace Potter & The Nocturnals, The Magic Numbers, Bill Frisell, Seu Jorge, Bettye LaVette, Dungen, Shooter Jennings, Rebirth Brass Band, Robinella, Andrew Bird, Steel Train, Jackie Greene, DeVotchKa, Wood Brothers, dios (malos), Toubab Krewe, The Motet, Marah, I-Nine, Balkan Beat Box, Cat Empire

2005

Highlights

The festival ran from June 10-12, and more than 75,000 people were in attendance. New Line Cinema introduced a twenty-four-hour "cinema tent," showing popular and cult films. Wireless Internet access was provided by Cisco Systems. There was a "comedy tent" featuring Jim Breuer as well as some lesser-known comedians and even daily yoga classes. Unlike 2004, rain marked each day of the festival.

Ray LaMontagne released a live EP of his Bonnaroo set, appropriately titled Ray LaMontagne Live From Bonnaroo. Also, LiveBonnaroo.com made several artists' live sets available for download, including sets from The Black Crowes, My Morning Jacket and Widespread Panic.

Lineup

The Allman Brothers Band, Widespread Panic, Dave Matthews Band, Trey Anastasio, Jack Johnson, The Black Crowes, Alison Krauss, Modest Mouse, Ratdog, Herbie Hancock's Headhunters 2005, Gov't Mule, Béla Fleck Acoustic Trio, The Mars Volta, John Prine, Yonder Mountain String Band, Jurassic 5, The Word, Galactic, My Morning Jacket, Keller Williams, STS9, Earl Scruggs, Benevento-Russo Duo feat. Mike Gordon, Joss Stone, Kings of Leon, De La Soul, O.A.R., Toots and the Maytals, Umphrey's McGee, Iron & Wine, Ozomatli, Rilo Kiley, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Drive-By Truckers, Particle, Joanna Newsom, Peter Rowan & Crucial Reggae, Xavier Rudd, Ray LaMontagne, The Gourds, Blue Merle, Secret Machines, Saul Williams, Donna the Buffalo, Mouse on Mars, John Butler Trio, The Perceptionists, Ollabelle, Old Crow Medicine Show, RJD2, Citizen Cope, The Old '97s, Brazilian Girls, M. Ward, Madeleine Peyroux, The Frames, DJ Krush, Assembly of Dust, Amos Lee, Matisyahu, Perpetual Groove, Tea Leaf Green, Lake Trout, 22-20s Gabby La La feat. Les Claypool, Heartless Bastards, Josh Ritter, Kermit Ruffins and the Barbeque Singers, Signal Path, Keren Ann, Dr. Dog, Motion Potion, DJ Quarter-Roy, DJ Medi4, DJ Quickie Mart, Animal Liberation Orchestra, Steel Train, SIIHB's

2004

Highlights

The festival ran June 11-13, and more than 90,000 people attended. The festival was marked by torrential rains, creating an incredibly large amount of mud. Many vehicles had to be towed out of the parking area.

Lineup

Primus, The Dead, Los Lonely Boys, Calexico, mrnorth, New Monsoon, Xavier Rudd, Yonder Mountain String Band, Neko Case, The Black Keys, Simple Kid, JoJo & His Mojo Mardi Gras Band, Wilco, Ani DiFranco, North Mississippi Allstars, Patti Smith, Nellie McKay, MOFRO, Bob Dylan, String Cheese Incident, Chris Robinson & The New Earth Mud, Mike Doughty's Band, Gillian Welch, Yo La Tengo, Dave Matthews & Friends, Praxis, Vida Blue feat. The Spam Allstars, Umphrey's McGee, The X-ecutioners, Danger Mouse, Los Lobos, Hackensaw Boys, Kings of Leon, Blue Merle, Erin Mckeown, Acoustic Syndicate, Gomez, Grandaddy, Rachel Yamagata, Mindy Smith, Gov't Mule, My Morning Jacket, Del McCoury, Beth Orton, Robert Earl Keen, Iouque, Sam Bush Band, Steve Winwood, Galactic, Jem, Jazz Mandolin Project, Doc Watson, Damien Rice, Ween, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Cut Chemist, Cut Chemist presents Funky Sole, Burning Spear, Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra, Leftover Salmon, Marc Ribot y Los Cubanos Protizos, Marc Broussard, deSoL, Taj Mahal, The Bad Plus, Antigone Rising, Cracker/Camper Van Beethoven, Donavon Frankenreiter, moe., Femi Kuti, Barbara Cue, Soulive, Guster, Addison Groove Project, David Byrne, Medeski Martin & Wood, SuperJam, Material, The Radiators, Trey Anastasio.

2003

Highlights

The festival ran June 13-15, and 80,000 attended. In The Bonnaroo organizers planned a festival called Bonnaroo Northeast to take place in Riverhead, Long Island, New York. This festival, as well as the Field Day Festival, another festival to take place at the same site, were cancelled, however, in the weeks leading up to the event due to concern about securing permits in time.

Lineup

The Allman Brothers Band, The Dead, Widespread Panic, Neil Young & Crazy Horse, James Brown, Ben Harper & the Innocent Criminals, Jack Johnson, moe., Galactic, The Flaming Lips, The Roots, Lucinda Williams, Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, Emmylou Harris, Medeski Martin & Wood, Sonic Youth, The Meters, Leo Kottke & Mike Gordon, Joshua Redman, Yonder Mountain String Band, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, The Wailers, Nickel Creek, G. Love and Special Sauce, Tortoise, Liz Phair, Sound Tribe Sector 9, O.A.R., North Mississippi Allstars, Warren Haynes, Keller Williams, Garage A Trois, Ben Kweller, Mix Master Mike, Ekoostik Hookah, The Polyphonic Spree, Kid Koala, Z-Trip, Particle, Michael Franti and Spearhead, Josh Wink, Antibalas Afrobeat Orchestra, The Slip, Cyro Baptista's Beat the Donkey, DJ Spooky, Jerry Joseph & The Jackmormons, Jon Cleary & the Absolute Monster Gentlemen, The New Deal, RJD2, My Morning Jacket, Topaz, phonosycograph DJ.DISK, DJ.Disk & The Filthy Ape, Vusi Mahlasela of Amandla!, Drive-By Truckers, Hackensaw Boys, Mark Farina, Robinella & the CC String Band, Buddahead, Kaki King, RAQ, Jason Mraz, The Trachtenburg Family Slideshow Players, Josh Kelley, Gavin Degraw, Indecision, Iouque, Rebirth Brass Band.

2002

Highlights

In the inagural year, the festival was held June 21-23, and more than 70,000 fans attended.

Lineup

Widespread Panic, Phil Lesh and Friends w/ very special guest Bob Weir, Galactic, Trey Anastasio, Béla Fleck & Edgar Meyer, DJ Logic, Les Claypool's Flying Frog Brigade, Amon Tobin, Old Crow Medicine Show, Soulive, Gov't Mule, Jim White, Umphrey's McGee, Gran Torino, The Big Wu, Donna the Buffalo, Acoustic Syndicate, Keller Willams Incident, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Ben Harper, Cut Chemist, String Cheese Incident, John Butler Trio, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, Jack Johnson, Jurassic 5, The Del Mcoury Band, Drums & Tuba, Lil' Rascals Brass Band, Disco Biscuits, LLama, Col. Bruce Hampton & The Code Talkers, Particle, Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains, moe., Corey Harris, Ween, North Mississippi Allstars, Vinroc, Z-Trip, Mofro, Gabe Dixon, Norah Jones, Campbell Brothers, Dottie Peoples, Blind Boys of Alabama

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Bruce Hampton & The Code Talkers, Particle, Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains, moe., Corey Harris, Ween, North Mississippi Allstars, Vinroc, Z-Trip, Mofro, Gabe Dixon, Norah Jones, Campbell Brothers, Dottie Peoples, Blind Boys of Alabama. There are now estimated to be more than a million Rastafarians throughout the world. Widespread Panic, Phil Lesh and Friends w/ very special guest Bob Weir, Galactic, Trey Anastasio, Béla Fleck & Edgar Meyer, DJ Logic, Les Claypool's Flying Frog Brigade, Amon Tobin, Old Crow Medicine Show, Soulive, Gov't Mule, Jim White, Umphrey's McGee, Gran Torino, The Big Wu, Donna the Buffalo, Acoustic Syndicate, Keller Willams Incident, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Ben Harper, Cut Chemist, String Cheese Incident, John Butler Trio, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, Jack Johnson, Jurassic 5, The Del Mcoury Band, Drums & Tuba, Lil' Rascals Brass Band, Disco Biscuits, LLama, Col. Bob Marley, a convert to the faith, spread the message of Rastafari to the world. In the inagural year, the festival was held June 21-23, and more than 70,000 fans attended. This Back to Africa movement believes that Haile Selassie of Ethiopia is God incarnate, the returned black messiah, come to take the lost Twelve Tribes of Israel back to live with him in Holy Mount Zion in a world of perfect peace, love and harmony. Love and Special Sauce, Tortoise, Liz Phair, Sound Tribe Sector 9, O.A.R., North Mississippi Allstars, Warren Haynes, Keller Williams, Garage A Trois, Ben Kweller, Mix Master Mike, Ekoostik Hookah, The Polyphonic Spree, Kid Koala, Z-Trip, Particle, Michael Franti and Spearhead, Josh Wink, Antibalas Afrobeat Orchestra, The Slip, Cyro Baptista's Beat the Donkey, DJ Spooky, Jerry Joseph & The Jackmormons, Jon Cleary & the Absolute Monster Gentlemen, The New Deal, RJD2, My Morning Jacket, Topaz, phonosycograph DJ.DISK, DJ.Disk & The Filthy Ape, Vusi Mahlasela of Amandla!, Drive-By Truckers, Hackensaw Boys, Mark Farina, Robinella & the CC String Band, Buddahead, Kaki King, RAQ, Jason Mraz, The Trachtenburg Family Slideshow Players, Josh Kelley, Gavin Degraw, Indecision, Iouque, Rebirth Brass Band. The Rastafarian religion was founded in, and is associated with, Jamaica.

The Allman Brothers Band, The Dead, Widespread Panic, Neil Young & Crazy Horse, James Brown, Ben Harper & the Innocent Criminals, Jack Johnson, moe., Galactic, The Flaming Lips, The Roots, Lucinda Williams, Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, Emmylou Harris, Medeski Martin & Wood, Sonic Youth, The Meters, Leo Kottke & Mike Gordon, Joshua Redman, Yonder Mountain String Band, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, The Wailers, Nickel Creek, G. Bob Marley, perhaps the best known reggae musician, was born in Jamaica, and is very well respected there. This festival, as well as the Field Day Festival, another festival to take place at the same site, were cancelled, however, in the weeks leading up to the event due to concern about securing permits in time. The musical genres reggae, ska, rocksteady, dub, and, more recently, dancehall, ragga, and ragga jungle all originated in Jamaica. In The Bonnaroo organizers planned a festival called Bonnaroo Northeast to take place in Riverhead, Long Island, New York. Though a small nation, Jamaica is rich in culture, and has a strong global presence. The festival ran June 13-15, and 80,000 attended. Main articles: Culture of Jamaica, Music of Jamaica.

The Spam Allstars, Umphrey's McGee, The X-ecutioners, Danger Mouse, Los Lobos, Hackensaw Boys, Kings of Leon, Blue Merle, Erin Mckeown, Acoustic Syndicate, Gomez, Grandaddy, Rachel Yamagata, Mindy Smith, Gov't Mule, My Morning Jacket, Del McCoury, Beth Orton, Robert Earl Keen, Iouque, Sam Bush Band, Steve Winwood, Galactic, Jem, Jazz Mandolin Project, Doc Watson, Damien Rice, Ween, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Cut Chemist, Cut Chemist presents Funky Sole, Burning Spear, Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra, Leftover Salmon, Marc Ribot y Los Cubanos Protizos, Marc Broussard, deSoL, Taj Mahal, The Bad Plus, Antigone Rising, Cracker/Camper Van Beethoven, Donavon Frankenreiter, moe., Femi Kuti, Barbara Cue, Soulive, Guster, Addison Groove Project, David Byrne, Medeski Martin & Wood, SuperJam, Material, The Radiators, Trey Anastasio. Jamaica is divided into 3 counties and 14 parishes:. Primus, The Dead, Los Lonely Boys, Calexico, mrnorth, New Monsoon, Xavier Rudd, Yonder Mountain String Band, Neko Case, The Black Keys, Simple Kid, JoJo & His Mojo Mardi Gras Band, Wilco, Ani DiFranco, North Mississippi Allstars, Patti Smith, Nellie McKay, MOFRO, Bob Dylan, String Cheese Incident, Chris Robinson & The New Earth Mud, Mike Doughty's Band, Gillian Welch, Yo La Tengo, Dave Matthews & Friends, Praxis, Vida Blue feat. Main article: Parishes of Jamaica. Many vehicles had to be towed out of the parking area. This move has not garnered support in either organisation nor among the majority of citizens. The festival was marked by torrential rains, creating an incredibly large amount of mud. In early 2005, an opposition leader, Edward Seaga, called for the merger of the JDF and JCF.

The festival ran June 11-13, and more than 90,000 people attended. There has been vocal controversy as well as support of this JDF role. Dog, Motion Potion, DJ Quarter-Roy, DJ Medi4, DJ Quickie Mart, Animal Liberation Orchestra, Steel Train, SIIHB's. JDF units actively conduct armed patrols with the JCF in high-crime areas and known gang neighbourhoods. Les Claypool, Heartless Bastards, Josh Ritter, Kermit Ruffins and the Barbeque Singers, Signal Path, Keren Ann, Dr. In recent years the JDF has been called upon to assist the nation's police, the Jamaican Constabulary Force (JCF) in fighting drug smuggling and a rising crime rate which includes one of the highest murder rates in the world. Ward, Madeleine Peyroux, The Frames, DJ Krush, Assembly of Dust, Amos Lee, Matisyahu, Perpetual Groove, Tea Leaf Green, Lake Trout, 22-20s Gabby La La feat. The Headquarters JDF contains the JDF commander, command staff as well as intelligence, judge advocate office, administrative and procurement sections.

Mike Gordon, Joss Stone, Kings of Leon, De La Soul, O.A.R., Toots and the Maytals, Umphrey's McGee, Iron & Wine, Ozomatli, Rilo Kiley, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Drive-By Truckers, Particle, Joanna Newsom, Peter Rowan & Crucial Reggae, Xavier Rudd, Ray LaMontagne, The Gourds, Blue Merle, Secret Machines, Saul Williams, Donna the Buffalo, Mouse on Mars, John Butler Trio, The Perceptionists, Ollabelle, Old Crow Medicine Show, RJD2, Citizen Cope, The Old '97s, Brazilian Girls, M. The 1st Engineer Regiment provides military engineering support to the JDF. The Allman Brothers Band, Widespread Panic, Dave Matthews Band, Trey Anastasio, Jack Johnson, The Black Crowes, Alison Krauss, Modest Mouse, Ratdog, Herbie Hancock's Headhunters 2005, Gov't Mule, Béla Fleck Acoustic Trio, The Mars Volta, John Prine, Yonder Mountain String Band, Jurassic 5, The Word, Galactic, My Morning Jacket, Keller Williams, STS9, Earl Scruggs, Benevento-Russo Duo feat. The support battalion contains a Military Police platoon as well as vehicle, armourers and supply units. Also, LiveBonnaroo.com made several artists' live sets available for download, including sets from The Black Crowes, My Morning Jacket and Widespread Panic. It conducts maritime safety and maritime law enforcement as well as defence-related operations. Ray LaMontagne released a live EP of his Bonnaroo set, appropriately titled Ray LaMontagne Live From Bonnaroo. The Coast Guard element is divided between sea-going crews and support crews.

Unlike 2004, rain marked each day of the festival. The JDF Air Wing is divided into three flight units, a training unit, a support unit and the JDF Air Wing (National Reserve). There was a "comedy tent" featuring Jim Breuer as well as some lesser-known comedians and even daily yoga classes. The infantry regiment contains the 1st, 2nd and 3rd (National Reserve) battalions. Wireless Internet access was provided by Cisco Systems. The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) comprises an infantry Regiment and Reserve Corps, an Air Wing, a Coast Guard fleet and a supporting Engineering Unit. New Line Cinema introduced a twenty-four-hour "cinema tent," showing popular and cult films. The dissolution of the Federation resulted in the establishment of the JDF.

The festival ran from June 10-12, and more than 75,000 people were in attendance. The West Indies Regiment was reformed in 1958 as part of the West Indies Federation. Love & Special Sauce, My Morning Jacket, Ricky Skaggs & Kentucky Thunder, Steel Pulse, Mike Gordon and Ramble Dove, Cat Power, Medeski Martin & Wood, Nickel Creek, Gomez, Atmosphere, Steve Earle, Blues Traveler, Amadou & Mariam, Stephen Malkmus & The Jicks, The Dresden Dolls, Son Volt, Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, Jerry Douglas, Soulive, Rusted Root, Devendra Banhart Band, Donavon Frankenreiter, Mike Doughty, Sasha, [[Grace Potter & The Nocturnals, The Magic Numbers, Bill Frisell, Seu Jorge, Bettye LaVette, Dungen, Shooter Jennings, Rebirth Brass Band, Robinella, Andrew Bird, Steel Train, Jackie Greene, DeVotchKa, Wood Brothers, dios (malos), Toubab Krewe, The Motet, Marah, I-Nine, Balkan Beat Box, Cat Empire. Other units in the JDF heritage include the early colonial Jamaica Militia, the Kingston Infantry Volunteers of WWI and reorganised into the Jamaican Infantry Volunteers in WWII. John, Matisyahu, G. The West Indies Regiment was used extensively by the British Empire in policing the empire from 1795 to 1926. Radiohead, Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers, Phil Lesh & Friends, Beck, Elvis Costello & The Imposters, Bonnie Raitt, Death Cab for Cutie, moe., Bright Eyes, The Neville Brothers, Béla Fleck & the Flecktones, Buddy Guy, Damian Marley, Ben Folds, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Dr. The JDF is directly descended from the British West Indies Regiment formed during the colonial era.

More artists to be announced with the line up estimated to be 80 plus artists. Additional military schools are available for specialty training in Canada, the U.S., and Britain. Tickets for the 2006 Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival will go on sale Saturday, February 11, at 10:00 AM Eastern Time through Bonnaroo.com. As on the British model, NCOs are given several levels of professional training as they rise up the ranks. The 2006 Bonnaroo Festival will be held June 16–June 18, 2006. Enlisted soldiers are given basic training at JDF Training Depot, Newcastle. The festival is reminiscent of popular music festivals like Woodstock & Isle Of Wight Festival. Once chosen, officer candidates are sent to one of several British or Canadian basic officer courses depending upon which arm of service they are slated for.

The festival also features craftsman and artisans selling unique products, several food and drink vendors, and many other activities from various sponsors. The JDF is based upon the British military model with organisation, training, weapons and traditions closely aligned with Commonwealth Realm Countries. The main attractions of the festival are the multiple stages of live music, featuring mostly jam bands (categorized as progressive fusion), but also including hip hop and other alternative music. The Jamaican Defence Force (JDF) is the small but professional military force of Jamaica. The festival is held on a 700 acre (2.4 km²) farm in Manchester, Tennessee, 60 miles southeast of Nashville, Tennessee. Tertiary - Community Colleges, Teachers’Colleges, Vocational Training Centres, Colleges and Universities. The Bonnaroo Music Festival, Bonnaroo or 'Roo for short, is an annual rock festival by Superfly Productions and AC Entertainment, first held in 2002. Age cohort 11 – 18 years.

. Secondary – Publicly and privately owned. Leo's Bonnaroo Survival Guide. Age cohort 4 – 11 years. LiveBonnaroo.com, which offers artist-approved downloads of live recordings, as well as photos and souvenirs. Primary – Publicly and privately owned (Privately owned being called Preparatory Schools (Prep). Bonnaroo.com, official website. Age cohort – 2 – 4 years.

Early Childhood – Basic, Infant and privately operated pre- school. Presently the following categories of schools exist:. This was the genesis of the stratified system of education that is still currently embedded in the policies of the 21st Century. Most of these schools were established by the churches.

After emancipation the West Indian Commission granted a sum of money to establish Elementary Schools, now known as All Age Schools, for the children of the freed slaves. Others sent their children off to England to access quality education. Prior to emancipation there were some elite schools for the plantocracy. The emancipation of the slaves heralded in the establishment of Jamaican Education System for the masses.

The largest and most famous and vibrant Jamaican community in the world is probably Brixton in South London. Concentrations of expatriate Jamaicans are large in the South Florida metro area of Miami/Fort Lauderdale, Atlanta, Philadelphia, New York City, Los Angeles in the United States; Toronto in Canada, centred mostly in the borough of Scarborough, Ontario; London, as well as the area of Chapeltown in Leeds, in the United Kingdom. Due to Commonwealth law and Jamaica's history with Britain, most Jamaicans that emigrate go to the United Kingdom, where laws are lax on ex-Commonwealth country citizens gaining full British Nationality. This emigration appears to have been tapering off somewhat in recent years, however the great number of Jamaicans living abroad has become known as the "Jamaican diaspora".

Over the past several decades, hundreds of thousands of Jamaicans have emigrated, especially to the United States but also to Canada and the United Kingdom. Islam and Judaism number less than half a per cent combined. Hinduism, and Buddhism are significant and growing due to immigration from India and China. Non-Christian religions are numerous, the largest being Rastafari, which is very strongly related to Christianity.

The top 5 denominations in Jamaica are: Church of God: 21.2%, Seventh-Day Adventist: 9.0%, Baptist: 8.8%, Pentecostal: 7.6%, and Anglican: 5.0%. Roman Catholicism also enjoys a significant presence on the island. According to adherants.com, 80.0% of Jamaica's 2.7 million people are Christian – the vast majority of them from various Protestant denominations, which is evident of Jamaica's Anglo past. There are also small numbers of people that speak Hindi, Chinese, Hebrew, Arabic and Spanish.

The language of government and education is English, although the patois form Jamaican Creole is widely spoken. Those who are East Indian, Chinese, European (chiefly British, and Irish), and Christian Syrian and Lebanese make up a smaller but influential number. People of mixed Chinese, East Indian, and Black and white ancestry make up the second largest group. The majority of Jamaicans, at least 90%, are of primarily black and white mixed ancestry.

These Tainos (sub-Arawaks) were known for archery and have left many remnants of their culture in artifacts and in at least one popular food (bammy- a small flat cake made of grated cassava). Jamaica is mainly a blend of African and Anglo-Irish cultures, with influences from the Spanish and Taino cultures, although the Tainos as a people were completely wiped out as an identifiable community by the Spanish between their settlement of the island in 1511 and the English conquest of 1655. Main article: Demographics of Jamaica. Growth in tourist arrivals accelerated in the third quarter of 1998 and tourism earnings, increased 8.5% from January to December 31, 1998 compared to the corresponding period in 1997.

Tourism, which is the largest foreign exchange earner, showed improvement as well. January's bauxite production recorded a 7.1% increase relative to January 1998. Bauxite and alumina production increased 5.5% from January to December, 1998 compared to the corresponding period in 1997. Agricultural production, an important engine of growth increased 15.3% in third quarter of 1998 compared to the corresponding period in 1997, signaling the first positive growth rate in the sector since January 1997.

Recent economic performance shows the Jamaican economy is recovering. The economy in 1997 was marked by low levels of import growth, high levels of private capital inflows and relative stability in the foreign exchange market. In 1997, nominal GDP was approximately J$220,556.2 million (US$6,198.9 million based on the average annual exchange rate of the period). The decrease in GDP in 1996 and 1997 was largely due to significant problems in the financial sector and, in 1997, a severe island-wide drought (the worst in 70 years) that drastically reduced agricultural production.

After a period of steady growth from 1985 to 1995, real GDP decreased by 1.8% and 2.4% in 1996 and 1997, respectively. The Government remains committed to lowering inflation, with a long-term objective of bringing it in line with that of its major trading partners. inflation for FY1998/99 was 6.2% compared to 7.2% in the corresponding period in FY1997/98. The annual inflation rate has decreased from a high of 80.2% in 1991 to 7.9% in 1998.

The macroeconomic stabilization program introduced in 1991, which focused on tight fiscal and monetary policies, has contributed to a controlled reduction in the rate of inflation. During this period, a large share of the economy was returned to private sector ownership through divestment and privatization programs. Emphasis has been placed on maintaining strict fiscal discipline, greater openness to trade and financial flows, market liberalization and reduction in the size of government. Since 1991, the Government has followed a program of economic liberalization and stabilization by removing exchange controls, floating the exchange rate, cutting tariffs, stabilizing the Jamaican currency, reducing inflation and removing restrictions on foreign investment.

Supported by multilateral financial institutions, Jamaica has, since the early 1980's, sought to implement structural reforms aimed at fostering private sector activity and increasing the role of market forces in resource allocation. Tourism and mining are the leading foreign exchange earners. Major sectors of the Jamaican economy include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism and financial and insurance services. Jamaica operates as a mixed, free-market economy with state enterprises as well as private sector businesses.

Main article: Economy of Jamaica. Some regions on the south coast, such as the Liguanea Plain and the Pedro Plains are relatively dry rain-shadow areas. The climate in Jamaica is tropical, with hot and humid weather, although inland regions have a more temperate climate. A live webcam atop the Gleaner Newspaper building on 7 North Street in Kingston is available.

More satellite maps which allow zoom in and zoom out are available from Google's map server. Chief towns include the capital Kingston, Spanish Town, Mandeville, and Montego Bay. For this reason, most major cities are located on the coast. The island of Jamaica has mountainous inlands surrounded by a narrow coastal plain.

Main article: Geography of Jamaica. Jamaica is a full and participating member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). Jamaica has traditionally had a two party system, with power often alternating between the People's National Party and Jamaica Labour Party. Jamaica's constitution requires the Prime Minister to call the next general election by October 2007.

Patterson has been re-elected three times, the last being in 2002. The current leader of the opposition is Bruce Golding. Patterson who has held office since the 1992 resignation of Michael Manley. J.

The current Prime Minister of Jamaica is P. Senators are appointed by the Prime Minister, and the parliamentary Leader of the Opposition. Members of the House (known as 'Members of Parliament' or MPs) are directly elected, and the leader of the majority party in the House becomes the Prime Minister. The Jamaican Parliament is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate.

Both the Queen and the Governor-General serve largely ceremonial roles. The Queen is represented by a Governor-General, nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the monarch. The Jamaican head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who is given the title of "Queen of Jamaica". It came into force with the Jamaica Independence Act, 1962 of the United Kingdom Parliament, which gave Jamaica political independence.

Jamaica's current Constitution was drafted in 1962 by a bipartisan joint committee of the Jamaican legislature. Main article: Politics of Jamaica. Catherine parish, the site of the old Spanish colonial capital and the English capital during the 18th and 19th century. Former capitals of Jamaica include Port Royal, where the pirate Governor Morgan held sway, and which was destroyed by a storm and earthquake, and Spanish Town, in St.

It must be noted however that the rural sections of the island, especially in and around the resort towns of Negril, Montego Bay and Ocho Rios, remain quite safe. The Jamaican police force has also been accused of complicity in this murderous side of the island. The ultimate result of this cycle of violence, drugs and poverty has been the brutal gun warfare seen on Kingston's streets from the mid-1990s onwards. This policy, along with the increasing emergence of Jamaica as a smuggling point for cocaine during the 1980s, led to recurrent violence and only served to increase the impoverishment of a large section of the Jamaican populace.

Both political parties became linked with rival gangs in Kingston which were duly armed. Deteriorating economic conditions led to a desperately fraught re-election campaign between Manley's People's National Party and the main opposition, the Jamaican Labour Party. Rising foreign debt under the government of Michael Manley, who was determined to alleviate Jamaica's severe economic inequality, led to the imposition of IMF austerity measures. However, the initial optimism following Jamaican independence for the next decade or so vanished as Jamaica became a victim of the international economic system.

Jamaica attained full independence by leaving the federations in 1962. Jamaica slowly gained increasing independence from the United Kingdom, and in 1958 Jamaica became a province in the Federation of the West Indies, a federation between all the British West Indies. Following a series of rebellions, slavery was formally abolished in 1834, with full emancipation from chattel slavery declared in 1838. By the beginning of the 19th century, Britain's heavy reliance on slavery resulted in blacks outnumbering whites by a ratio of almost 20 to one, leading to constant threat of revolt.

During its first 200 years of British rule, Jamaica became the world's largest sugar exporting nation and produced over 77,000 tons of sugar annually between 1820 - 1824, which was achieved through the massive use of imported African slave labor. The English Admiral William Penn (father of William Penn of Pennsylvania) and General Venables seized the island in 1655. Columbus used it as his family's private estate. Jamaica was claimed for Spain after Christopher Columbus first landed there in 1494.

Although some claim they became virtually extinct following contact with Europeans, another group claim that some survived. The original Arawak or Taino people from South America, first settled on the island between 1000 and 400 BC. Main article: History of Jamaica. .

It is the third most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, after the United States and Canada. Its indigenous Arawakan-speaking Taíno inhabitants named the island Xaymaca, meaning either the "land of springs," or the "Land of wood and water." Formerly a Spanish possession known as Santiago, then the British West Indies Crown colony of Jamaica, the country's population is composed mainly of the descendants of former African slaves. It is 630 kilometers from the Central American mainland, 150 kilometers from Cuba on the north, and 180 kilometers from the island of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated, on the east. Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, 240 kilometers in length and as much as 80 kilometers in width situated in the Caribbean Sea.


- Date.
2,695,867 (July 2003)
245/km².
 - Total
 - Density. Transportation in Jamaica.

Technology in Jamaica. Public Holidays in Jamaica. Military of Jamaica. Marcus Garvey.

List of Jamaicans. Jamaican Posses. Geography of Jamaica. Foreign relations of Jamaica.

Communications in Jamaica. Bob Marley. National Motto - "Out of Many, One People." (Unity among many cultures and races.). National Dish - Ackee and Saltfish (dried salted Cod).

National Tree - Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus elatus). National Flower - Lignum vitae (Guaiacum officinale). National Bird - Doctor bird (Green-and-black Streamertail, Trochilus polytmus). Westmoreland.

Trelawny. Saint James. Saint Elizabeth. Hanover.

Cornwall (county) in the west, containing the parishes of:

    . Saint Mary. Saint Catherine. Saint Ann.

    Manchester. Clarendon. Middlesex (county) in the centre, containing the parishes of:

      . Saint Thomas.

      Saint Andrew. Portland. Kingston. Surrey (county) in the east, containing the parishes of:

        .

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