Bonnaroo Music Festival

The Bonnaroo Music Festival, Bonnaroo or 'Roo for short, is an annual rock festival by Superfly Productions and AC Entertainment, first held in 2002. The festival is held on a 700 acre (2.4 km²) farm in Manchester, Tennessee, 60 miles southeast of Nashville, Tennessee. The main attractions of the festival are the multiple stages of live music, featuring mostly jam bands (categorized as progressive fusion), but also including hip hop and other alternative music. The festival also features craftsman and artisans selling unique products, several food and drink vendors, and many other activities from various sponsors. The festival is reminiscent of popular music festivals like Woodstock & Isle Of Wight Festival.

2006

The 2006 Bonnaroo Festival will be held June 16–June 18, 2006. Tickets for the 2006 Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival will go on sale Saturday, February 11, at 10:00 AM Eastern Time through Bonnaroo.com. More artists to be announced with the line up estimated to be 80 plus artists.

Lineup

Radiohead, Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers, Phil Lesh & Friends, Beck, Elvis Costello & The Imposters, Bonnie Raitt, Death Cab for Cutie, moe., Bright Eyes, The Neville Brothers, Béla Fleck & the Flecktones, Buddy Guy, Damian Marley, Ben Folds, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Dr. John, Matisyahu, G. Love & Special Sauce, My Morning Jacket, Ricky Skaggs & Kentucky Thunder, Steel Pulse, Mike Gordon and Ramble Dove, Cat Power, Medeski Martin & Wood, Nickel Creek, Gomez, Atmosphere, Steve Earle, Blues Traveler, Amadou & Mariam, Stephen Malkmus & The Jicks, The Dresden Dolls, Son Volt, Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, Jerry Douglas, Soulive, Rusted Root, Devendra Banhart Band, Donavon Frankenreiter, Mike Doughty, Sasha, [[Grace Potter & The Nocturnals, The Magic Numbers, Bill Frisell, Seu Jorge, Bettye LaVette, Dungen, Shooter Jennings, Rebirth Brass Band, Robinella, Andrew Bird, Steel Train, Jackie Greene, DeVotchKa, Wood Brothers, dios (malos), Toubab Krewe, The Motet, Marah, I-Nine, Balkan Beat Box, Cat Empire

2005

Highlights

The festival ran from June 10-12, and more than 75,000 people were in attendance. New Line Cinema introduced a twenty-four-hour "cinema tent," showing popular and cult films. Wireless Internet access was provided by Cisco Systems. There was a "comedy tent" featuring Jim Breuer as well as some lesser-known comedians and even daily yoga classes. Unlike 2004, rain marked each day of the festival.

Ray LaMontagne released a live EP of his Bonnaroo set, appropriately titled Ray LaMontagne Live From Bonnaroo. Also, LiveBonnaroo.com made several artists' live sets available for download, including sets from The Black Crowes, My Morning Jacket and Widespread Panic.

Lineup

The Allman Brothers Band, Widespread Panic, Dave Matthews Band, Trey Anastasio, Jack Johnson, The Black Crowes, Alison Krauss, Modest Mouse, Ratdog, Herbie Hancock's Headhunters 2005, Gov't Mule, Béla Fleck Acoustic Trio, The Mars Volta, John Prine, Yonder Mountain String Band, Jurassic 5, The Word, Galactic, My Morning Jacket, Keller Williams, STS9, Earl Scruggs, Benevento-Russo Duo feat. Mike Gordon, Joss Stone, Kings of Leon, De La Soul, O.A.R., Toots and the Maytals, Umphrey's McGee, Iron & Wine, Ozomatli, Rilo Kiley, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Drive-By Truckers, Particle, Joanna Newsom, Peter Rowan & Crucial Reggae, Xavier Rudd, Ray LaMontagne, The Gourds, Blue Merle, Secret Machines, Saul Williams, Donna the Buffalo, Mouse on Mars, John Butler Trio, The Perceptionists, Ollabelle, Old Crow Medicine Show, RJD2, Citizen Cope, The Old '97s, Brazilian Girls, M. Ward, Madeleine Peyroux, The Frames, DJ Krush, Assembly of Dust, Amos Lee, Matisyahu, Perpetual Groove, Tea Leaf Green, Lake Trout, 22-20s Gabby La La feat. Les Claypool, Heartless Bastards, Josh Ritter, Kermit Ruffins and the Barbeque Singers, Signal Path, Keren Ann, Dr. Dog, Motion Potion, DJ Quarter-Roy, DJ Medi4, DJ Quickie Mart, Animal Liberation Orchestra, Steel Train, SIIHB's

2004

Highlights

The festival ran June 11-13, and more than 90,000 people attended. The festival was marked by torrential rains, creating an incredibly large amount of mud. Many vehicles had to be towed out of the parking area.

Lineup

Primus, The Dead, Los Lonely Boys, Calexico, mrnorth, New Monsoon, Xavier Rudd, Yonder Mountain String Band, Neko Case, The Black Keys, Simple Kid, JoJo & His Mojo Mardi Gras Band, Wilco, Ani DiFranco, North Mississippi Allstars, Patti Smith, Nellie McKay, MOFRO, Bob Dylan, String Cheese Incident, Chris Robinson & The New Earth Mud, Mike Doughty's Band, Gillian Welch, Yo La Tengo, Dave Matthews & Friends, Praxis, Vida Blue feat. The Spam Allstars, Umphrey's McGee, The X-ecutioners, Danger Mouse, Los Lobos, Hackensaw Boys, Kings of Leon, Blue Merle, Erin Mckeown, Acoustic Syndicate, Gomez, Grandaddy, Rachel Yamagata, Mindy Smith, Gov't Mule, My Morning Jacket, Del McCoury, Beth Orton, Robert Earl Keen, Iouque, Sam Bush Band, Steve Winwood, Galactic, Jem, Jazz Mandolin Project, Doc Watson, Damien Rice, Ween, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Cut Chemist, Cut Chemist presents Funky Sole, Burning Spear, Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra, Leftover Salmon, Marc Ribot y Los Cubanos Protizos, Marc Broussard, deSoL, Taj Mahal, The Bad Plus, Antigone Rising, Cracker/Camper Van Beethoven, Donavon Frankenreiter, moe., Femi Kuti, Barbara Cue, Soulive, Guster, Addison Groove Project, David Byrne, Medeski Martin & Wood, SuperJam, Material, The Radiators, Trey Anastasio.

2003

Highlights

The festival ran June 13-15, and 80,000 attended. In The Bonnaroo organizers planned a festival called Bonnaroo Northeast to take place in Riverhead, Long Island, New York. This festival, as well as the Field Day Festival, another festival to take place at the same site, were cancelled, however, in the weeks leading up to the event due to concern about securing permits in time.

Lineup

The Allman Brothers Band, The Dead, Widespread Panic, Neil Young & Crazy Horse, James Brown, Ben Harper & the Innocent Criminals, Jack Johnson, moe., Galactic, The Flaming Lips, The Roots, Lucinda Williams, Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, Emmylou Harris, Medeski Martin & Wood, Sonic Youth, The Meters, Leo Kottke & Mike Gordon, Joshua Redman, Yonder Mountain String Band, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, The Wailers, Nickel Creek, G. Love and Special Sauce, Tortoise, Liz Phair, Sound Tribe Sector 9, O.A.R., North Mississippi Allstars, Warren Haynes, Keller Williams, Garage A Trois, Ben Kweller, Mix Master Mike, Ekoostik Hookah, The Polyphonic Spree, Kid Koala, Z-Trip, Particle, Michael Franti and Spearhead, Josh Wink, Antibalas Afrobeat Orchestra, The Slip, Cyro Baptista's Beat the Donkey, DJ Spooky, Jerry Joseph & The Jackmormons, Jon Cleary & the Absolute Monster Gentlemen, The New Deal, RJD2, My Morning Jacket, Topaz, phonosycograph DJ.DISK, DJ.Disk & The Filthy Ape, Vusi Mahlasela of Amandla!, Drive-By Truckers, Hackensaw Boys, Mark Farina, Robinella & the CC String Band, Buddahead, Kaki King, RAQ, Jason Mraz, The Trachtenburg Family Slideshow Players, Josh Kelley, Gavin Degraw, Indecision, Iouque, Rebirth Brass Band.

2002

Highlights

In the inagural year, the festival was held June 21-23, and more than 70,000 fans attended.

Lineup

Widespread Panic, Phil Lesh and Friends w/ very special guest Bob Weir, Galactic, Trey Anastasio, Béla Fleck & Edgar Meyer, DJ Logic, Les Claypool's Flying Frog Brigade, Amon Tobin, Old Crow Medicine Show, Soulive, Gov't Mule, Jim White, Umphrey's McGee, Gran Torino, The Big Wu, Donna the Buffalo, Acoustic Syndicate, Keller Willams Incident, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Ben Harper, Cut Chemist, String Cheese Incident, John Butler Trio, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, Jack Johnson, Jurassic 5, The Del Mcoury Band, Drums & Tuba, Lil' Rascals Brass Band, Disco Biscuits, LLama, Col. Bruce Hampton & The Code Talkers, Particle, Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains, moe., Corey Harris, Ween, North Mississippi Allstars, Vinroc, Z-Trip, Mofro, Gabe Dixon, Norah Jones, Campbell Brothers, Dottie Peoples, Blind Boys of Alabama

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Bruce Hampton & The Code Talkers, Particle, Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains, moe., Corey Harris, Ween, North Mississippi Allstars, Vinroc, Z-Trip, Mofro, Gabe Dixon, Norah Jones, Campbell Brothers, Dottie Peoples, Blind Boys of Alabama. Reindeer Research Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Widespread Panic, Phil Lesh and Friends w/ very special guest Bob Weir, Galactic, Trey Anastasio, Béla Fleck & Edgar Meyer, DJ Logic, Les Claypool's Flying Frog Brigade, Amon Tobin, Old Crow Medicine Show, Soulive, Gov't Mule, Jim White, Umphrey's McGee, Gran Torino, The Big Wu, Donna the Buffalo, Acoustic Syndicate, Keller Willams Incident, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Ben Harper, Cut Chemist, String Cheese Incident, John Butler Trio, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, Jack Johnson, Jurassic 5, The Del Mcoury Band, Drums & Tuba, Lil' Rascals Brass Band, Disco Biscuits, LLama, Col. Smith. In the inagural year, the festival was held June 21-23, and more than 70,000 fans attended. Carrie Bucki with Greg Finstad and Tammy A. Love and Special Sauce, Tortoise, Liz Phair, Sound Tribe Sector 9, O.A.R., North Mississippi Allstars, Warren Haynes, Keller Williams, Garage A Trois, Ben Kweller, Mix Master Mike, Ekoostik Hookah, The Polyphonic Spree, Kid Koala, Z-Trip, Particle, Michael Franti and Spearhead, Josh Wink, Antibalas Afrobeat Orchestra, The Slip, Cyro Baptista's Beat the Donkey, DJ Spooky, Jerry Joseph & The Jackmormons, Jon Cleary & the Absolute Monster Gentlemen, The New Deal, RJD2, My Morning Jacket, Topaz, phonosycograph DJ.DISK, DJ.Disk & The Filthy Ape, Vusi Mahlasela of Amandla!, Drive-By Truckers, Hackensaw Boys, Mark Farina, Robinella & the CC String Band, Buddahead, Kaki King, RAQ, Jason Mraz, The Trachtenburg Family Slideshow Players, Josh Kelley, Gavin Degraw, Indecision, Iouque, Rebirth Brass Band. 2004.

The Allman Brothers Band, The Dead, Widespread Panic, Neil Young & Crazy Horse, James Brown, Ben Harper & the Innocent Criminals, Jack Johnson, moe., Galactic, The Flaming Lips, The Roots, Lucinda Williams, Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, Emmylou Harris, Medeski Martin & Wood, Sonic Youth, The Meters, Leo Kottke & Mike Gordon, Joshua Redman, Yonder Mountain String Band, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, The Wailers, Nickel Creek, G. Reindeer Roundup! A K-12 Educator's Guide to Reindeer in Alaska. This festival, as well as the Field Day Festival, another festival to take place at the same site, were cancelled, however, in the weeks leading up to the event due to concern about securing permits in time. The name Caribou is thought to come from a Mi'kmaq word that means "one that paws (the ground)". In The Bonnaroo organizers planned a festival called Bonnaroo Northeast to take place in Riverhead, Long Island, New York. In Sami, the male is called sarve, a castrated bull (which in old time was performed by a bite) hierke and the female sex is called vaya. The festival ran June 13-15, and 80,000 attended. Reindeer antler is powdered and sold as a nutritional or medicinal supplement to Asian markets.

The Spam Allstars, Umphrey's McGee, The X-ecutioners, Danger Mouse, Los Lobos, Hackensaw Boys, Kings of Leon, Blue Merle, Erin Mckeown, Acoustic Syndicate, Gomez, Grandaddy, Rachel Yamagata, Mindy Smith, Gov't Mule, My Morning Jacket, Del McCoury, Beth Orton, Robert Earl Keen, Iouque, Sam Bush Band, Steve Winwood, Galactic, Jem, Jazz Mandolin Project, Doc Watson, Damien Rice, Ween, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Cut Chemist, Cut Chemist presents Funky Sole, Burning Spear, Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra, Leftover Salmon, Marc Ribot y Los Cubanos Protizos, Marc Broussard, deSoL, Taj Mahal, The Bad Plus, Antigone Rising, Cracker/Camper Van Beethoven, Donavon Frankenreiter, moe., Femi Kuti, Barbara Cue, Soulive, Guster, Addison Groove Project, David Byrne, Medeski Martin & Wood, SuperJam, Material, The Radiators, Trey Anastasio. In Alaska, reindeer sausage is sold locally to supermarkets and grocery stores. Primus, The Dead, Los Lonely Boys, Calexico, mrnorth, New Monsoon, Xavier Rudd, Yonder Mountain String Band, Neko Case, The Black Keys, Simple Kid, JoJo & His Mojo Mardi Gras Band, Wilco, Ani DiFranco, North Mississippi Allstars, Patti Smith, Nellie McKay, MOFRO, Bob Dylan, String Cheese Incident, Chris Robinson & The New Earth Mud, Mike Doughty's Band, Gillian Welch, Yo La Tengo, Dave Matthews & Friends, Praxis, Vida Blue feat. Reindeer stew is the best-known dish in Lapland. Many vehicles had to be towed out of the parking area. Reindeer meatballs are sold canned. The festival was marked by torrential rains, creating an incredibly large amount of mud. Reindeer meat is popular in the Scandinavian countries.

The festival ran June 11-13, and more than 90,000 people attended. Reindeer herders on the Seward Peninsula have experienced significant losses to their herds from animals following the wild caribou during their migrations. Dog, Motion Potion, DJ Quarter-Roy, DJ Medi4, DJ Quickie Mart, Animal Liberation Orchestra, Steel Train, SIIHB's. Reindeer were introduced into Alaska near the end of the 19th century; they interbreed with native caribou subspecies there. Les Claypool, Heartless Bastards, Josh Ritter, Kermit Ruffins and the Barbeque Singers, Signal Path, Keren Ann, Dr. The fur and meat is sold, which is an important source of income. Ward, Madeleine Peyroux, The Frames, DJ Krush, Assembly of Dust, Amos Lee, Matisyahu, Perpetual Groove, Tea Leaf Green, Lake Trout, 22-20s Gabby La La feat. The numbers of Russian herders have been drastically reduced since the fall of the Soviet Union.

Mike Gordon, Joss Stone, Kings of Leon, De La Soul, O.A.R., Toots and the Maytals, Umphrey's McGee, Iron & Wine, Ozomatli, Rilo Kiley, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Drive-By Truckers, Particle, Joanna Newsom, Peter Rowan & Crucial Reggae, Xavier Rudd, Ray LaMontagne, The Gourds, Blue Merle, Secret Machines, Saul Williams, Donna the Buffalo, Mouse on Mars, John Butler Trio, The Perceptionists, Ollabelle, Old Crow Medicine Show, RJD2, Citizen Cope, The Old '97s, Brazilian Girls, M. (Siberian reindeer are larger than their Scandinavian relatives.) For breeders, a single deer-owner usually own some hundreds or up to thousands of animals. The Allman Brothers Band, Widespread Panic, Dave Matthews Band, Trey Anastasio, Jack Johnson, The Black Crowes, Alison Krauss, Modest Mouse, Ratdog, Herbie Hancock's Headhunters 2005, Gov't Mule, Béla Fleck Acoustic Trio, The Mars Volta, John Prine, Yonder Mountain String Band, Jurassic 5, The Word, Galactic, My Morning Jacket, Keller Williams, STS9, Earl Scruggs, Benevento-Russo Duo feat. Siberian deer-owners also use the reindeer to ride on. Also, LiveBonnaroo.com made several artists' live sets available for download, including sets from The Black Crowes, My Morning Jacket and Widespread Panic. It is believed that domestication started between Bronze Age-Iron Age. Ray LaMontagne released a live EP of his Bonnaroo set, appropriately titled Ray LaMontagne Live From Bonnaroo. The reindeer has (or has had) an important economic role for all circumpolar peoples, including the Sami, Nenets, Khants, Evenks, Yukaghirs, Tjuktjer and Korjaker in Eurasia.

Unlike 2004, rain marked each day of the festival. In the traditional lifestyle of the Inuit people and Northern First Nations people, the caribou is a source of food, clothing, shelter and tools. There was a "comedy tent" featuring Jim Breuer as well as some lesser-known comedians and even daily yoga classes. Wild caribou are still hunted in North America. Wireless Internet access was provided by Cisco Systems. A regular mail run in Wales, Alaska used a sleigh drawn by reindeer. New Line Cinema introduced a twenty-four-hour "cinema tent," showing popular and cult films. The use of reindeer as semidomesticated livestock in Alaska was introduced in the late 1800s by Sheldon Jackson as a means of providing a livelihood for Native peoples there.

The festival ran from June 10-12, and more than 75,000 people were in attendance. They are raised for their meat, milk, hides, and antlers, and for transportation. Love & Special Sauce, My Morning Jacket, Ricky Skaggs & Kentucky Thunder, Steel Pulse, Mike Gordon and Ramble Dove, Cat Power, Medeski Martin & Wood, Nickel Creek, Gomez, Atmosphere, Steve Earle, Blues Traveler, Amadou & Mariam, Stephen Malkmus & The Jicks, The Dresden Dolls, Son Volt, Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, Jerry Douglas, Soulive, Rusted Root, Devendra Banhart Band, Donavon Frankenreiter, Mike Doughty, Sasha, [[Grace Potter & The Nocturnals, The Magic Numbers, Bill Frisell, Seu Jorge, Bettye LaVette, Dungen, Shooter Jennings, Rebirth Brass Band, Robinella, Andrew Bird, Steel Train, Jackie Greene, DeVotchKa, Wood Brothers, dios (malos), Toubab Krewe, The Motet, Marah, I-Nine, Balkan Beat Box, Cat Empire. Reindeer have been raised in captivity for centuries in Finland, but are not considered fully domesticated, being referred to as "captive bred". John, Matisyahu, G. Diseases include brucellosis, foot rot, and keratitis (white-eye, an infection of the eye). Radiohead, Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers, Phil Lesh & Friends, Beck, Elvis Costello & The Imposters, Bonnie Raitt, Death Cab for Cutie, moe., Bright Eyes, The Neville Brothers, Béla Fleck & the Flecktones, Buddy Guy, Damian Marley, Ben Folds, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Dr. Roundworms and tapeworms can also afflict reindeer.

More artists to be announced with the line up estimated to be 80 plus artists. Parasites include warble flies, mosquitoes, and nose bot flies. Tickets for the 2006 Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival will go on sale Saturday, February 11, at 10:00 AM Eastern Time through Bonnaroo.com. Ravens can indirectly kill caribou calves by blinding them (eating their eyes). The 2006 Bonnaroo Festival will be held June 16–June 18, 2006. In mesolithic and neolithic periods, Europeans hunted them, too. The festival is reminiscent of popular music festivals like Woodstock & Isle Of Wight Festival. Natural threats to caribou include avalanches and the predators wolves, wolverines, lynxes, bears, etc.

The festival also features craftsman and artisans selling unique products, several food and drink vendors, and many other activities from various sponsors. Males usually split apart from the group and become solitary, while the remaining herd consists mostly of females, usually a matriarchy. The main attractions of the festival are the multiple stages of live music, featuring mostly jam bands (categorized as progressive fusion), but also including hip hop and other alternative music. Wild reindeer are considered to be very vulnerable to human disturbance, especially during the calving period in April. The festival is held on a 700 acre (2.4 km²) farm in Manchester, Tennessee, 60 miles southeast of Nashville, Tennessee. Other areas, such as Filefjell, have populations of reindeer that have been herded in the past but are now left free. The Bonnaroo Music Festival, Bonnaroo or 'Roo for short, is an annual rock festival by Superfly Productions and AC Entertainment, first held in 2002. The last remaining European herds of the genetic wild reindeer are found in central Norway, mainly in the mountainous areas of Rondane, Hardangervidda, Dovre and Forrelhogna.

. There are an estimated 5 million reindeer in Eurasia, mainly semi-domesticated. Leo's Bonnaroo Survival Guide. About 1 million live in Alaska, and a comparable number live in northern Canada. LiveBonnaroo.com, which offers artist-approved downloads of live recordings, as well as photos and souvenirs. Their wide hooves help the animals move through snow and tundra; they also help propel the animal when it swims. Bonnaroo.com, official website. In the wild, caribou migrate in large herds between their birthing habitat and their winter habitat.

A caribou or reindeer swims easily and fast; migrating herds will not hesitate to swim across a large lake or broad river. The outer coat is boyant to the point that a full third of the animal is always above water. The reindeer coat has two layers of fur, a dense woolly undercoat and longer-haired overcoat consisting of hollow, air-filled hairs. In the winter, the pads shrink and tighten, exposing the rim of the hoof which cuts into the ice and crusted snow to keep the animal from slipping.

Reindeer hooves adapt to the season: In the summer, when the tundra is soft and wet, the footpads become spongy and provide extra traction. Incoming cold air is warmed by the animal's body heat before entering the lungs, and water is condensed from the expired air and captured before the deer's breath is exhaled, used to moisten dry incoming air and possibly absorbed into the blood through the mucous membranes. Reindeer have specialized noses featuring nasal turbinate bones that dramatically increase the surface area within the nostrils. lemmus lemmus), birds and bird eggs.

clethrionomys glareolus), lemmings (lat. They can also eat voles (lat. However, they also eat the leaves of willows and birches, as well as sedges and grasses. They mainly eat lichens in winter, especially reindeer moss.

Reindeer are ruminants, having a four-chambered stomach. The caribou of North America can run at speeds of almost 50 miles per hour and may travel 3,000 miles in a year. Domesticated animals (reindeer) are shorter-legged and heavier than their wild counterparts (caribou). The antlers typically have two separate groups of points (see image), a lower and upper.

Both sexes grow antlers, which (in the Scandinavian variety) for old males fall off in December, for young males in the spring and for females during the summer. In some subspecies of reindeer, the male is slightly larger; in others, the male can weigh up to 300 kg. The weight of a female varies between 60 and 170 kg. Its natural occurrence is approximately bounded within the 62° latitude.

The last wild reindeer in Europe are found in habitats in southern Norway. Domesticated deer are mostly found in Northern Scandinavia and Russia, and wild deer are mostly found in North America, Greenland and Iceland (introduced by man in 19th century ). In 1952 reindeer were re-introduced to Scotland, as the natural stock had become extinct in the 10th century. Reindeer are found throughout Scandinavia (including Iceland); in Finland; at Spitsbergen; in Russian Europe including Northern Russia and Novaya Zemlya; in Russian Asia, to the Pacific Ocean; in North America on Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

The reindeer is distributed throughout a number of northern locales. . The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). The Swedish are portrayed as reindeer.

In the Art Spiegelman graphic novel series Maus, which deals with the Holocaust, different ethnic groups are portrayed as various animals in order to call attention to racism. Chet from The Santa Clause 2. Tony Tony Chopper of One Piece series. Olive, the other Reindeer.

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer. Nicholas. Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donder (or Donner) and Blitzen pull the airborne sleigh in A Visit from St. tarandus eogroenlandicus) which is an East Greenland population that has been extinct since 1900.

Arctic reindeer (R. tarandus granti) which are found in Alaska and northwestern Canada. Grant's Caribou (R. This is the most numerous subspecies in North America.

tarandus groenlandicus) which are found in northern Canada. Barren-ground Caribou (R. tarandus pearyi) which are found in the islands of the Canadian Arctic. Peary Caribou (R.

Woodland Caribou have disappeared from most of their original range and are considered "threatened" where they remain, with the notable exception of the Migratory Woodland Caribou of northern Quebec and Labrador, Canada. tarandus caribou) which are found in North American woodlands as far south as Maine and Washington. Woodland Caribou (R. The Karelia population reaches far in to Russia, however, so far that it remains an open question whether reindeer further to the east are fennicus as well.

tarandus fennicus) Wild forest reindeer in Fennoscandia are only found in two areas, in Finnish/Russian Karelia, and a small population in central south Finland. Finnish Forest Reindeer (R. tarandus tarandus) which have a continuous distribution in the tundra biome from west to east across the Eurasian continent, including Fennoscandia. Mountain/Wild Reindeer (R.

tarandus platyrhynchus) which are found on Svalbard is the smallest subspecies of reindeer. Svalbard Reindeer (R. In Alaska, reindeer herders use satellite telemetry to track their herds, using online maps and databases to chart the herd's progress. A poronkusema is generally 10 to 15 kilometers or about 30 minutes of riding.

This is because a reindeer cannot urinate when it is pulling a sled and is prone to urinary tract clogging if it is not allowed to urinate with regularity. The Laplanders, who use trained reindeer extensively to pull sleighs, use a measurement called poronkusema which loosely translates into "reindeer piss".

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