Bonnaroo Music Festival

The Bonnaroo Music Festival, Bonnaroo or 'Roo for short, is an annual rock festival by Superfly Productions and AC Entertainment, first held in 2002. The festival is held on a 700 acre (2.4 km²) farm in Manchester, Tennessee, 60 miles southeast of Nashville, Tennessee. The main attractions of the festival are the multiple stages of live music, featuring mostly jam bands (categorized as progressive fusion), but also including hip hop and other alternative music. The festival also features craftsman and artisans selling unique products, several food and drink vendors, and many other activities from various sponsors. The festival is reminiscent of popular music festivals like Woodstock & Isle Of Wight Festival.

2006

The 2006 Bonnaroo Festival will be held June 16–June 18, 2006. Tickets for the 2006 Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival will go on sale Saturday, February 11, at 10:00 AM Eastern Time through Bonnaroo.com. More artists to be announced with the line up estimated to be 80 plus artists.

Lineup

Radiohead, Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers, Phil Lesh & Friends, Beck, Elvis Costello & The Imposters, Bonnie Raitt, Death Cab for Cutie, moe., Bright Eyes, The Neville Brothers, Béla Fleck & the Flecktones, Buddy Guy, Damian Marley, Ben Folds, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Dr. John, Matisyahu, G. Love & Special Sauce, My Morning Jacket, Ricky Skaggs & Kentucky Thunder, Steel Pulse, Mike Gordon and Ramble Dove, Cat Power, Medeski Martin & Wood, Nickel Creek, Gomez, Atmosphere, Steve Earle, Blues Traveler, Amadou & Mariam, Stephen Malkmus & The Jicks, The Dresden Dolls, Son Volt, Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, Jerry Douglas, Soulive, Rusted Root, Devendra Banhart Band, Donavon Frankenreiter, Mike Doughty, Sasha, [[Grace Potter & The Nocturnals, The Magic Numbers, Bill Frisell, Seu Jorge, Bettye LaVette, Dungen, Shooter Jennings, Rebirth Brass Band, Robinella, Andrew Bird, Steel Train, Jackie Greene, DeVotchKa, Wood Brothers, dios (malos), Toubab Krewe, The Motet, Marah, I-Nine, Balkan Beat Box, Cat Empire

2005

Highlights

The festival ran from June 10-12, and more than 75,000 people were in attendance. New Line Cinema introduced a twenty-four-hour "cinema tent," showing popular and cult films. Wireless Internet access was provided by Cisco Systems. There was a "comedy tent" featuring Jim Breuer as well as some lesser-known comedians and even daily yoga classes. Unlike 2004, rain marked each day of the festival.

Ray LaMontagne released a live EP of his Bonnaroo set, appropriately titled Ray LaMontagne Live From Bonnaroo. Also, LiveBonnaroo.com made several artists' live sets available for download, including sets from The Black Crowes, My Morning Jacket and Widespread Panic.

Lineup

The Allman Brothers Band, Widespread Panic, Dave Matthews Band, Trey Anastasio, Jack Johnson, The Black Crowes, Alison Krauss, Modest Mouse, Ratdog, Herbie Hancock's Headhunters 2005, Gov't Mule, Béla Fleck Acoustic Trio, The Mars Volta, John Prine, Yonder Mountain String Band, Jurassic 5, The Word, Galactic, My Morning Jacket, Keller Williams, STS9, Earl Scruggs, Benevento-Russo Duo feat. Mike Gordon, Joss Stone, Kings of Leon, De La Soul, O.A.R., Toots and the Maytals, Umphrey's McGee, Iron & Wine, Ozomatli, Rilo Kiley, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Drive-By Truckers, Particle, Joanna Newsom, Peter Rowan & Crucial Reggae, Xavier Rudd, Ray LaMontagne, The Gourds, Blue Merle, Secret Machines, Saul Williams, Donna the Buffalo, Mouse on Mars, John Butler Trio, The Perceptionists, Ollabelle, Old Crow Medicine Show, RJD2, Citizen Cope, The Old '97s, Brazilian Girls, M. Ward, Madeleine Peyroux, The Frames, DJ Krush, Assembly of Dust, Amos Lee, Matisyahu, Perpetual Groove, Tea Leaf Green, Lake Trout, 22-20s Gabby La La feat. Les Claypool, Heartless Bastards, Josh Ritter, Kermit Ruffins and the Barbeque Singers, Signal Path, Keren Ann, Dr. Dog, Motion Potion, DJ Quarter-Roy, DJ Medi4, DJ Quickie Mart, Animal Liberation Orchestra, Steel Train, SIIHB's

2004

Highlights

The festival ran June 11-13, and more than 90,000 people attended. The festival was marked by torrential rains, creating an incredibly large amount of mud. Many vehicles had to be towed out of the parking area.

Lineup

Primus, The Dead, Los Lonely Boys, Calexico, mrnorth, New Monsoon, Xavier Rudd, Yonder Mountain String Band, Neko Case, The Black Keys, Simple Kid, JoJo & His Mojo Mardi Gras Band, Wilco, Ani DiFranco, North Mississippi Allstars, Patti Smith, Nellie McKay, MOFRO, Bob Dylan, String Cheese Incident, Chris Robinson & The New Earth Mud, Mike Doughty's Band, Gillian Welch, Yo La Tengo, Dave Matthews & Friends, Praxis, Vida Blue feat. The Spam Allstars, Umphrey's McGee, The X-ecutioners, Danger Mouse, Los Lobos, Hackensaw Boys, Kings of Leon, Blue Merle, Erin Mckeown, Acoustic Syndicate, Gomez, Grandaddy, Rachel Yamagata, Mindy Smith, Gov't Mule, My Morning Jacket, Del McCoury, Beth Orton, Robert Earl Keen, Iouque, Sam Bush Band, Steve Winwood, Galactic, Jem, Jazz Mandolin Project, Doc Watson, Damien Rice, Ween, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Cut Chemist, Cut Chemist presents Funky Sole, Burning Spear, Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra, Leftover Salmon, Marc Ribot y Los Cubanos Protizos, Marc Broussard, deSoL, Taj Mahal, The Bad Plus, Antigone Rising, Cracker/Camper Van Beethoven, Donavon Frankenreiter, moe., Femi Kuti, Barbara Cue, Soulive, Guster, Addison Groove Project, David Byrne, Medeski Martin & Wood, SuperJam, Material, The Radiators, Trey Anastasio.

2003

Highlights

The festival ran June 13-15, and 80,000 attended. In The Bonnaroo organizers planned a festival called Bonnaroo Northeast to take place in Riverhead, Long Island, New York. This festival, as well as the Field Day Festival, another festival to take place at the same site, were cancelled, however, in the weeks leading up to the event due to concern about securing permits in time.

Lineup

The Allman Brothers Band, The Dead, Widespread Panic, Neil Young & Crazy Horse, James Brown, Ben Harper & the Innocent Criminals, Jack Johnson, moe., Galactic, The Flaming Lips, The Roots, Lucinda Williams, Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, Emmylou Harris, Medeski Martin & Wood, Sonic Youth, The Meters, Leo Kottke & Mike Gordon, Joshua Redman, Yonder Mountain String Band, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, The Wailers, Nickel Creek, G. Love and Special Sauce, Tortoise, Liz Phair, Sound Tribe Sector 9, O.A.R., North Mississippi Allstars, Warren Haynes, Keller Williams, Garage A Trois, Ben Kweller, Mix Master Mike, Ekoostik Hookah, The Polyphonic Spree, Kid Koala, Z-Trip, Particle, Michael Franti and Spearhead, Josh Wink, Antibalas Afrobeat Orchestra, The Slip, Cyro Baptista's Beat the Donkey, DJ Spooky, Jerry Joseph & The Jackmormons, Jon Cleary & the Absolute Monster Gentlemen, The New Deal, RJD2, My Morning Jacket, Topaz, phonosycograph DJ.DISK, DJ.Disk & The Filthy Ape, Vusi Mahlasela of Amandla!, Drive-By Truckers, Hackensaw Boys, Mark Farina, Robinella & the CC String Band, Buddahead, Kaki King, RAQ, Jason Mraz, The Trachtenburg Family Slideshow Players, Josh Kelley, Gavin Degraw, Indecision, Iouque, Rebirth Brass Band.

2002

Highlights

In the inagural year, the festival was held June 21-23, and more than 70,000 fans attended.

Lineup

Widespread Panic, Phil Lesh and Friends w/ very special guest Bob Weir, Galactic, Trey Anastasio, Béla Fleck & Edgar Meyer, DJ Logic, Les Claypool's Flying Frog Brigade, Amon Tobin, Old Crow Medicine Show, Soulive, Gov't Mule, Jim White, Umphrey's McGee, Gran Torino, The Big Wu, Donna the Buffalo, Acoustic Syndicate, Keller Willams Incident, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Ben Harper, Cut Chemist, String Cheese Incident, John Butler Trio, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, Jack Johnson, Jurassic 5, The Del Mcoury Band, Drums & Tuba, Lil' Rascals Brass Band, Disco Biscuits, LLama, Col. Bruce Hampton & The Code Talkers, Particle, Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains, moe., Corey Harris, Ween, North Mississippi Allstars, Vinroc, Z-Trip, Mofro, Gabe Dixon, Norah Jones, Campbell Brothers, Dottie Peoples, Blind Boys of Alabama

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Bruce Hampton & The Code Talkers, Particle, Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains, moe., Corey Harris, Ween, North Mississippi Allstars, Vinroc, Z-Trip, Mofro, Gabe Dixon, Norah Jones, Campbell Brothers, Dottie Peoples, Blind Boys of Alabama. Abbas won the January 2005 presidential election by a comfortable margin, solidifying himself as the successor to Arafat as leader of the Palestinians. Widespread Panic, Phil Lesh and Friends w/ very special guest Bob Weir, Galactic, Trey Anastasio, Béla Fleck & Edgar Meyer, DJ Logic, Les Claypool's Flying Frog Brigade, Amon Tobin, Old Crow Medicine Show, Soulive, Gov't Mule, Jim White, Umphrey's McGee, Gran Torino, The Big Wu, Donna the Buffalo, Acoustic Syndicate, Keller Willams Incident, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Ben Harper, Cut Chemist, String Cheese Incident, John Butler Trio, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, Jack Johnson, Jurassic 5, The Del Mcoury Band, Drums & Tuba, Lil' Rascals Brass Band, Disco Biscuits, LLama, Col. Ahmed Qurei remained as Prime Minister and took additional security responsibilities. In the inagural year, the festival was held June 21-23, and more than 70,000 fans attended. PLO Secretary-General Mahmoud Abbas was selected Chairman of the PLO and Foreign Minister Farouk Kaddoumi became head of Fatah. Love and Special Sauce, Tortoise, Liz Phair, Sound Tribe Sector 9, O.A.R., North Mississippi Allstars, Warren Haynes, Keller Williams, Garage A Trois, Ben Kweller, Mix Master Mike, Ekoostik Hookah, The Polyphonic Spree, Kid Koala, Z-Trip, Particle, Michael Franti and Spearhead, Josh Wink, Antibalas Afrobeat Orchestra, The Slip, Cyro Baptista's Beat the Donkey, DJ Spooky, Jerry Joseph & The Jackmormons, Jon Cleary & the Absolute Monster Gentlemen, The New Deal, RJD2, My Morning Jacket, Topaz, phonosycograph DJ.DISK, DJ.Disk & The Filthy Ape, Vusi Mahlasela of Amandla!, Drive-By Truckers, Hackensaw Boys, Mark Farina, Robinella & the CC String Band, Buddahead, Kaki King, RAQ, Jason Mraz, The Trachtenburg Family Slideshow Players, Josh Kelley, Gavin Degraw, Indecision, Iouque, Rebirth Brass Band. Upon Arafat's death, Speaker Rawhi Fattuh succeeded Arafat as interim President of the Palestinian Authority.

The Allman Brothers Band, The Dead, Widespread Panic, Neil Young & Crazy Horse, James Brown, Ben Harper & the Innocent Criminals, Jack Johnson, moe., Galactic, The Flaming Lips, The Roots, Lucinda Williams, Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, Emmylou Harris, Medeski Martin & Wood, Sonic Youth, The Meters, Leo Kottke & Mike Gordon, Joshua Redman, Yonder Mountain String Band, Robert Randolph & the Family Band, The Wailers, Nickel Creek, G. [24][25][26] Israel asked French officials to provide proof that Arafat was born in Jerusalem,[27] and the Simon Wiesenthal Center called on France "to investigate the circumstances of the false and incomplete registration of Arafat's death certificate, to correct the erroneous details of his birthplace, adding the truth of his parentage and the cause of his death."[28] So far, no party to the controversy has brought the case to a court to ask for a rectification of the certificate (see French Civil Code, L99-101). This festival, as well as the Field Day Festival, another festival to take place at the same site, were cancelled, however, in the weeks leading up to the event due to concern about securing permits in time. This was the location specified by the official foreign documents that were shown to the French ministry of foreign affairs when Arafat's wife acquired French citizenship. In The Bonnaroo organizers planned a festival called Bonnaroo Northeast to take place in Riverhead, Long Island, New York. A controversy erupted around Arafat's death certificate, which listed Jerusalem as his birth place. The festival ran June 13-15, and 80,000 attended. On November 22, Nasser al-Kidwa was given a copy of Arafat's 558-page medical file by the French Ministry of Defense.[23].

The Spam Allstars, Umphrey's McGee, The X-ecutioners, Danger Mouse, Los Lobos, Hackensaw Boys, Kings of Leon, Blue Merle, Erin Mckeown, Acoustic Syndicate, Gomez, Grandaddy, Rachel Yamagata, Mindy Smith, Gov't Mule, My Morning Jacket, Del McCoury, Beth Orton, Robert Earl Keen, Iouque, Sam Bush Band, Steve Winwood, Galactic, Jem, Jazz Mandolin Project, Doc Watson, Damien Rice, Ween, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Cut Chemist, Cut Chemist presents Funky Sole, Burning Spear, Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra, Leftover Salmon, Marc Ribot y Los Cubanos Protizos, Marc Broussard, deSoL, Taj Mahal, The Bad Plus, Antigone Rising, Cracker/Camper Van Beethoven, Donavon Frankenreiter, moe., Femi Kuti, Barbara Cue, Soulive, Guster, Addison Groove Project, David Byrne, Medeski Martin & Wood, SuperJam, Material, The Radiators, Trey Anastasio. It was determined that Arafat's nephew, Nasser al-Kidwa, was a close enough relative, thus working around Suha Arafat's mutism on her husband's illness. Primus, The Dead, Los Lonely Boys, Calexico, mrnorth, New Monsoon, Xavier Rudd, Yonder Mountain String Band, Neko Case, The Black Keys, Simple Kid, JoJo & His Mojo Mardi Gras Band, Wilco, Ani DiFranco, North Mississippi Allstars, Patti Smith, Nellie McKay, MOFRO, Bob Dylan, String Cheese Incident, Chris Robinson & The New Earth Mud, Mike Doughty's Band, Gillian Welch, Yo La Tengo, Dave Matthews & Friends, Praxis, Vida Blue feat. After Arafat's death, the French Ministry of Defence said that Arafat's medical file would only be transmitted to his next of kin. Many vehicles had to be towed out of the parking area. [22] On November 17, the French government insisted that there was no evidence Arafat had been poisoned, otherwise a criminal investigation would have necessarily been opened. The festival was marked by torrential rains, creating an incredibly large amount of mud. Paris deputy Claude Goasguen asked for a parliamentary inquiry commission on the death of Arafat in an attempt to quell rumors.

The festival ran June 11-13, and more than 90,000 people attended. [21]. Dog, Motion Potion, DJ Quarter-Roy, DJ Medi4, DJ Quickie Mart, Animal Liberation Orchestra, Steel Train, SIIHB's. [20] The French newspaper Le Monde quoted doctors as saying that he suffered from "an unusual blood disease and a liver problem". Les Claypool, Heartless Bastards, Josh Ritter, Kermit Ruffins and the Barbeque Singers, Signal Path, Keren Ann, Dr. Finally, he had a brain haemorrhage. Ward, Madeleine Peyroux, The Frames, DJ Krush, Assembly of Dust, Amos Lee, Matisyahu, Perpetual Groove, Tea Leaf Green, Lake Trout, 22-20s Gabby La La feat. Thus, according to the source, the probable causes of the disease are multiple; Arafat's coma was a consequence of the worsened cirrhosis.

Mike Gordon, Joss Stone, Kings of Leon, De La Soul, O.A.R., Toots and the Maytals, Umphrey's McGee, Iron & Wine, Ozomatli, Rilo Kiley, Karl Denson's Tiny Universe, Drive-By Truckers, Particle, Joanna Newsom, Peter Rowan & Crucial Reggae, Xavier Rudd, Ray LaMontagne, The Gourds, Blue Merle, Secret Machines, Saul Williams, Donna the Buffalo, Mouse on Mars, John Butler Trio, The Perceptionists, Ollabelle, Old Crow Medicine Show, RJD2, Citizen Cope, The Old '97s, Brazilian Girls, M. The source then explained that Arafat's conditions of life during the last three years did not improve the situation: Arafat did not get health care appropriate to his state. The Allman Brothers Band, Widespread Panic, Dave Matthews Band, Trey Anastasio, Jack Johnson, The Black Crowes, Alison Krauss, Modest Mouse, Ratdog, Herbie Hancock's Headhunters 2005, Gov't Mule, Béla Fleck Acoustic Trio, The Mars Volta, John Prine, Yonder Mountain String Band, Jurassic 5, The Word, Galactic, My Morning Jacket, Keller Williams, STS9, Earl Scruggs, Benevento-Russo Duo feat. According to the same source, the reason why this diagnosis of cirrhosis could not be made public was that, in the mind of the general public, cirrhosis is generally associated with the consequences of alcohol abuse – even though the diagnosis was not of an alcoholic cirrhosis and Arafat did not consume any alcohol, there would have probably been rumors. Also, LiveBonnaroo.com made several artists' live sets available for download, including sets from The Black Crowes, My Morning Jacket and Widespread Panic. Leukemia was soundly ruled out. Ray LaMontagne released a live EP of his Bonnaroo set, appropriately titled Ray LaMontagne Live From Bonnaroo. According to the newspaper, the doctors at Percy hospital suspected, from Arafat's arrival, grave lesions of the liver responsible for an alteration of the composition of the blood, thus Arafat was placed in a hematology service.

Unlike 2004, rain marked each day of the festival. On November 16, 2004, the Canard Enchaîné newspaper reported alleged leaks of information unnamed medical sources at Percy hospital having had access to Arafat and his medical file. There was a "comedy tent" featuring Jim Breuer as well as some lesser-known comedians and even daily yoga classes. [18][19] Following a state funeral in Cairo, attended by many Arab leaders, Arafat was "temporarily" laid to rest on November 12 within his former headquarters in Ramallah in the West Bank watched by a large crowd. Wireless Internet access was provided by Cisco Systems. Israel refused Arafat's wish to be buried in or near the Al Aqsa Mosque in East Jerusalem citing widespread security concerns. New Line Cinema introduced a twenty-four-hour "cinema tent," showing popular and cult films. Ashraf Kurdi, lamented the fact that the leader's wife Suha had refused an autopsy, which would have answered many questions in the case.

The festival ran from June 10-12, and more than 75,000 people were in attendance. Arafat's personal physician, Dr. Love & Special Sauce, My Morning Jacket, Ricky Skaggs & Kentucky Thunder, Steel Pulse, Mike Gordon and Ramble Dove, Cat Power, Medeski Martin & Wood, Nickel Creek, Gomez, Atmosphere, Steve Earle, Blues Traveler, Amadou & Mariam, Stephen Malkmus & The Jicks, The Dresden Dolls, Son Volt, Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, Jerry Douglas, Soulive, Rusted Root, Devendra Banhart Band, Donavon Frankenreiter, Mike Doughty, Sasha, [[Grace Potter & The Nocturnals, The Magic Numbers, Bill Frisell, Seu Jorge, Bettye LaVette, Dungen, Shooter Jennings, Rebirth Brass Band, Robinella, Andrew Bird, Steel Train, Jackie Greene, DeVotchKa, Wood Brothers, dios (malos), Toubab Krewe, The Motet, Marah, I-Nine, Balkan Beat Box, Cat Empire. Both Haaretz and the New York Times further speculated that the cause of death may have been an infection of an unknown nature or origin. John, Matisyahu, G. However, in the same week that the Haaretz report was published, the New York Times published a separate report also based on access to Arafat's medical records which claimed that it was highly unlikely that Arafat had AIDS or food poisoning. Radiohead, Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers, Phil Lesh & Friends, Beck, Elvis Costello & The Imposters, Bonnie Raitt, Death Cab for Cutie, moe., Bright Eyes, The Neville Brothers, Béla Fleck & the Flecktones, Buddy Guy, Damian Marley, Ben Folds, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Dr. Another "senior Israeli physician" claimed it was "a classic case of food poisoning", probably caused by a meal eaten four hours before he fell ill on October 12 that may have contained a toxin such as ricin rather than the standard bacterial poisoning.

More artists to be announced with the line up estimated to be 80 plus artists. The paper further quoted an Israeli AIDS expert who claimed that Arafat bore all the symptoms of AIDS. Tickets for the 2006 Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival will go on sale Saturday, February 11, at 10:00 AM Eastern Time through Bonnaroo.com. In September 2005, the Israeli newspaper Haaretz reported that French experts could not determine the cause of Arafat's death. The 2006 Bonnaroo Festival will be held June 16–June 18, 2006. I closed my eyes, and I started reading from the Koran..." When his death was announced, the Palestinian people went into a state of mourning, with Qur'anic mourning prayers emitted from loudspeakers from mosques, and tires burning in the street as a sign of mourning. The festival is reminiscent of popular music festivals like Woodstock & Isle Of Wight Festival. My first reaction when I saw the scene was that I didn't understand what was going on.

The festival also features craftsman and artisans selling unique products, several food and drink vendors, and many other activities from various sponsors. The blood was coming from every possible place. The main attractions of the festival are the multiple stages of live music, featuring mostly jam bands (categorized as progressive fusion), but also including hip hop and other alternative music. There was blood everywhere on his face. The festival is held on a 700 acre (2.4 km²) farm in Manchester, Tennessee, 60 miles southeast of Nashville, Tennessee. Sheikh Taissir Tamimi, who held a vigil at his bedside described the scene, "It was a very painful scene. The Bonnaroo Music Festival, Bonnaroo or 'Roo for short, is an annual rock festival by Superfly Productions and AC Entertainment, first held in 2002. The exact cause of his illness is unknown and controversial.

. Arafat was pronounced dead at 03:30 UTCFrench time on November 11 at age 75. Leo's Bonnaroo Survival Guide. On November 10, a "high religious dignitary" visited Arafat and declared that it was out of the question to disconnect Arafat from life support machines, since, according to him, such an action would be prohibited by Islam. LiveBonnaroo.com, which offers artist-approved downloads of live recordings, as well as photos and souvenirs. On November 9, at 10 AM, chief surgeon Estripeau of Percy reported that Arafat's condition had worsened, and that he had fallen into a deeper coma. Bonnaroo.com, official website. (Code of Public Health, L1110-4) Accordingly, all communications concerning Yasser Arafat's health had to be authorized by Arafat's wife.

Palestinian officials were reported to regret that the news about Yasser Arafat was "filtered" by his wife.[17] French law forbids physicians from discussing the condition of their patients with anybody with the exception, in case of grave prognosis, of close relatives. Suha Arafat stated "They are trying to bury Abu Ammar alive". On November 8, officials of the Palestinian Authority travelled to France to see Yasser Arafat. A controversy erupted between officials of the Palestinian Authority and Suha Arafat, Yasser Arafat's wife.

Palestinian authorities and Arafat's Jordanian doctor denied reports that Arafat was brain dead and had been kept on life support. Various sources speculated that Arafat was comatose, in a "vegetative state", or dead. In the ensuing days, Arafat's health was the subject of wild speculation. On November 3 he lapsed into a gradually deepening coma.

According to one of his doctors, Arafat was suffering from Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), an immunologically-mediated decrease in the number of circulating platelets to abnormally low levels. Following visits by other doctors, including teams from Tunisia, Jordan, and Egypt, and agreement by Israel not to block his return, Arafat was taken on October 29 aboard a French government jet to the Percy military hospital near Paris. His condition deteriorated in the following days and he became unconscious for 10 minutes on October 27. First reports of Arafat's treatment by his doctors for what his spokesman said was 'flu' came on October 25, 2004 after he vomited during a meeting.

Arafat's accounts in Paris. In October 2003, French government prosecutors opened a money-laundering probe of Suha Arafat after Tracfin alerted the prosecutors to untaxed transfers of nearly $1.27 million each with some regularity from Switzerland to Mrs. Arafat accused Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon of spreading rumors about money-laundering involed the transfer of funds to herself to distract media attention away from corruption allegations against himself. In an interview with the London-based newspaper Al Hayat, Mrs.

Claims by unnamed sources in the PA Finance Ministry stated that Arafat's wife, Suha, receives a stipend of $100,000 each month from the PA budget. The reform of the financial management of the PA is the objective of several key conditions attached to the EU financial assistance." [16]. The EU "remains convinced that deepening reform in the PA and improving its financial management and audit capacities is the best preventive strategy against the misuse of funds and corruption. An investigation by the European Union into claims that EU funds were misused by the Palestinian Authority has found no evidence that funds were diverted to finance terrorist activities.

Arafat turn over the investments as a condition of further aid." [15]. They demanded that Mr. Arafat gave in to pressure from aid donors such as the European Union and from his finance minister, Salam Fayyad, the IMF's former representative in the territories. Mr.

Arafat to hand over the holdings was like pulling teeth. According to Salam Fayyad, a former World Bank official who Arafat appointed finance minister in 2002, Arafat's commodity monopolies could accurately be seen as gouging his own people, "especially in Gaza which is poorer, which is something that is totally unacceptable and immoral." [14] According to Hanan Ashrawi, a former member of Arafat's cabinet "Getting Mr. Though Arafat has always lived modestly, Dennis Ross, former Middle East negotiator for Presidents Bush and Clinton, stated that Arafat's "walking-around money" financed a vast patronage system. And none of these dealings were made public".

The head of the investigation stated that "although the money for the portfolio came from public funds like Palestinian taxes, virtually none of it was used for the Palestinian people; it was all controlled by Arafat. and the Cayman Islands. The team claimed that part of the Palestinian leader's wealth was in a secret portfolio worth close to $1 billion — with investments in companies like a Coca-Cola bottling plant in Ramallah, a Tunisian cell phone company and venture capital funds in the U.S. In 2003 a team of American accountants — hired by Arafat's own finance ministry — began examining Arafat's finances.

[13]. The IMF did not claim that there were any improprieties and it specifically stated that most of the funds have been used to invest in Palestinian assets, both internally and abroad. In 2003 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) conducted an audit of the Palestinian Authority and stated that Arafat diverted $900 million in public funds to a special bank account controlled by Arafat and the PA Chief Economic Financial Advisor. business magazine "Forbes" [11] ranked Arafat as sixth on its 2003 list "Kings, Queens and Despots" [12], estimating his personal wealth to "at least $300 million", without indicating its source for this claim.

The U.S. In August 2002, the Israeli Military Intelligence Chief claimed that Arafat's personal wealth was USD $1.3 billion [10], though he provided no substantiation for this claim. On September 22, 2003, The Wall Street Journal published article by former chief of Romanian intelligence Ion Mihai Pacepa "The KGB’s Man" PDF alleging that he was trained by the KGB, which "in the mid-1960s decided to groom him as the future PLO leader.". Arafat's support from Arab leaders tended to increase whenever he was pressured by Israel; for example, in 2003 when Israel declared it had taken the decision, in principle, to remove him from the Israeli-controlled West Bank.

The most frequent criticism of Arafat was that he was corrupt to the detriment of the Palestinian people. However, he remained by far the most popular Arab leader among the general populace. In the last few years growing disenchantment with Arafat and his peers had surfaced within the general Arab press. At various times he had come under withering criticism from Arab leaders and press.

Arafat had a mixed relationship at best with the leaders of other Arab nations. [9]. Bush dismissed Arafat as a negotiating partner: "The real problem is that there is no leadership that is able to say 'help us establish a state and we will fight terror and answer the needs of the Palestinians'". President George W.

On July 18, 2004, in an interview in Le Figaro, U.S. Many feel this was due to the fact that he secretly supported the attacks, a belief that was widespread among all the Palestinian militant organizations who did not take Arafat's call seriously. He issued such a call on May 8, 2002, but, as was the case before, it was largely ignored. With that, and a promise that he would issue a call in Arabic to the Palestinians to halt attacks on Israelis, Arafat was released.

Rather, a combination of British and American security personnel would ensure that the wanted men remained imprisoned in Jericho. Arafat was finally allowed to leave his compound on May 3, 2002 after intense negotiations led to a settlement[8]: six militants wanted by Israel, who had been holed up with Arafat in his compound, would not be turned over to Israel, but neither would they be held in custody by the Palestinian Authority. Marwan Barghouti emerged as a leader during the Al-Aqsa intifada but Israel had him arrested and sentenced to 4 life terms. Persistent attempts by the Israeli government to identify another Palestinian leader to represent the Palestinian people failed; and Arafat was enjoying the support of groups that, given his own history, would normally have been quite wary of dealing with him or of supporting him.

Israel then launched a major military offensive into the West Bank (see "Operation Defensive Shield".). Ariel Sharon, who had previously demanded that Arafat speak out strongly in Arabic against suicide bombings, declared that Arafat "assisted the terrorists and made himself an enemy of Israel and irrelevant to any peace negotiations". Shortly afterward, attacks carried out by Palestinian militants killed more than 135 Israeli civilians. Israel ignored what it deemed to be a facile offer.

Supporters of this declaration saw this offer, which included recognition of Israel by the Arab states, as a historic opportunity for comprehensive peace in the region, while critics of this offer say that it would constitute a heavy blow to Israel's security, while not even guaranteeing Israel the cessation of suicide bombing attacks. In March 2002, the Arab League made an offer to recognize Israel in exchange for Israeli retreat from all territories captured in the Six-Day War and statehood for Palestine and Arafat's Palestinian Authority. On May 6, 2002, the Israeli government released a report, based in part on documents captured during the Israeli occupation of Arafat's Ramallah headquarters, with copies of papers signed by Arafat authorizing funding for the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades' activities. Some allege that activities of these groups were tolerated by Arafat as a means of applying pressure on Israel (see PLO and Hamas.) Some Israeli government officials opined in 2002 that the Fatah's faction Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades began attacks on Israel to compete with Hamas.

They appeared to be out of Arafat's influence and control and were actively fighting with Arafat's Fatah group. In the 1990s, these groups seemed to threaten Arafat's capacity to hold together a unified secular nationalist organization with a goal of statehood. Arafat's ability to adapt to new tactical and political situations, was perhaps exemplified by the rise of the Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad organizations, Islamist groups espousing rejectionist opposition to Israel and employing new tactics such as suicide bombing, often intentionally targeting non-military targets, such as malls and movie theaters, to increase the psychological damage. The complex and fragile web of relations between the U.S., Israel, Saudi Arabia, and other Arab states also contributed to Arafat's longevity as Palestinian leader.

Others believe that Israel kept Arafat alive because they feared Arafat less than Hamas and the other Islamist movements gaining support over Arafat's secular organization. Some commentators believe his survival was largely due to Israel's fear that he could become a martyr for the Palestinian cause if he was to be assassinated or even arrested by Israel. Arafat's long personal and political survival was taken by most Western commentators as a sign of his mastery of asymmetric warfare and his skill as a tactician, given the extremely dangerous nature of politics of the Middle East and the frequency of assassinations. After the start of the Second Intifada, Arafat's wife moved to live with her mother and daughter in Paris.

When the Al-Aqsa Intifada, or Second Palestinian Intifada, was launched (2000-present), the peace process completely collapsed. In a move widely criticized and even by a member of his negotiating team and Cabinet, Nabil Amr, Arafat rejected Barak's offer and refused to make a counter-offer. Also included in the offer was a return of a number of refugees and compensation for the rest. In addition, under the Israeli proposal, Israel would retain some control of the Palestinian state's borders, customs, and defense.

Israel would annex the resting 9-10% of the West Bank encompassing large settlement blocs, in exchange for land in the Negev. The final proposal proffered by Barak would have meant establishment of Palestinian State on 90-91% of the West Bank and the whole of the Gaza Strip. Due partly to his own politics (Barak was from the leftist Labor Party, whereas Netanyahu was from the rightist Likud Party) and partly due to immense pressure placed by American President Bill Clinton, Barak offered Arafat a Palestinian state in the majority of the West Bank and all of the Gaza Strip with an outlying suburb of East Jerusalem as its capital. Arafat continued negotiations with Netanyahu's successor, Ehud Barak, at the Camp David 2000 Summit.

The resulting Wye River Memorandum of 23 October 1998 detailed the steps to be taken by the Israeli government and PA to complete the peace process. President Bill Clinton intervened, arranging meetings with the two leaders. In 1998, U.S. Netanyahu allegedly sought to obstruct the transition to Palestinian statehood outlined in the Israel-PLO accord.

Palestinian-Israeli relations grew even more hostile as a consequence of continued conflict. In mid-1996, Benjamin Netanyahu was elected Prime Minister of Israel. The mass media uses both terms. translate the title as "president".

interpret the title as "chairman" while Palestinians and the U.N. Israel and the U.S. After 1996, Arafat's title as Palestinian Authority leader was "head" (Arabic Ra'is). The following elections scheduled for January 2002 were later postponed; the stated reason being inability to campaign due to the emergency conditions imposed by the al-Aqsa intifada and Israel Defense Force incursions and restrictions on freedom of movement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

However, because Hamas and other opposition movements chose not to participate in the presidential election, the choices were limited. Independent international observers reported the elections to have been free and fair. On January 20, 1996, Arafat was elected president of the PA, with an overwhelming 88.2 percent majority (the only other candidate was Samiha Khalil) [7]. On July 24, 1995, his wife Suha gave birth to a daughter, who was named Zahwa after his deceased mother.

In 1994, Arafat moved to the territory controlled by the Palestinian Authority (PA) — the provisional entity created by the Oslo Accords. Arafat returned to Palestine as a hero to some but a traitor and collaborator to others. (See: Israel-Palestine Liberation Organization letters of recognition.) The following year Arafat was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize along with Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin. In return Prime Minister Rabin, on behalf of Israel, officially recognized the PLO.

Prior to signing the accords, Arafat as Chairman of the PLO and as its official representative signed two letters renouncing violence and officially recognizing Israel on September 9, 1993. In the early 1990s Arafat engaged the Israelis in a series of secret talks and negotiations that led to the 1993 Oslo Accords calling for the implementation of Palestinian self rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip over a five year period. The pilot and several passengers were killed and Arafat received several broken bones and other injuries. Arafat narrowly escaped death again in 1992 as his aircraft crash-landed in the Libyan desert during a sandstorm.

disregarding his claims of being a partner for peace. attack on Iraq, alienating many of the Arab states, and leading to the U.S. Prior to the Gulf War of 1991, Arafat opposed the U.N. During the 1991 Madrid Conference, Israel conducted open negotiations with the PLO for the first time.

[6]. In 1990 Arafat married Suha Tawil, a Palestinian Orthodox Christian working for the PLO in Tunis, who converted to Islam before marrying him. However, on April 2, 1989, Arafat was elected by the Central Council of the Palestine National Council (the governing body of the PLO) to be the president of the proclaimed State of Palestine. Arafat's statement indicated a shift from one of the PLO's primary aims — the destruction of Israel (as in the Palestinian National Covenant) — towards the establishment of two separate entities, an Israeli state within the 1949 armistice lines and a Palestinian state in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

administration, which insisted on the recognition of Israel as a necessary starting point in the Camp David peace negotiations. Arafat's December 13 statement was encouraged by the U.S. In a December 13, 1988 address, Arafat accepted UN Security Council Resolution 242, promised future recognition of Israel, and renounced "terrorism in all its forms, including state terrorism" [5]. On November 15, 1988, the PLO proclaimed the independent State of Palestine, a government-in-exile for the Palestinians which laid claim to the whole of Palestine as defined by the British Mandate of Palestine, rejecting the idea of partition.

Although the Intifada was a spontaneous uprising against Israeli occupation, within weeks Arafat was attempting to direct the revolt, and Israelis believe that it was mainly because of Fatah forces in the West Bank that the civil unrest was able to continue for the duration. This was particularly useful during the First Intifada in December, 1987. During the 1980s, Arafat received assistance from Iraq and Saudi Arabia, which allowed him to reconstruct the badly-battered PLO. In Operation Wooden Leg, IAF F-15s bombed his headquarters in Tunis leaving 73 people dead; Arafat had gone out jogging that morning.

Arafat again narrowly survived an Israeli attack in 1985. In September 1982, during the Israeli offensive into Lebanon, the Americans and Europeans brokered a cease-fire deal in which Arafat and the PLO were allowed to leave Lebanon; Arafat and his leadership eventually arrived in Tunisia, which remained his center of operations up until 1993. Arafat did not return to Lebanon personally after this second expulsion, though many Fatah fighters did. Instead of being expelled by Israel, this time Arafat was expelled by a fellow Palestinian working for Hafez al-Assad.

Arafat actually returned to Lebanon a year after he was evicted from Beirut, this time establishing himself in Tripoli. During the Israeli siege of Beirut (1982), the United States and European powers brokered a deal guaranteeing safe passage for Arafat and the PLO to exile in Tunis. Arafat himself narrowly escaped with assistance from the Saudis and Kuwaitis. The Civil War's first phase ended for Arafat with the siege and fall of the Palestinian refugee camp of Tal al-Zaatar.

During the Civil War, Arafat allied the PLO with Lebanese Muslim groups, however, fearing a loss of power Syria's President Assad switched sides, and sent in his army to help the right-wing Christian Phalangists. After having taken control over West Beirut, and under siege by the Israeli army, Arafat declared Beirut to be the "second Stalingrad." Beirut ended up in much ruin as a result of subsequent Israeli artillery and aerial bombardment with close to 17,000 civilians dead. The PLO played an important part in the Lebanese Civil War. The PLO was admitted to full membership in the Arab League in 1976.

Do not let the olive branch fall from my hand." His speech increased international support of the Palestinian cause. In the same year, Arafat became the first representative of a nongovernmental organization to address a plenary session of the UN General Assembly, and Arab heads of state recognized the PLO as "the sole legitimate spokesman of the Palestinian people." In his UN address, Arafat condemned Zionism, but said, "Today I have come bearing an olive branch and a freedom fighter's gun. Arafat denied responsibility for terrorist acts committed by these groups. Israel claimed that Arafat was in ultimate control over these organizations and hence had not abandoned terrorism.

The Fatah movement continued to launch attacks against Israeli civilians and the security forces within the West Bank and Gaza Strip; moreover, in the late 1970s numerous leftist Palestinian organizations appeared which carried out attacks against civilian targets both within Israel and outside of it. In 1973-4, Arafat closed Black September down, ordering the PLO to withdraw from acts of violence outside Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, because overseas attacks attracted too much bad publicity. The killings were internationally condemned and Arafat publicly disassociated himself and the PLO from such attacks. A number of sources, including Mohammed Daoud and Benny Morris, have stated that Black September was an arm of Fatah used for terrorist operations.

In September 1972, the Black September group killed 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games. The PLO mounted intermittent cross-border attacks against Israeli targets, including civilians, from there. Because of Lebanon's weak central government, the PLO was able to operate virtually as an independent state. Following the expulsion from Jordan, Arafat relocated the PLO to Lebanon.

See also History of Jordan and Black September. By September 24, the Jordanian army achieved dominance and the PLA agreed to a series of ceasefires [4]. Navy dispatched the Sixth Fleet to the eastern Mediterranean and Israel deployed troops to aid Hussein, if necessary. The fighting was mainly between the Jordanian army and the PLA; the U.S.

In the ensuing civil war, the PLO had the active support of Syria, which sent a force of around 200 tanks into Jordan to aid them. On that same day, Arafat became supreme commander of the Palestine Liberation Army (PLA), the regular military force of the PLO. On September 16, King Hussein declared martial law. Other Arab governments attempted to negotiate a peaceful resolution, but continuing fedayeen actions in Jordan (such as the destruction by the PFLP, on September 12, of three international airliners hijacked and held in Dawson's Field in Zarqa) prompted the Jordanian government to take action to regain control over its territory.

Open fighting erupted in June of 1970. Jordan considered this a growing threat to its sovereignty and security and attempted to disarm the Palestinian militias. In the 1960s tensions between Palestinians and the Jordanian government had greatly increased; heavily armed Palestinian resistance elements (fedayeen) had created a virtual "state within a state" in Jordan, eventually controlling several strategic positions in Jordan, including the oil refinery near Az Zarq. Arafat became commander-in-chief of the Palestinian Revolutionary Forces two years later and, in 1973, the head of the PLO's political department.

By the late 1960s, Fatah had come to dominate the PLO, and at the Palestinian National Congress in Cairo on February 3, 1969 Arafat was appointed Palestinian Liberation Organization leader, replacing Ahmad Shukeiri. Many young Palestinians joined as the ranks and armaments of Fatah swelled. Amid the post-war environment, the profiles of Arafat and Fatah were raised by this important turning point, as he came to be regarded as a national hero who dared confront Israel. The battle was covered in detail by Time magazine, and Arafat's face appeared on the cover, bringing the wider world their first image of the man.

Despite the high Palestinian death toll, Fatah considered themselves victorious because of the Israeli army's eventual withdrawal. In 1968, Fatah was the target of an Israeli Defense Force operation in the Jordanian village of Al-Karameh ("honor" in Arabic language) in which 150 relatively poorly armed Palestinians and 29 Israeli soldiers were killed. After the Six-Day War, Arafat is said to have escaped Israel by crossing the Jordan River dressed as a woman carrying a baby. Fatah's first operation was an unsuccessful attempt to blow up an Israeli water pump station in 1965.

Arafat worked hard in Kuwait to establish the groundwork for Fatah's future financial support by enlisting contributions from the many Palestinians working there, who gave generously from their high salaries in the oil industry (ibid., p.91). According to journalist John Cooley, the name means "victory" and is also an acrostic taken from the initials, read backwards, of Harahkat al-Tahrir al Filistini (H-T-F, letters are reversed in FaTaH due to the negative meaning of the H-T-F root in Arabic.), meaning the Palestine Liberation Movement.2 Fatah dedicated itself to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state and the destruction of the state of Israel. In Kuwait in 1959, with the help of friends Yahia Ghavani and Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad) [3], together with a group of refugees from Gaza, Arafat founded one of the groups that became al-Fatah. Arafat had decided that the best way for Palestinians to gain control of Palestine was for them to fight and not rely on support from Arab governments.

After Suez, Arafat moved to Kuwait, where he found work as a civil engineer and eventually set up his own contracting firm. Fathi Arafat founded the Palestinian Red Crescent and was involved in the humanitarian aspect of the conflict. Arafat's younger brother Dr. By 1956, Arafat graduated with a bachelor's degree in civil engineering and served as a second lieutenant in the Egyptian Army during the Suez Crisis.[2] Later, in 1956, at a conference in Prague, he donned the keffiyeh, the traditional chequered head-dress which was to become his emblem.

After returning to university, Arafat joined the Muslim Brotherhood and served as president of the Union of Palestinian Students from 1952 to 1956. Arafat felt that he had been "betrayed by these [Arab] regimes". He was disarmed and turned back by Egyptian military forces, who refused to allow the poorly trained partisans to enter the war zone. But by 1946 he had become a Palestinian nationalist and was procuring weapons in Egypt to be smuggled into Palestine in the Arab cause.[1] During the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, Arafat left university and, along with other Palestinians, sought to enter Palestine to fight for Palestinian independence.

He later claimed to have sought to better understand Judaism and Zionism by engaging in discussions with Jews and reading publications by Theodor Herzl and other Zionists. Arafat attended the University of King Fuad I (later renamed Cairo University). The marriage did not last, and when his father married once more, Arafat's sister Inam was left in charge of the upbringing of her siblings. When he was eight, his father re-married and the family moved back to Cairo.

In Jerusalem, they lived in a house near the Western Wall and the Al-Aqsa Mosque or Temple Mount, a holy site to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Arafat was four when his mother died, and he and his father moved to Jerusalem from Cairo, where the family had been living. A birth certificate registered in Cairo, Egypt shows August 24, 1929 as his date of birth and Cairo as the place. Arafat claimed to have been born in Jerusalem on August 4, 1929; some of his legal personal documentation states the same.

His father was a Palestinian textile merchant and his mother came from a prominent Palestinian family. Arafat was the fifth or sixth (sources disagree) of seven children. .
.

Still others accused him of being a deeply corrupt politician or a weak leader who made too many concessions to the Israeli government during efforts to settle the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. While his supporters viewed him as a heroic freedom fighter who symbolized the national aspirations of the Palestinian people, his opponents often described him as an unrepentant terrorist with a long legacy of promoting violence. Arafat was a controversial and polarizing figure throughout his lengthy career. Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎) (August 4 or August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني) and also known by the kunya Abu `Ammar (أبو عمّار), was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004); President1 of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) (1993–2004); and a co-recipient of the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize.

ISBN 9993251305. Wallach, Janet and John Wallach, Arafat: In the Eyes of the Beholder, Carol Pub Group, 1990. ISBN 1883642108. Rubinstein, Danny and Dan Leon The Mystery of Arafat, Steerforth Press, 1995.

ISBN 0195166892. and Judith Colp Rubin, Yasir Arafat: A Political Biography, Oxford University Press, 2003. Rubin, Barry M. ISBN 0283062207.

Hart, Alan, Arafat, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1994. ISBN 1852279249. Gowers, Andrew and Tony Walker, Arafat: The Biography, Virgin Books, 2005. ISBN 1582340498.

Aburish, Said K., Arafat: From Defender to Dictator, Bloomsbury Publishing, 1998.

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