Board game

A board game is any game played on a board (that is, a premarked surface) with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. Simple board games are often seen as ideal "family entertainment" as they can provide entertainment for all ages. Some board games, such as Chess, Oware, or Go, have intense strategic value and have become lasting classics.

There are many different types and classifications of board games. Some games are simplified simulations of real life. These are popular for they can intermingle make-believe and role playing along with the game. Popular games of this type include Monopoly, which is a rough simulation of the real estate market; Cluedo/Clue, which is based upon a murder mystery; and Risk, which is one of the best known of thousands of games attempting to simulate warfare and geo-politics.

Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. These include abstract strategy games like chess and checkers, word games, such as Scrabble, and trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit.

History

Board games have a long history and have been played in most cultures and societies; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. The most of important of these include:

  • Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively [1]. Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed. Also see Okno do svita deskovych her for a photo of the actual fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC).
  • Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt.
  • The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur. They were excavated by C. Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London.
  • Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games.

Timeline

  • 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials [2]; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera.
  • 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles.
  • 2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs)
  • 2500 BC - Paintings of Senet and Han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes
  • 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau.
  • 1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. Also painting of Board Game of Knossos.
  • 1400 BC - Game boards including Alquerque, Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, and a possible Mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna Temple. (Source: Fiske, and Bell)
  • 200 BC - A Go board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum. (Source: John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China).
  • 116 - 27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. 20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below).
  • 79 - 8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi.
  • 1 BC-8 AD Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum and the smaller merels.
  • 220-265 Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii)

Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date. Computer games are closely related to board games, and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games.

Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as they require less space, and are easier to set up and clear away. With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against computer or other players in real time (like to classics board games available on Yahoo, Lycos and other big Internet sites) or during your spare time, every time it's your turn (see the links at the end of this article).

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it would not meet the criteria for production.

Luck, strategy and diplomacy

One way of defining board games are between those based upon luck and strategy. Some games, such as chess, have no luck involved. Children's games tend to be very luck based with games such as Sorry! having virtually no decisions to be made. Most board games have both luck and strategy. A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more complex and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. Still most adult game players prefer to make some decisions during play, and find purely luck based games such as Top Trumps quite boring.

The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. Two player games usually don't have diplomacy, as cooporation between the two players does not occur. Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against another. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal.

Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. The most popular is using dice, generally six sided. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that when shuffled create randomness. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on which question a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less luck factor than in many North American board games.

Common terminology

Carcassonne tokens, or meeples

Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.

  • Gameboard (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre
  • Game Piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board. Each player may control one or more game pieces. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities.
  • Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. (See also: Game mechanic: Capture)
  • Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement)

References

  • Fiske, Willard. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). Florentine Typographical Society, 1905.
  • Falkener, Edward. Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892.
  • Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. September 1940: 257–271
  • Murray, Harold James Ruthven. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Gardners Books, 1969.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. The Boardgame Book. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. ISBN 0486238555
    • Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983.
  • Sackson, Sid. A Gamut of Games. Arrow Books, 1983. ISBN 0091533406
    • Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-486-27347-4
  • Schmittberger, R. Wayne. New Rules for Classic Games. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. ISBN 0-471-53621-0
    • Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0517129558
  • Parlett, David. Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0192129988

Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority.


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Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority. Small amounts of butter contain only traces of lactose, so moderate consumption of butter is not generally a problem for those with lactose intolerance.[22] People with milk allergies do need to avoid butter, which does contain enough of the allergy-causing proteins to cause reactions.[23]. Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games. In recent decades, though, it has become accepted that the trans fats contained in hydrogenated margarines significantly raise "bad" LDL cholesterol levels, possibly to a worse extent than butter. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less luck factor than in many North American board games. For many years, vegetable margarine was recommended as a substitute, since it is an unsaturated fat and contains little or no cholesterol. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on which question a person gets. For these reasons, butter has been generally considered to be a contributor to health problems, especially heart disease.

Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. According to USDA figures, one tablespoon of butter (14 grams) contains 100 calories, all from fat, 11 grams of fat, of which 7 grams are saturated fat, and 30 milligrams of cholesterol.[21] In other words, butter consists mostly of saturated fat and is a significant source of dietary cholesterol. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Pastry makers often chill all their ingredients and utensils while working with a butter dough. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that when shuffled create randomness. Butter, because of its flavor, is a common choice for the fat in such a dough, but it can be more difficult to work with than shortening because of its low melting point. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. During baking, the fat melts away, leaving a flaky texture.

The most popular is using dice, generally six sided. Pastries like pie dough incorporate pieces of solid fat into the dough, which become flat layers of fat when the dough is rolled out. Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. Some cookies like shortbread may have no other source of moisture but the water in the butter. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal. The tiny bubbles locked within the butter expand in the heat of baking and aerate the cookie or cake. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Many cookie doughs and some cake batters are leavened, at least in part, by creaming butter and sugar together, which introduces air bubbles into the butter.

In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against another. Butter fills several roles in baking, where it is used in a similar manner as other solid fats like lard, suet, or shortening, but has a flavor that may better complement sweet baked goods. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. The actual smoke point of butterfat is around 200 °C (400 °F), so clarified butter or ghee is better suited to frying.[20] Ghee has always been a common frying medium in India, where many avoid other animal fats for cultural or religious reasons. Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. Butter is used for sautéing and frying, although its milk solids brown and burn above 150 °C (250 °F)—a rather low temperature for most applications. Two player games usually don't have diplomacy, as cooporation between the two players does not occur. Beurre monté (prepared butter) is an unflavored beurre blanc made from water instead of vinegar or wine; it lends its name to the practice of "mounting" a sauce with butter: whisking cold butter into any water-based sauce at the end of cooking, giving the sauce a thicker body and a glossy shine—as well as a buttery taste.[19].

A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. Beurre blanc (white butter) is made by whisking butter into reduced vinegar or wine, forming an emulsion with the texture of thick cream. The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. Hollandaise and béarnaise sauces are stabilized with the powerful emulsifiers in the egg yolks, but butter itself contains enough emulsifiers—mostly remnants of the fat globule membranes—to form a stable emulsion on its own. Still most adult game players prefer to make some decisions during play, and find purely luck based games such as Top Trumps quite boring. Hollandaise and béarnaise sauces are emulsions of egg yolk and melted butter; they are in essence mayonnaises made with butter instead of oil. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more complex and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. Beurre noisette (hazel butter) and Beurre noir (black butter) are sauces of melted butter cooked until the milk solids and sugars have turned golden or dark brown; they are often finished with an addition of vinegar or lemon juice.

A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. Melted butter plays an important role in the preparation of sauces, most obviously in French cuisine. Most board games have both luck and strategy. Sweetened composed butters can be served with desserts; such hard sauces are often flavored with spirits. Children's games tend to be very luck based with games such as Sorry! having virtually no decisions to be made. Composed butters can be used as spreads, or cooled, sliced, and placed onto hot food to melt into a sauce. Some games, such as chess, have no luck involved. Once butter is softened, spices, herbs, or other flavoring agents can be mixed into it, producing what is called a composed butter or composite butter.

One way of defining board games are between those based upon luck and strategy. This allows butter to be safely stored on the countertop for several days without spoilage. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it would not meet the criteria for production. The water acts as a seal to keep the butter fresh, and also keeps the butter from overheating in hot temperatures. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. Butter is packed into the lid. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. Usually the dish holds just enough water to submerge the interior lip when the dish is closed.

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. "French butter dishes" or "Acadian butter dishes" involve a lid with a long interior lip, which sits in a container holding a small amount of water. With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against computer or other players in real time (like to classics board games available on Yahoo, Lycos and other big Internet sites) or during your spare time, every time it's your turn (see the links at the end of this article). Wrapped butter has a shelf life of several months at refrigerator temperatures.[18]. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as they require less space, and are easier to set up and clear away. Until recently, many refrigerators sold in New Zealand featured a "butter conditioner", a compartment kept warmer than the rest of the refrigerator—but still cooler than room temperature—with a small heater.[17] Keeping butter tightly wrapped delays rancidity, which is hastened by exposure to light or air, and also helps prevent it from picking up other odors. Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent. The "butter compartment" found in many refrigerators may be one of the warmer sections inside, but it still leaves butter quite hard.

Computer games are closely related to board games, and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games. Normal butter softens to a spreadable consistency around 15 °C (60 °F), well above refrigerator temperatures. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date. It can take several hours of churning to produce workable butter grains from fermented milk.[16]. Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. In African and Asian developing nations, butter is traditionally made from sour milk rather than cream. The most of important of these include:. It consists of tea served with intensely flavored — or "rancid"—yak butter and salt.

A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. Butter tea is consumed in the Himalayan regions of Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal and India. Board games have a long history and have been played in most cultures and societies; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. Yak butter is important in Tibet; tsampa, barley flour mixed with yak butter, is a staple food. . Smen is a spiced Moroccan clarified butter, buried in the ground and aged for months or years. These include abstract strategy games like chess and checkers, word games, such as Scrabble, and trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit. Around the world can be found many types of butter.

Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. New Zealand, Australia, and the Ukraine are among the few nations that export a significant percentage of the butter they produce.[15]. Popular games of this type include Monopoly, which is a rough simulation of the real estate market; Cluedo/Clue, which is based upon a murder mystery; and Risk, which is one of the best known of thousands of games attempting to simulate warfare and geo-politics. Most nations produce and consume the bulk of their butter domestically. These are popular for they can intermingle make-believe and role playing along with the game. In terms of consumption, Germany was second after India, using 578,000 tons of butter in 1997, followed by France (528,000), Russia (514,000), and the United States (505,000). Some games are simplified simulations of real life. Second in production was the United States (522,000 tons), then France (466,000), Germany (442,000), and New Zealand (307,000).

There are many different types and classifications of board games. In 1997, India produced 1,470,000 metric tons of butter, consuming almost all of it. Some board games, such as Chess, Oware, or Go, have intense strategic value and have become lasting classics. India produces and consumes more butter than any other nation, dedicating almost half of its annual milk production to making butter or ghee. Simple board games are often seen as ideal "family entertainment" as they can provide entertainment for all ages. and most other nations that track such data.[14]. A board game is any game played on a board (that is, a premarked surface) with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. In the United States, margarine consumption overtook butter during the 1950s[13] and it is still the case today that more margarine than butter is eaten in the U.S.

ISBN 0192129988. Per capita butter consumption declined in most western nations during the 20th century, in large part because of the rising popularity of margarine, which is less expensive and, until recent years, was perceived as being healthier. Oxford University Press, 1999. By 1900, more than half the butter produced in the United States was factory made; Europe followed suit shortly after. Oxford History of Board Games. Soon, though, cream-separation technology became small and inexpensive enough to introduce an additional efficiency: the separation was accomplished on the farm, and the cream alone shipped to the factory. Parlett, David. Initially, whole milk was shipped to the butter factories, and the cream separation took place there.

ISBN 0517129558. This dramatically sped the butter-making process by eliminating the slow step of letting cream naturally rise to the top of milk. Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. In the late 1870s, the centrifugal cream separator was introduced, marketed most successfully by Swedish engineer Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval. ISBN 0-471-53621-0

    . The first butter factories appeared in the United States in the early 1860s, after the successful introduction of cheese factories a decade earlier. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. Until the 19th century, the vast majority of butter was made by hand, on farms.

    New Rules for Classic Games. The first margarine was beef tallow flavored with milk and worked like butter; vegetable margarines followed after the development of hydrogenated oils around 1900. Wayne. In 1869, a French chemist claimed the prize with the invention of margarine. Schmittberger, R. By the 1860s, butter had become so in demand in France that Emperor Napoleon III offered prize money for an inexpensive substitute to supplement France's inadequate butter supplies. ISBN 0-486-27347-4. France, like Ireland, became well-known for its butter, particularly in the Normandy and Brittany regions.

    Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. Firkins of such buried butter are a common archaeological find in Ireland; the Irish National Museum has some containing "a grayish cheese-like substance, partially hardened, not much like butter, and quite free from putrefaction." The practice was most common in Ireland in the 11th to 14th centuries; it ended entirely before the 19th century.[12]. ISBN 0091533406

      . Such "bog butter" would develop a strong flavor as it aged, but remain edible, in large part because of the unique cool, airless, antiseptic and acidic environment of a peat bog. Arrow Books, 1983. Across far-northern Europe—Ireland, Scotland, Iceland, and Scandinavia—butter was sometimes treated in a manner unheard-of today: it was packed into barrels (firkins) and buried in peat bogs, perhaps for years. A Gamut of Games. Bread and butter became common fare among the new middle class, and the English, in particular, gained a reputation for their liberal use of melted butter as a sauce for meats and vegetables.[11].

      Sackson, Sid. It slowly became more accepted by the upper class, especially when, in the early 16th century, the Roman Catholic Church permitted its consumption during Lent. Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983. Scandinavia has the longest history in Europe of a butter export trade, dating at least to the 12th century.[10] Across most of Europe after the fall of Rome and through much of the Middle Ages, butter was a common food, but one with a low reputation; it was consumed principally by peasants. ISBN 0486238555

        . Cooler climates in northern Europe allowed butter to be kept longer before spoiling. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. Since India's prehistory, ghee has been both a staple food and used for ceremonial purposes such as fueling holy lamps and funeral pyres.

        Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. The tale of the child Krishna stealing butter remains a popular children's story in India today. Bell, Robert Charles. Ghee is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as a typical trade article around the 1st century CE Arabian Sea, and Roman geographer Strabo describes it as a commodity of Arabia and Sudan.[9] In India, ghee has been a symbol of purity and an offering to the gods—especially Agni, the Hindu god of fire—for more than 3000 years; references to ghee's sacred nature appear numerous times in the Rig Veda, circa 1500–1200 BCE. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979. Historian and linguist Andrew Dalby says that most references to butter in ancient Near Eastern texts should actually be translated instead as ghee. The Boardgame Book. A play by the Greek comic poet Anaxandrides refers to Thracians as boutyrophagoi, "butter-eaters".[7] Pliny's Natural History calls butter "the most delicate of food among barbarous nations", and goes on to describe its medicinal properties.[8].

        Bell, Robert Charles. The people of ancient Greece and Rome seemed to consider butter a food fit more for the northern barbarians. Gardners Books, 1969. In the warm Mediterranean climate, unclarified butter would spoil very quickly— unlike cheese, it was not a practical method of preserving the benefits of milk. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Butter was certainly known in the classical Mediterranean civilizations, but it does not seem to have been a common food, especially in Ancient Greece or Rome. Murray, Harold James Ruthven. It is then hung with ropes on a tripod of sticks and rocked to and fro until the butter is formed.

        September 1940: 257–271. A goat skin is half filled with milk, then inflated with air and sealed. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. The earliest butter would have been from sheep or goat's milk; cattle are not thought to have been domesticated for another thousand years or so.[6] An ancient method of butter making, still used today in some parts of Africa and the Near East, is shown in the photo at right, taken in Palestine. Austin, Roland G. Since even accidental agitation can turn cream into butter, it is likely that the invention of butter goes back to the earliest days of dairying, perhaps in the Mesopotamian area between 9000 and 8000 BCE. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892. Because of this, ghee can keep for six to eight months under normal conditions.[5].

        Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. This process flavors the ghee, and also produces antioxidants which help protect it longer from rancidity. Falkener, Edward. Ghee is clarified butter which is brought to higher temperatures (120 °C/250 °F) once the water has cooked off, allowing the milk solids to brown. Florentine Typographical Society, 1905. At the top, whey proteins form a skin which is removed, and the resulting butterfat is then poured off from the mixture of water and casein proteins that settle to the bottom. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). Clarified butter is made by heating butter to its melting point and then allowing it to cool off; after settling, the remaining components separate by density.

        Fiske, Willard. Clarified butter is butter with almost all of its water and milk solids removed, leaving almost-pure butterfat. Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement). European-style butters generally have a higher ratio of up to 85% butterfat. (See also: Game mechanic: Capture). In the United States, all products sold as "butter" must contain a minimum of 80% butterfat by weight; most American butters contain only slightly more than that, averaging around 81%. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. Another important aspect of production is the amount of butterfat in the finished product.

        Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. In addition to flavoring the butter, the addition of salt also acts as a preservative. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities. Nations that favor sweet cream butter tend to favor salted butter as well, possibly reflecting the blander taste of uncultured butter. Each player may control one or more game pieces. Salted butters have either fine, granular salt or a strong brine added to them during the working. Game Piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board. All categories of butter are sold in both salted and unsalted forms.

        Gameboard (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre. Whipped butter, another product designed to be more spreadable, is aerated via the incorporation of nitrogen gas— normal air is not used, as doing so would encourage oxidation and rancidity. 220-265 Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii). Some modify the makeup of the butter's fat through chemical manipulation of the finished product, some through manipulation of the cattle's feed, and some by incorporating vegetable oils into the butter. 1 BC-8 AD Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum and the smaller merels. Several spreadable butters have been developed; these remain softer at colder temperatures and are therefore easier to use directly out of refrigeration. 79 - 8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi. Raw cream butter is virtually unheard-of in the United States, and is rare in Europe as well.[4].

        20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below). Because of this, cultured butter is sometimes labeled European-style butter in the United States. 116 - 27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. Cultured butter is the most common type of butter in continental Europe, while sweet cream butter dominates in the United States and the United Kingdom. (Source: John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China). Raw cream butter has a "cleaner" cream flavor, without the cooked-milk notes that pasteurization introduces. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum. Production of sweet cream butter first became common in the 19th century, with the development of refrigeration and the mechanical cream separator.[3] Butter made from fresh or cultured unpasteurized cream is called raw cream butter.

        200 BC - A Go board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. Butter made from pasteurized fresh cream is called sweet cream butter. (Source: Fiske, and Bell). Today, dairy products are often pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other microbes. 1400 BC - Game boards including Alquerque, Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, and a possible Mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna Temple. A similar and even more efficient method is to add lactic acid and flavor compounds directly to the fresh-cream butter; while this more efficient process simulates the taste of cultured butter, the product produced is not considered real cultured butter. Also painting of Board Game of Knossos. For manufacturers, this method is more efficient since aging the cream used to make butter takes significantly more space than simply storing the finished butter product.

        1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. Using this method, the cultured butter flavor grows as the butter is aged in cold storage. It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau. Another method for producing cultured butter, developed in the 1970s, is to produce butter from fresh cream and then incorporate bacterial cultures and lactic acid. 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). The fermentation produces additional aroma compounds, including diacetyl, which makes for a fuller-flavored and more "buttery" tasting product.[2] Today, cultured butter is usually made from pasteurized cream whose fermentation is produced by the introduction of Lactococcus and Leuconostoc bacteria. 2500 BC - Paintings of Senet and Han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes. During fermentation, the cream naturally sours as bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid.

        2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs). Butter made from a fermented cream is known as cultured butter. 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles. Before modern factory butter making, cream was usually collected from several milkings and was therefore several days old and somewhat fermented by the time it was made into butter. 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials [2]; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera. Butter becomes rancid when these chains break down into smaller components, like butyric acid and diacetyl. Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games. It is a triglyceride, an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acid groups.

        Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London. Butterfat consists of many moderate-sized, saturated hydrocarbon chain fatty acids. Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Commercial butter is about 80% butterfat and 15% water; traditionally-made butter may have as little as 65% fat and 30% water. They were excavated by C. This consolidates the butter into a solid mass and breaks up embedded pockets of buttermilk or water into tiny droplets. The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur. Then the grains are "worked": pressed and kneaded together.

        Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt. The buttermilk is drained off; sometimes more buttermilk is removed by rinsing the grains with water. Also see Okno do svita deskovych her for a photo of the actual fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC). This watery liquid is buttermilk—although the buttermilk most common today is instead a directly fermented skimmed milk. Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed. Churning produces small butter grains floating in the water-based portion of the cream. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively [1]. The jagged crystals of fat inflict damage upon the fat globule membranes during churning, speeding the butter-making process.

        Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. Before it is churned, the cream is cooled to about 5 °C (40 °F) and allowed to remain at that temperature for at least eight hours; under these conditions about half the butterfat in the cream crystallizes. Almost all commercially-made butter today starts with pasteurized cream, usually heated to a relatively high pasteurization temperature above 80 °C (180 °F). In finished butter, different proportions of these three forms result in different consistencies: butters with many crystals are harder than butters dominated by free fats. Butter contains fat in three separate forms: free butterfat, butterfat crystals, and undamaged fat globules.

        Variations in the production method will create butters with different consistencies, mostly due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to come together and separate from the other parts of the cream. These globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids (fatty acid emulsifiers) and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass. Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in the form of microscopic globules.

        . This may have been a construction meaning "cow-cheese" (bous "ox, cow" + tyros "cheese"), or the word may have been borrowed from another language, possibly Scythian.[1] The root word persists in the butyric acid found in rancid butter and other rancid dairy products. The word butter, in the English language, derives (via Germanic languages) from the Latin butyrum, borrowed from the Greek boutyron. In general use, the term "butter", unqualified, almost always refers to the dairy product.

        Other fats solid at room temperature are also known as "butters"; examples include cocoa butter and shea butter. The term "butter" is used in the names of products made from puréed nuts or peanuts, such as peanut butter, or from fruits, such as apple butter. The color of the butter depends on the animal's feed and is sometimes manipulated with food colorings, most commonly annatto or carotene. The color of butter is generally a pale yellow, but can vary from deep yellow to nearly white.

        A firm solid when refrigerated, butter softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F). Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat. Salt, flavorings, or preservatives are sometimes added to butter. The most common form of butter is made from cows' milk, but butter can also be made from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks.

        Butter consists of butterfat surrounding minuscule droplets consisting mostly of water and milk proteins. Butter is used as a spread, as a condiment and in cooking applications such as baking, sauce making, and frying. In many parts of the world, butter is an everyday food. Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk.

        Also available in print from Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521098432 (accessed November 28, 2005). Google Print. The Agricultural Systems of the World: An Evolutionary Approach, 196-198.

        (Nov 7, 1974). Grigg, David B. ISBN 92-5-102899-0. Full text online. The technology of traditional milk products in developing countries, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

        et al (1990). Crawford, R.J.M. Retrieved November 21, 2005. WebExhibits' Butter pages.

        Michael Douma (editor). Also available in print from Routledge (UK). ISBN 0415232597 (accessed November 16, 2005). Google Print.

        Food in the Ancient World from A to Z, 65. Dalby, Andrew (2003). ISBN 0-684-80001-2. pp 33-39, "Butter and Margarine". On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition), Scribner.

        McGee, Harold (2004). Retrieved 27 November 2005. Milk Allergy & Intolerance. ^  Allergy Society of South Africa.

        ^  From data here, one teaspoon of butter contains 0.03 grams of lactose; a cup of milk contains 400 times that amount. Retrieved 27 November 2005. ^  Data from nutritiondata.com. 37.

        ^  McGee p. 36 (beurre noisette and beurre noir), 632 (beurre blanc and beurre monté), and 635–636 (hollandaise and béarnaise). ^  Sauce information from McGee, pp. ^  According to joyofbaking.com, unsalted butter can last for up to three months and salted butter up to five.

        The feature has been phased out for energy conservation reasons. Retrieved 27 November 2005. ^  Bring back butter conditioners. Retrieved 28 November 2005.

        1: Butter. ^  Crawford et al, part B, section III, ch. Note that the export and import figures do not include trade between nations within the European Union, and that there are inconsistencies regarding the inclusion of clarified butterfat products (explaining why New Zealand is shown exporting more butter in 1997 than was produced). Retrieved 1 December 2005.

        Dairy: Word Markets and Trade. ^  Statistics from USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (1999). Retrieved 4 December 2005. ^  See for example this chart from International Margarine Association of the Countries of Europe statistics.

        Eating less butter, and more fat. ^  Web Exhibits: Butter. Ancient Firkins. ^  Web Exhibits: Butter.

        33, "Ancient, Once Unfashionable". ^  McGee p. Ancient Firkins. ^  Web Exhibits: Butter.

        65. ^  Dalby p. Book 28, chapter 35. ^  Bostock and Riley translation.

        65. ^  Dalby p. 10. ^  Dates from McGee p.

        37. ^  McGee p. 34. ^  McGee p.

        33. ^  McGee p. 35. ^  McGee p.

        Retrieved 27 November 2005. ^  Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entry for butter.

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