Board game

A board game is any game played on a board (that is, a premarked surface) with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. Simple board games are often seen as ideal "family entertainment" as they can provide entertainment for all ages. Some board games, such as Chess, Oware, or Go, have intense strategic value and have become lasting classics.

There are many different types and classifications of board games. Some games are simplified simulations of real life. These are popular for they can intermingle make-believe and role playing along with the game. Popular games of this type include Monopoly, which is a rough simulation of the real estate market; Cluedo/Clue, which is based upon a murder mystery; and Risk, which is one of the best known of thousands of games attempting to simulate warfare and geo-politics.

Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. These include abstract strategy games like chess and checkers, word games, such as Scrabble, and trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit.

History

Board games have a long history and have been played in most cultures and societies; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. The most of important of these include:

  • Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively [1]. Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed. Also see Okno do svita deskovych her for a photo of the actual fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC).
  • Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt.
  • The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur. They were excavated by C. Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London.
  • Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games.

Timeline

  • 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials [2]; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera.
  • 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles.
  • 2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs)
  • 2500 BC - Paintings of Senet and Han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes
  • 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau.
  • 1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. Also painting of Board Game of Knossos.
  • 1400 BC - Game boards including Alquerque, Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, and a possible Mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna Temple. (Source: Fiske, and Bell)
  • 200 BC - A Go board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum. (Source: John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China).
  • 116 - 27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. 20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below).
  • 79 - 8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi.
  • 1 BC-8 AD Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum and the smaller merels.
  • 220-265 Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii)

Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date. Computer games are closely related to board games, and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games.

Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as they require less space, and are easier to set up and clear away. With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against computer or other players in real time (like to classics board games available on Yahoo, Lycos and other big Internet sites) or during your spare time, every time it's your turn (see the links at the end of this article).

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it would not meet the criteria for production.

Luck, strategy and diplomacy

One way of defining board games are between those based upon luck and strategy. Some games, such as chess, have no luck involved. Children's games tend to be very luck based with games such as Sorry! having virtually no decisions to be made. Most board games have both luck and strategy. A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more complex and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. Still most adult game players prefer to make some decisions during play, and find purely luck based games such as Top Trumps quite boring.

The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. Two player games usually don't have diplomacy, as cooporation between the two players does not occur. Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against another. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal.

Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. The most popular is using dice, generally six sided. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that when shuffled create randomness. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on which question a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less luck factor than in many North American board games.

Common terminology

Carcassonne tokens, or meeples

Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.

  • Gameboard (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre
  • Game Piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board. Each player may control one or more game pieces. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities.
  • Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. (See also: Game mechanic: Capture)
  • Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement)

References

  • Fiske, Willard. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). Florentine Typographical Society, 1905.
  • Falkener, Edward. Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892.
  • Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. September 1940: 257–271
  • Murray, Harold James Ruthven. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Gardners Books, 1969.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. The Boardgame Book. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. ISBN 0486238555
    • Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983.
  • Sackson, Sid. A Gamut of Games. Arrow Books, 1983. ISBN 0091533406
    • Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-486-27347-4
  • Schmittberger, R. Wayne. New Rules for Classic Games. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. ISBN 0-471-53621-0
    • Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0517129558
  • Parlett, David. Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0192129988

Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority.


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Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority. Technologies such as print on demand have made it easier for less known authors to make their work available to a larger audience. Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games. There have also been new developments in the process of publishing books. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less luck factor than in many North American board games. The effort is spearheaded by Project Gutenberg combined with Distributed Proofreaders. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on which question a person gets. There is an effort, however, to convert books that are in the public domain into a digital medium for unlimited redistribution and infinite availability.

Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. neither in the library nor on the Internet), and there is no decline in the rate of paper publishing. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. On the other hand, though books are nowadays produced using a digital version of the content, for most books such a version is not available to the public (i.e. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that when shuffled create randomness. through a digital library, on CD-ROM, or in the form of e-books. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. The advent of electronic publishing and the Internet means that much new information is not printed in paper books, but is made available online e.g.

The most popular is using dice, generally six sided. Throughout the 20th century, libraries have faced an ever-increasing rate of publishing, sometimes called an information explosion. Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. In the popular press the term eBook sometimes refers to a device such as the Sony Librie EBR-1000EP, which is meant to read the digital form and present it to a human being. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal. It is made available through internet, CD-ROM, etc. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. The term e-book (electronic book) in the broad sense is an amount of information like a conventional book, but in digital form.

In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against another. In certain industrialized countries large classes of commercial books, such as novels, textbooks and other non-fiction books, are nearly always given ISBNs by publishers, thus giving the illusion to many customers that the ISBN is an international and complete system, with no exceptions. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. They often produce books which do not have ISBNs. Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. Many government publishers, in industrial countries as well as in developing countries, do not participate fully in the ISBN system. Two player games usually don't have diplomacy, as cooporation between the two players does not occur. The EAN Barcodes numbers for books are derived from the ISBN by prefixing 978, for Bookland and calculating a new check digit.

A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. The last part is a checksum or a check digit and can take values from 0-9 and X (10). The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. The first part is the country code, the second the publisher code, and the third the title code. Still most adult game players prefer to make some decisions during play, and find purely luck based games such as Top Trumps quite boring. It has four parts. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more complex and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. It is managed by the ISBN Society.

A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. Besides, each book is specified by a International Standard Book Number, or ISBN, which is unique to every book produced by participating publishers, world wide. Most board games have both luck and strategy. Through a global society called the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) they devised a series of tools such as the International Standard Book Description or ISBD. Children's games tend to be very luck based with games such as Sorry! having virtually no decisions to be made. For the entire 20th century most librarians concerned with offering proper library services to the public (or a smaller subset such as students) worried about keeping track of the books being added yearly to the Gutenberg Galaxy. Some games, such as chess, have no luck involved. All books of the world are said to constitute the Gutenberg Galaxy, or, to use a term coined by eBook author Rick Sutcliffe in the early 1980s, the Metalibrary.

One way of defining board games are between those based upon luck and strategy. Another popular classification system is the Library of Congress system, which is more popular in university libraries. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it would not meet the criteria for production. However, it is still used by most public libraries in America. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. This system has fallen out of use in some places, mainly because of a Eurocentric bias and other difficulties applying the system to modern libraries. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. One of the earliest and most widely known systems of cataloguing books is the Dewey Decimal System.

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. When rows of books are lined on a bookshelf, bookends are sometimes needed to keep them from slanting. With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against computer or other players in real time (like to classics board games available on Yahoo, Lycos and other big Internet sites) or during your spare time, every time it's your turn (see the links at the end of this article). In library and booksellers' catalogues, it is common to include an abbreviation such as "Crown 8vo" to indicate the paper size from which the book is made. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as they require less space, and are easier to set up and clear away. This short (7 pages) standard also establishes the correct way to place information (such as the title or the name of the author) on book spines and on "shelvable" book-like objects such as containers for DVDs, video tapes and software. Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent. The call number is placed inside the book and on the spine of the book, normally a short distance before the bottom, in accordance with institutional or national standards such as ANSI/NISO Z39.41 - 1997.

Computer games are closely related to board games, and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games. In large libraries this call number is usually based on a Library classification system. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date. Where these identify a volume uniquely, they are referred to as "call numbers". Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. Often codes or other marks have to be added to the books to speed the process of relating them to the catalogue and their correct shelf position. The most of important of these include:. While a small collection of books, or one to be used by a small number of people, can be stored in any way convenient to the owners, a large or public collection requires a catalogue and some means of consulting it.

A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. As a result of the low cost of such books and the spread of bookstores filled with them (in addition to the creation of a smaller market of extremely cheap used paperbacks) owning a private library ceased to be a status symbol for the rich. Board games have a long history and have been played in most cultures and societies; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. Paperback books often included works from genres that had previously been published mostly in pulp magazines. . Paperback books made owning books affordable for many people. These include abstract strategy games like chess and checkers, word games, such as Scrabble, and trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit. The advent of paperback books in the 20th century led to an explosion of popular publishing.

Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. This reflected classes in a society: The poor or the middle class had to share most books through a public library or by other means while the rich could afford to have a private library built into their homes. Popular games of this type include Monopoly, which is a rough simulation of the real estate market; Cluedo/Clue, which is based upon a murder mystery; and Risk, which is one of the best known of thousands of games attempting to simulate warfare and geo-politics. The growth of a public library system in the United States started in the late 19th century and was much helped by donations from Andrew Carnegie. These are popular for they can intermingle make-believe and role playing along with the game. Maintaining a library used to be the privilege of princes, the wealthy, monasteries and other religious institutions, and universities. Some games are simplified simulations of real life. It is desirable for that reason to group books by size.

There are many different types and classifications of board games. Books, especially heavy ones, need the support of surrounding volumes to maintain their shape. Some board games, such as Chess, Oware, or Go, have intense strategic value and have become lasting classics. Books are best stored in reduced lighting, definitely out of direct sunlight, at cool temperatures, and at moderate humidity. Simple board games are often seen as ideal "family entertainment" as they can provide entertainment for all ages. The proper care of books takes into account the possibility of chemical changes to the cover and text. A board game is any game played on a board (that is, a premarked surface) with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. Books printed from 1850-1950 are at risk; more recent books are often printed on acid-free or alkaline paper.

ISBN 0192129988. Libraries today have to consider mass deacidification of their older collections. Oxford University Press, 1999. Earlier techniques for making paper used limestone rollers which neutralized the acid in the pulp. Oxford History of Board Games. However, this pulp paper contained acid that causes a sort of slow fires that eventually destroys the paper from within. Parlett, David. This paved the way for huge leaps in the rate of literacy in industrialised nations and eased the spread of information during the Second Industrial Revolution.

ISBN 0517129558. Pulp based paper made cheap novels, cheap school text books and cheap books of all kinds available to the general public. Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. linen or abaca). ISBN 0-471-53621-0

    . In the mid-19th century, papers made from pulp (cellulose, wood) were introduced because it was cheaper than cloth-based papers (i.e. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Textbook, Monograph), its structure varies, but some common structural parts of a book usually are:.

    New Rules for Classic Games. Depending on a book's purpose or type (i.e. Wayne. In mid-20th century, Europe book production has risen to over 200,000 titles per year. Schmittberger, R. See also intellectual property, public domain, copyright. ISBN 0-486-27347-4. The following centuries were spent on improving both the printing press and the conditions for freedom of the press through the gradual relaxation of restrictive censorship laws.

    Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. Not until the 1880's, did paper and other materials become more common. ISBN 0091533406

      . The first detachable bookmarks began appearing in the 1850's and were made from silk or embroidered fabrics. Arrow Books, 1983. Common bookmarks in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were narrow silk ribbons bound into the book at the top of the spine and extended below the lower edge of the page. A Gamut of Games. One of the earliest references to the use of bookmarks was in 1584 when the Queen's Printer, Christopher Barker, presented Queen Elizabeth I with a fringed silk bookmark.

      Sackson, Sid. The need to protect these precious commodities was evident. Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983. With the rise of printing in the fifteenth century, books were published in limited numbers and were quite valuable. ISBN 0486238555

        . This upset the status quo, leading to remarks such as "The printing press will allow books to get into the hands of people who have no business reading books." It is estimated that in Europe about 1,000 various books were created per year before the invention of the printing press. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. It was not until Johann Gutenberg popularized the printing press with metal moveable type in the 15th century that books started to be affordable and widely available.

        Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. When the wax cooled he used his letter tray to print whole pages. Bell, Robert Charles. He laid a board across them and pressed it down until all the characters were at exactly the same level. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979. He embedded the characters, face up, in a shallow tray lined with warm wax. The Boardgame Book. The Chinese inventor Pi Sheng made moveable type of earthenware circa 1045, but we have no surviving examples of his printing.

        Bell, Robert Charles. 11th May, CE 868 ]. Gardners Books, 1969. The colophon, at the inner end, reads: Reverently [caused to be] made for universal free distribution by Wang Jie on behalf of his two parents on the 13th of the 4th moon of the 9th year of Xiantong [i.e. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. It was found in 1907 by the archaeologist Sir Marc Aurel Stein in a walled-up cave near Dunhuang, in northwest China. Murray, Harold James Ruthven. There is a wood block printed copy in the British Library which, although not the earliest example of block printing, is the earliest example which bears an actual date.

        September 1940: 257–271. The oldest dated book printed by the method of block printing is The Diamond Sutra. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. Also, the wood blocks were not durable and could easily wear out or crack. Austin, Roland G. Creating an entire book, however, was a painstaking process, requiring a hand-carved block for each page. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892. It could then be inked and used to reproduce many copies of that page.

        Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. In block printing, a relief image of an entire page was carved out of wood. Falkener, Edward. In the mid 15th century books began to be produced by block printing in western Europe (the technique had been known in the East centuries earlier). Florentine Typographical Society, 1905. The first books used parchment or vellum (calf skin) for the pages, which was later replaced with paper. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). During the early Middle Ages, when only churches, universities, and rich noblemen could typically afford books, they were often chained to a bookshelf or a desk to prevent theft.

        Fiske, Willard. Before the invention and adoption of the printing press, almost all books were copied by hand, which made books comparatively expensive and rare. Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement). He would issue scrolls folded up accordion style and use the "pages" as reference points. (See also: Game mechanic: Capture). Some have said that Julius Caesar invented the first codex during the Gallic Wars. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. or earlier.

        Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. The codex was invented in the first few centuries A.D. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities. Scrolls were later phased out in favor of the codex, a bound book with pages and a spine, the form of most books today. Each player may control one or more game pieces. When writing systems were invented in ancient civilizations, clay tablets or parchment scrolls were used as, for example, in the library of Alexandria. Game Piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board. The oral account (word of mouth, tradition, hearsay) is the oldest carrier of messages and stories.

        Gameboard (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre. . 220-265 Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii). It may also be covered by a professional writer as a book review to introduce a new book. 1 BC-8 AD Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum and the smaller merels. A book may be studied by students in the form of a book report. 79 - 8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi. A lover of books is usually referred to as a bibliophile, a bibliophilist, or a philobiblist, or, more informally, a bookworm.

        20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below). Galleys are usually made as cheaply as possible, since they are not intended for sale. 116 - 27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. Publishers may produce low-cost, pre-proof editions known as galleys for promotional purposes, such as generating reviews in advance of publication. (Source: John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China). In library and information science, a book is called a monograph to distinguish it from serial publications such as magazines, journals or newspapers. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum. A book produced in electronic format is known as an e-book.

        200 BC - A Go board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. A book is also a literary work or a main division of such a work. (Source: Fiske, and Bell). A book is a collection of leaves of paper, parchment or other material, bound together along one edge within covers. 1400 BC - Game boards including Alquerque, Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, and a possible Mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna Temple. ISBNdb.com, books database built from libraries data. Also painting of Board Game of Knossos. Internet Book List.

        1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. The Internet Book Database of Fiction. It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau. Thriftbooks. 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). Book Sense. 2500 BC - Paintings of Senet and Han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes. Powell's City of Books.

        2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs). Borders. 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles. Barnes & Noble. 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials [2]; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera. BibliOZ. Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games. Biblio.com.

        Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London. Amazon.com. Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Alibris. They were excavated by C. Abebooks. The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur. Online bookstores

          .

          Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt. BookFinder.com. Also see Okno do svita deskovych her for a photo of the actual fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC). Addall.com. Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed. Some require separate searches for new or used books.

            . 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively [1]. Metasearch engine sites search multiple online bookstore sites.

            Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. List of fictional books. List of banned books. List of books by year of publication. List of books by award or notoriety.

            List of books by genre or type. List of books by author. List of books by title. Bookselling.

            Bookbinding. Author. Back cover (hard or soft, fancy-looking, with illustration). Index.

            Text of contents of the book. Preface. Table of contents. (sometimes - dedication page).

            Metrics page. Title page (shows title and author, often with small illustration or icon). Book cover (hard or soft, fancy-looking, with illustration).

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