Board game

A board game is any game played on a board (that is, a premarked surface) with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. Simple board games are often seen as ideal "family entertainment" as they can provide entertainment for all ages. Some board games, such as Chess, Oware, or Go, have intense strategic value and have become lasting classics.

There are many different types and classifications of board games. Some games are simplified simulations of real life. These are popular for they can intermingle make-believe and role playing along with the game. Popular games of this type include Monopoly, which is a rough simulation of the real estate market; Cluedo/Clue, which is based upon a murder mystery; and Risk, which is one of the best known of thousands of games attempting to simulate warfare and geo-politics.

Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. These include abstract strategy games like chess and checkers, word games, such as Scrabble, and trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit.

History

Board games have a long history and have been played in most cultures and societies; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. The most of important of these include:

  • Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively [1]. Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed. Also see Okno do svita deskovych her for a photo of the actual fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC).
  • Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt.
  • The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur. They were excavated by C. Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London.
  • Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games.

Timeline

  • 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials [2]; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera.
  • 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles.
  • 2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs)
  • 2500 BC - Paintings of Senet and Han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes
  • 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau.
  • 1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. Also painting of Board Game of Knossos.
  • 1400 BC - Game boards including Alquerque, Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, and a possible Mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna Temple. (Source: Fiske, and Bell)
  • 200 BC - A Go board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum. (Source: John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China).
  • 116 - 27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. 20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below).
  • 79 - 8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi.
  • 1 BC-8 AD Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum and the smaller merels.
  • 220-265 Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii)

Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date. Computer games are closely related to board games, and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games.

Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as they require less space, and are easier to set up and clear away. With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against computer or other players in real time (like to classics board games available on Yahoo, Lycos and other big Internet sites) or during your spare time, every time it's your turn (see the links at the end of this article).

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it would not meet the criteria for production.

Luck, strategy and diplomacy

One way of defining board games are between those based upon luck and strategy. Some games, such as chess, have no luck involved. Children's games tend to be very luck based with games such as Sorry! having virtually no decisions to be made. Most board games have both luck and strategy. A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more complex and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. Still most adult game players prefer to make some decisions during play, and find purely luck based games such as Top Trumps quite boring.

The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. Two player games usually don't have diplomacy, as cooporation between the two players does not occur. Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against another. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal.

Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. The most popular is using dice, generally six sided. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that when shuffled create randomness. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on which question a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less luck factor than in many North American board games.

Common terminology

Carcassonne tokens, or meeples

Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.

  • Gameboard (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre
  • Game Piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board. Each player may control one or more game pieces. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities.
  • Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. (See also: Game mechanic: Capture)
  • Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement)

References

  • Fiske, Willard. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). Florentine Typographical Society, 1905.
  • Falkener, Edward. Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892.
  • Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. September 1940: 257–271
  • Murray, Harold James Ruthven. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Gardners Books, 1969.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. The Boardgame Book. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. ISBN 0486238555
    • Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983.
  • Sackson, Sid. A Gamut of Games. Arrow Books, 1983. ISBN 0091533406
    • Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-486-27347-4
  • Schmittberger, R. Wayne. New Rules for Classic Games. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. ISBN 0-471-53621-0
    • Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0517129558
  • Parlett, David. Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0192129988

Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority.


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Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority. The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "C" and "c" for upper and lower case respectively. Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games. The EBCDIC code for capital C is 195 and for lowercase c is 131. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less luck factor than in many North American board games. The ASCII code for capital C is 67 and for lowercase c is 99; or in binary 01000011 and 01100011, respectively. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on which question a person gets. In Unicode the capital C is codepoint U+0043 and the lowercase c is U+0063.

Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. As a phonetic symbol, lowercase c is the International Phonetic Alphabet and X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal plosive, and capital C is the X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal fricative. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. The digraph CZ is found in Polish and CS in Hungarian, both representing /ʧ/. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that when shuffled create randomness. CK, with the value /k/, is often used after short vowels in Germanic languages such as English, German and Swedish (but some other Germanic languages use KK instead, such as Dutch and Norwegian). These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. CH takes various values in other languages, such as /ç/, /k/, or /x/ in German, /ʃ/ in French, /k/ in Italian, /ʈʂʰ/ in Mandarin Chinese, and so forth.

The most popular is using dice, generally six sided. In English, CH most commonly takes the value /ʧ/, but can take the value /k/ or /x/, usually when transliterating Greek Χ or Hebrew. Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. There are several common digraphs with C, the most common being CH, which in some languages such as German is far more common than C alone. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal. Other languages use C with different values, such as /k/ regardless of position in Irish, Welsh, /θ/ in Fijian, /ʤ/ in Turkish, Tatar, Azeri, /ʧ/ in Tagalog, Bahasa Indonesia, /ʦ/ in Czech, Croatian, Esperanto, Hungarian, Polish, Romanized Chinese, Serbian, Latvian. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Romance languages obey similar rules, but the soft value is different in several languages, taking on /θ/ in European Castilian and /ʧ/ (like English CH) in Italian and Romanian.

In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against another. In English and French, C takes the "hard" value /k/ finally and before A, O, and U, and the "soft" value /s/ before E, I, or Y. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. The Romance languages and English have a common feature inherited from Vulgar Latin where C takes on either a "hard" or "soft" value depending on the following vowel. Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. /k/ developed palatal and velar allophones in Latin, probably due to Etruscan influence. Two player games usually don't have diplomacy, as cooporation between the two players does not occur. .

A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. Other alphabets have letters identical to C in form but not in use and derivation, in particular the Cyrillic letter Es which derives from one form of the Greek letter sigma, known as the "lunate sigma" from its resemblance to a crescent moon. The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. Some scholars claim that the Semitic ג (gîmel) pictured a camel, but most assume it was probably gaml (a throwing stick/boomerang). Still most adult game players prefer to make some decisions during play, and find purely luck based games such as Top Trumps quite boring. It is possible but uncertain that C represented only /g/ at an even earlier time, while K might have been used for /k/. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more complex and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. In the beginning, the Romans used C for both /k/ and /g/, only later adding a horizontal bar at right-center to produce G.

A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. In the Etruscan language, plosive consonants had no contrastive voicing, so the Greek Γ (Gamma) was used to represent /k/. Most board games have both luck and strategy. Its name in English is cee (IPA [si:]). Children's games tend to be very luck based with games such as Sorry! having virtually no decisions to be made. C (lowercase c) is the third letter of the Roman alphabet. Some games, such as chess, have no luck involved. On the serial numbers of United States dollars, C identifies the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.

One way of defining board games are between those based upon luck and strategy. In terminals under Unix-like operating systems, Ctrl-C sends the INT signal. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it would not meet the criteria for production. In Microsoft Windows, Ctrl-C, (in Mac OS, Command-C) copies the selected text, image or sound and places it on the clipboard. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. In economics, C is usually used to represent consumption. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. As a timezone, C is the military designation for UTC+3, also known as MSK or Moscow Time.

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. In temperature, °C is the symbol for degrees Celsius (there is also a separate Unicode character for this symbol, U+2103 "℃"). With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against computer or other players in real time (like to classics board games available on Yahoo, Lycos and other big Internet sites) or during your spare time, every time it's your turn (see the links at the end of this article). In Canadian television, the C rating indicates a program intended to be viewed by children. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as they require less space, and are easier to set up and clear away. In Roman numerals, C denotes one hundred (centum in Latin; there are also separate Unicode characters for this number, U+216D "Ⅽ" and U+217D "ⅽ"). Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent. In Roman naming convention, C is the abbreviation for the praenomen Gaius.

Computer games are closely related to board games, and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games. In rail transport, C is the UIC classification for the railroad locomotive wheel arrangement known as 0-6-0 in the Whyte notation; a locomotive with three powered axles (and thus six wheels) in which the axles are linked by gearing or side rods. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date. In publishing, c with an enclosing circle, ©, denotes copyright. Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. In Canada, C stands for Prince Edward Island. The most of important of these include:. As the first letter of a postal code,

    .

    A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. c is the symbol of the charm quark. Board games have a long history and have been played in most cultures and societies; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. c can also be used for the speed of sound. . c is the speed of light in vacuum. These include abstract strategy games like chess and checkers, word games, such as Scrabble, and trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit. In physics,

      .

      Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. In nutrition, C is a vitamin; see Vitamin C. Popular games of this type include Monopoly, which is a rough simulation of the real estate market; Cluedo/Clue, which is based upon a murder mystery; and Risk, which is one of the best known of thousands of games attempting to simulate warfare and geo-politics. In music, C is a note; see also Middle C. These are popular for they can intermingle make-believe and role playing along with the game. C is the symbol for coulomb, the SI derived unit for electric charge. Some games are simplified simulations of real life. c, centi, is an SI prefix meaning 1/100.

      There are many different types and classifications of board games. In the SI system,

        . Some board games, such as Chess, Oware, or Go, have intense strategic value and have become lasting classics. Cn and C are notions of smooth functions, meaning "continuously differentiable n times" and "infinitely differentiable", respectively. Simple board games are often seen as ideal "family entertainment" as they can provide entertainment for all ages. Blackletter (Unicode U+212D "ℭ") denotes the first beth number: the cardinality of the set of real numbers (the "continuum"), or of the power set of natural numbers. A board game is any game played on a board (that is, a premarked surface) with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. C with indices denotes the number of combinations, a binomial coefficient.

        ISBN 0192129988. Blackboard bold (double-struck capital C) (Unicode U+2102 "ℂ") denotes the set of all complex numbers. Oxford University Press, 1999. C is often used as a digit meaning twelve in hexadecimal and other positional numeral systems with a radix of 13 or greater. Oxford History of Board Games. In mathematics,

          . Parlett, David. This series is primarily used for envelopes.

          ISBN 0517129558. In international paper sizes, C is a series of sizes with an aspect ratio of roughly 70% width to height. Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. In international licence plate codes, C stands for Cuba. ISBN 0-471-53621-0

            . In international relations, C sometimes represents the Commonwealth of Nations. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. 1500" means around the year 1500).

            New Rules for Classic Games. When used with years, it means about (e.g., "c. Wayne. In history, c is an abbreviation for circa. Schmittberger, R. In hardware, a C-clamp is a type of fastener, so called because its shape resembles the capital C. ISBN 0-486-27347-4. In gold, C is the abbreviation for Carat.

            Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. In finance, C is the New York Stock Exchange ticker symbol for Citigroup. ISBN 0091533406

              . In espionage, C is the head of MI6. Arrow Books, 1983. C is a standard size of dry-cell battery. A Gamut of Games. C is the variable for capacitance, and is used to label capacitors on schematics.

              Sackson, Sid. C is the control grid bias power supply (originally a battery) of vacuum tube circuitry. Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983. In electrical engineering,

                . ISBN 0486238555
                  . In education, C is an average grade. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. In currency, c or ¢ (c with a vertical or slanted bar through it) means cent.

                  Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. C is a security division ("Discretionary Protection") in the TCSEC. Bell, Robert Charles. Several of its derivatives have names including the letter C, for example C++, Objective-C, and C#. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979. C denotes the C programming language. The Boardgame Book. In computing,

                    .

                    Bell, Robert Charles. In communication, c is an abbreviation for the word "see" in SMS or instant message. Gardners Books, 1969. In the CMYK color model, C stands for the color cyan. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. In chemistry, C is the symbol for carbon. Murray, Harold James Ruthven. in many Japanese companies.

                    September 1940: 257–271. It is used for the company name etc. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. In business, C is a "creation" initial. Austin, Roland G. Brassiere cup size C. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892. In biochemistry, C is the symbol for the amino acid cysteine and the nitrogenous nucleic acid base cytosine.

                    Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. In basketball, C is the abbreviation for the position of center. Falkener, Edward. In baseball, C is the abbreviation for the position of catcher. Florentine Typographical Society, 1905. In anatomy, C means cervical (cervix meaning "neck"), as in C-spine, or written with a number refers to a numbered cervical vertebra (C1 to C7) or cervical spinal nerve (C1 - C8). Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). A c with a bar over it is an abbreviation for the Latin word "cum", meaning "with".

                    Fiske, Willard. Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement). (See also: Game mechanic: Capture). Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece.

                    Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities. Each player may control one or more game pieces. Game Piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board.

                    Gameboard (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre. 220-265 Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii). 1 BC-8 AD Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum and the smaller merels. 79 - 8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi.

                    20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below). 116 - 27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. (Source: John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China). This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum.

                    200 BC - A Go board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. (Source: Fiske, and Bell). 1400 BC - Game boards including Alquerque, Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, and a possible Mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna Temple. Also painting of Board Game of Knossos.

                    1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau. 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). 2500 BC - Paintings of Senet and Han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes.

                    2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs). 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles. 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials [2]; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera. Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games.

                    Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London. Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. They were excavated by C. The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur.

                    Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt. Also see Okno do svita deskovych her for a photo of the actual fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC). Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively [1].

                    Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c.

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