Board game

A board game is any game played on a board (that is, a premarked surface) with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. Simple board games are often seen as ideal "family entertainment" as they can provide entertainment for all ages. Some board games, such as Chess, Oware, or Go, have intense strategic value and have become lasting classics.

There are many different types and classifications of board games. Some games are simplified simulations of real life. These are popular for they can intermingle make-believe and role playing along with the game. Popular games of this type include Monopoly, which is a rough simulation of the real estate market; Cluedo/Clue, which is based upon a murder mystery; and Risk, which is one of the best known of thousands of games attempting to simulate warfare and geo-politics.

Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. These include abstract strategy games like chess and checkers, word games, such as Scrabble, and trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit.

History

Board games have a long history and have been played in most cultures and societies; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. The most of important of these include:

  • Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively [1]. Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed. Also see Okno do svita deskovych her for a photo of the actual fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC).
  • Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt.
  • The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur. They were excavated by C. Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London.
  • Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games.

Timeline

  • 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials [2]; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera.
  • 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles.
  • 2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs)
  • 2500 BC - Paintings of Senet and Han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes
  • 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau.
  • 1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. Also painting of Board Game of Knossos.
  • 1400 BC - Game boards including Alquerque, Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, and a possible Mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna Temple. (Source: Fiske, and Bell)
  • 200 BC - A Go board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum. (Source: John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China).
  • 116 - 27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. 20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below).
  • 79 - 8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi.
  • 1 BC-8 AD Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum and the smaller merels.
  • 220-265 Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii)

Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date. Computer games are closely related to board games, and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games.

Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as they require less space, and are easier to set up and clear away. With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against computer or other players in real time (like to classics board games available on Yahoo, Lycos and other big Internet sites) or during your spare time, every time it's your turn (see the links at the end of this article).

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it would not meet the criteria for production.

Luck, strategy and diplomacy

One way of defining board games are between those based upon luck and strategy. Some games, such as chess, have no luck involved. Children's games tend to be very luck based with games such as Sorry! having virtually no decisions to be made. Most board games have both luck and strategy. A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more complex and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. Still most adult game players prefer to make some decisions during play, and find purely luck based games such as Top Trumps quite boring.

The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. Two player games usually don't have diplomacy, as cooporation between the two players does not occur. Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against another. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal.

Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. The most popular is using dice, generally six sided. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that when shuffled create randomness. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on which question a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less luck factor than in many North American board games.

Common terminology

Carcassonne tokens, or meeples

Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.

  • Gameboard (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre
  • Game Piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board. Each player may control one or more game pieces. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities.
  • Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. (See also: Game mechanic: Capture)
  • Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement)

References

  • Fiske, Willard. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). Florentine Typographical Society, 1905.
  • Falkener, Edward. Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892.
  • Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. September 1940: 257–271
  • Murray, Harold James Ruthven. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Gardners Books, 1969.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. The Boardgame Book. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. ISBN 0486238555
    • Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983.
  • Sackson, Sid. A Gamut of Games. Arrow Books, 1983. ISBN 0091533406
    • Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-486-27347-4
  • Schmittberger, R. Wayne. New Rules for Classic Games. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. ISBN 0-471-53621-0
    • Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0517129558
  • Parlett, David. Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0192129988

Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority.


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Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority.
. Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games. Also in 2005, General Motors announced the first Cadillac designed exclusively for the European market, a model called the BLS, to be built by Saab in Sweden. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less luck factor than in many North American board games. In late 2005, Cadillac introduced the new DTS, the replacement of the DeVille, completing the full lineup of A&S models. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on which question a person gets. Bush features A&S design cues, and is said to foreshadow the 2006 Cadillac DTS, which is the replacement for the DeVille.

Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. The 2005 Presidential Limousine first shown at the second inauguration of President George W. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. This version of A&S will probably see itself debuted on models that appeal to more conservative demographics, such as the DeVille's replacement and a possible ultraluxury sedan. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that when shuffled create randomness. A slight evolution of A&S was shown at Detroit's 2003 Auto Show with the Cadillac Sixteen concept, which had a rounded body with crisp A&S features. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. The new Cadillac V-Series was also introduced to provide sporty models based on Cadillac production cars, with very extensive chassis and engine upgrades.

The most popular is using dice, generally six sided. The 2005 Cadillac STS is the latest in the A&S lineup and will complete the transition between the old school of design and the new. Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. Following in its success was the Cadillac SRX sport utility wagon and the Evoq-inspired Cadillac XLR roadster. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal. Cadillac's 2003 Cadillac CTS was the first ground-up incarnation of A&S and was an instant hit, partly due to product placements in the cyberpunk Matrix trilogy. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. The DeVille sedan and 2002 Escalade sport utility were the first executions of the Art & Science design philosophy, though they should be appropriately noted as more transitional vehicles since they combine A&S with the last era of styling and tested the waters for public acceptance.

In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against another. Distinctive characteristics of Art & Science design include stacked headlamps, vertical taillamps, angular grille, and creased body lines in addition to alphanumeric model names. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. With its crisp lines, hard creases, and sharp corners, the Evoq not only had a striking presence of its own, but also marked a departure from the softer design of previous Cadillacs. Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. The latest incarnation of Cadillac styling - Art & Science (A&S) was previewed with the 1999 Cadillac Evoq concept roadster at that year's Detroit Auto Show. Two player games usually don't have diplomacy, as cooporation between the two players does not occur. After GM phased out the GM B platform after 1996, abeit the importation of the European-based Catera, the only equivalent of rear-wheel drive is seen as a sport utility vehicle with the present-day Escalade.

A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. It was discontinued after the 1996 model year (the Brougham was rebadged as the Fleetwood Brougham). The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. By the late 80s, the Brougham was the only Cadillac model that retained the style and size of the "big" DeVilles and Fleetwoods of the 70s. Still most adult game players prefer to make some decisions during play, and find purely luck based games such as Top Trumps quite boring. Throughout the 1980s, American auto makers downsized most of their models, and the Cadillac was no exception. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more complex and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. The Cimarron and Seville models marked a beginning of "smaller" cars for the Cadillac line.

A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. Indeed, Cadillac was so confident of the Seville that it was exported to Europe, but it faced stiff opposition. Most board games have both luck and strategy. The Allante's styling influenced other Cadillacs, especially the Seville, which adopted its sharper, tailored lines. Children's games tend to be very luck based with games such as Sorry! having virtually no decisions to be made. The car was, sadly, not a commercial success, but today stands out as a modern classic and more than able to hold its own, image-wise, next to its Mercedes-Benz SL rival. Some games, such as chess, have no luck involved. The greatest challenge to the imports was the Cadillac Allante, a convertible designed by Pininfarina of Italy, and built on what was touted as the world's longest production line—with the car's bodies fabricated in Italy and flown by Boeing 747 to the United States to meet their transmission and engine.

One way of defining board games are between those based upon luck and strategy. Some new design approaches were tried: the Seville, for instance, had gracefully rounded wheel arches with a hint of chrome. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it would not meet the criteria for production. The mid-1980s saw Cadillac try to rebuild its image, aware that European and Japanese imports were on a rise, and with Honda launching its American luxury division, Acura. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. The 4100's problems cost Cadillac the loyalty of many customers. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. It suffered from coolant leaks, warped intake manifolds and warped heads.

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. This proved to be one of the worst engines ever built. With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against computer or other players in real time (like to classics board games available on Yahoo, Lycos and other big Internet sites) or during your spare time, every time it's your turn (see the links at the end of this article). The 4100 (4.1 liter) V8 engine was used widely in Cadillacs in the late 1980's. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as they require less space, and are easier to set up and clear away. Company marketing hailed the engine as cutting-edge technology, but it proved unreliable and was dropped the next year in favor of a family of smaller aluminum V8 engines rushed into production. Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent. Introduced in 1981, this 368 in³ (6.0 L) engine sequentially shut down cylinders as demand dropped.

Computer games are closely related to board games, and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games. Another low point during the early 1980s was the variable displacement engine, branded the L62 V8-6-4 engine. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date. Although the motoring press lauded the first Cadillac manual transmission in decades, the automatic's extra cost also rankled buyers. Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. Buyers also objected to the Cimmaron's four-cylinder engine and low level of standard equipment. The most of important of these include:. Buyers rejected this model for being too close to the considerably cheaper Chevrolet — unlike the Seville, which did not resemble the Nova or other GM X-cars, the Cimarron was almost indistinguishable from the down-market versions.

A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. However, trying to extend its brand further downward to appeal to younger buyers, Cadillac launched in 1981 (for the 1982 model year) the compact Cimarron, a warmed-over Chevrolet Cavalier as a rival to the BMW 3-series. Board games have a long history and have been played in most cultures and societies; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. Ironically, GM's other division, Detroit Diesel had had decades of experience building Diesel engines. . The engine was notoriously unreliable and smoky. These include abstract strategy games like chess and checkers, word games, such as Scrabble, and trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit. This was a disaster for GM.

Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. Due to gasoline shortages, Cadillac offered a "dieselized" (converted from gasoline use) LF9 350-cubic-inch (5.7L) V8 engine, in its full-size cars from 1979 to 1981. Popular games of this type include Monopoly, which is a rough simulation of the real estate market; Cluedo/Clue, which is based upon a murder mystery; and Risk, which is one of the best known of thousands of games attempting to simulate warfare and geo-politics. It launched a smaller car around the size of the Mercedes-Benz 300, the Seville, based on a Chevrolet Nova platform, which became a success for the marque. These are popular for they can intermingle make-believe and role playing along with the game. Its staple De Ville and Fleetwood lines were downsized for 1977 and again for 1985. Some games are simplified simulations of real life. As with most American brands, Cadillac was forced to downsize its offerings between the 1973 and 1979 fuel crises.

There are many different types and classifications of board games. The build quality also became poorer when measured against German rivals. Some board games, such as Chess, Oware, or Go, have intense strategic value and have become lasting classics. However, the 1970s saw vehicles memorable for other types of excess: engine size, for one (the Eldorado featured an 8.2-litre engine at one point), weight, and physical bulk. Simple board games are often seen as ideal "family entertainment" as they can provide entertainment for all ages. There were high points, such as the launch of the Eldorado two-door personal luxury car in 1967, with its simple, elegant design—a far cry from the tail-fin and chrome excesses of the 1950s. A board game is any game played on a board (that is, a premarked surface) with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. Cadillac suffered from the malaise that set in to the American auto industry in the late 1970s to the late 1980s.

ISBN 0192129988. Somewhat surprisingly for a marque with such a strong design heritage, Cadillac has resisted the temptation to produce any "retro" models such as the revived Ford Thunderbird or the VW New Beetle, and has instead pressed ahead with a new design philosophy for the 21st century called "art and science"[1] which it says "incorporates sharp, shear forms and crisp edges - a form vocabulary that expresses bold, high-technology design and invokes the technology used to design it.". Oxford University Press, 1999. The tailfin style gave birth to the enduring vertical-tailight pattern, which is a subtle trademark of the Cadillac line (the opposite of the horizontal tailight pattern which is a likewise subtle trademark of rival Lincoln.). Oxford History of Board Games. Nevertheless, Cadillacs retained their tailfins through 1964, and suggestions of them remain in the peaked rear fenders of many models even to this day. Parlett, David. At this point, Bill Mitchell succeeded Harley Earl as styling chief, and his preference for more austere design combined with changing buyer tastes caused the excess to be rapidly toned down, starting in 1960.

ISBN 0517129558. Cadillac's first tailfins, inspired by the twin rudders of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, appeared in 1948; the 1959 Cadillac was the epitome of the tailfin craze, with the most recognizable tailfins of any production automobile. Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. Earl, innovated many of the styling features that came to be synonymous with the classic (late 1940s-late 1950s) American automobile, including tailfins and wraparound windshields. ISBN 0-471-53621-0

    . Postwar Cadillacs, incorporating the ideas of General Motors styling chief Harley J. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. Cadillac was the first automaker to use the Phillips technology, which was widely adopted in 1940.

    New Rules for Classic Games. He entered into talks with General Motors and convinced the Cadillac group that his new screws would speed assembly times and therefore increase profits. Wayne. Phillips introduced the Philips screw and driver onto the market. Schmittberger, R. Henry F. ISBN 0-486-27347-4. 1934 brought about a revolution in assembly line technology.

    Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. By 1940, Cadillac sales had risen 1000% compared to 1934, thus saving Cadillac from extinction. ISBN 0091533406

      . By 1934, Cadillac had regained profitability. Arrow Books, 1983. The Board agreed to give Dreystadt 18 months to produce results. A Gamut of Games. At a fateful board meeting, Cadillac president Nicholas Dreystadt gave the GM Board of Directors a 10 minute speech in which he advocated advertising to black consumers so as to increase sales.

      Sackson, Sid. In 1932, after Cadillac suffered from record low sales and charges of discrimination against black customers, Alfred Sloan created a committee to consider the discontinuation of the Cadillac line. Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983. In the 1930s, Cadillac added cars with 12- and 16-cylinder engines to their range, many of which were fitted with custom coach-built bodies; these engines were remarkable at the time for their ability to deliver a combination of high power, silky smoothness and quietness. ISBN 0486238555

        . Pre-World War II Cadillacs were well-built, powerful, mass-produced luxury cars, aimed at an upper class market, below that of such ultra-exclusive marques such as Pierce-Arrow and Duesenberg. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. That model remained in production until 1940.

        Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. About this time, automobile stylist, Harley Earl, whom Cadillac had recruited in 1926 and who was to head the new Art & Color section starting in January 1928, designed for 1927 a new, smaller "companion" car to the Cadillac which he called the La Salle, after another French explorer, René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle. Bell, Robert Charles. Other innovations included the first V8 engine in mass production in 1915; shatter-resistant safety glass in 1926; and the first fully synchronized transmission (with gears "locked" in relation to one another to prevent clashing upon execution of a shift) in 1928. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979. Originally marketed as a convenience device for female drivers, the electric starter developed by Charles Kettering was first used on the production models of 1912. The Boardgame Book. In 1911, Cadillac was the first gasoline internal combustion engine auto to incorporate electric start, as opposed to earlier crank start.

        Bell, Robert Charles. The latter two of which were custom made by aftermarket manufacturers, GM does not produce any such vehicles on its own. Gardners Books, 1969. The Cadillac line was also GM's default marque for "commercial chassis" institutional vehicles, such as ambulances, limousines, hearses, and funeral home flower cars. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Cadillac became General Motors' prestige division, devoted to the production of large luxury vehicles. Murray, Harold James Ruthven. Cadillac was purchased by the General Motors conglomerate in 1909.

        September 1940: 257–271. The Dewar Trophy was an annual award for the most important advancement of the year in the automobile industry. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. As a result of these tests, the Cadillac Automobile Company was awarded the Dewar Trophy for 1908 (actual award date was Feb 1909). Austin, Roland G. Trophy! Parts interchangeability could not have been proven in any other more appropriate way. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892. It came out the winner of the R.A.C.

        Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. On completion of the test, one of the cars was placed under lock and key where it remained until the start of the 2000 miles (3200 km) Reliability Trials, several months later. Falkener, Edward. Using only wrenches and screwdrivers the 3 cars were re-assembled and on Friday March 13 they completed a mandatory 500 mile (800 km) run. Florentine Typographical Society, 1905. Their 721 component parts were scrambled in one heap; 89 parts requiring extreme accuracy were withdrawn from the heap,locked away at the Brooklands club house and replaced with new parts from the showroom stock. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). They were driven 25 miles to the Brooklands race track at Weybridge where they completed another 25 miles (40 km) before being put under lock and key until Monday March 2, 1908 when they were released and disassembled completely.

        Fiske, Willard. In Feb to Mar 1908, three Model K Cadillacs (1907 production) were released from the stock of Frederick Bennett (UK agent for Cadillac) at the Heddon Street showroom in London to compete in the annual Royal Automobile Club's Standardization Test. Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement). The Cadillac's biggest selling point was precision manufacturing and, therefore, reliability; it was simply a better made vehicle than its competition. (See also: Game mechanic: Capture). In any case, the new Cadillac was shown at the New York Auto Show the following January, where it impressed the crowds enough to gather over two thousand firm orders. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. Many sources say the first car rolled out of the factory on October 17; in the book Henry Leland - Master of Precision, on p.69, that date is shown to be October 20; yet another reliable source shows car #3 to have been built on October 16.

        Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. Their first car was completed in October 1902, the 10 horsepower (7 kW) Cadillac, based on Henry Ford's design was practically identical to the 1903 Ford Model A. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities. The Cadillac automobile was named after the 17th century French explorer Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, founder of Detroit, Michigan in 1701. Each player may control one or more game pieces. Henry Ford's departure required a new name, and on August 22, 1902, the company reformed as the Cadillac Automobile Company. Game Piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board. Instead, Leland persuaded them to continue in the automobile business.

        Gameboard (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre. Leland to appraise the plant and equipment prior to selling them. 220-265 Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii). With the intent of liquidating the firm's assets, Ford's financial backers, William Murphy and Lemuel Bowen called in engineer Henry M. 1 BC-8 AD Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum and the smaller merels. Cadillac was formed from the Henry Ford Company upon Henry Ford's departure. 79 - 8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi. .

        20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below). In the United States, the name became a synonym for "high quality", used in such phrases as "the Cadillac of clocks." This is less prevalent, though still known, in other English-speaking countries (who are more likely to use Rolls-Royce in such phrases). 116 - 27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors corporation, produced and mostly sold in the United States; outside of North America, they have been less successful. (Source: John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China). Cadillac Sixteen - 2003. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum. Cadillac Cien - 2002.

        200 BC - A Go board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. Cadillac Imaj - 2001. (Source: Fiske, and Bell). Cadillac Vizon - 2000. 1400 BC - Game boards including Alquerque, Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, and a possible Mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna Temple. Cadillac Evoq - 1999. Also painting of Board Game of Knossos. Cadillac Solitaire - 1989.

        1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. Cadillac Voyage - 1988. It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau. Cadillac CART-PPG - 1985. 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). Cadillac Aurora - 1980. 2500 BC - Paintings of Senet and Han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes. Cadillac Florentine - 1964.

        2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs). Cadillac Bonneville Maharani - 1963. 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles. Cadillac 4-door phaeton - 1960. 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials [2]; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera. Cadillac Cyclone - 1959. Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games. Cadillac "Rain Car" and 4-door Eldorado Seville - 1958.

        Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London. Cadillac Director - 1957. Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Cadillac Castilian, Gala, Maharani, Palomino, Eldorado Brougham and Eldorado Brougham Town Car, - 1956. They were excavated by C. Moritz, Westchester - 1955. The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur. Cadillac Celebrity, Eldorado Brougham, La Salle II, Eldorado St.

        Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt. Cadillac El Camino, La Espada, Park Avenue - 1954. Also see Okno do svita deskovych her for a photo of the actual fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC). Cadillac Le Mans and Orleans - 1953. Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed. Cadillac Eldorado and Townsman - 1952. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively [1]. Cadillac custom roadster for Bill Boyer - 1951-52.

        Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. Cadillac Debutante - 1950. Cadillac Caribbean, Coupe de Ville, El Rancho, Embassy - 1949. Cadillac V-16 Aero coupe - 1933. 2004-present Cadillac XLR.

        2005-present Cadillac STS. 2004-present Cadillac SRX. 1999-present Cadillac Escalade (ESV/EXT). 2006-present Cadillac DTS.

        2003-present Cadillac CTS. 2006-present Cadillac BLS (Europe only). 2004-present Cadillac CTS V-Series. 2006-present Cadillac STS V-Series.

        1975-1976 Cadillac Castilian Station Wagon. 1938-1993 Cadillac Sixty Special. 1975-2004 Cadillac Seville. 1927-1996 Cadillac Fleetwood.

        1963-2003 Cadillac Fleetwood Eldorado. 1956-1960 Cadillac Eldorado Seville. 1957-1960 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham. 1956-1962 Cadillac Eldorado Biarritz.

        1953-2003 Cadillac Eldorado. 1949-1993 Cadillac Coupe de Ville. 1949-2005 Cadillac DeVille. 1935-1983 Cadillac commercial chassis.

        1982-1988 Cadillac Cimarron. 1994-1996 Cadillac Catera. 1965-1976 Cadillac Calais. 1985-1993 Cadillac Brougham.

        1987-1993 Cadillac Allante. Fleetwood - 126.3  133  151.5 &bnsp; and 157.5 in wheelbase V8. Seville - 114.3 in wheelbase V8. DeVille/Coupe de Ville - 130 in wheelbase V8.

        Calais - 130 in wheelbase V8. 1975 - Cadillac "Calais", "De Ville", "Seville" and "Fleetwood" Series Fisher Fleetwood

          . Fleetwood - 126  133  151.5 &bnsp; and 157.5 in wheelbase V8. DeVille/Coupe de Ville - 130 in wheelbase V8.

          Calais - 130 in wheelbase V8. 1974 - Cadillac "Calais", "De Ville" and "Fleetwood" Series Fisher Fleetwood

            . Fleetwood - 126.3  133  151.5 &bnsp; and 157.5 in wheelbase V8. DeVille/Coupe de Ville - 130 in wheelbase V8.

            Calais - 130 in wheelbase V8. 1970-1973 Cadillac "Calais", "De Ville" and "Fleetwood" Series Fisher Fleetwood

              . Fleetwood - 120  133  149.8  and 156 in wheelbase V8. DeVille/Coupe de Ville - 129.5 in wheelbase V8.

              Calais - 129.5 in wheelbase V8. 1967-1970 Cadillac "Calais", "De Ville" and "Fleetwood" Series Fisher Fleetwood

                . Fleetwood - 133  149.8  and 156 in wheelbase V8. DeVille/Coupe de Ville - 129.5 in wheelbase V8.

                Calais - 129.5 in wheelbase V8. 1965-1966 Cadillac "Calais", "De Ville" and "Fleetwood" Series Fisher Fleetwood

                  . Series 75 - 149.8 in wheelbase V8. Series 62 - 129.5 in wheelbase V8.

                  Series 60S Fleetwood - 129.5 in wheelbase V8. 1961-1964 Cadillac Series 60S, 62, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                    . Series 75 - 149.75 in wheelbase V8. Series 69 - 130 in wheelbase V8 "Eldorado Brougham".

                    Series 64 - 130 in wheelbase V8"Eldorado" sub-series. Series 63 - 130 in wheelbase V8"De Ville" sub-series. Series 62 - 130 in wheelbase V8. Series 60S Fleetwood - 130 in wheelbase V8.

                    1959-1960 Cadillac Series 60S, 62, 63, 64, 69, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                      . Series 75 - 149.7 in wheelbase V8. Series 70 - 126 in wheelbase V8 "Eldorado Brougham". Series 62 - 129.5 in wheelbase V8.

                      Series 60S Fleetwood - 133 in wheelbase V8. 1957-1958 Cadillac Series 60S, 62, 70, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                        . Series 75 - 149.75 in wheelbase V8. Series 62 - 129 in wheelbase V8.

                        Series 60S Fleetwood - 133 in wheelbase V8. 1956 Cadillac Series 60S, 62, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                          . Series 75 - 149.8 in wheelbase V8. Series 62 - 129 in wheelbase V8.

                          Series 60S Fleetwood - 133 in wheelbase V8. 1954-1955 Cadillac Series 60S, 62, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                            . Series 75 - 146.75 in wheelbase V8. Series 62 - 126 in wheelbase V8.

                            Series 60S Fleetwood - 130 in wheelbase V8. 1953 Cadillac Series 60S, 62, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                              . Series 75 - 147 in wheelbase V8. Series 62 - 126 in wheelbase V8.

                              Series 60S Fleetwood - 130 in wheelbase V8. 1952 Cadillac Series 60S, 62, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                                . Series 75 - 146.75 in wheelbase V8. Series 62 - 126 in wheelbase V8.

                                Series 61 - 122 in wheelbase V8. Series 60S Fleetwood - 130 in wheelbase V8. 1950-1951 Cadillac Series 60S, 61, 62, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                                  . Series 75 - 136 in wheelbase V8.

                                  Series 62 - 126 in wheelbase V8. Series 61 - 126 in wheelbase V8. Series 60S Fleetwood - 133 in wheelbase V8. 1948-1949 Cadillac Series 60S, 61, 62, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                                    .

                                    Series 75 - 138 in wheelbase V8. Series 62 - 129 in wheelbase V8. Series 61 - 126 in wheelbase V8. Series 60S Fleetwood - 133 in wheelbase V8.

                                    1947 Cadillac Series 60S, 61, 62, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                                      . Series 75 - 136 in wheelbase V8. Series 62 - 129 in wheelbase V8. Series 61 - 126 in wheelbase V8.

                                      Series 60S Fleetwood - 133 in wheelbase V8. 1946 Cadillac Series 60S, 61, 62, 75 Fisher Fleetwood

                                        . Series 42-75 - 136  and 163 in wheelbase V8. Series 42-67 - 139 in wheelbase V8.

                                        Series 42-63 - 126 in wheelbase V8. Series 42-62 - 129 in wheelbase V8. Series 42-61 - 126 in wheelbase V8. Series 42-60S Fleetwood - 133 in wheelbase V8.

                                        1942 Cadillac Series 42-60S, 42-61, 42-62, 42-63, 42-67, 42-75 Fisher Fleetwood

                                          . Series 41-75 - 136  and 163 in wheelbase V8. Series 41-67 - 139 in wheelbase V8. Series 41-63 - 126 in wheelbase V8.

                                          Series 41-62 - 126  and 163 in wheelbase V8. Series 41-61 - 126 in wheelbase V8. Series 41-60S - 126 in wheelbase V8. 1941 Cadillac Series 41-60S, 41-61, 41-62, 41-63, 41-67, 41-75 Fisher Fleetwood

                                            .

                                            Series 40-90 - 141 in wheelbase V16. Series 40-75 - 141  and 161.75 in wheelbase V8. Series 40-72 - 138  and 165.25 in wheelbase V8. Series 40-62 - 129 in wheelbase V8.

                                            Series 40-60S - 127 in wheelbase V8. 1940 Cadillac Series 40-60S, 40-62, 40-72, 40-75, 40-90 Fisher Fleetwood

                                              . Series 39-90 - 141 in wheelbase V16. Series 39-75 - 141  and 161.75 in wheelbase V8.

                                              Series 39-61 - 126  and 162.25 in wheelbase V8. Series 39-60S - 127 in wheelbase V8. 1939 Cadillac Series 39-60S, 39-65, 39-75, 39-90 Fisher Fleetwood

                                                . Series 38-90 - 141 in wheelbase V16.

                                                Series 38-75 - 141  and 160 in wheelbase V8. Series 38-65 - 132  in wheelbase V8. Series 38-60S - 127 in wheelbase V8. Series 38-60 - 124  and 160 in wheelbase V8.

                                                1938 Cadillac Series 38-60, 38-60S, 38-65, 38-75, 38-90 Fisher Fleetwood

                                                  . Series 37-80 - 154 in wheelbase V16. Series 37-85 - 138 in wheelbase V12. Series 37-75 - 138  and 156 in wheelbase V8.

                                                  Series 37-70 - 131 in wheelbase V8. Series 37-65 - 131 in wheelbase V8. Series 37-60 - 124  and 160.75 in wheelbase V8. 1937 Cadillac Series 36-60, 37-65, 37-70, 37-75, 37-85, 37-90 Fisher Fleetwood

                                                    .

                                                    Series 36-80 - 154 in wheelbase V16. Series 36-85 - 138 in wheelbase V12. Series 36-80 - 131 and 160 in wheelbase V12. Series 36-75 - 138 in wheelbase V8.

                                                    Series 36-70 - 131 in wheelbase V8. Series 36-60 - 121 in wheelbase V8. 1936 Cadillac Series 36-60, 36-70, 36-75, 36-80, 36-85, 36-90 Fisher Fleetwood

                                                      . Series 452-D or 60 - 154 in wheelbase V16.

                                                      Series 370-D - 146 and 160 in wheelbase V12. Series 30 - 146 in wheelbase V8. Series 20 - 136 in wheelbase V8. Series 10 - 128 in wheelbase V8.

                                                      1935 Cadillac Series 10, 20, 30 and 452-D Fisher Fleetwood

                                                        . Series 452-D - 154 in wheelbase V16. Series 370-D - 146 in wheelbase V12. Series 30 - 146 in wheelbase V8.

                                                        Series 20 - 136 in wheelbase V8. Series 10 - 128 in wheelbase V8. 1934 Cadillac Series 10, 20, 30 and 452-D Fisher Fleetwood

                                                          . Series 452-C - 143  and 149 in wheelbase V16.

                                                          Series 370-C - 134  140  and 156 in wheelbase V12. Series 355-C - 140  and 156 in wheelbase V8. 1933 Cadillac Series 355-C, 370-C and 452-C Fisher Fleetwood

                                                            . Series 452-B - 143 and 149 in wheelbase V16 Fisher Fleetwood.

                                                            Series 370-B - 140  and 156 in wheelbase V12 Fisher Fleetwood. Series 355-B - 134  and 156 in wheelbase V8 Fisher Fleetwood. 1932 Cadillac Series 355-B, 370-B and 452-B Fisher Fleetwood

                                                              . Series 452-A - 148 in wheelbase V16 Fisher Fleetwood.

                                                              Series 370-A - 140  143  and 152 in wheelbase V12 Fleetwood. Series 355 - 134  and 152 in wheelbase V8 Fleetwood. 1931 Cadillac Series 355, 370-A and 452-A Fisher Fleetwood

                                                                . Series 452 - 148 in wheelbase V16 Fisher Fleetwood.

                                                                Series 370 - 140  143  and 152 in wheelbase V12 Fisher Fleetwood. Series 353 - 140  and 152 in wheelbase V8 Fisher Fleetwood. 1930 Cadillac Series 353, 370 and 452 Fisher Fleetwood

                                                                  . 1929 - Cadillac Series 341-B; 140  and 152 in wheelbase V8 Fisher Fleetwood.

                                                                  1928 - Cadillac Series 341-A; 140  and 152 in wheelbase V8 Fisher Fleetwood. 1926-1927 Cadillac Series 314; 132  138  and 150 in wheelbase V8 Fisher Fleetwood. 1925 - Cadillac Type V-63; 132  138  and 145 in wheelbase V8 Fisher Fleetwood. 1924 - Cadillac Type V-63; 132  and 145 in wheelbase V8 Fisher.

                                                                  1922-1923 Cadillac Type 61; 132 in wheelbase V8 Fisher. 1920-1921 Cadillac Type 59; 122  and 132 in wheelbase V8 Fisher. 1918-1919 Cadillac Type 57; 125  132  and 145 in wheelbase V8 Fisher. 1917 - Cadillac Type 55; 125  and 145 in wheelbase V8 Fisher.

                                                                  1916 - Cadillac Type 53; 122  132  and 145 in wheelbase V8 Fisher. 1915 - Cadillac Type 51; 122  and 145 in wheelbase V8 Fisher. 1914 - Cadillac Model 1914; 120  and 134 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine Fisher. 1913 - Cadillac Model 1913; 120 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine Fisher.

                                                                  1912 - Cadillac Model 1912; 116 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine Fisher. 1911 - 116 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine Fisher. 1910 - 110 in wheelbase; 120 in wheelbase (limousine) four-cylinder engine Fisher. 1909 - 106 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine.

                                                                  1909-1911 Cadillac Model Thirty

                                                                    . Model T - 82 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. Model S - 82 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. Model M - 76 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine.

                                                                    Model H - 102 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine. Model G - 100 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine. 1908 Cadillac Models G, H, M, S and T

                                                                      . Model M - 76 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine.

                                                                      Model K - 74 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. Model H - 102 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine. Model G - 100 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine. 1907 Cadillac Models G, H, K, and M

                                                                        .

                                                                        Model M - 76 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. Model L - 110 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine. Model K - 74 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. Model H - 102 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine.

                                                                        1906 Cadillac Models H, K, L, and M

                                                                          . Model F - 76 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. Model E - 74 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. Model D - 100 in wheelbase four-cylinder engine.

                                                                          Model C - 72 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. Model B - 76 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. 1905 Cadillac Models B, C, D, E and F

                                                                            . Model B - 76 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine.

                                                                            Model A - 72 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. 1904 Cadillac Models A and B

                                                                              . 1903-1904 Cadillac Model A - 72 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine. 1902-1903 Cadillac runabout and tonneau - 72 in wheelbase single-cylinder engine.

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