Board game

A board game is any game played on a board (that is, a premarked surface) with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. Simple board games are often seen as ideal "family entertainment" as they can provide entertainment for all ages. Some board games, such as Chess, Oware, or Go, have intense strategic value and have become lasting classics.

There are many different types and classifications of board games. Some games are simplified simulations of real life. These are popular for they can intermingle make-believe and role playing along with the game. Popular games of this type include Monopoly, which is a rough simulation of the real estate market; Cluedo/Clue, which is based upon a murder mystery; and Risk, which is one of the best known of thousands of games attempting to simulate warfare and geo-politics.

Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. These include abstract strategy games like chess and checkers, word games, such as Scrabble, and trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit.

History

Board games have a long history and have been played in most cultures and societies; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. The most of important of these include:

  • Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively [1]. Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed. Also see Okno do svita deskovych her for a photo of the actual fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC).
  • Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt.
  • The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur. They were excavated by C. Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London.
  • Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games.

Timeline

  • 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials [2]; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera.
  • 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles.
  • 2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs)
  • 2500 BC - Paintings of Senet and Han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes
  • 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau.
  • 1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. Also painting of Board Game of Knossos.
  • 1400 BC - Game boards including Alquerque, Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, and a possible Mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna Temple. (Source: Fiske, and Bell)
  • 200 BC - A Go board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum. (Source: John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China).
  • 116 - 27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. 20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below).
  • 79 - 8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi.
  • 1 BC-8 AD Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum and the smaller merels.
  • 220-265 Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii)

Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date. Computer games are closely related to board games, and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games.

Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as they require less space, and are easier to set up and clear away. With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against computer or other players in real time (like to classics board games available on Yahoo, Lycos and other big Internet sites) or during your spare time, every time it's your turn (see the links at the end of this article).

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it would not meet the criteria for production.

Luck, strategy and diplomacy

One way of defining board games are between those based upon luck and strategy. Some games, such as chess, have no luck involved. Children's games tend to be very luck based with games such as Sorry! having virtually no decisions to be made. Most board games have both luck and strategy. A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more complex and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. Still most adult game players prefer to make some decisions during play, and find purely luck based games such as Top Trumps quite boring.

The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. Two player games usually don't have diplomacy, as cooporation between the two players does not occur. Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against another. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal.

Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. The most popular is using dice, generally six sided. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that when shuffled create randomness. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on which question a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less luck factor than in many North American board games.

Common terminology

Carcassonne tokens, or meeples

Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.

  • Gameboard (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre
  • Game Piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board. Each player may control one or more game pieces. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities.
  • Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. (See also: Game mechanic: Capture)
  • Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement)

References

  • Fiske, Willard. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). Florentine Typographical Society, 1905.
  • Falkener, Edward. Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892.
  • Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. September 1940: 257–271
  • Murray, Harold James Ruthven. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Gardners Books, 1969.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. The Boardgame Book. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. ISBN 0486238555
    • Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983.
  • Sackson, Sid. A Gamut of Games. Arrow Books, 1983. ISBN 0091533406
    • Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-486-27347-4
  • Schmittberger, R. Wayne. New Rules for Classic Games. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. ISBN 0-471-53621-0
    • Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0517129558
  • Parlett, David. Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0192129988

Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority.


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Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority. With skillful use of eddies, a setting pole can propel a canoe even against moderate (class III) rapids. Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games. It allows the canoe to move through water too shallow for a paddle to create thrust, or against a current too quick for the paddlers to make headway. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less luck factor than in many North American board games. On swift rivers, the sternman may use a setting pole. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on which question a person gets. There are some differences in techniques in how the above strokes are utilized.

Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. It is important that the paddlers remain in unison, particularly in white water, in order to keep the boat stable and to maximize efficiency. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Complementary strokes are selected by the bow and stern paddlers in order to safely and quickly steer the canoe. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that when shuffled create randomness. On the other hand, the paddler who does not steer usually produces the most forward power or thrust, and the greater source of thrust should be placed in the bow for greater steering stability. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. Steering in the bow is initially more intuitive than steering in the stern, because to steer to starboard, the stern must actually move to port.

The most popular is using dice, generally six sided. The advantage of steering in the bow is that the bowman can change sides more easily than the sternman. Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. Among less-experienced canoeists, the canoe is typically steered from the bow. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal. Also, in the case of backferrying, the bowman is responsible for steering the canoe using small correctional strokes while backpaddling with the sternman. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. The bowman will steer when avoiding rocks and other obstacles that the sternman cannot see.

In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against another. Among experienced white water canoeists, the sternman is primarily responsible for steering the canoe, with the exception of two cases. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. Steering techniques vary widely, even as to the basic question of which paddler should be responsible for steering. Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. Thus, steering is particularly important, particularly because canoes have flat-bottomed hulls and are very responsive to turning actions. Two player games usually don't have diplomacy, as cooporation between the two players does not occur. The paddling action of two paddlers will tend to turn the canoe toward the opposite side that on which the sternman is paddling.

A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. This propulsion method is inefficient and unstable. The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. The canoer stands on the gunwales, near the bow or the stern, and squats up and down to make the canoe rock backward and forward. Still most adult game players prefer to make some decisions during play, and find purely luck based games such as Top Trumps quite boring. A trick called "gunwale bobbing" allows a canoe to be propelled without a paddle. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more complex and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. For travel straight ahead, they draw the paddle from bow to stern, in a straight line parallel to the gunwale.

A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. Conversely, the sternman would paddle to starboard, with the right hand just above the blade and the left hand at the top. Most board games have both luck and strategy. The left hand acts mostly as a pivot and the right arm supplies most of the power. Children's games tend to be very luck based with games such as Sorry! having virtually no decisions to be made. For example, the person in the bow (the bowman) might hold the paddle on the port side, with the left hand just above the blade and the right hand at the top end of the paddle. Some games, such as chess, have no luck involved. When two people occupy a canoe, they paddle on opposite sides.

One way of defining board games are between those based upon luck and strategy. Canoes can navigate swift-moving water with careful scouting of rapids and good communication between the paddlers. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it would not meet the criteria for production. For example, the occupants need to keep their center of gravity as low as possible. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. Canoes have a reputation for instability, but this is not true if they are handled properly. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. On the west coast of North America, large dugout canoes were used in the Pacific Ocean, even for whaling.

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. Later, they were made of a wooden frame, wood ribs, other wood parts (seats, gunwales, etc.) and covered with canvas, sized and painted for smoothness and watertightness. With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against computer or other players in real time (like to classics board games available on Yahoo, Lycos and other big Internet sites) or during your spare time, every time it's your turn (see the links at the end of this article). In the temperate regions of eastern North America, canoes were traditionally made of a wooden frame covered with bark of a birch tree, pitched to make it waterproof. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as they require less space, and are easier to set up and clear away. They typically carry a crew of six: one steersman and five paddlers. Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent. In Hawaii, canoes are traditionally manufactured from the trunk of the koa tree.

Computer games are closely related to board games, and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games. Such vessels carried 40 or 50 warriors in sheltered waters or smaller numbers thousands of miles across the Pacific ocean. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date. Such are the very large waka used by Māori who ventured to New Zealand many centuries ago. Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. In the Pacific Islands, dugout canoes are very large, made from whole mature trees and fitted with outriggers for increased stability in the ocean, and were once used for long-distance travel. The most of important of these include:. Early canoes in many parts of the world were dugouts, formed of hollowed logs.

A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. A slalom canoe is covered on top with a spraydeck, which is usually found on kayaks. Board games have a long history and have been played in most cultures and societies; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. On the other hand, slalom canoes are built for maneuverability in rapids. . Sprint canoes are paddled kneeling on one knee, and only paddled on one side; in a C-1, the canoeist will have to j-stroke constantly to maintain a straight course. These include abstract strategy games like chess and checkers, word games, such as Scrabble, and trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit. A 1-person sprint canoe will be roughly six metres long; a traveling canoe of a similar length would be suitable for 2 to 3 people with gear.

Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. To reduce drag, they're built with very long and with a narrow beam, which makes them very unstable. Popular games of this type include Monopoly, which is a rough simulation of the real estate market; Cluedo/Clue, which is based upon a murder mystery; and Risk, which is one of the best known of thousands of games attempting to simulate warfare and geo-politics. Sprint canoes are purpose-built racing boats for use over short to intermediate distance races (200m to 6km). These are popular for they can intermingle make-believe and role playing along with the game. More recently, technologically advanced designs have emerged for particular sports. Some games are simplified simulations of real life. In the past, people around the world have built very different kinds of canoes, ranging from simple dugouts to large outrigger varieties.

There are many different types and classifications of board games. More rocker means a greater curvature which has a similar effect on handling as ommission of a keel; conversly less rocker gives better tracking. Some board games, such as Chess, Oware, or Go, have intense strategic value and have become lasting classics. The term rocker refers to the curvature of the hull along its length. Simple board games are often seen as ideal "family entertainment" as they can provide entertainment for all ages. Hull shape, particularly the manner in which the hull flows to the bow and stern, along with paddling technique , determine how well (or not) a canoe will track. A board game is any game played on a board (that is, a premarked surface) with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. Plastic canoes feature keels for stiffening the hull and allowing internal tubular framing to be flush with the sole of the canoe.

ISBN 0192129988. In wood-and-canvas canoes, keels are rub-strips to protect the boat from rocks and as they are pulled up on shore. Oxford University Press, 1999. In aluminum canoes, keels are manufacturing artifacts, where two halves of a hull are joined. Oxford History of Board Games. Some sort of keel is beneficial when traveling on open water with crosswinds, but the associated increase in draft is undesirable for whitewater. Parlett, David. "Shallow Vee"-bottom canoes have an integrated keel-like protrusion of the hull, which increases initial stability.

ISBN 0517129558. The hull, moving through the water, is much larger than the keel alone, and has considerably more effect on a canoes path through the water. Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. Keels on canoes will slightly increase the ability to 'track' in a straight line, but decrease the ability to turn quickly to avoid an obstacle. ISBN 0-471-53621-0

    . Although tall ends tend to catch the wind, they serve the purpose of shedding waves in rough whitewater or ocean travel. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. Many canoes are symmetrical about the centerline, but some advanced designs are asymmetrical.

    New Rules for Classic Games. Round-bottomed designs are also able to go over obstructions more easily, due to a small area of contact with the obstruction, though they do have a slightly greater draft. Wayne. A flat-bottomed canoe has excellent initial stability, but if tilted beyond a threshold, becomes unstable and will capsize. Schmittberger, R. Its initial stability is poor, but its final stability is better. ISBN 0-486-27347-4. A rounded-bottom canoe exhibits poor resistance to tilt.

    Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. However, canoes made of natural materials require regular maintenance, and are lacking in durability. ISBN 0091533406

      . For example, a canvas canoe is more fragile than an aluminum canoe, and thus less suitable for use in rough water; but it is quieter, and so better for observing wildlife. Arrow Books, 1983. Depending on the intended use of a canoe, the various kinds have different advantages. A Gamut of Games. Modern technology has expanded the range of materials available for canoe construction.

      Sackson, Sid. The earliest canoes were made from natural materials:. Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983. However, slalom canoes are closed in with a spraydeck, like many kayaks. ISBN 0486238555

        . Canoe hulls are generally open on top. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. It is designed to allow one person to carry the canoe, and is sometimes molded to the shape of shoulders.

        Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Some canoes, particularly those used for extended trips, are equiped with a yoke across the center of the boat. Bell, Robert Charles. A 'canoe' in this ambiguous sense is a paddled vessel in which the user faces the direction of travel. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979. In these circumstances, the canoe as defined here is sometimes referred to as an open, Canadian, or Indian canoe, though these terms have their own ambiguities. The Boardgame Book. This confusing use of canoe to generically cover both canoes and kayaks is not so common in North American usage, but is common in Britain, Australia and presumably many parts of the world, both in sporting jargon and in colloquial speech.

        Bell, Robert Charles. In fact, the sport of canoe polo is exclusively played in kayaks. Gardners Books, 1969. Confusingly, the sport of canoeing, organised at the international level by the International Canoe Federation, uses the word canoe to cover both canoes as defined here, and kayaks (see below for a brief description of the differences between a kayak and a canoe). A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. . Murray, Harold James Ruthven. The latter is otherwise known as the International Canoe, and is one of the fastest and oldest competitively sailed boat classes in the western world.

        September 1940: 257–271. Common classes of modern sailing canoes include the 5sqm and the International 10sqm Sailing canoes. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. Sailing Canoes (see Canoe Sailing) are propelled by means of a variety of sailing rigs. Austin, Roland G. Paddles may be single-bladed or double-bladed. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892. In this way paddling a canoe can be contrasted with rowing, where the rowers face away from the direction of travel.

        Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. Paddlers face in the direction of travel, either seated on supports in the hull, or kneeling directly upon the hull. Falkener, Edward. In its human-powered form, the canoe is propelled by the use of paddles, with the number of paddlers depending on the size of canoe. Florentine Typographical Society, 1905. Canoes are pointed at both ends and usually open on top. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). A canoe is a relatively small boat, typically human-powered, but also commonly sailed.

        Fiske, Willard. The method is best performed with bent-shaft paddles. Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement). This method is the fastest one on flat water and is used by all marathon canoers in the US and Canada. (See also: Game mechanic: Capture). The It is ok to switch sides method allows the canoeists to switch sides frequently (usually every 5 to 10 strokes) to maintain their heading. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. The Stay on one side method is where each canoeist takes opposite sides and the sternman uses occasional J-strokes to correct direction of travel.

        Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. This is generally used more with the 'it is ok to switch sides' method of paddling. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities. The other technique is generally what newer canoeists use and that is where they bend the elbow to pull the paddle out of the water before they have finished the stroke. Each player may control one or more game pieces. This is generally used more with the 'stay on one side' method of paddling. Game Piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board. Another benefit of this technique is that along with using less muscle you gain longer strokes which results in an increase of the power to stroke ratio.

        Gameboard (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre. One of these techniques involves locking or nearly locking the elbow, that is on the side of the canoe the paddle is, to minimize muscular usage of that arm to increase endurance. 220-265 Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii). Backsweeps are the same stroke done in reverse. 1 BC-8 AD Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum and the smaller merels. If in the stern, the paddler pulls from the waist to the stern of the canoe. 79 - 8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi. In the case of the bowman, the blade will pull a quarter-circle from the bow to the paddler's waist.

        20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi (often confused with Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below). The paddler's bottom hand is choked up to extend the reach of the paddle. 116 - 27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. The paddle is inserted in the water some distance from the gunwale, facing forward, and is drawn backward in a wide sweeping motion. (Source: John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China). The sweep is unique in that it steers the canoe away from the paddle regardless of which end of the canoe it is performed in. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum. The cross-draw is much stronger than the draw stroke.

        200 BC - A Go board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. The arm of bottom hand crosses in front of the bowman's body to insert the paddle in the water on the opposite side of the canoe some distance from the gunwale, facing towards the canoe, and is then pulled inward while the top hand pushes outward. (Source: Fiske, and Bell). The cross-draw stroke is a bowman's stroke that exerts the same vector of force as a pry, by moving the blade of the paddle to the other side of the canoe without moving the paddler's hands. 1400 BC - Game boards including Alquerque, Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, and a possible Mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna Temple. A draw can be applied while moving to create a running or hanging draw. Also painting of Board Game of Knossos. The paddle is inserted vertically in the water at arm's length from the gunwale, with the power face toward the canoe, and is then pulled inward to the paddler's hip.

        1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. The draw stroke exerts a force opposite to that of the pry. It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau. As in the standard pry, the paddle is turned sideways and braced against the gunwale, but rather than forcing the paddle away from the hull, the paddler simply turns it at an angle and allows the motion of the water to provide the force. 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). The running pry can be applied while the canoe is moving. 2500 BC - Paintings of Senet and Han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes. A gentle prying motion is applied, forcing the canoe in the opposite direction of the paddling side.

        2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs). The paddle is inserted vertically in the water, with the power face outward, and the shaft braced against the gunwale. 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles. Another stroke which may be used by either the bow or stern paddler is the pry stroke. 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials [2]; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera. It is commonly thought to be less efficient than the J-stroke when paddling long distances across relatively calm water. Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games. This stroke uses larger muscle groups, is preferable in rough water and is the one used in white water.

        Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London. It is somewhat like a stroke with a small pry at the end of it. Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Unlike the J-stroke in which the side of the paddle pushing against the water during the stroke (the power face) is the side which is used to straighten the canoe, this stroke uses the opposite face of the paddle to make the steering motion. They were excavated by C. A less elegant but more effective stroke which is used in the stern is the Superior stroke, more commonly referred to as the goon or rudder stroke. The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur. This stroke is used in reverse by the bowman while backpaddling or backferrying in white water.

        Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt. This conveniently counteracts the natural tendency of the canoe to steer away from the side of the sternman's paddle. Also see Okno do svita deskovych her for a photo of the actual fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC). It begins like a standard stroke, but towards the end, the paddle is rotated and pushed away from the canoe with the power face of the paddle remaining the same throughout the stroke. Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed. Advocates of steering in the stern often use the J-stroke, which is so named because, when done on the port side, it resembles the letter J. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively [1]. However the rower sits closer to the bilge and uses a set of pinned oars to propel the boat.

        Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. The Adirondack guideboat is a rowboat that has similar lines to a canoe. Some rowboats, such as a River Dory or a raft outfitted with a rowing frame are suitable for whitewater. A single rower works 2 oars, and sits with his or her back toward the direction of travel. A rowboat is not really like a canoe, since it is propelled by oars resting in pivots on the gunwales.

        The deck is an extension of the hull, with a special sheet called a spraydeck sealing the gap between deck and the paddler. Kayaks are more commonly enclosed on top with a deck, making it possible to recover from a capsize without the kayak filling with water, although there are also closed canoes, which are common in competition. The double-bladed paddle makes it easier for a single person to handle a kayak. The main difference between a kayak and a canoe is that a kayak is a closed canoe meant to be used with a double-bladed paddle, one blade on each end, instead of a single bladed paddle.

        Polyethylene is a cheaper and heavier material used for modern canoe construction. Royalex canoes have been known, after being wrapped around a rock, to be popped back into their original shapes with minimal creasing of the hull. Royalex is another modern composite material that makes an extremely flexible and durable hull. These compounds are light and strong, and the maneuverable, easily portaged canoes allow experienced paddlers access to some of the most remote wilderness areas.

        Composites of fiberglass, Kevlar and carbon fiber are used for modern canoe construction. However, a capsized aluminium canoe will sink unless the ends are filled with flotation blocks. Aluminum allowed a lighter and much stronger construction than contemporary wood technology. Aluminum canoes were first made by the Grumman company in 1944, when demand for airplanes for World War II began to drop off.

        These use of canvas for this purpose was invented by Union scouts during the United States Civil War. Wood-and-canvas canoes are made by fastening an external canvas shell to a wooden hull. In temperate North America, birch was the preferred tree, with tar mixed into the sap. The Amazonians commonly used Hymenaea trees.

        Many indigenous peoples of the Americas built canoes of tree bark and sap. Such canoes can be very functional, lightweight, and strong, and are frequently quite beautiful works of art. Modern wooden canoes are typically strip-built by woodworking craftsmen. This technology is still practiced in some parts of the world.

        Early canoes were wooden, often simply hollowed-out tree trunks. Deck (a compartment containing a foam block which prevents the canoe from sinking if capsized). Gunwale (pronounced gunnel; the top edge of the hull). Thwart (a horizontal crossbeam near the top of the hull).

        Seat. Hull. Stern. Bow.

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