Bank of Montreal

Bank of Montreal TSX: BMO NYSE: BMO is Canada's fifth largest banks, and is classified as a Domestic Chartered Bank (Schedule I). Bank of Montreal was founded in 1817, making it Canada's oldest bank. It operates under the corporate brand BMO Financial Group; the services of the bank itself are now marketed as BMO Bank of Montreal.

History

First Canadian Place

The Bank of Montreal is Canada's oldest chartered bank and began business in 1817. It has been referred to as BMO or Canada's First Bank.

The Bank opened in Montreal, Quebec on November 3, 1817. For the first few years of its existence, the Bank occupied a small building on Saint Paul Street. John Grey, a retired dry goods merchant, was the first President of the Bank of Montreal and Robert Griffin worked as the first cashier.

The Bank of Montreal served as Canada's central bank until the creation of the Bank of Canada in 1935. It played a major role in the development of the country, taking part in the financing of the first transcontinental railway in the 1880s. The first Canadian bank to open a branch abroad, the Bank of Montreal is today a major international bank with 1,100 branches across Canada and around the world. In 1977, the BMO's Head Office moved to Toronto, Canada's economical engine.

Mergers

Through its history, Bank of Montreal has merged with several other Canadian banks:

  • Commercial Bank of Canada (1868)
  • Exchange Bank of Yarmouth (1903)
  • People's Bank of Halifax (1905)
  • People's Bank of New Brunswick (1907)
  • Bank of British North America (1918)
  • Merchants Bank of Canada (1922)
  • Molson Bank (1925)

Operations

Bank of Montreal at Square One shopping mall

BMO Bank of Montreal is one division within BMO Financial Group:

  • BMO Bank of Montreal — banking services
  • BMO Harris — US operations
  • BMO InvestorLine
  • BMO Life
  • BMO Nesbitt Burns

The bank's stock is listed on both the Toronto and New York stock exchanges under the symbol BMO .

Corporate governance

Current members of the board of directors of BMO are: Robert Astley, Stephen Bachand, David Beatty, Robert Chevrier, Anthony Comper, Ronald Farmer, David Galloway, Harold Kvisle, Eva L. Kwok, Bruce Mitchell, Philip Orsino, Robert Prichard, Jeremy Reitman, Guylaine Saucier, and Nancy Southern.

Headquarters

The BMO still has an office located on Saint Jacques Street in Montreal, but that office only controls the bank's economical (and somewhat political) relation with the province of Quebec, thus most decision-making is made at their official Toronto headquarters at the First Canadian Place. This reflects the preponderant place of the Toronto Stock Exchange in the Canadian economy and, probably although it is not acknowledged, concerns about separatism in Quebec.

Recent mergers and merger attempts

Purchase of Harris Bankcorp (1984)

In 1984 the bank greatly expanded its operations in the United States by purchasing Chicago's Harris Bank.

Proposed merger with RBC (1998)

In 1998 the Bank of Montreal shocked the Canadian financial community by announcing plans to merge with the Royal Bank of Canada. The Canadian government later blocked the proposed merger.

Membership

BMO is a member of the Canadian Bankers Association (CBA) and registered member with the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation (CDIC), a federal agency insuring deposits at all of Canada's chartered banks. It is also a member of:

  • Interac
  • MasterCard International
  • Cirrus Network for MasterCard card users

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It is also a member of:. The fictional seaside town of Watermouth—the setting of Malcolm Bradbury's campus novel The History Man—bears a lot of resemblance to Brighton. BMO is a member of the Canadian Bankers Association (CBA) and registered member with the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation (CDIC), a federal agency insuring deposits at all of Canada's chartered banks. First the Aldrington Tramway (1884-1912), then Brighton Corporation Tramways (1901-1939) ran routes from the Aquarium to Brighton Station (Route S), London Road (Route B), Ditchling Road (route D) and Elm Grove (route E), Lewes Road (Route L), Queens Park (Route Q), New England Hill/Dyke Road (Route N). The Canadian government later blocked the proposed merger. The building of Brighton Marina in 1970s caused the line to terminate at Black Rock, rather than Rottingdean. In 1998 the Bank of Montreal shocked the Canadian financial community by announcing plans to merge with the Royal Bank of Canada. Volk's Electric Railway, which runs along the beach, is claimed to be the world's oldest operating electric railway and was the electrification model adopted by London Underground.

In 1984 the bank greatly expanded its operations in the United States by purchasing Chicago's Harris Bank. The council and bus company run a city-wide realtime bus information service. This reflects the preponderant place of the Toronto Stock Exchange in the Canadian economy and, probably although it is not acknowledged, concerns about separatism in Quebec. It was bought by Brighton and Hove, who then merged into the Go-Ahead Group in1993. The BMO still has an office located on Saint Jacques Street in Montreal, but that office only controls the bank's economical (and somewhat political) relation with the province of Quebec, thus most decision-making is made at their official Toronto headquarters at the First Canadian Place. The former Brighton "Blue Buses" company dates back to the 1880s. Kwok, Bruce Mitchell, Philip Orsino, Robert Prichard, Jeremy Reitman, Guylaine Saucier, and Nancy Southern. Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company operates the local bus service with over 250 buses.

Current members of the board of directors of BMO are: Robert Astley, Stephen Bachand, David Beatty, Robert Chevrier, Anthony Comper, Ronald Farmer, David Galloway, Harold Kvisle, Eva L. The express London Victoria service takes 51 minutes today, compared with 60 minutes in 1910, 80 minutes in 1859 and up to two hours in 1841. The bank's stock is listed on both the Toronto and New York stock exchanges under the symbol BMO . Regular servies also operate to Birmingham New Street and on to Glasgow, Scotland, and via Bristol to Tenby, Wales. BMO Bank of Montreal is one division within BMO Financial Group:. The station provides fast and frequent connections to London Gatwick Airport, London Victoria, London Bridge, and via the Thameslink line, King's Cross, London Luton Airport and Bedford. Through its history, Bank of Montreal has merged with several other Canadian banks:. Brighton railway station was built by the London & Brighton Railway in 1840, and in 1970 was saved from redevelopment.

In 1977, the BMO's Head Office moved to Toronto, Canada's economical engine. On 28th October 2005 fans rejoiced when the Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott, granted Brighton & Hove Albion permission to build the stadium they had been waiting for since 1995. The first Canadian bank to open a branch abroad, the Bank of Montreal is today a major international bank with 1,100 branches across Canada and around the world. Plans for a new 23,000 seater stadium had been in place since 1998, and Falmer, just north of the city, was chosen as the best location in 1999. It played a major role in the development of the country, taking part in the financing of the first transcontinental railway in the 1880s. Despite fans not having to make the 140 mile round trip to Kent, the 6000 seater stadium is not suitable for Championship games. The Bank of Montreal served as Canada's central bank until the creation of the Bank of Canada in 1935. Two years of sharing Gillingham's stadium in Kent ended when the team was granted permission to play their home games at the Withdean Sports Complex in Brighton.

John Grey, a retired dry goods merchant, was the first President of the Bank of Montreal and Robert Griffin worked as the first cashier. Near relegation from Division 3 in 1997, having played their last game at the Goldstone Stadium, saw a new board of directors installed. For the first few years of its existence, the Bank occupied a small building on Saint Paul Street. In 1995 Brighton & Hove Albion's Goldstone Stadium, in central Hove, was sold without viable plans for an alternative. The Bank opened in Montreal, Quebec on November 3, 1817. and the Hove ground of Sussex County Cricket Club, which is used for international one day matches, and the Brighton Bears. It has been referred to as BMO or Canada's First Bank. Brighton is the home of Brighton & Hove Albion F.C.

The Bank of Montreal is Canada's oldest chartered bank and began business in 1817. Additionally, Brighton has a lively gay and lesbian scene centred in the Kemptown area of the city. . Some of the most important clubs in the UK dance music scene are based in Brighton, such as The Honey Club and The Ocean Rooms, and the famous but now rebranded Escape and Zap clubs, which have become Audio and The Union respectively. It operates under the corporate brand BMO Financial Group; the services of the bank itself are now marketed as BMO Bank of Montreal. There are a large number of bars and nightclubs in Brighton, though due to problems with binge-drinking and vagrancy, alcohol consumption on the street is now banned in some areas. Bank of Montreal was founded in 1817, making it Canada's oldest bank. There is also a significant array of local listings and review publications, which serve as a useful showcase for the many local graphic designers.

Bank of Montreal TSX: BMO NYSE: BMO is Canada's fifth largest banks, and is classified as a Domestic Chartered Bank (Schedule I). There is a healthy free party scene, which has been in action since the early 90s. Cirrus Network for MasterCard card users. Brighton is renowned for its lively music scene, having spawned a number of successful artists, such as The Levellers and Fatboy Slim, and record labels including Skint Records. MasterCard International. This has been demonstrated by the Green Party taking 22% of the vote of the Brighton Pavilion constituency in the 2005 general election, versus just 1% nationally. Interac. Brighton is considered a fairly progressive town due to the large numbers of political movements and activities, for instance SchNEWS, a local newsletter.

BMO Nesbitt Burns. However, the site of the pool itself remains empty except for a skate park and graffiti wall, and further development is planned for the area including a high-rise hotel which has aroused considerable local controversy, mirroring the situation with proposals for the site of the King Alfred leisure centre in neighbouring Hove. BMO Life. Since the 1978 demolition of the Art Deco open-air swimming lido at Black Rock, the most easterly part of Brighton's seafront, the area has been developed considerably and now features one of Europe's largest marinas. BMO InvestorLine. Part of the beach has been designated an official nudist area — one of very few naturist beaches in the United Kingdom to be located adjacent to an urban area. BMO Harris — US operations. In the summer, thousands of young students from all over Europe gather in the city to attend language courses.

BMO Bank of Montreal — banking services. It is sometimes known as 'London by the Sea' because of its lively atmosphere and cosmopolitan nature and also because of the large number of visitors from London. Molson Bank (1925). Brighton is home to two universities, the University of Sussex and the University of Brighton, as well as a public school, Brighton College. Merchants Bank of Canada (1922). The biggest arts festival in England—the Brighton Festival—takes place in May each year. Bank of British North America (1918). Every August sees a large annual LGBT Pride event which has now become one of the most popular such events in the UK calendar.

People's Bank of New Brunswick (1907). Some indicators suggest a gay population approaching 25%. People's Bank of Halifax (1905). The city has a large Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community, mainly based in the Kemptown area of the city. Exchange Bank of Yarmouth (1903). named for the Hanoverian monarchy of the day. Commercial Bank of Canada (1868). Hilly Laine, on the east slope facing North Laine is now generally known as 'Hanover', such name coming from the early nineteenth century terraces at the base of the hill: Hanover Crescent, Hanover Terrace et al.

The North Laine area still keeps the original spelling. That name was derived from 'Laine', which was apparently an old unit of Anglo-Saxon field measurement. In Brighton, the area occupied by the original fishing village has become The Lanes — a collection of narrow alleyways now filled with a mixture of antique shops, restaurants, bistros and pubs. However, no member of the cabinet was killed.

The Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, narrowly escaped injury, although members of her Government were injured — most notably Norman Tebbit. Four people were killed in the blast (including Sir Anthony Berry), and Norman Tebbit's wife subsequently died of her injuries. In the early hours of October 12th 1984 an IRA bomb exploded in the Grand Hotel where leading members of the governing Conservative Party were staying. The stubby remains of some of the pier's iron piles, sunk ten feet into bedrock, can still be seen at the most extreme low tides.

They were saved this task by a storm which destroyed the already closed and rather decrepit pier on December 4, 1896. The Chain Pier survived the construction of the West Pier, but a condition for permission to build the Palace Pier was that the builders would dismantle the oldest pier. An esplanade with an entrance toll-booth controlled access to the pier which was roughly in line with today's New Steine. The pier was primarily intended as a landing stage, Brighton having no natural harbour, but it also featured a small number of attractions including initially a camera obscura.

Brighton had one further major pier, the Brighton Chain Suspension Pier ("Chain Pier") of 1823. However, in September 2005 the Trust revealed in their newsletter that they are forming further plans to rebuild the original structure with help from private funding. Finally, in December 2004, the Trust admitted defeat, after their plans were rejected by the Heritage Lottery Fund and subsequent less ambitious plans to restore only the oldest, structural parts of the pier were also rejected by English Heritage. Despite all these setbacks, the owner of the site West Pier Trust remained adamant they would soon begin full restoration work.

On June 23, 2004 high winds caused the middle of the pier to completely collapse. The West Pier Trust refers to the fires as the work of 'professional arsonists', (notwithstanding that there is no evidence linking the fires to the owners of the Palace Pier). Arson was suspected. On May 12, 2003, another fire broke out, consuming most of what was left of the concert hall.

The cause of the fire remains unknown. Firefighters were unable to save the building from destruction because they could not reach the end of the pier - the previous collapse had destroyed the walkway. On March 28, 2003 the pavilion at the end of the pier caught fire. On January 20, 2003 a further collapse saw the destruction of the concert hall in the middle of the pier.

The West Pier partially collapsed on December 29, 2002 when a walkway connecting the concert hall and pavilion fell into the sea after being battered by storms. The restoration was also opposed by the owners of the Brighton Pier, who reportedly saw its subsidised rebuilding, were it to happen, as unfair competition. Plans by The West Pier Trust to renovate the pier with help from Heritage Lottery Fund have been opposed by some local residents who claimed that the proposed new onshore structures — which the renovators needed to pay for the work on the pier — would obstruct their view of the sea. The West Pier is one of only two Grade 1 listed piers in the UK, the other being Clevedon Pier.

The older West Pier, built in 1866 by Eugenius Birch, has been closed and deteriorating since 1975, awaiting renovation. It suffered a large fire on 4 February 2003 but the damage was limited and most of the pier was able to reopen the next day. The Brighton Marine Palace and Pier, generally known as the Palace Pier before being unofficially renamed by its current owners as Brighton Pier in 2000, opened in May 1899 and is still popular. Luckily this proved not to be the case - a consortium formed by residents and owners were able to wrestle the freehold of the building from the previous inneffectual management company, and restoration commenced in 2004.

The building made the local press after chunks of render and windows fell from the building onto the street below, and it appeared until recently that it may suffer the same ignomious fate met by the West Pier sat opposite it, which finally succumbed to the elements (and arsonists) in early 2004. When built in 1935, designed by architect Welles Coates, the building contrasted sharply with the more sedate and ornamental architecture of King's Road; but by the 1990s, the structure drew comment because of its terribly run down nature. Embassy Court is one of the most striking buildings on the seafront at Brighton and Hove, although the reasons for this have differed over the years. Brighton, with its cutting edge scene, is hard to imagine without the 20,000+ students of the now two Universities.

The University has aquired a strong academic reputation, not least in left-leaning humanities subjects. The single most important postwar development was the opening in the mid sixties of Sussex University, designed by Sir Basil Spence. Pubs and restaurants are abundant. The growth in mass tourism stimulated numerous Brighton businesses to serve the insatiable appetites of the holidaying masses.

In many ways, Brighton's postwar growth has been a continuation of the 'fashionable Brighton' that drew the Georgian upper classes at the beginning of its recent history. Brighton's character evolved over the course of the twentieth century but not so as to leave it unrecognisable. Visitors were further encouraged by the arrival of the London and Brighton Railway in 1840, which also established one of the first railway-owned locomotive works. The Kemp Town estate (at the heart of the Kemptown district) was constructed between 1823 and 1855, and is a good example of Regency architecture.

Eventually he spent much of his leisure time in the town and constructed the exotic-looking Royal Pavilion, which is the town's best-known landmark. The growth of the town was further encouraged when, in 1786, the young Prince Regent later King George IV, rented a farmhouse in order to escape from public life. By 1780, development of the Regency terraces had started and the town quickly became the fashionable resort of Brighton. Currently approaching the conclusion of its ambitious restoration, Marlborough House on the Steine was built by Robert Adam in 1765 and purchased shortly afterwards by the eponymous Duke.

He set up house there and before long, the rich and the sick had started to make their way to the seaside. Brighthelmstone began to change in 1753 when Dr Richard Russell of Lewes published his thesis on sea bathing, which proclaimed the benefit to health of the salt water of Brighton. Brighton remained a small fishing village up until the 18th century. A display copy of the map can be seen in Hove Museum.

Part of their 'pitch' was an illustrated map (1545) showing the French raid of 1511. Later on in Henry's reign, the residents of the town petitioned the monarch for defensive cannon. In June 1514, the fishing village then known as Brighthelmstone was burnt to the ground by the French as part of a war between the two which began as a result of the Treaty of Westminster (1511). It is now a pub.

A medieval priory on the site of the present Town Hall has left no visible trace, though Hangleton Manor to the north of the suburb of Portslade is a sixteenth century flint manor building, very well preserved, juxtaposed in amongst a twentieth century housing estate. The church contracted through ruin down to just this part, before nineteenth century restoration returned it to the comparably mighty edifice visible today. While other ecclesiastical buildings in Brighton date from the post-Russell period, St Andrew's Church on Church Road, Hove has a dramatic thirteenth century nave. As such, it is among the oldest art in Brighton.

A medieval fresco depicting the murder of Thomas a Beckett was discovered under paint following a fire in the early part of the twentieth century. Although the present day manor house is relatively recent in construction, the church — St Peters, currently under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust — is fourteenth century. From the manorial system, Preston manor lingers on today as a museum. In the Domesday Book, Brighton was called Bristemestune and a rent of 4000 herring was established.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains the first mention of a settlement in the area at Beorthelm's-tun (the town of Beorthelm). In the thirties, the garage owner had a small display of Roman statues and broaches in the forecourt shop. Numerous artefacts were found as well as the foundations of the building. The villa was excavated in the 1930s prior to the building of a (now gone) garage on the site.

The villa was sited more or less at the water's edge, immediately south of Preston Park — which area itself would perhaps have been part of the outer grounds. At the time of its construction in the late first or second century AD there was a river running along what is now the tarmac of London Road. Having conquered Britannica (43AD), and after brutally surpressing the Boudicaen counter-invasion (61AD), the Romans built villas throughout Sussex and indeed there was a villa in Brighton. Cissbury Ring, at a distance of about ten miles from Hollingbury and quite awesome in its construction, is reckoned by some to have been the tribal 'capital'.

Hollingbury is one of numerous 'hillforts' found across southern Britain. As a 'ball park figure', its diameter is about 300 metres. Commanding panoramic views over Brighton, this Celtic Iron Age encampment is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls. Undoubtedly the single most impressive pre-Roman site in Brighton is Hollingbury Camp.

Made of translucent red Baltic Amber and approximately the same size as a regular china teacup, the impressive artefact can be seen in Hove Museum. A defining point on the landscape since at least 1500BC, this 20 foot high tomb yielded, amongst other treasures, the Hove Amber Cup. During nineteenth century building work near Palmeira Square, workmen tasked with removing an earth mound 'excavated' a significant burial mound. Of considerable interest from the middle Bronze Age is the Hove Amber Cup.

After a scholarly review, Paul Harwood of Birmingham's Institute of Archaeology & Antiquity noted that "there are a concentration of Beaker burials on the fringes of the central chalklands around Brighton, and a later cluster of Early and Middle Bronze Age ‘rich graves' in the same area.". A standing stone circle nearby (today's Hove Park) is documented up to 1820, when the farmer had had one too many "antiquarians" traipsing over his crop and buried the stones. There is a plaque telling us it was believed to be in use (ceremonial? geomantic?) around 2000BC. More of prehistoric Brighton and Hove can be observed just north of the small retail park on Old Shoreham Road, built over the site of the town's football ground in the late 1990s, where you can visit The Goldstone.

The building of a new housing estate in the early nineties over the South Eastern portion of the enclosure resulted in damage to the archeology, the loss of the ancient panoramic view and a diminishment in atmosphere of the historical site. Significant vestiges of the mounds remain and you can trace their arc with the eye. There are four concentric circles of ditches and mounds, broken or 'causewayed' in many places. The centre of this early Neolithic causewayed enclosure c.3500BC is someway toward the aerial mast on the south side of Manor Road, opposite the grandstand.

Whitehawk Camp — a natural viewpoint — is bisected by Manor Road. While any British history predating the first mentions by literate Romans is, by definition, consigned to an obscured landscape known intimidatingly as 'prehistory', a few things are known about the area. . The two boroughs were joined together to form the unitary authority of Brighton & Hove in 1997, which in 2000 was granted city status by the Queen as part of the millennial celebrations, following competition from other large towns which coveted city status.

Brighton's lively atmosphere is a direct contrast to its near neighbour, Hove which has quieter and more refined character. Brighton and Hove form a single conurbation. Brighton on the southern Sussex coast is one of the largest and most famous seaside resorts in England. MirrorMask (2005).

Wimbledon (2004). The Chalk Garden (1963). Carry On At Your Convenience (1971). Carry On Girls (1973).

Circus (2000). Mona Lisa (1986). Me Without You. The End Of The Affair.

Dirty Weekend (1993). Oh! What A Lovely War (1969). Quadrophenia (1979) Franc Roddam. Genevieve (1953) Henry Cornelius.

Brighton Rock (1947) John Boulting. Helen Zahavi. William Makepeace Thackeray. Nigel Richardson.

Louise Rennison. Phillip Reeve. Robert Rankin:. Henry James.

Patrick Hamilton. Graham Greene. George Gissing:. Jane Austen:.

Mark Williams, star of The Fast Show and the Harry Potter films. Rachel Whiteread, artist and Turner Prize winner. Keith Tyson, artist and Turner Prize winner. Dusty Springfield, lived at Wilbury Road, Hove & formed band The Springfields there.

Jimmy Somerville, 1990s pop star formerly of band The Communards. Captain Sensible. Dame Flora Robson, 1960 until her death in 1984. Robert Rankin, Fiction author.

Katie Price, model (also known as Jordan). Patsy Palmer, ex-EastEnders television actress. Lord Lawrence Olivier & Joan Plowright, lived at Royal Crescent, Kemptown 1960 to 1978. Dame Anna Neagle, lived at Lewes Crescent, Kemptown.

Bob Meek, journalist. Paul McCartney, musician, and his wife Heather Mills McCartney, designer (Hove). Ida Lupino, C1914 to C1949. Ken Livingstone, Mayor of London.

Vivien Leigh. Prince Peter Alexeevich Kropotkin, 1912 to 1917. Rudyard Kipling, 1897 to 1903. James Herbert, author.

Phil Hartnoll, of band Orbital. Graham Greene. Michael Fabricant MP, born in Brighton in 1950 and educated at the Brighton and Hove Grammar School. Chris Eubank, ex-boxer.

Roger Dean. Ashes scattered at Devil's Dyke. Aleister Crowley, died in a nursing home in Brighton in December 1947. Gaz Coombes, lead singer of Supergrass.

Formerly of band The Housemartins (Hove). Norman Cook aka Fatboy Slim, musician & DJ. Steve Coogan. Julian Clary, comedian.

Sir Winston Churchill, attended school. Nick Cave. Sir Edward Burne-Jones, 1880 to 1898. Julie Burchill, journalist.

Dora Bryan. Cate Blanchett. Steve Cornflower, Björk's new german boyfriend. Björk.

Patrick Bergin, star of films including Sleeping with the Enemy and Patriot Games. Aubrey Beardsley, born in Brighton 1872, and for some time lived at Lower Rock Gardens, Kemptown. Michael "Atters" Attree, satirist. Richard Attenborough.

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