The Amityville Horror

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The Amityville Horror was a best-selling 1977 novel by Jay Anson. The novel is also the basis of two movies made in 1979 and 2005.

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

Synopsis

Both book and film revolve around the Lutz family, who move into the Dutch Colonial home in the village of Amityville, a New York City suburb on the south shore of Long Island, New York village. Thirteen months earlier the house on 112 Ocean Avenue was the scene of a brutal mass murder. The Lutz family, having lived in the house for only 28 days, fled their house with very few belongings, claiming to have been terrorized by paranormal phenomenon.

The murders

  • This section contains information that is a part of the public record separate from specific allegations of supernatural events which form the heart of the book and movies.

Main Article: Ronald DeFeo, Jr.

On November 13, 1974, police found that all but one of the members of the family residing at 112 Oceanside Ave., the DeFeo's, had been murdered in the middle of the night. Ronald DeFeo Jr., the only surviving member, claimed that they had been murdered by the mob until he confessed to the murders.

The popular story of ensuing events is that DeFeo’s original claims were that the murders were mob-connected had changed to “hearing voices,” demonic possession, and being handed the murder weapon, a .35 calibre Marlin hunting rifle, by a “pair of black hands”. DeFeo also claimed to have seen shadow figures moving about the house during the murders. He also claimed when killing his parents the weapon made no sound when firing it. However CourtTV's account of the murder case makes no mention of these claims, implying that DeFeo in fact did not contest his confession until the trial [1]. DeFeo's attorney pursued that line of questioning during the trial, only to have it backfire on him when DeFeo testified that he had not heard any voices the night of the murders [2]. He was convicted of second degree murder and is currently serving a life sentence.

Story

  • This section contains allegations of events that support the contention that the house was actually haunted. They are part of a work of literature alleging supernatural events and have not been independently verified by impartial research.
Left to right: 112 Ocean as owned by the DeFeo & Lutz familiy, 112 Ocean in 1978, House in Toms River, New Jersey remodeled to look like 112 Ocean (was used for filming first three Amityville Horror movies), 112 Ocean as remodeled in the 1990s - note the replacement of quarter-moon window as well as the alteration of porch balustrade and the removal of latticework around porch columns.

The house on 112 Ocean Avenue remained empty for 13 months until late 1975, when George and Kathleen Lutz purchased the 2 ½ floor house. George and Kathy were married in July and had their own houses, however they wanted to start a new life with a new home, for a new marriage. Kathy had three children from a previous marriage and a black Labrador named Harry. During their first inspection of the house the realtor told them about the DeFeo murders the previous November and asked if this changed their opinion on wanting to purchase the house. After family discussions, it was agreed that it was not an issue.

They moved in on December 18, 1975. When a friend of George’s learned of the house he insisted George have the house blessed. At the time George was a non-Catholic (at the time he was a non-practising Methodist) and had no experience with what a house blessing entailed. Kathy was a non-practising Catholic at the time and explained the process. George only knew of one Catholic priest, named Father Ray, who was also a close friend, who agreed to do the house blessing.

Being an ecclesiastical judge at the local Catholic establishment, Father Ray was not in the habit of doing house-blessings but since he and George were friends, he was doing it as a favour. Father Ray arrived to do the house blessing on the day the Lutz’s were moving in and as they busily unpacked outside he went in and performed the house blessing. Much later, after fleeing, George and Kathy learned from Father Ray that when blessing a particular room on the second-storey, which would be referred to as the “sewing room” (formerly Marc and John Matthew DeFeo’s bedroom), he discovered an unnatural coldness in this room, and heard an unearthly voice telling him to “Get Out!” Startled by this, Father Ray was subsequently slapped by an unseen force. When leaving the house, Father Ray did not mention this incident to either George or Kathy, more than likely because he did not wish to cause them unnecessary concern. Instead he told them he felt uncomfortable in that room and would prefer it if nobody spent too much time in that room. Because they planned to use the room as a “sewing room” nothing else was mentioned of it, until much later after George and Kathy had fled the house.

The sensations in the house experienced by the Lutz family did not happen at an accelerated pace instantly. Occurrences were subtle and escalated as time went by. The instances of paranormal activity were later described as being “in a three-ringed circus”. Each family member would experience different things as individuals which made such a profound psychological effect that it was difficult to explain them to even other family members that lived in the house, and it was like they “were each living in a different house”.

Some of the experiences in the house for the Lutz family are as follows:

  • George would wake up around 3.15am every morning and then would go out to check the boathouse. Later it would be learned that it was the estimated time of death with the DeFeo murders.
  • Kathy would have vivid nightmares about the murders, and discovered which order the murders occurred and who was shot where. These details were later confirmed when they met with Ronald DeFeo’s defence attorney.
  • Kathy would feel a sensation as if “being embraced” in a loving manner, by an unseen force.
  • Kathy discovered a small hidden crawl space behind shelving in the basement, the walls painted red. This did not show up on the blue prints of the house. The room was referred to as “the red room”. This room had a profound effect on their dog, Harry, who refused to go near it and cowered away as if sensing something negative there.
  • There were cold spots and strange odours of scented perfume and excrement in certain areas of the house where there were no wind drafts or any piping whatsoever to explain a source.
  • The Lutz’s youngest daughter, Missy, developed an imaginary friend named “Jody” who it was later discovered was not so imaginary and who it would be discovered could change form from a little boy to a demonic pig-like creature.
  • George would be awoken by the sound of the front door slamming when there was no door slamming. He would race downstairs to see the dog sleeping soundly at the front door. Nobody else heard these sounds even though it was loud enough to wake the house.
  • George would hear what was described as a “German marching band tuning up” or what also sounded like a clock radio playing not quite on frequency. When he got downstairs the noise would stop.
  • While checking the boathouse one night, George saw a pair of “red eyes” looking at him from Missy’s bedroom window. When he raced upstairs and to her room there was no sign of this mysterious entity. Later it was theorized that it could have been “Jody”.

When it was apparent to the Lutz’s that something was wrong with their house that they could not explain rationally, it was suggested by a friend of George’s, who had had similar experiences in his house, that he and Kathy do a blessing of their own and open all the windows in the rooms and tell whatever was there to leave in the name of Jesus Christ. When taking his advice and walking around the house doing the Lord’s prayer each of the rooms, George and Kathy would hear a chorus of voices telling them “Will you please stop!”

By mid-January of 1976, and after another attempt at a house blessing by George and Kathy, they experienced what would be their final night in the house. To this day, events of this night have not been disclosed fully by any of the Lutz family, as they have described it as too frightening.

After getting in touch with Father Ray, he managed to convince George and Kathy to take some belongings and stay at Kathy’s mother’s house in Deer Park, for the time being until they sorted out what problems were in the house. On January 14, 1976, George and Kathy Lutz, with their three children and their dog, Harry, fled the house on 112 Ocean Avenue, leaving most of their possessions behind.

Criticisms

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The book and the subsequent movies were promoted as being based on a true story, and for a time Anson's word that "There is simply too much independent corroboration of their narrative to support the speculation that [the Lutzes] either imagined or fabricated these events" held. The popular consensus today, however, among researchers of the incident is that "the facts depicted in the books (and the movies to follow) were written entirely as a profit making scheme" [3].

The story started to fall apart when the Lutz's filed suit against Paul Hoffman (a writer working on an account of the hauntings), William Weber (DeFeo's Lawyer), Bernard Burton, Frederick Mars (both clairvoyants who had examined the house), Good Housekeeping, New York Sunday News and the Hearst Corporation (who had published articles related to the hauntings), alleging invasion of privacy, misappropration of names for trade purposes, and mental distress. Hoffman, Weber, and Burton immediately filed a countersuit alleging fraud and breach of contract. Eventually, the claims against the news corporations were dropped for lack of evidence, and the remainder of the case was tried by Brooklyn U.S. District Court judge Jack B. Weinstein. Weinstein dismissed the Lutz's claims, saying "it appears to me that to a large extent the book is a work of fiction, relying in a large part upon the suggestions of Mr. Weber" [4]. Weber had admitted that much of the story was created over "many bottles of wine" with the Lutz's [5].

Numerous discrepencies have emerged over the years, though the Lutz's continued claims that the book was essentially true help keep the legend alive in the public eye.

A recent view of 112 Ocean.

See Also

  • The Amityville Horror (1979 film)
  • The Amityville Horror (2005 film)

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Numerous discrepencies have emerged over the years, though the Lutz's continued claims that the book was essentially true help keep the legend alive in the public eye. In the computer game Deus Ex, Walton Simons is the director of FEMA. Weber had admitted that much of the story was created over "many bottles of wine" with the Lutz's [5]. In The X-Files movie, Alvin Kurtzweil tells Fox Mulder that FEMA is involved in the global conspiracy involving aliens. Weber" [4]. This position includes additional responsibilities beyond FEMA including the oversight of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Incident Response Team, or NIRT. Weinstein dismissed the Lutz's claims, saying "it appears to me that to a large extent the book is a work of fiction, relying in a large part upon the suggestions of Mr. After the formation of the Department of Homeland Security in 2003, the official title of the head of FEMA became Under Secretary of Emergency Preparedness and Response.

Weinstein. Qualified persons may submit applications here. District Court judge Jack B. The President is currently hiring for this position. Eventually, the claims against the news corporations were dropped for lack of evidence, and the remainder of the case was tried by Brooklyn U.S. As Under Secretary of Emergency Preparedness and Response within DHS. Hoffman, Weber, and Burton immediately filed a countersuit alleging fraud and breach of contract. As director of Cabinet-level agency:.

The story started to fall apart when the Lutz's filed suit against Paul Hoffman (a writer working on an account of the hauntings), William Weber (DeFeo's Lawyer), Bernard Burton, Frederick Mars (both clairvoyants who had examined the house), Good Housekeeping, New York Sunday News and the Hearst Corporation (who had published articles related to the hauntings), alleging invasion of privacy, misappropration of names for trade purposes, and mental distress. As director of the agency:. The popular consensus today, however, among researchers of the incident is that "the facts depicted in the books (and the movies to follow) were written entirely as a profit making scheme" [3]. Since Hurricane Katrina, some critics have called for FEMA to be removed from the Department of Homeland Security, saying that its position in the department badly hindered the agency's response. The book and the subsequent movies were promoted as being based on a true story, and for a time Anson's word that "There is simply too much independent corroboration of their narrative to support the speculation that [the Lutzes] either imagined or fabricated these events" held. South Florida newspaper Sun-Sentinel has an extensive list of documented criticisms of FEMA during the four hurricanes that hit the region in 2004.[5] Some of the criticisms include:. On January 14, 1976, George and Kathy Lutz, with their three children and their dog, Harry, fled the house on 112 Ocean Avenue, leaving most of their possessions behind. FEMA does encourage disaster victims to reduce future losses by considering "taking steps to rebuild safer and smarter," advising them to[4]:.

After getting in touch with Father Ray, he managed to convince George and Kathy to take some belongings and stay at Kathy’s mother’s house in Deer Park, for the time being until they sorted out what problems were in the house. The Cato Institute's Handbook for Congress argues that private companies could perform the tasks carried about by FEMA, and that this would encourage home construction in safer areas[3]:. To this day, events of this night have not been disclosed fully by any of the Lutz family, as they have described it as too frightening. Moreover, he said that FEMA is used by incumbent presidents to shore up political support[2]. By mid-January of 1976, and after another attempt at a house blessing by George and Kathy, they experienced what would be their final night in the house. In 1997, James Bovard criticized FEMA for subsidizing rebuilding in places that are vulnerable to natural disasters, asking, "[D]o we really want to help rebuild homes and government property in areas that should never have been built on in the first place?" He also claimed that localities are less likely to fund their own snow removal if they know the federal government will bail them out in the event of snow emergencies[1]. When taking his advice and walking around the house doing the Lord’s prayer each of the rooms, George and Kathy would hear a chorus of voices telling them “Will you please stop!”. Survivors of Katrina can learn more about FEMA assistance available at a wiki web site FEMAanswers.org.

When it was apparent to the Lutz’s that something was wrong with their house that they could not explain rationally, it was suggested by a friend of George’s, who had had similar experiences in his house, that he and Kathy do a blessing of their own and open all the windows in the rooms and tell whatever was there to leave in the name of Jesus Christ. The telephone number to receive disaster assistance from FEMA is 800-621-3362. Some of the experiences in the house for the Lutz family are as follows:. There are hundreds of thousands of Katrina evacuees living in temporary shelters and/or trailer parks set up by FEMA and other relief organizations in the first months after the disaster hit. Each family member would experience different things as individuals which made such a profound psychological effect that it was difficult to explain them to even other family members that lived in the house, and it was like they “were each living in a different house”. After the February 7 deadline, Katrina victims will be left to their own devices to either find permanent housing for the long term, or to continue in social welfare programs set up by other organizations. The instances of paranormal activity were later described as being “in a three-ringed circus”. FEMA set a deadline of February 7, 2006 as the official end of any further coverage of temporary housing costs for Katrina victims.

Occurrences were subtle and escalated as time went by. However, formal investigations have yet to determine who exactly is to blame (and to what extent) for the Katrina disaster. The sensations in the house experienced by the Lutz family did not happen at an accelerated pace instantly. It is widely held that many things did not function as planned. Because they planned to use the room as a “sewing room” nothing else was mentioned of it, until much later after George and Kathy had fled the house. Katrina was seen as the first major test of the nation’s new disaster response plan under DHS. Instead he told them he felt uncomfortable in that room and would prefer it if nobody spent too much time in that room. Michael Brown would eventually be relieved of command of the Katrina disaster and soon thereafter resign.

When leaving the house, Father Ray did not mention this incident to either George or Kathy, more than likely because he did not wish to cause them unnecessary concern. Brown was criticized personally for a slow response and apparent disconnect with the actual situation on the ground. Much later, after fleeing, George and Kathy learned from Father Ray that when blessing a particular room on the second-storey, which would be referred to as the “sewing room” (formerly Marc and John Matthew DeFeo’s bedroom), he discovered an unnatural coldness in this room, and heard an unearthly voice telling him to “Get Out!” Startled by this, Father Ray was subsequently slapped by an unseen force. Then FEMA Director Michael D. Father Ray arrived to do the house blessing on the day the Lutz’s were moving in and as they busily unpacked outside he went in and performed the house blessing. FEMA was widely criticized for what is seen as a slow initial response to the disaster and an inability to effectively manage, care for and move those trying to leave the city. Being an ecclesiastical judge at the local Catholic establishment, Father Ray was not in the habit of doing house-blessings but since he and George were friends, he was doing it as a favour. The situation was compounded by flood waters in the city that hampered transportation and poor communication between the federal government, state and local entities.

George only knew of one Catholic priest, named Father Ray, who was also a close friend, who agreed to do the house blessing. The enormous number of evacuees simply overwhelmed rescue personnel. Kathy was a non-practising Catholic at the time and explained the process. Within three days, a large contingent of National Guard and active duty troops were deployed to the region. At the time George was a non-Catholic (at the time he was a non-practising Methodist) and had no experience with what a house blessing entailed. FEMA was responsible for the evacuation of the thousands of people who remained in New Orleans during the storm, as well as initial recovery work and appropriations. When a friend of George’s learned of the house he insisted George have the house blessed. FEMA had pre-positioned response personnel in the Gulf Coast region, however many were only able to report of dire situation along the Gulf Coast, especially from New Orleans.

They moved in on December 18, 1975. FEMA received intense criticism for its response to the disaster. After family discussions, it was agreed that it was not an issue. August 2005 saw one of the worst natural disasters in United States history. During their first inspection of the house the realtor told them about the DeFeo murders the previous November and asked if this changed their opinion on wanting to purchase the house. (see also Hurricane Katrina). Kathy had three children from a previous marriage and a black Labrador named Harry. Within the $5.5 billion, FEMA was also allotted funds to pay for its own recovery efforts.

George and Kathy were married in July and had their own houses, however they wanted to start a new life with a new home, for a new marriage. As of 2003, FEMA had received US$5.5 billion to distribute amongst local and state agencies to help offset the cost of recovery. The house on 112 Ocean Avenue remained empty for 13 months until late 1975, when George and Kathleen Lutz purchased the 2 ½ floor house. FEMA played its largest role in the appropriation of federal funds to aid local and state governments in paying for the disaster. He was convicted of second degree murder and is currently serving a life sentence. FEMA had deployed 25 of the 28 Urban Search and Rescue teams at its disposal to the World Trade Center site, however the New York City Office of Emergency Management was in charge of the WTC recovery effort. DeFeo's attorney pursued that line of questioning during the trial, only to have it backfire on him when DeFeo testified that he had not heard any voices the night of the murders [2]. In the minutes after the first hijacked plane slammed into the World Trade Center towers, FEMA as well as emergency services all over the city and state of New York were mobilized.

However CourtTV's account of the murder case makes no mention of these claims, implying that DeFeo in fact did not contest his confession until the trial [1]. (see also September 11 2001 attacks). He also claimed when killing his parents the weapon made no sound when firing it. FEMA had previously been criticized for its response to Hurricane Hugo, which hit South Carolina in September 1989, and many of the same issues that plagued the agency during Hurricane Andrew were also evident during the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005. DeFeo also claimed to have seen shadow figures moving about the house during the murders. Within five days, the federal government and neighboring states had dispatched 20,000 National Guard and active duty troops to South Dade County to set up temporary housing. The popular story of ensuing events is that DeFeo’s original claims were that the murders were mob-connected had changed to “hearing voices,” demonic possession, and being handed the murder weapon, a .35 calibre Marlin hunting rifle, by a “pair of black hands”. FEMA and the federal government at large were accused of not responding fast enough to house, feed, and sustain the approximately 250,000 people left homeless in the affected areas.

Ronald DeFeo Jr., the only surviving member, claimed that they had been murdered by the mob until he confessed to the murders. FEMA was widely criticized for the agency’s response to Andrew, summed up by the famous exclamation, "Where in the hell is the cavalry on this one?" by Dade County, Florida, emergency management director Kate Hale. On November 13, 1974, police found that all but one of the members of the family residing at 112 Oceanside Ave., the DeFeo's, had been murdered in the middle of the night. In August 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck the Florida and Louisiana coasts with 165 mph (265 km/h) sustained winds. Main Article: Ronald DeFeo, Jr. (see also Hurricane Andrew). The Lutz family, having lived in the house for only 28 days, fled their house with very few belongings, claiming to have been terrorized by paranormal phenomenon. There are also Mobile Air Transportable Telecommunications System (MATTS) assets which can be airlifted in.

Thirteen months earlier the house on 112 Ocean Avenue was the scene of a brutal mass murder. For instance, they may operate a truck with satellite uplink, computers, telephone, and power generation at a staging area near a disaster, so that the responders can communicate with the outside world. Both book and film revolve around the Lutz family, who move into the Dutch Colonial home in the village of Amityville, a New York City suburb on the south shore of Long Island, New York village. These teams provide communications support to local public safety. . mines. The novel is also the basis of two movies made in 1979 and 2005. These task forces rescue victims of structural collapse and other confined spaces, ex.

The Amityville Horror was a best-selling 1977 novel by Jay Anson. National Medical Response Teams (NMRT) are equipped to decontaminate victims of chemical and biological agents. The Amityville Horror (2005 film). Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Teams (DMORT) provide mortuary and forensic services. The Amityville Horror (1979 film). There are also National Nursing Response Teams (NNRT), National Pharmacy Response Teams (NPRT), and Veterinary Medical Assistance Teams (VMAT). Later it was theorized that it could have been “Jody”. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) provide medical care at disasters and are typically made up of doctors and paramedics.

When he raced upstairs and to her room there was no sign of this mysterious entity. Teams are made up of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, etc, and are typically sponsored by hospitals, public safety agencies, or private organizations. While checking the boathouse one night, George saw a pair of “red eyes” looking at him from Missy’s bedroom window. These teams provide medical and allied care to disaster victims. When he got downstairs the noise would stop. FEMA's emergency response is based around small, decentralized teams trained in such specialties as medical care, search and rescue, and communications. George would hear what was described as a “German marching band tuning up” or what also sounded like a clock radio playing not quite on frequency. Other programs FEMA previously administered have since been internalized or shifted under direct DHS control.

Nobody else heard these sounds even though it was loud enough to wake the house. Fire Administration and the National Flood Insurance Program. He would race downstairs to see the dog sleeping soundly at the front door. FEMA currently manages the U.S. George would be awoken by the sound of the front door slamming when there was no door slamming. The Director reports directly to the Secretary of Homeland Security. The Lutz’s youngest daughter, Missy, developed an imaginary friend named “Jody” who it was later discovered was not so imaginary and who it would be discovered could change form from a little boy to a demonic pig-like creature. Today, FEMA exists as part of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as the Emergency Preparedness and Response Directorate.

There were cold spots and strange odours of scented perfume and excrement in certain areas of the house where there were no wind drafts or any piping whatsoever to explain a source. As a result, FEMA Director Michael Brown was relieved of command of the Gulf Coast region and resigned shortly thereafter. This room had a profound effect on their dog, Harry, who refused to go near it and cowered away as if sensing something negative there. FEMA and DHS both came under intense criticism for their handling of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005 (see Katrina and Criticism sections below). The room was referred to as “the red room”. [Washington Post Dec 23, 2005]. This did not show up on the blue prints of the house. Brown, FEMA's director and DHS Undersecretary, warned that the shift would make a mockery of FEMA's new motto, "A Nation Prepared," and would "fundamentally sever FEMA from its core functions," "shatter agency morale," and "break longstanding, effective and tested relationships with states and first responder stakeholders." The inevitable result of the reorganization of 2003, warned Brown, would be "an ineffective and uncoordinated response" to a terrorist attack or a natural disaster.

Kathy discovered a small hidden crawl space behind shelving in the basement, the walls painted red. In September, 2003, Michael D. Kathy would feel a sensation as if “being embraced” in a loving manner, by an unseen force. As a result, FEMA became part of the Emergency Preparedness and Response Directorate of DHS, and employs more than 2,600 full time employees. These details were later confirmed when they met with Ronald DeFeo’s defence attorney. FEMA was absorbed into DHS as of 2003. Kathy would have vivid nightmares about the murders, and discovered which order the murders occurred and who was shot where. Following the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September 2001, President Bush created the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to better coordinate between the different federal agencies that deal with law enforcement, disaster preparedness and recovery, border protection and civil defense.

Later it would be learned that it was the estimated time of death with the DeFeo murders. The end of the Cold War also allowed the agency’s resources to be turned away from civil defense to natural disaster preparedness. George would wake up around 3.15am every morning and then would go out to check the boathouse. Witt initiated reforms that would help to streamline the disaster recovery and mitigation process. They are part of a work of literature alleging supernatural events and have not been independently verified by impartial research. In 1993 President Bill Clinton elevated FEMA to a cabinet level position and named James Lee Witt as FEMA Director. This section contains allegations of events that support the contention that the house was actually haunted. These disasters, while showing the agency could function properly, also uncovered some inefficiencies.

This section contains information that is a part of the public record separate from specific allegations of supernatural events which form the heart of the book and movies. FEMA also responded to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident where the nuclear generating station suffered a partial core meltdown. One of the first disasters FEMA responded to was the dumping of toxic waste into Love Canal in Niagara Falls, New York in the late 1970’s. FEMA was also given the responsibility for overseeing the nation’s Civil Defense, a function which had previously been performed by the Department of Defense’s Defense Civil Preparedness Agency. FEMA absorbed the Federal Insurance Administration, the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, the National Weather Service Community Preparedness Program, the Federal Preparedness Agency of the General Services Administration and the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration activities from HUD.

In 1979, President Jimmy Carter, at the prompting of the National Governor’s Association, signed Executive Order 12148 which put a new agency, FEMA, in charge of coordinating all disaster relief efforts at the federal level. Many government agencies were still involved in disaster relief, in some cases over 100 separate agencies may be jockeying for control and jurisdiction of a disaster. This agency would oversee disasters such as Hurricane Carla in 1962, Hurricane Betsy in 1965, Hurricane Camille in 1969 and Hurricane Agnes in 1972, the Alaskan (Good Friday) Earthquake of 1964 and the San Fernando Earthquake of 1971. By the start of the 1960’s, federal disaster relief and recovery was brought under the umbrella of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) which created the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration.

This “piecemeal approach” to disaster recovery was troubled by poor interagency cooperation and bureaucratic red tape. Army Corps of Engineers authority over flood control and irrigation projects and thus played a major role in disaster recovery from flooding. The Flood Control Act of 1944 also gave the U.S. The Bureau of Public Roads in 1934 was given authority to finance the reconstruction of highways and roads after a disaster.

RFC can be considered the first organized federal disaster response agency. RFC was also responsible for dispensing federal dollars in the wake of a disaster. The purpose of the RFC was to lend money to banks and institutions to stimulate economic activity. After the start of the Great Depression in 1929, President Herbert Hoover had commissioned the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) in 1932.

POOP. After President Abraham Lincoln's assassination at Ford's Theatre, the 54th Congress passed legislation compensating those who were injured in the theatre. Examples of these include the waiving of duties and tariffs to the merchants of New York City after a fire in the mid 1830’s. Between 1803 and 1930, ad-hoc legislation was passed more than 100 times for relief or compensation after a disaster.

This is widely considered the first piece of legislation passed by the federal government that provided relief after a disaster and can be viewed as the beginnings of federal policies to provide relief after a disaster. The Seventh Congress passed a number of measures in the Congressional Act of 1803, which provided relief for the merchants of Portsmouth by waiving duties and tariffs on goods. The first major disaster in the history of the United States was a series of devastating fires in the port city of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The history of FEMA can be divided into the following parts.

The United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), has existed in one form or another for over 200 years. . FEMA provides financial assistance to individuals and governments to rebuild homes, businesses, and public facilities; trains firefighters and emergency medical professionals; and funds emergency planning throughout the United States and its territories. FEMA coordinates the work of federal, state, and local agencies in responding to floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, and other natural disasters.

Mainly, FEMA responds to any disaster that occurs in the United States that is declared a federal disaster area by the President of the United States. The agency is charged with what it defines as four domains of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. The Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA is a government agency in the United States which is organized under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in the Emergency Preparedness and Response Directorate. David Paulison (acting), September 2005.

R. Brown, March 2003 - September 2005. Michael D. Allbaugh, February 2001 - March 2003.

Joe M. John Magaw (acting), January 2001 - February 2001. James Lee Witt, April 1993 - January 2001. Tidball (acting), January 1993 - April 1993.

William C. Stickney, August 1990 - January 1993. Wallace E. Jennings (acting), May 1990 - August 1990.

Jerry D. Morris (acting), June 1989 - May 1990. Robert H. Becton, Jr., November 1985 - June 1989.

Julius W. Morris (acting), September 1985 - November 1985. Robert H. Giuffrida, May 1981 - September 1985.

Louis O. McConnell (acting), April 1981 - May 1981. John W. Bernard Gallagher (acting), January 1981 - April 1981.

John Macy, August 1979 - January 1981. Thomas Casey (acting), July 1979. Gordon Vickery (acting), April 1979 - July 1979. Office of Emergency Preparedness, May 1975-April 1979.

Hafer, E.O.P. James K. Ten of the people whose funerals were paid for were not even in Florida at the time of their deaths.[8]. FEMA used hurricane aid money to pay funeral expenses for at least 203 Floridians whose deaths were not caused by the 2004 Hurricanes, the state's coroners have concluded.

Senate committee and the inspector general of the Department of Homeland Security found that FEMA inappropriately declared Miami-Dade county a disaster area and then awarded millions, often without verifying storm damage or a need for assistance.[6][7]. A U.S. When Hurricane Frances hit South Florida on Labor Day weekend, (over 100 miles north of Miami-Dade County) 9,800 Miami-Dade applicants were approved by FEMA for $28 million in storm claims for new furniture, clothes, thousands of new televisions, microwaves, and refrigerators, cars, dental bills and a funeral even though the Medical Examiner recorded no deaths from Frances. Consider buying flood insurance.

Encourage community to participate in National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Take measures to reduce losses in the future.

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