The Amityville Horror

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The Amityville Horror was a best-selling 1977 novel by Jay Anson. The novel is also the basis of two movies made in 1979 and 2005.

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

Synopsis

Both book and film revolve around the Lutz family, who move into the Dutch Colonial home in the village of Amityville, a New York City suburb on the south shore of Long Island, New York village. Thirteen months earlier the house on 112 Ocean Avenue was the scene of a brutal mass murder. The Lutz family, having lived in the house for only 28 days, fled their house with very few belongings, claiming to have been terrorized by paranormal phenomenon.

The murders

  • This section contains information that is a part of the public record separate from specific allegations of supernatural events which form the heart of the book and movies.

Main Article: Ronald DeFeo, Jr.

On November 13, 1974, police found that all but one of the members of the family residing at 112 Oceanside Ave., the DeFeo's, had been murdered in the middle of the night. Ronald DeFeo Jr., the only surviving member, claimed that they had been murdered by the mob until he confessed to the murders.

The popular story of ensuing events is that DeFeo’s original claims were that the murders were mob-connected had changed to “hearing voices,” demonic possession, and being handed the murder weapon, a .35 calibre Marlin hunting rifle, by a “pair of black hands”. DeFeo also claimed to have seen shadow figures moving about the house during the murders. He also claimed when killing his parents the weapon made no sound when firing it. However CourtTV's account of the murder case makes no mention of these claims, implying that DeFeo in fact did not contest his confession until the trial [1]. DeFeo's attorney pursued that line of questioning during the trial, only to have it backfire on him when DeFeo testified that he had not heard any voices the night of the murders [2]. He was convicted of second degree murder and is currently serving a life sentence.

Story

  • This section contains allegations of events that support the contention that the house was actually haunted. They are part of a work of literature alleging supernatural events and have not been independently verified by impartial research.
Left to right: 112 Ocean as owned by the DeFeo & Lutz familiy, 112 Ocean in 1978, House in Toms River, New Jersey remodeled to look like 112 Ocean (was used for filming first three Amityville Horror movies), 112 Ocean as remodeled in the 1990s - note the replacement of quarter-moon window as well as the alteration of porch balustrade and the removal of latticework around porch columns.

The house on 112 Ocean Avenue remained empty for 13 months until late 1975, when George and Kathleen Lutz purchased the 2 ½ floor house. George and Kathy were married in July and had their own houses, however they wanted to start a new life with a new home, for a new marriage. Kathy had three children from a previous marriage and a black Labrador named Harry. During their first inspection of the house the realtor told them about the DeFeo murders the previous November and asked if this changed their opinion on wanting to purchase the house. After family discussions, it was agreed that it was not an issue.

They moved in on December 18, 1975. When a friend of George’s learned of the house he insisted George have the house blessed. At the time George was a non-Catholic (at the time he was a non-practising Methodist) and had no experience with what a house blessing entailed. Kathy was a non-practising Catholic at the time and explained the process. George only knew of one Catholic priest, named Father Ray, who was also a close friend, who agreed to do the house blessing.

Being an ecclesiastical judge at the local Catholic establishment, Father Ray was not in the habit of doing house-blessings but since he and George were friends, he was doing it as a favour. Father Ray arrived to do the house blessing on the day the Lutz’s were moving in and as they busily unpacked outside he went in and performed the house blessing. Much later, after fleeing, George and Kathy learned from Father Ray that when blessing a particular room on the second-storey, which would be referred to as the “sewing room” (formerly Marc and John Matthew DeFeo’s bedroom), he discovered an unnatural coldness in this room, and heard an unearthly voice telling him to “Get Out!” Startled by this, Father Ray was subsequently slapped by an unseen force. When leaving the house, Father Ray did not mention this incident to either George or Kathy, more than likely because he did not wish to cause them unnecessary concern. Instead he told them he felt uncomfortable in that room and would prefer it if nobody spent too much time in that room. Because they planned to use the room as a “sewing room” nothing else was mentioned of it, until much later after George and Kathy had fled the house.

The sensations in the house experienced by the Lutz family did not happen at an accelerated pace instantly. Occurrences were subtle and escalated as time went by. The instances of paranormal activity were later described as being “in a three-ringed circus”. Each family member would experience different things as individuals which made such a profound psychological effect that it was difficult to explain them to even other family members that lived in the house, and it was like they “were each living in a different house”.

Some of the experiences in the house for the Lutz family are as follows:

  • George would wake up around 3.15am every morning and then would go out to check the boathouse. Later it would be learned that it was the estimated time of death with the DeFeo murders.
  • Kathy would have vivid nightmares about the murders, and discovered which order the murders occurred and who was shot where. These details were later confirmed when they met with Ronald DeFeo’s defence attorney.
  • Kathy would feel a sensation as if “being embraced” in a loving manner, by an unseen force.
  • Kathy discovered a small hidden crawl space behind shelving in the basement, the walls painted red. This did not show up on the blue prints of the house. The room was referred to as “the red room”. This room had a profound effect on their dog, Harry, who refused to go near it and cowered away as if sensing something negative there.
  • There were cold spots and strange odours of scented perfume and excrement in certain areas of the house where there were no wind drafts or any piping whatsoever to explain a source.
  • The Lutz’s youngest daughter, Missy, developed an imaginary friend named “Jody” who it was later discovered was not so imaginary and who it would be discovered could change form from a little boy to a demonic pig-like creature.
  • George would be awoken by the sound of the front door slamming when there was no door slamming. He would race downstairs to see the dog sleeping soundly at the front door. Nobody else heard these sounds even though it was loud enough to wake the house.
  • George would hear what was described as a “German marching band tuning up” or what also sounded like a clock radio playing not quite on frequency. When he got downstairs the noise would stop.
  • While checking the boathouse one night, George saw a pair of “red eyes” looking at him from Missy’s bedroom window. When he raced upstairs and to her room there was no sign of this mysterious entity. Later it was theorized that it could have been “Jody”.

When it was apparent to the Lutz’s that something was wrong with their house that they could not explain rationally, it was suggested by a friend of George’s, who had had similar experiences in his house, that he and Kathy do a blessing of their own and open all the windows in the rooms and tell whatever was there to leave in the name of Jesus Christ. When taking his advice and walking around the house doing the Lord’s prayer each of the rooms, George and Kathy would hear a chorus of voices telling them “Will you please stop!”

By mid-January of 1976, and after another attempt at a house blessing by George and Kathy, they experienced what would be their final night in the house. To this day, events of this night have not been disclosed fully by any of the Lutz family, as they have described it as too frightening.

After getting in touch with Father Ray, he managed to convince George and Kathy to take some belongings and stay at Kathy’s mother’s house in Deer Park, for the time being until they sorted out what problems were in the house. On January 14, 1976, George and Kathy Lutz, with their three children and their dog, Harry, fled the house on 112 Ocean Avenue, leaving most of their possessions behind.

Criticisms

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The book and the subsequent movies were promoted as being based on a true story, and for a time Anson's word that "There is simply too much independent corroboration of their narrative to support the speculation that [the Lutzes] either imagined or fabricated these events" held. The popular consensus today, however, among researchers of the incident is that "the facts depicted in the books (and the movies to follow) were written entirely as a profit making scheme" [3].

The story started to fall apart when the Lutz's filed suit against Paul Hoffman (a writer working on an account of the hauntings), William Weber (DeFeo's Lawyer), Bernard Burton, Frederick Mars (both clairvoyants who had examined the house), Good Housekeeping, New York Sunday News and the Hearst Corporation (who had published articles related to the hauntings), alleging invasion of privacy, misappropration of names for trade purposes, and mental distress. Hoffman, Weber, and Burton immediately filed a countersuit alleging fraud and breach of contract. Eventually, the claims against the news corporations were dropped for lack of evidence, and the remainder of the case was tried by Brooklyn U.S. District Court judge Jack B. Weinstein. Weinstein dismissed the Lutz's claims, saying "it appears to me that to a large extent the book is a work of fiction, relying in a large part upon the suggestions of Mr. Weber" [4]. Weber had admitted that much of the story was created over "many bottles of wine" with the Lutz's [5].

Numerous discrepencies have emerged over the years, though the Lutz's continued claims that the book was essentially true help keep the legend alive in the public eye.

A recent view of 112 Ocean.

See Also

  • The Amityville Horror (1979 film)
  • The Amityville Horror (2005 film)

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Numerous discrepencies have emerged over the years, though the Lutz's continued claims that the book was essentially true help keep the legend alive in the public eye. However, due to dedicated users like Fanjita, at the time of writing at least some unsigned software can be run by any firmware version through the use of a special loader program. Weber had admitted that much of the story was created over "many bottles of wine" with the Lutz's [5]. Compare to the GP2X handheld by Gamepark, which supports and encourages homebrew software. Weber" [4]. Finally, users who utilize emulation software have been discouraged by firmware versions 1.52 and above, each of which added new blocks to prevent unsigned code from being executed. Weinstein dismissed the Lutz's claims, saying "it appears to me that to a large extent the book is a work of fiction, relying in a large part upon the suggestions of Mr. The PSP has also been criticized for its high price, more comparable to that of the Playstation 2 console than competing handhelds.

Weinstein. However, firmware releases since then have added new formats, including Microsoft's WMA, and more may be forthcoming. District Court judge Jack B. At launch, the PSP was criticized for its lack of support for popular file types, following Sony's trend in preferring to use proprietary formats. Eventually, the claims against the news corporations were dropped for lack of evidence, and the remainder of the case was tried by Brooklyn U.S. This trojan downgrader is fairly rare, unless a downgrader is downloaded from an "untrustworthy" site. Hoffman, Weber, and Burton immediately filed a countersuit alleging fraud and breach of contract. This can be caused by two things: the interruption of a program writing to the flash (Upgrader, Downgrader) or a trojan downgrader that purposely deletes all data on the flash.

The story started to fall apart when the Lutz's filed suit against Paul Hoffman (a writer working on an account of the hauntings), William Weber (DeFeo's Lawyer), Bernard Burton, Frederick Mars (both clairvoyants who had examined the house), Good Housekeeping, New York Sunday News and the Hearst Corporation (who had published articles related to the hauntings), alleging invasion of privacy, misappropration of names for trade purposes, and mental distress. Please note that systems that do not power on correctly (the green power button is on, but it will not boot) are considered "bricked," and all data stored on the internal flash memory has been deleted or corrupted. The popular consensus today, however, among researchers of the incident is that "the facts depicted in the books (and the movies to follow) were written entirely as a profit making scheme" [3]. Issues from sticky "square" buttons, to analog nubs that do not work properly, and even systems that simply cannot power on, are also noticed on occasion. The book and the subsequent movies were promoted as being based on a true story, and for a time Anson's word that "There is simply too much independent corroboration of their narrative to support the speculation that [the Lutzes] either imagined or fabricated these events" held. However, recent PSPs seem to be free of such defects. On January 14, 1976, George and Kathy Lutz, with their three children and their dog, Harry, fled the house on 112 Ocean Avenue, leaving most of their possessions behind. The PSP also suffered from a plague of dead pixels straight out of the factory, along with an extremely high defect rate at the time of its initial release.

After getting in touch with Father Ray, he managed to convince George and Kathy to take some belongings and stay at Kathy’s mother’s house in Deer Park, for the time being until they sorted out what problems were in the house. Due to its use of high density optical media, loading times exist on many games, over half a minute long in some. To this day, events of this night have not been disclosed fully by any of the Lutz family, as they have described it as too frightening. For example, in Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories, when an explosion occurs near the character, he will exhibit ghosting. By mid-January of 1976, and after another attempt at a house blessing by George and Kathy, they experienced what would be their final night in the house. Some early models have more "ghosting" than others, meaning that one can see a trail left from moving objects on the screen. When taking his advice and walking around the house doing the Lord’s prayer each of the rooms, George and Kathy would hear a chorus of voices telling them “Will you please stop!”. A possible rebuttal is that the first year of a new system usually sees a drought in quality software, as seen with the PS2.

When it was apparent to the Lutz’s that something was wrong with their house that they could not explain rationally, it was suggested by a friend of George’s, who had had similar experiences in his house, that he and Kathy do a blessing of their own and open all the windows in the rooms and tell whatever was there to leave in the name of Jesus Christ. The PSP is often criticized for a perceived lack of quality games, as many of its titles consist of ports or remakes from console systems. Some of the experiences in the house for the Lutz family are as follows:. Whilst the PSP does not have input devices (yet)such as a keyboard using a usb cable one can connect to any PC run the portable apps and save Photo,jpeg and other user files in the PHOTO file on the PSP Pro Duo card for viewing later somthing a U3 usb drive is unable to do portable apps can be downloaded from http://portableapps.com/. Each family member would experience different things as individuals which made such a profound psychological effect that it was difficult to explain them to even other family members that lived in the house, and it was like they “were each living in a different house”. Portable application used in this way vastly increase the funtionality of the PSP. The instances of paranormal activity were later described as being “in a three-ringed circus”. It is possible to use the PSP Pro duo memory card inside the PSP as a container from which portable applications such as Firefox, Open office, and many other usefull portable apps these run from the memory card in a similar way to U3 usb memory sticks.

Occurrences were subtle and escalated as time went by.
. The sensations in the house experienced by the Lutz family did not happen at an accelerated pace instantly. Letter varies to the version depends on the country. Because they planned to use the room as a “sewing room” nothing else was mentioned of it, until much later after George and Kathy had fled the house. D is 2.00 (unconfirmed). Instead he told them he felt uncomfortable in that room and would prefer it if nobody spent too much time in that room. C is 1.52.

When leaving the house, Father Ray did not mention this incident to either George or Kathy, more than likely because he did not wish to cause them unnecessary concern. B is 1.51. Much later, after fleeing, George and Kathy learned from Father Ray that when blessing a particular room on the second-storey, which would be referred to as the “sewing room” (formerly Marc and John Matthew DeFeo’s bedroom), he discovered an unnatural coldness in this room, and heard an unearthly voice telling him to “Get Out!” Startled by this, Father Ray was subsequently slapped by an unseen force. For the value pack in the U.S., A is 1.5. Father Ray arrived to do the house blessing on the day the Lutz’s were moving in and as they busily unpacked outside he went in and performed the house blessing. Each letter corresponds to which version it represents. Being an ecclesiastical judge at the local Catholic establishment, Father Ray was not in the habit of doing house-blessings but since he and George were friends, he was doing it as a favour. To help buyers be aware of what version they are getting, there is a letter near the bar code on the PSP merchandise box.

George only knew of one Catholic priest, named Father Ray, who was also a close friend, who agreed to do the house blessing. This exploit now works on firmware version 2.60 also. Kathy was a non-practising Catholic at the time and explained the process. Recently, an exploit, for firmware version 2.5, was found in the game Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories that allows homebrew code to be run from a save game file when loaded into the game. At the time George was a non-Catholic (at the time he was a non-practising Methodist) and had no experience with what a house blessing entailed. However there are limitations with running homebrew on 2.0 being programs will be run in user mode and not kernel mode. When a friend of George’s learned of the house he insisted George have the house blessed. Using a buffer overflow exploit, it is possible to install 1.50 firmware onto a 2.0 firmware PSP, thus downgrading it and allowing for the execution of unsigned code.

They moved in on December 18, 1975. Later exploits have allowed for PSPs using version 1.50 of the firmware to run homebrew software nearly transparently. After family discussions, it was agreed that it was not an issue. What this meant in practice was that these PSPs could run homebrew software, as the mechanism for checking to make sure that software has been approved by Sony had not yet been activated. During their first inspection of the house the realtor told them about the DeFeo murders the previous November and asked if this changed their opinion on wanting to purchase the house. In May 2005, it was found that PSPs using the 1.00 version of the firmware (meaning original, first launch Japanese-only PSPs) could execute unsigned code. Kathy had three children from a previous marriage and a black Labrador named Harry. UK is the only European country in which Sony has taken any form of legal action against importers of the PSP prior to its European release.

George and Kathy were married in July and had their own houses, however they wanted to start a new life with a new home, for a new marriage. One such importer, Electricbirdland Ltd., claimed they had sold several PSP consoles to SCEE staff [15]; they were subsequently singled out and taken to court. The house on 112 Ocean Avenue remained empty for 13 months until late 1975, when George and Kathleen Lutz purchased the 2 ½ floor house. Sony Europe took legal action against small importers [14] in the UK citing trademark infringement. He was convicted of second degree murder and is currently serving a life sentence. This resulted in PSPs being imported without authorisation, from Japan and the United States into Europe. DeFeo's attorney pursued that line of questioning during the trial, only to have it backfire on him when DeFeo testified that he had not heard any voices the night of the murders [2]. Sony Computer Entertainment Europe had delayed the launch date originally set for March to meet demand from other regions.

However CourtTV's account of the murder case makes no mention of these claims, implying that DeFeo in fact did not contest his confession until the trial [1]. The European and Oceanian launch took place on 1 September 2005 [13]. He also claimed when killing his parents the weapon made no sound when firing it. Ten days later this was followed by a joint launch in Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taiwan on May 12, 2005. DeFeo also claimed to have seen shadow figures moving about the house during the murders. It was later released in North America on March 24, 2005 and in South Korea on May 2, 2005. The popular story of ensuing events is that DeFeo’s original claims were that the murders were mob-connected had changed to “hearing voices,” demonic possession, and being handed the murder weapon, a .35 calibre Marlin hunting rifle, by a “pair of black hands”. The PlayStation Portable was first introduced to the public at the Tokyo Game Show 2004 (see: http://www.eurotechnology.com/tokyogameshow2004/ ) and released on December 12, 2004 in Japan.

Ronald DeFeo Jr., the only surviving member, claimed that they had been murdered by the mob until he confessed to the murders. Similar cases also applied to the game Coded Arms. On November 13, 1974, police found that all but one of the members of the family residing at 112 Oceanside Ave., the DeFeo's, had been murdered in the middle of the night. For example, a user running the Japanese version of Ridge Racer cannot play (via wireless) with another user running the UK version of Ridge Racer. Main Article: Ronald DeFeo, Jr. A Japanese version of a game cannot be played against an American or European version of the same game. The Lutz family, having lived in the house for only 28 days, fled their house with very few belongings, claiming to have been terrorized by paranormal phenomenon. However, multiplayer compatibility across regions is not preserved.

Thirteen months earlier the house on 112 Ocean Avenue was the scene of a brutal mass murder. Probably there is a difference between the Japanese and European region 2 settings. Both book and film revolve around the Lutz family, who move into the Dutch Colonial home in the village of Amityville, a New York City suburb on the south shore of Long Island, New York village. Note: however at least some region 1 PSP's with V.1.5 cannot play region 2 (European) movies. . It should also be noted that, despite what many websites say, Region 1 PSPs are capable of playing Region 2 and Region 4 UMD movies, and Region 2 PSPs are capable of playing Region 4 UMD movies (except the Region 4 version of Be Cool for an unknown reason). The novel is also the basis of two movies made in 1979 and 2005. There are ways around the region protection through such programs as UMD Emulator (currently this is only possible through firmwares V1.00 and V1.50).

The Amityville Horror was a best-selling 1977 novel by Jay Anson. Movies, on the other hand, are usually region-locked. The Amityville Horror (2005 film). This follows the lead that Nintendo started with their Game Boy line, leaving open the "portability" of the handheld, as well as enabling gamers who want to buy a PSP game while visiting another country will still be able to play it on their native PSP's. The Amityville Horror (1979 film). There will be no limitation as to which country's handheld can play which country's version of the game. Later it was theorized that it could have been “Jody”. Games for the PSP are currently being encoded as region-free, and an official Sony statement [12] states that this will continue indefinitely.

When he raced upstairs and to her room there was no sign of this mysterious entity. Sony has recently stated that PSP games will be region free while UMD Movies are region locked. While checking the boathouse one night, George saw a pair of “red eyes” looking at him from Missy’s bedroom window. However, support for regional lockout does not necessarily mean it will be used for all software. When he got downstairs the noise would stop. This scheme is based on the DVD CCA's DVD regional lockout scheme; Japanese PSP hardware already has a R2 logo on its box. George would hear what was described as a “German marching band tuning up” or what also sounded like a clock radio playing not quite on frequency. The PSP supports region locking for games and movies, which limits which software may be played on each region's hardware.

Nobody else heard these sounds even though it was loud enough to wake the house. (Some European PSPs had version 2.0 on the demo disc, but came preinstalled with version 1.5.) *See External Links for Firmware Release ChangeLogs. He would race downstairs to see the dog sleeping soundly at the front door. Version 2.0 of the firmware was supplied on the demo disk inside the box of European PSPs, with version 1.52 preinstalled on the unit. George would be awoken by the sound of the front door slamming when there was no door slamming. Various updates have included WPA-PSK encryption; a built-in web browser; the ability to stream audio using RSS; Location Free player (the PlayStation 3 will have this function built into it), keyboard input mode for Web input; AVC video playback from memory stick; audio switch function and 4:3 mode for memory stick video; GIF, BMP, PNG, and TIFF image viewing; AAC, ATRAC3plus, WAV and WMA audio playback from memory stick; wallpaper function; an image sharing feature; region-free streaming television and higher security for a recently discovered exploit in the Photo menu. The Lutz’s youngest daughter, Missy, developed an imaginary friend named “Jody” who it was later discovered was not so imaginary and who it would be discovered could change form from a little boy to a demonic pig-like creature. The current firmware version is 2.60.

There were cold spots and strange odours of scented perfume and excrement in certain areas of the house where there were no wind drafts or any piping whatsoever to explain a source. While firmware updates can be used with PSPs from any region, Sony recommends only downloading firmware updates released for the corresponding region. This room had a profound effect on their dog, Harry, who refused to go near it and cowered away as if sensing something negative there. The PSP's firmware is updatable via Wi-Fi infrastructure connection to a Sony server, by downloading the update application with a PC and transferring to the PSP via USB, or from a UMD disk (allowing games to update the firmware automatically). The room was referred to as “the red room”. User skins can also be made available through downloads or by game publishers within their game discs. This did not show up on the blue prints of the house. For older versions of firmware there exist homebrew programs, such as PSPSet or PSPPersonalise, which allow changing the PSP's background.

Kathy discovered a small hidden crawl space behind shelving in the basement, the walls painted red. Firmware 2.0 and greater allows manual choice of color theme, or specify a wallpaper from any photos that the user has stored to the PSP memory card. Kathy would feel a sensation as if “being embraced” in a loving manner, by an unseen force. Upon release, the default background color changed depending on the current month of the year, as follows:. These details were later confirmed when they met with Ronald DeFeo’s defence attorney. The OS may be accessed at any time in a game by pressing the "Home" button on the console. Kathy would have vivid nightmares about the murders, and discovered which order the murders occurred and who was shot where. The main menu system allows the user to, amongst other things, adjust settings such as date, time, and the PSP's nickname for wireless networking, play video or audio files from the memory stick, load games or movie UMDs, check on estimated battery life, and set the PSP into a "link mode" which makes the inserted memory stick available to a PC via USB.

Later it would be learned that it was the estimated time of death with the DeFeo murders. It consists of a horizontal sequence of icons (Settings, Photo, Music, Video, Games, Network (added in 2.0; for now only features the tab-supported web browser and the LocationFree Player; 2.60 brought "RSS Reader" to the Network tab, which allows users to stream RSS 2.0 (audio) feeds through the Internet.)) which when highlighted show a vertical sequence of sub-icons (for example, selecting Games allows the memory stick or a UMD to be selected). George would wake up around 3.15am every morning and then would go out to check the boathouse. The PSP's main menu interface is the "Cross Media Bar (XMB)" used by recent Sony TVs and the PSX hardware. They are part of a work of literature alleging supernatural events and have not been independently verified by impartial research. These are similar in concept to the cheap battery life extenders available for mobile telephones. This section contains allegations of events that support the contention that the house was actually haunted. These are typically either USB charging cables that allow the PSP to charge from any PC with a USB port or are simply a series of AA batteries with a voltage regulator.

This section contains information that is a part of the public record separate from specific allegations of supernatural events which form the heart of the book and movies. A number of companies are now offering other chargers for the device. The PSU itself is about the same size as a deck of cards. This multivoltage power supply is internally and externally similar to but not compatible with similar ones used with Sony's CLIÉ PDAs, and the power lead is a standard figure-of-eight cable similar to the power cable used with the PlayStation and PlayStation 2. The system ships with a multivoltage power supply for recharging the battery, allowing it to be charged in any country with the appropriate power lead.

It is available in Japan, the U.S., and Europe. Additionally, in late 2005, Sony released a battery that has a 20% higher charge capacity. There is also a variety of third-party batteries that have more than twice the battery life compared to the standard Sony battery. A Sony high-speed charger is available as an optional accessory.

One is thus able to purchase extra batteries as an accessory; at the Japanese launch, they cost ¥5,040 including tax (around US$47, €37, £26, AU$62). The PSP's battery is removable for replacement by the end-user. While full-length movie UMDs were not available for this test, a repeating loop of the demo UMD bundled in the Value Pack provided a little over four hours of playback on a full charge. The system is capable of approximately ten hours of MP3 playback from memory stick on a full charge and around half this for AVC playback.

In one test[11], this dropped to approximately two and three quarter hours when using Wi-Fi multiplayer continuously. In practice, tests using Ridge Racer have given between three and a half and slightly less than six hours of continuous gameplay, depending on screen brightness and volume. Currently the PSP's CPU is fabricated using a 90-nm process, but eventually Sony will shift to 65-nm and 45-nm when the technology becomes available. Ken Kutaragi, president of Sony Computer Entertainment, has compared the system to the Walkman, in that battery life will be improved with each product revision, and has outlined some steps (switching to a different fabrication process, for example) which will be used to improve the system's endurance.

Battery life is heavily dependent on the game chosen; technically simpler games such as Lumines tend to extend the battery life of the system, with graphically advanced games (or games that frequently access the UMD drive) such as Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories tending toward shorter battery life. The system's manual states that the PSP is capable of three to six hours of gameplay, depending on the screen brightness or volume level selected. The PSP uses a rechargeable lithium-ion battery for power (an AC adaptor is included for charging and running from the mains). The PSP was preceded in this regard by Nokia's N-Gage in 2003, the Nintendo DS, and the Tapwave Zodiac in 2004.

Nonetheless, the implementation of a GPU in the PSP is still a significant technological advance, in that it implements robust hardware-rendering for 3D graphics in the handheld market. Unlike Sony's PlayStation 2 console, the GPU (PS2 Vector Unit equivalent) is not programmable, meaning that many effects that the PS2 can resolve in hardware must be implemented in software on the PSP. Specifications state that the PSP is capable of rendering 33 million flat-shaded polygons per second, with a 664 million pixel per second fill rate [10]. The independent 166 MHz 90 nm graphics chip sports 2 MiB embedded memory and through its 512 bit interface it provides hardware polygon and NURBS rendering, hardware directional lighting, clipping, environment projection and texture mapping, texture compression and tessellation, fogging, alpha blending, depth and stencil tests, vertex blending for morphing effects, and dithering, all in 16 or 32 bit colour, along with handling image output.

It doesn't have integrated memory. The Coprocessor 0 that normally manages the TLB-based MMU seems to be a custom effort by Sony. No evidence of a TLB has been found to date. There is no memory management unit for the CPU.

The system has 32 MiB of main RAM and 4 MiB of embedded DRAM. The primary CPU core is responsible for traditional game processor functions; the secondary core, dubbed the "Virtual Media Engine," is responsible for decoding multimedia, for example the H.264 decoder. Exploits could, on previous firmware versions, unlock 333 MHz operation to seemingly no ill effect (except a slight decrease in battery life), but changes to the power management in firmware 2.60's kernel have since made this impossible. Overheating concerns have also been cited as a possible reason for the cap, and gaming site Gamesradar has said this is the "most logical reason for the processor capping." The cap was previously set at the level of add-on software, not through the firmware (though the crossbar runs at 222 MHz).

During the GDC, Sony revealed that it has currently capped the PSP's CPU clock at 222 MHz; apparently in an attempt to lengthen battery life. The PlayStation Portable's CPU is a dual-core MIPS32 R4000-based CPU, each core being globally clocked between 1 and 333 MHz. The most noticeable element of the PSP is its 110 mm/4.3" (diagonal) 16:9 ratio TFT LCD screen sporting a 480 x 272 pixel resolution capable of 16.77 million colours. The unit measures 170 mm (6.7 in) in length, 74 mm (2.9 in) in width, and 23 mm (0.9 in) in depth, and weighs 280g / .62 lbs (including battery).

The PlayStation Portable (PSP) was designed by Shi Ogasawara [小笠原氏] for the Sony Computer Entertainment company.
. However, there are homebrew applications which use PSP as a TV remote controller, such as PSP IR Remote. The PSP features an IrDA port located on the top left of the device; however this is not currently used by any games.

South Korean PSPs will ship with software providing web browsing and multimedia streaming features, but only through company-owned Wi-Fi hotspots, and with a monthly fee[9]. launch, supporting online play. Use of infrastructure networks in PSP software began with a small number of titles at the U.S. Packet tunneling systems are in development by third-parties which allow any Wi-Fi game to operate across the Internet (see External links).

Navy Seals) and an as-of-yet untitled MMORPG, have been announced which use this wireless network functionality. launch games (Including the multi-million selling game, SOCOM: U.S. A handful of titles, including sixteen U.S. The PSP's menu can recognize protected and non-protected wireless networks within its range, and attempt to request a firmware update from Sony's servers.

The PSP's main menu allows the user to configure the system for use across the Internet via a wireless connection, known as infrastructure mode. With the update of 2.0 or higher the PSP can use the Ad-Hoc technology to send pictures from one PSP to the other. Hosting a game in this manner increases power consumption and reduces battery life by as much as fifty percent, depending on the complexity of data transfer. One unit can act as the host for a game, which is available to other PSP units within that systems range, and appears in a list when the client PSP searches for available hosts.

The launch titles Ridge Racer and Lumines, for example, support this. Ad-hoc wireless networking allows for up to 16 PSPs within range of each other to communicate directly, typically for multiplayer gaming. First party European titles Fired Up and Wipeout Pure both shipped with Gamesharing features; subsequent titles have followed suit. Such "Gameshare versions" of software usually have their feature set reduced and are intended, for example, to allow the multiplayer aspects of the software to be used while holding back single player or bonus functionality.

A self-contained version of the game being shared is sent to the remote PSP over the wireless network, whereupon it boots and runs as though loaded from a UMD disc. As the Nintendo DS does with its DS Download Play, the PSP allows one user to share his or her game with a third party, usually—but not necessarily—as a precursor to multiplayer gaming. The update included a web browser and support for connecting to networks with WPA and WEP encryption. A version 2.0 firmware update was released on July 27, 2005 for Japanese PSPs, and August 24, 2005 for North American PSPs.

Use of wireless network features increases the power consumption and lowers the battery life of the system. As the PS3 has only recently been unveiled, details on link-up features are slim, however Hideo Kojima has discussed the possibility of a link-up between Metal Gear Solid 4 and Metal Gear Ac!d 2. Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11b) support allows the PSP to connect to wireless networks, other PSP units for multiplayer gaming, the Internet and Sony's upcoming PlayStation 3. It is still at it's beta stages and can only run about 50% of EBOOTs.

An EBOOT Loader for 2.60 has already been released by Fanjita. Although a bug found in the game Grand theft Auto : Liberty City Stories, a bug has e=been found and has seemed to open the door for homebrew once again. Recently the 2.60 update has been released, the main features include streaming of podcast audio directly from the web using an RSS feed; and also playback of the WMA audio format (this requires online activation). Also added were the Korean character set, the ability to play copyrighted movies, form history on the web browser, and time and date synchronization via the internet.

If owners own a LocationFree Base Station at home, they can play streaming movies, over the Internet, from anywhere in the world, on their PSP. It also included the LocationFree Player [8]. Speculation states 2.50 was launched to attract users to upgrade: blocking any possible means of homebrew. After the 2.01 firmware version SONY released the new 2.50.

This upgrade fixed the image overload buffer problem that allowed the PSP to be "downgraded" via a homebrew hack. On October 3, 2005, firmware version 2.01 was released. It also added support for WPA-PSK wireless encryption. It also added the ability to send photos wirelessly to another PSP system and allowed owners to use an image as background wallpaper.

The firmware upgrade added the ability to play MP4 AAC audio files, ATRAC3plus audio files from a Memory Stick Pro Duo, MPEG-4 AVC video files (if encoded using a proprietary Sony encoding), as well as view GIF, Bitmap (BMP), and TIF image files. It was also packaged in the retail product for European and Australian PSPs. Sony released firmware update version 2.0 on July 27, 2005 in Japan and on August 24, 2005 in North America. Game and movie trailers, in particular, are increasingly available, even from the studio's official site.

Many movie files, both free-to-distribute and pirated, have been encoded for the PSP and are available on the internet. A hundred-minute feature film can fit on a 256 MB Memory Stick. (This is enough for a 30 minute television episode with the commercials removed) This means that a 512 MB Memory Stick can hold approximately nine of these files. With reasonable settings (a resolution of 320x240, a video bit rate of 500 Kilobits per second, and an audio sampling rate of 22050 kHz) a 22 minute movie file is roughly 55 megabytes.

Video file sizes largely depend on the audio and video bit rates. Using these tools, nearly any digital video file (including movie files ripped from DVDs or digital video recorders like the TiVo) can be played on a PSP, after conversion to AVC. Additionally, some FOSS programs, such as FFmpeg can be used to convert video into a properly sized and formatted PSP video file. Some popular alternatives include Media Boss for PSP, PSP Movie Creator, PSP Video Express, Xcopy9, PSPWare, iPSP, Mobile Media Maker, PSP Video 9, 3GP Converter and PSP Multimedia Extender all simplify the task of converting and transferring files to and from the PSP's Memory Stick.

A cottage industry has grown around offering useful tools for converting and copying files for use on the PSP. Sony's software is not the only toolset for getting music or movies onto a PSP, however. Sony's SonicStage software can be used to copy *.mp3 and ATRAC files to the PSP as well. It will also convert most common still image files into JPEG format.

It can convert *.avi, MPEG1/2/4, QuickTime and *.wmv movie files to AVC, as well as the "Giga Pocket" and "Do VAIO" files used by VAIO PCs to record television. A preview version was made available shortly after the PSP launch. Sony has announced that Image Converter 2, a piece of PC software for converting video files to AVC for playback on CLIÉ PDAs, will be available before the end of the year, and may be used with the PSP. Unlike UMD movies, resolution of movies on a memory stick is limited to 76,800 pixels (320x240, 368x208, 480x160, etc.), resulting in lower quality movies than UMD movies.

A corresponding thumbnail image file (160x120 pixel JPEG files renamed with the .THM extension) with the same file name (besides the extension) of the movie file can optionally be placed in the same directory. Since firmware version 2.00, users can upload movies with a Sony proprietary AVC codec encoding, by putting them in the /MP_ROOT/100ANV01 Folder, and named as MAQ#####.MP4. The file(s) must be placed in the /MP_ROOT/100MNV01 directory on the Memory Stick, and be named in the following format: M4V#####.MP4 (where "#" is any digit). The PSP also has the capability to decode MPEG-4 Part 2 and MPEG-4 Part 3 from the *.mp4 container, if located on the Memory Stick.

The system supports MP3 and Sony's ATRAC3 plus formats for audio, MPEG-4 for video on UMD discs, and JPEG images. The PSP is capable of displaying still image, movie, and audio files stored on the UMD disk format or a memory stick. Additionally, due to the smaller size of the UMD, special features that are on the DVD equivalents are usually cut out. Because the UMDs cannot be played on a television via some output cable (due to Universal Studios being late among major American motion picture studios to commit to the UMD format) and because few G-rated titles are available in the format, UMDs have been criticized for not truly being "universal." As in many other shortcomings, a third-party hack can allow the PSP to display on a TV set, however using this hack involves removing the faceplate of the PSP.

The initial North American releases included House of Flying Daggers, xXx, Hellboy, Once Upon a Time in Mexico, Spider-Man 2, and Resident Evil: Apocalypse from Sony Pictures, along with Kill Bill: Volume 1 and Kill Bill Volume 2 (Miramax) and Pirates of the Caribbean from Disney Pictures. Movies on UMD were first made available in April 2005. (Japanese releases have been somewhat more eclectic, and include UMD/DVD combination packs [6] and pornography.) On June 22, 2005, Sony confirmed that both House of Flying Daggers and Resident Evil: Apocalypse have both sold more than 100,000 copies each[7]. Most releases provide alternate audio languages and content, subtitles, and special features.

Anime companies, such as Bandai, Geneon, FUNimation, and Viz Media are planning to release anime series, such as Trigun, and Gungrave, and movies, such as Gundam Wing: Endless Waltz, the Ah! My Goddess movie, and Ghost in the Shell to name a few. Pictures, Twentieth Century Fox, Lions Gate Entertainment, Sony Pictures, New Line Cinema, Paramount Pictures, DreamWorks Pictures, and Anchor Bay Entertainment. Companies releasing UMD movies (or will release) include Disney, Warner Bros. Because of the UMD's relatively large storage space (1.8 gigabytes) and the PSP's large display screen, some film studios have released feature films in the UMD format with pricing comparable to DVD videos.

This is probably in large part due to the small size of the screen, combined with the fact that unlike the PS1, the PSP's graphics chip performs texture filtering. While most of the available games are less complex than games available on PS2, the graphics nonetheless tend to be much closer in quality to the PS2 than the PS1. The graphics and audio capabilities of the PSP lie somewhere between those of the original PlayStation and the PlayStation 2. While it is used in the same way as the analog thumb stick of a modern console, the resistance springs are calibrated differently: They are softer, making quick, coarse adjustments a bit easier, but fine-grained ones a bit more difficult.

Concerns existed regarding the practicality of the input (its position requires a slightly asymmetrical grip on the unit to adequately use, with the left hand being lower than the right). Its odd placement initially led to speculation that it was a speaker (there are two holes on the front of the PSP that are also not speakers, but are made to look like them, the actual speakers are on the bottom). The PSP's analog input, often called the "analog nub," is not a traditional analog stick, but rather a sliding flat panel. The UMD disks are small enough to fit comfortably in a pocket, and superficially similar to Sony's earlier product, the MiniDisc, but for the lack of a protective shutter and slightly different cartridge shape.

There is also a row of secondary controls along the underside of the screen, for controlling volume, music settings (either switching the audio off and on in games or selecting different equalizer presets in the OS), screen brightness, accessing the system's main menu, as well as the standard Start and Select buttons. The PSP's inputs are geared for gaming rather than multimedia, with two shoulder buttons (triggers), the iconic PlayStation face buttons start and select buttons, a digital 4-directional pad, and an analog input. [5]. Since its launch in September the PSP sold 610,000 through to December 10 in the UK, with the UK having "performed better than any other European territory".

It is estimated 2.6 million PSP units have been sold in Japan through to 2006 via the Media Create tracking service [4]. At CES Sony indicated it had sold 4 million PSPs to consumers in North America [3] including December sales. It is estimated that Sony has sold 2.5 to 3 million PSP units in the US [2] through to November. Note that these figures are PSP units shipped, not sold.

Shipments there total 4.5 million units and are followed in the ranking by Asia, at 3 million, and then Europe, at 2.5 million, SCEI said. SCEI has shipped the greatest number of PSPs in North America. [1]. By hitting 10 million units shipped in 10 months it marked the "fastest penetration speed" of any PlayStation platform.

Sony was expecting a large boost in sales by the end of the year with the creation of the PSP Giga Pack, which debuted at the start of the holiday season. The figures are not for how many PSPs have actually been sold. These are only figures for the number of PSP units shipped to retailers, however. As of Friday October 21, 2005, the PSP had shipped 10 million units worldwide.

The PSP's major rival, the Nintendo DS, is considered to be in the same market as the PlayStation Portable (though representatives from both companies have stated that each system targets a different audience). The Giga Pack was released in Japan on October 31, 2005, North America on November 3, 2005, and also released on 17th November 2005 in Europe. The suggested retail price is ¥29,800 in Asia, $299 in North America, and £214.99 in the UK. It will also contain all of the other accessories found in the standard PSP Value Pack, except for the hand strap.

On October 20, 2005, Sony announced the PSP Giga pack, which will contain a 1 GB Memory Stick Pro Duo, a USB Cable, and a stand. This variation is unlikely to ever be released outside of Japan and South Korea. This PSP is the same as the black one, with the box, system and slip case now in white. On July 21, 2005, Sony announced in an event in Tokyo, Japan that there would be a ceramic white version of the PSP that was released on September 15, 2005 in Japan and later released in South Korea.

The Giga Pack contains a console, battery, a 1 GB Memory Stick Duo, headphones with remote control, a slip-case, a stand, and USB cable. (The standard pack is only available in Japan) The Value Pack contains the console, battery, a 32 MB Memory Stick Duo, ear bud headphones with remote control, a slip-case, a wrist strap, and a Sampler Disc (in some territories), for USD $249.99, CDN $315.98, £180.00, ¥26,040 or AUD $399.00. In all territories the PSP is available as part of a Value Pack, and in most territories it is also available as part of a Giga Pack. .

The PSP was first announced during E³ 2003 and was unveiled on May 11, 2004 at a Sony press conference during E³ 2004. It is Sony's first entry into handheld systems. The PlayStation Portable (officially PSP), a handheld game console, is a product of Sony Computer Entertainment. December – Red.

November – Light Brown. October – Gold. September – Violet. August – Sky Blue/Blue/Dark Blue.

July – Aqua. June – Purple. May – Dark Green. April – Pink.

March – Green. February – Yellow. January – Gray. PNG.

TIF. BMP. GIF. JPEG.

Images

    . MPEG-4 Part 10 (H.264/AVC). MPEG-4 Part 2. MPEG-4
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      Video

        . AAC. MP4 (Container format)
          . WAV (Linear PCM).

          WMA (requires firmware v2.6 and acceptance of licence agreement to activate WMA playback capability). ATRAC3. MP3. Audio

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