ALDI

Aldi Nord logo Aldi Süd logo

Aldi is an international hard discount supermarket chain based in Germany. It is actually two separate companies but is commonly referred to as one. The company's name stands for Albrecht-Discount, using the founders' last name. Historically, Aldi is said to have been Germany's first real discount supermarket. Its spartan stores with low prices on a limited range of goods can now be found in more than a dozen countries.

History

The company was founded in 1946 by the brothers Karl and Theo Paul Albrecht in Essen, Germany. Back then, it comprised only one small food shop. In the year 1961, the then-Aldi chain of supermarket stores split into two sister companies (each belonging to one of the brothers) over a dispute whether to sell cigarettes and other tobacco products at the checkout. Thus today, Aldi consists of Aldi Nord (Aldi North) (where tobacco sales were deemed to be acceptable) and Aldi Süd (Aldi South) (where they were not; however Aldi Süd began selling tobacco products in 2003). The chains initially covered the respective different regions of the then-West Germany. The companies have since expanded internationally, into other European, North American, and Australian markets. In principle, the two firms share nothing but the name and a similar corporate identity; however, they describe their relationship as a "friendly alliance" and there appear to be agreements between the two insofar that they do not compete directly with each other and (except for Germany) never both operate in the same countries.

Regions where Aldi operates

A map of the countries in Europe that Aldi operates, orange: "Aldi South", dark blue:"Aldi North"

Aldi Nord operates in

  • Northern Germany
  • Belgium
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Luxembourg
  • The Netherlands
  • Portugal (coming soon)
  • Spain


Aldi Süd operates in

  • Southern Germany
  • Australia
  • Austria (where it operates under the name Hofer)
  • Ireland
  • Slovenia (where it operates under the name Hofer)
  • Switzerland
  • United Kingdom
  • USA

What you may find in an Aldi store

Aldi specializes in staple items such as food, beverages, sanitary articles and other inexpensive household items. One reason for Aldi's success is that the number of brands is very limited, you usually don't find more than two different brands for one kind of product and often only one. This increases the numbers of sales for each article and also allows Aldi stores to be smaller than supermarkets which cover the same range of products but with more diversity. Also it allowed Aldi to avoid the use of price tags even before the introduction of barcode scanners (see below).

Additionally to the standard assortment Aldi also has weekly special offers, some of them on more expensive products such as electronics, appliances or computers, usually from Medion. Although not always available, but regulary put up for sale are clothing, toys, flowers, gifts. The specials are only available in strictly limited quantities and for a limited timeframe (one week). In the past some of Aldi's early computer offers, created some kind of hysteria in Germany, with all available items sold in only a few hours.

Aldi is the largest wine retailer in Germany. Aldi mainly sells exclusively produced, custom-branded products (often identical to and produced by major brands) with brand names including "Grandessa" and "Fit and Active". American Aldi stores also feature bargain-priced, gourmet foods imported from Germany. Although Aldi emphasizes low prices, reports from a German consumer watchdog suggest that this does not negatively impact the quality of Aldi products.

Low price philosophy

Aldi's "strictly no frills" approach is evident for instance in that typically Aldi stores do not decorate aisles — or even fill shelves for that matter: Pallets of the products on offer are commonly simply parked alongside the aisles, and customers picking up products will gradually empty them. When all items on a pallet have been sold, it is replaced. Long queues at the checkout counter are also relatively common, reflecting Aldi's minimal staffing levels, as well as the competitive situation in Aldi's native Germany, where long supermarket checkout lines are part of daily life. However, due to the efficient checkout system, a long queue does not necessarily translate into longer waiting times than in other supermarkets.

These and other cost-cutting strategies save Aldi money and arguably the general price level in Aldi stores — as compared to more "upmarket" supermarkets — appears to show that at least some or most of these savings are passed on to consumer. Aldi has successfully carved its own (actually rather large) niche with this approach: While shoppers may not normally like shopping in a bland or industrial-looking (and possibly congested) store, such utter lack of frills has become part of the accepted norm with Aldi, and consumers appear to be willing to accept it because of the "incredible value" they expect to get in exchange. ("Top quality at incredibly low prices" is an Aldi marketing slogan.)

Aldi also profited from the introduction of the euro in Germany and other countries. Consumers believed that many merchants had used the currency changeover as a cover to increase prices, often substantially; this was later confirmed by independent studies. In contrast to other supermarkets, Aldi prominently listed "before and after" prices on posters in stores for months after the introduction, and generally rounded its euro prices down. As a result, Aldi earned a great deal of customer goodwill.

Advertising policy

Aldi has a policy in Germany of not advertising, apart from a weekly list of special prices called Aldi informiert (Aldi informs) that is distributed in stores, by direct mail, and sometimes printed in local newspapers. It claims this is a cost savings that can be passed on to consumers. However, in the USA, Aldi advertises regularly via weekly newspaper inserts and Aldi television commercials have begun airing on the TBS network, and in the UK print and television ads appeared in mid-2005. Aldi do not have publicly listed telephones in stores to minimize the time checkouts are unutilised.

Checkout system

Aldi's checkout procedure is highly standardized, with checkout operators sitting down in swivel chairs, passing products through a two-sided barcode scanner. Products have very long barcodes covering several sides of the packaging to speed this procedure. Cashiers save additional time by preparing the most likely amount of change while the customer is still searching for money in his/her wallet.

Aldi was, however, a latecomer to barcode scanners, and many stores only added them in 2004; previously, cashier clerks would manually enter a three-digit code for each item from memory (Aldi Nord) or the price (Aldi Süd). An advantage of this was that the cashiers could already type in the prices of all the articles on the conveyer belt even if the customers were blocking the process by not putting the articles quickly enough back into their shopping cart.

Once products have been scanned, they are put directly in the shopping cart, which has a special dock on the counter for this purpose. This is why Aldi stores in Germany insist that customers use a cart; the customer is expected to bag groceries at a separate bench. Many, if not most customers, however, ignore this rule, not least because it would force them to join the queue to leave the store even if they hadn't purchased anything. Aldi generally does not offer hand baskets. However, in Australia select stores do have hand baskets available.

Reputation

In West Germany, before about 1990, Aldi shops were often ridiculed as being cheap shops selling poor-quality goods. Aldi's customers were alleged to be only poor people who couldn't afford to shop elsewhere. Loyal German soccer fans, ashamed of their favorite team's performance, were known to wear Aldi bags over their heads as a gag. Being held in such low esteem by many did not seem to dent Aldi's profits however. After German reunification, many German middle class families had to cut down their spending and Aldi's popularity and public acceptance grew. Many individual consumers "discovered" that the poor reputation of Aldi's products was apparently undeserved. This shift in public perception was boosted by a series of cookbooks that only used Aldi ingredients, which led to the emergence of a kind of Aldi fandom into the German mainstream.

In countries such as the UK, where the level of service and presentation of mainstream supermarkets is arguably lower than in Aldi's native Germany, Aldi's public reputation does not appear to have improved in the same way. Despite this, and the strong price competition between such British retailers on precisely the basic goods Aldi sells, the firm apparently remains profitable.

In the United Kingdom, Aldi (just like it's rival Lidl) is often the centre of jokes regarding the wealth of a person, particularly with the younger generation. Many consider it to be derogatory to shop at Aldi, and as a result a lot of students will not admit to shopping there if they do.

Business practices

Many Aldi practices are common in German supermarkets but largely unique to Aldi in markets such as the U.S. and Britain. These include the system of metal gates and turnstiles forcing customers to exit through the checkout, the practice of charging for shopping bags, and the fact that Aldi until recently accepted only cash (since 2004, German stores have begun to accept the Maestro debit card). Debit cards are also accepted in the USA. Like most German retailers, Aldi does not accept major credit cards. Aldi does accept MasterCard, Bankcard and Visa in Australia for an additional 1% surcharge.

Aldi stores worldwide are approximately the same size. The company's stores in Germany are similar in size to those of competing supermarkets, and they can often be found in shopping centres or elsewhere where retail units of this size are common. However in other countries, such as Britain, France, and the U.S., Aldi stores are far smaller than those countries' typical supermarkets or hypermarkets, and tend to be free-standing, purpose-built structures.

Aldi stores often have fairly limited opening hours, such as were restricted by law (until 18:30 weeknights and 14:00 Saturdays) in Germany until these laws were relaxed somewhat in 1996 and 2004. Some (but by no means all) of its German outlets, particularly those in shopping centres, now stay open until the revised legal closing time of 20:00. On the other hand, Aldi stores in the U.S. and U.K. close around 19:00 weeknights, earlier on Saturday, and most remain closed on Sunday, in contrast to the late or 24-hour opening times of many U.S. and British supermarkets. Aldi's U.S. stores are the only ones to offer customer toilets.

In Germany Aldi is occasionally jokingly called Feinkost Albrecht (approximate translation: Albrecht Deli).

Recently the similar Lidl chain has grown faster than Aldi; its major difference in business practice is that it stocks a few name brands.

Aldi Talk

On the 7th December 2005, based on their well known brand, Aldi (both Nord and Süd) in Germany introduced a pay-as-you-go mobile phone company Aldi Talk, piggybacking on the e-plus network. They offered rates of €0,05 (approx US$ 0.06) per minute/SMS to other Aldi Talk customers and €0,15 (approx US$ 0.18) to landlines and other mobile phones. This phone offer is available on either a “starter set”, which is a SIM card and €10 (US$ 12.01) worth of credit at €19,99 (US$ 24.02), or a Medion mobile phone [1] with a SIM card at €59,99 (US$ 72.11).

Previously, Aldi Süd in Austria did a pay-as-you-go service called “yesss!” [2] with Connect Austria's One.

Competitors

  • Lidl (5000 stores)
  • Netto (1200 stores)
  • Kwiksave (UK Only)

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Previously, Aldi Süd in Austria did a pay-as-you-go service called “yesss!” [2] with Connect Austria's One. However, mares produce a much lower yield of milk than do cows. This phone offer is available on either a “starter set”, which is a SIM card and €10 (US$ 12.01) worth of credit at €19,99 (US$ 24.02), or a Medion mobile phone [1] with a SIM card at €59,99 (US$ 72.11). They may let it ferment to produce kumys. They offered rates of €0,05 (approx US$ 0.06) per minute/SMS to other Aldi Talk customers and €0,15 (approx US$ 0.18) to landlines and other mobile phones. Mare's milk is used by peoples with large horse-herds, such as the Mongols. On the 7th December 2005, based on their well known brand, Aldi (both Nord and Süd) in Germany introduced a pay-as-you-go mobile phone company Aldi Talk, piggybacking on the e-plus network. It is also commonly found in commercially produced pet food.

Recently the similar Lidl chain has grown faster than Aldi; its major difference in business practice is that it stocks a few name brands. Although consumption by humans is considered abhorrent by some people in the United Kingdom, the US and Australia, it is eaten in many other parts of the world and is an export industry in the USA. In Germany Aldi is occasionally jokingly called Feinkost Albrecht (approximate translation: Albrecht Deli). Horse meat has been used as food for animals and humans throughout the ages. stores are the only ones to offer customer toilets. See: Horse (Zodiac). Aldi's U.S. According to Chinese folklore, each animal is associated with certain personality traits, and those born in the year of the horse are: intelligent, independent and free-spirited.

and British supermarkets. The horse features in the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. close around 19:00 weeknights, earlier on Saturday, and most remain closed on Sunday, in contrast to the late or 24-hour opening times of many U.S. However, several other explanations are equally plausible. and U.K. The common European practice and tradition of saddling and mounting the horse from the lefthand side is often said to originate from the need to avoid inadvertantly striking the horse with a carried sword in the process. On the other hand, Aldi stores in the U.S. "Heavy" or draft horses such as Clydesdale, Draft, Percherons, and Shire horses weigh up to 2800lbs (about 907kg).

Some (but by no means all) of its German outlets, particularly those in shopping centres, now stay open until the revised legal closing time of 20:00. Light horses such as Arabians, Morgans, Quarter Horses, Paints and Thoroughbreds weigh up to 1300lbs (about 590kg). Aldi stores often have fairly limited opening hours, such as were restricted by law (until 18:30 weeknights and 14:00 Saturdays) in Germany until these laws were relaxed somewhat in 1996 and 2004. Both groups agree that 'genuine abuse' should be ended within the industry. However in other countries, such as Britain, France, and the U.S., Aldi stores are far smaller than those countries' typical supermarkets or hypermarkets, and tend to be free-standing, purpose-built structures. Horse professionals that understand equine psychology and care claim they know what is best for horses than rights activists that live horseless lives and are easily influenced by propaganda. The company's stores in Germany are similar in size to those of competing supermarkets, and they can often be found in shopping centres or elsewhere where retail units of this size are common. Animal living conditions vary, but many rodeo stock live on open ranches when not working on the weekend.

Aldi stores worldwide are approximately the same size. Sports like rodeo and racing are closely monitored by veterinarians to prevent and treat injuries if they occur. Aldi does accept MasterCard, Bankcard and Visa in Australia for an additional 1% surcharge. Most horse owners that compete in sports, however, does not force-breed, kill unprofitable horses, or have poor living conditions for their horses. Like most German retailers, Aldi does not accept major credit cards. They also cite psychological harm, poor living conditions, forced-breeding, and the killing of unprofitable horses as forms of abuse. Debit cards are also accepted in the USA. Activists claim rodeos turn a blind eye to minor injuries which do not impair performance.

These include the system of metal gates and turnstiles forcing customers to exit through the checkout, the practice of charging for shopping bags, and the fact that Aldi until recently accepted only cash (since 2004, German stores have begun to accept the Maestro debit card). Rodeos claim that an injured horse is less profitable than a healthy horse. and Britain. This brings a dilemma; If a horse gets an injury while competing, is this immoral? If a horse slips in its pasture while playing, is this ok?. Many Aldi practices are common in German supermarkets but largely unique to Aldi in markets such as the U.S. All sports are dangerous, but then one observing horses in nature can see more terrible injuries occurring than occur in sports. Many consider it to be derogatory to shop at Aldi, and as a result a lot of students will not admit to shopping there if they do. Such extreme viewpoints are rare, however, and many people are more reasonable and worried that sports may cause injuries to horse atheltes, just as they do for human athletes.

In the United Kingdom, Aldi (just like it's rival Lidl) is often the centre of jokes regarding the wealth of a person, particularly with the younger generation. Animal rights activists have the general viewpoint that all animal ownership is wrong, and thus using horses for riding and sports is also wrong, but these events are 'softer targets' than trail riding or 'refined' sports like dressage. Despite this, and the strong price competition between such British retailers on precisely the basic goods Aldi sells, the firm apparently remains profitable. One problem is a disagreement about terms like abuse. In countries such as the UK, where the level of service and presentation of mainstream supermarkets is arguably lower than in Aldi's native Germany, Aldi's public reputation does not appear to have improved in the same way. Both sides provide contradictory evidence. This shift in public perception was boosted by a series of cookbooks that only used Aldi ingredients, which led to the emergence of a kind of Aldi fandom into the German mainstream. Rodeo and racing professionals do have a strong case against radical claims.

Many individual consumers "discovered" that the poor reputation of Aldi's products was apparently undeserved. It is difficult for average people (or even experts) to differentiate between normal equine abilities and actual abuse. After German reunification, many German middle class families had to cut down their spending and Aldi's popularity and public acceptance grew. Horse racing and rodeo are more easily targeted because of their extensive use of animals in sport. Being held in such low esteem by many did not seem to dent Aldi's profits however. Most animal rights groups such as the Humane Society of the United States and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, which advocate against animal ownership, target wilder horse "sports", with claims of cruelty. Loyal German soccer fans, ashamed of their favorite team's performance, were known to wear Aldi bags over their heads as a gag. Competitions exist in the following forms:.

Aldi's customers were alleged to be only poor people who couldn't afford to shop elsewhere. Riders can choose any color, and optionally accoutrements such as chaps, bolo ties, belt buckles, and (shiny) spurs. In West Germany, before about 1990, Aldi shops were often ridiculed as being cheap shops selling poor-quality goods. The riders must wear cowboy boots, jeans, a shirt with long sleeves, and a cowboy hat. However, in Australia select stores do have hand baskets available. But show -- in the form of outfit (and silver ornaments on saddle and tack) -- forms part of Western riding. Aldi generally does not offer hand baskets. In dressage all riders wear the same to prevent distraction from the riding itself.

Many, if not most customers, however, ignore this rule, not least because it would force them to join the queue to leave the store even if they hadn't purchased anything. The outfit of the competition Western rider differs from that of the dressage or 'English' rider. This is why Aldi stores in Germany insist that customers use a cart; the customer is expected to bag groceries at a separate bench. Technically, fewer differences between 'English' and Western riding exist than most people think. Once products have been scanned, they are put directly in the shopping cart, which has a special dock on the counter for this purpose. The cowboy's boots, which have high heels of an uncommon shape, also feature a specific design to prevent the cowboy's foot from slipping through the stirrup. An advantage of this was that the cashiers could already type in the prices of all the articles on the conveyer belt even if the customers were blocking the process by not putting the articles quickly enough back into their shopping cart. The Western saddle has a very much more substantial frame (traditionally made of wood) to absorb the shock of roping, a prominent pommel surmounted by a horn (a big knob for snubbing the lasso after roping an animal), and, frequently, tapaderos ("taps") covering the front of the stirrups to prevent the cowboy's foot from slipping through the stirrup in an accident and resulting in a frightened horse dragging him behind it.

Aldi was, however, a latecomer to barcode scanners, and many stores only added them in 2004; previously, cashier clerks would manually enter a three-digit code for each item from memory (Aldi Nord) or the price (Aldi Süd). These multiple work needs mean that cowboys require different tack, most notably a curb bit (usually with longer bars than an English equitation curb or pelham bit would have) which works by leverage, long split reins (the ends of which can serve as an impromptu quirt) and a special kind of saddle. Cashiers save additional time by preparing the most likely amount of change while the customer is still searching for money in his/her wallet. Working with half-wild cattle, frequently in terrain where one cannot see what lurks behind the next bush, means the ever-present very great danger of becoming unseated in an accident miles from home and friends. Products have very long barcodes covering several sides of the packaging to speed this procedure. For roping calves, the horse learns to pull back against the calf, which falls to the ground, while the cowboy dismounts and ties the calf's feet together so that he can be brand it, treat it for disease, and so on. Aldi's checkout procedure is highly standardized, with checkout operators sitting down in swivel chairs, passing products through a two-sided barcode scanner. Once the cowboy has twirled the lariat and thrown its loop over a cow's head, he must snub the rope to the horn of his saddle.

Aldi do not have publicly listed telephones in stores to minimize the time checkouts are unutilised. That means that horses must learn to neck rein, that is, to respond to light pressure of the slack rein against the horse's neck. However, in the USA, Aldi advertises regularly via weekly newspaper inserts and Aldi television commercials have begun airing on the TBS network, and in the UK print and television ads appeared in mid-2005. The cowboy must control the horse with one hand and use the lariat with the other hand. It claims this is a cost savings that can be passed on to consumers. A main differentiating factor comes from the need of the cowboy to rope cattle with a lariat (or lasso). Aldi has a policy in Germany of not advertising, apart from a weekly list of special prices called Aldi informiert (Aldi informs) that is distributed in stores, by direct mail, and sometimes printed in local newspapers. Western riding evolved stylistically from traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish, and its skills stem from the working needs of the cowboy in the American West.

As a result, Aldi earned a great deal of customer goodwill. Dressage, jumping and cross-country offer forms of what Americans refer to as 'English riding' (although the United States has a strong following of riders in those disciplines). In contrast to other supermarkets, Aldi prominently listed "before and after" prices on posters in stores for months after the introduction, and generally rounded its euro prices down. The three following count as Olympic disciplines:. Consumers believed that many merchants had used the currency changeover as a cover to increase prices, often substantially; this was later confirmed by independent studies.
. Aldi also profited from the introduction of the euro in Germany and other countries. In France they also race under saddle.

("Top quality at incredibly low prices" is an Aldi marketing slogan.). Standardbred trotters and pacers race in harness with a sulky or racing bike. Aldi has successfully carved its own (actually rather large) niche with this approach: While shoppers may not normally like shopping in a bland or industrial-looking (and possibly congested) store, such utter lack of frills has become part of the accepted norm with Aldi, and consumers appear to be willing to accept it because of the "incredible value" they expect to get in exchange. It occurs most commonly in the United Kingdom. These and other cost-cutting strategies save Aldi money and arguably the general price level in Aldi stores — as compared to more "upmarket" supermarkets — appears to show that at least some or most of these savings are passed on to consumer. Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses also jump over obstacles. However, due to the efficient checkout system, a long queue does not necessarily translate into longer waiting times than in other supermarkets. Quarter Horses traditionally raced for a quarter mile, hence the name.

Long queues at the checkout counter are also relatively common, reflecting Aldi's minimal staffing levels, as well as the competitive situation in Aldi's native Germany, where long supermarket checkout lines are part of daily life. Thoroughbreds have a pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but Arabians, Quarter Horses, and Appaloosas also race on the flat in the United States. When all items on a pallet have been sold, it is replaced. In harness:. Aldi's "strictly no frills" approach is evident for instance in that typically Aldi stores do not decorate aisles — or even fill shelves for that matter: Pallets of the products on offer are commonly simply parked alongside the aisles, and customers picking up products will gradually empty them. Under saddle:. Although Aldi emphasizes low prices, reports from a German consumer watchdog suggest that this does not negatively impact the quality of Aldi products. Today, several categories of racing exist:.

American Aldi stores also feature bargain-priced, gourmet foods imported from Germany. Humans have always had a desire to know which horse (or horses) could move the fastest, horse-racing has ancient roots. Aldi mainly sells exclusively produced, custom-branded products (often identical to and produced by major brands) with brand names including "Grandessa" and "Fit and Active". The list of horse breeds provides a partial alphabetical list of breeds of horse extant today, plus a discussion of rare breeds' conservation. Aldi is the largest wine retailer in Germany. They show more excitability, and often more dominance; and the longer you ride them, the more excited they become, instead of merely getting tired (although any breed of horse can succumb to fatigue). In the past some of Aldi's early computer offers, created some kind of hysteria in Germany, with all available items sold in only a few hours. True hotbloods usually offer greater riding challenges than other horses, especially the coldblood.

The specials are only available in strictly limited quantities and for a limited timeframe (one week). The term "warmbloods" covers everything else, but the term also specifically refers to the European breeds, such as the Hanoverian, that have dominated dressage and show jumping since the 1950s. Although not always available, but regulary put up for sale are clothing, toys, flowers, gifts. The slow, heavy draft horses class as "coldbloods", as they usually possess a quite calm temperament. Additionally to the standard assortment Aldi also has weekly special offers, some of them on more expensive products such as electronics, appliances or computers, usually from Medion. The Thoroughbred is also included in the "hotblood" category. Also it allowed Aldi to avoid the use of price tags even before the introduction of barcode scanners (see below). The Arabian horses, whether originating on the Arabian peninsula or from the European studs (breeding establishments) of the 18th and 19th centuries, gained the title of "hotbloods", for their fiery temperaments.

This increases the numbers of sales for each article and also allows Aldi stores to be smaller than supermarkets which cover the same range of products but with more diversity. Some other breed registries allow artificial insemination, embryo transfer, or both. One reason for Aldi's success is that the number of brands is very limited, you usually don't find more than two different brands for one kind of product and often only one. A foal born of two Thoroughbred parents, but by means of artificial insemination, is barred from the Thoroughbred studbook. Aldi specializes in staple items such as food, beverages, sanitary articles and other inexpensive household items. For example, all Thoroughbred registries require that a registered Thoroughbred be a product of a natural mating.
Aldi Süd operates in. Breed registries also differ as to their acceptance or rejection of breeding technology.

Aldi Nord operates in. Still other breeds, such as most of the warmblood sporthorses, require individual judging of an individual animal's quality before registration or breeding approval. In principle, the two firms share nothing but the name and a similar corporate identity; however, they describe their relationship as a "friendly alliance" and there appear to be agreements between the two insofar that they do not compete directly with each other and (except for Germany) never both operate in the same countries. Other breeds tolerate limited infusions from other breeds—the modern Appaloosa for instance must have at least one Appaloosa parent but may also have a Quarter Horse, Thoroughbred, or Arabian parent and must also exhibit spotted coloration to gain full registration. The companies have since expanded internationally, into other European, North American, and Australian markets. Some breeds have closed studbooks; a registered Thoroughbred, Arabian, or Quarter Horse must have two registered parents of the same breed, and no other criteria for registration apply. The chains initially covered the respective different regions of the then-West Germany. The modern landscape of breed designation presents a complicated picture.

Thus today, Aldi consists of Aldi Nord (Aldi North) (where tobacco sales were deemed to be acceptable) and Aldi Süd (Aldi South) (where they were not; however Aldi Süd began selling tobacco products in 2003). During the late middle ages the Carthusian monks of southern Spain, themselves forbidden to ride, bred horses which nobles throughout Europe prized; the lineage survives to this day in the Andalusian horse or caballo de pura raza español. In the year 1961, the then-Aldi chain of supermarket stores split into two sister companies (each belonging to one of the brothers) over a dispute whether to sell cigarettes and other tobacco products at the checkout. The Arabs had a reputation for breeding their prize mares to only the most worthy stallions, and kept extensive pedigrees of their "asil" (purebred) horses. Back then, it comprised only one small food shop. The idea of a "purebred" animal gained importance in Europe during the 19th century but selective breeding has occurred almost everywhere man has kept horses. The company was founded in 1946 by the brothers Karl and Theo Paul Albrecht in Essen, Germany. See: Domestication of the horse.

. Finally, certain geneticists have started evaluating the DNA and mitochondrial DNA to construct family trees. Its spartan stores with low prices on a limited range of goods can now be found in more than a dozen countries. A second school -- the "Single Foundation" -- holds only one breed of horse underwent domestication, and it diverged in form after domestication through human selective breeding (or in the case of feral horses, through ecological pressures). Historically, Aldi is said to have been Germany's first real discount supermarket. One school, which we can call the "Four Foundations", suggests that the modern horse evolved from two types of early domesticated pony and two types of early domesticated horse; the differences between these types account for the differences in type of the modern breeds. The company's name stands for Albrecht-Discount, using the founders' last name. These schools grew up reasoning from the type of dentition and from the horses' outward appearance.

It is actually two separate companies but is commonly referred to as one. Several schools of thought exist to explain how this range of size and shape came about. Aldi is an international hard discount supermarket chain based in Germany. The Patagonian Fallabella, usually considered the smallest horse in the world, compares in size to a German Shepherd Dog. Kwiksave (UK Only). The draft breeds can top 20 hands (80 inches, 2 metres) while the smallest miniature horses can stand as low as 5.2 hands (22 inches, 0.56 metres). Netto (1200 stores). Horses come in various sizes and shapes.

Lidl (5000 stores). Another that has numerous photographs of various colors and markings is Equine color. USA. Another good resource for horse color is: Horse color, markings, and genetics. United Kingdom. For horse color and marking genetics see Equine coat color genetics. Switzerland. Elsewhere:.

Slovenia (where it operates under the name Hofer). On the legs:. Ireland. On the face:. Austria (where it operates under the name Hofer). In fact, one will often refer to a horse in the field by his or her coat color rather than by breed or by gender. Australia. Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings, and a specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them.

Southern Germany. Horses older than colts and fillies become known as horses and mares respectively. Spain. Thoroughbred racing defines a colt as a male horse less than five years old and a filly as a female horse less than five years old; harness racing defines colts and fillies as less than four years old. Portugal (coming soon). In horse racing the definitions of colt, filly, mare, and horse differ from those given above. The Netherlands. You can view an entire equine dictionary at: The Horse Dictionary.

Luxembourg. For details, see Horse gaits. France. Some horses, called Gaited Horses, have gaits other than the most common four above. Denmark.
Other gaits. Belgium. Although a race track is an enclosed area, it is designed for a horse to gallop around, without being too enclosed which may cause the horse to slip while turning.

Northern Germany. However, one would not gallop a horse during training in a ring or enclosed area, due to the fact that the horse may slip in attempting to gallop in such an area. The gallop is usually used in races or fox hunting. To get a horse into gallop, the rider must alter their position so they are slightly more forward in the saddle, then they should allow the horse to head and gently kick the horse's sides. Horses that usually are galloped in a straight line need to be caused to alternate leads so that they do not suffer a muscular imbalance and subsequent difficulty making turns in one direction or the other.

In turning at a very rapid rate, it is even more important that the horse use the appropriate lead, leading with the left leg if making a left turn, and the right leg if making a right turn, since the faster the turn the more the horse needs to lean into the turn. The gallop also involves having a leading leg. The gallop is another "four beat" gait which follows a similar progression to the canter, except the two paired legs land separately, the hind leg landing slightly before the foreleg.
The gallop.

The canter is not a natural gait, but a restrained form of a gallop. Also called "lope" when riding in a Western show class. To get a horse to canter from gallop, one must alter the position of the body slightly back in the saddle, then you must place the outside leg behind the girth to allow the horse to canter on the correct leg, and apply pressure on the reins. To get a horse to canter on the correct leg from trot, one must go into sitting trot, place their outside leg slightly behind the girth and squeeze with the inside leg.

In making a fairly tight turn, the inside leg (the one nearest to the center of the turn) should lead, as this prevents the horse from "falling in". In the arena, the horse should canter on the inside lead. When cantering in a straight line, it does not usually matter which foreleg (or leading leg) goes first, but both leads should receive equal practice time, as otherwise the horse may become "one-sided" or develop a reluctance to canter on a specific lead. the rhythm should be 1-2-3, 1-2-3, etc.

A cantering horse will first stride off with the outside hind leg, then the inside hind and outside fore together, then the inside front leg, and finally a period of suspension in which all four legs are off the ground. A canter is a "three beat" gait in which a foreleg and opposite hindleg strike the ground together, and the other two legs strike separately.
The canter/lope. There are two types of trot a rider can perform; these are called posting trot, in which the rider stands up slightly in the saddle each time the animal's outside front leg goes forward, and sitting trot, in which the rider sits in the saddle and matches the horse's movement.

A rider on a walking horse initiates a trot by reducing tautness on the reins and applying more leg pressure. In this gait, each leg bears weight separately, making it ideal to check for lameness or for stiffness in the joints. A trot is a "two beat" diagonal gait in which a foreleg and opposite hindleg (often called "diagonals") touch the ground at the same time.
The trot/jog.

To initiate a walk when a horse is trotting, the rider gently applies pressure on the reins. A rider on a trained horse gently squeezes the sides of the animal and releases the pressure on its reins in order to initiate a walk from a stationary position. The walking horse will lift first a hind leg, then the foreleg on the same side, then the remaining hind leg, then the foreleg on the same side. A walk is a "four-beat" lateral gait in which a horse must have three feet on the ground and only one foot in the air at any time.


The walk. All horses move naturally with four basic gaits; these are referred to as the walk, the trot, the canter/lope ("canter" in English riding, "lope" in Western), and the gallop. Breeders of miniature horses favor that name because they strive to reproduce horse-like attributes in a much smaller animal, even though their horses undeniably descend from ponies. Several small breeds are referred to as "horses" or "ponies" interchangeably, including the Icelandic, Fjord, and Caspian types.

Many people consider the Shetland pony as the archetypal pony, as its proportions are so different from those of horses. However, a distinct set of characteristic pony traits, developed in northwest Europe and further evolved in the British Isles, make it less clear whether it is more appropriate to use the word "pony" to describe a size or a type. Thus normal variations can mean that a horse stallion and horse mare can become the parents of an adult pony. Below the threshold an animal is a pony, while above the threshold it is a horse.

The threshold is 14.2 hh (1.47 m) for an adult. Usually, size alone marks the difference between horses and ponies. By convention, 15.2 hh means 15 hands, 2 inches (1.57 m) in height. Perhaps because of extensive selective breeding, modern adult horses vary widely in size, ranging from miniature horses measuring 5 hands (0.5 m) to draft animals measuring 19 hands (1.8 m) or more.

Horse height is measured at the highest point of an animal's withers. One hand is defined in British law as 101.6 mm, a figure derived from the previous measure of 4 Imperial inches. The English-speaking world measures the height of horses in hands. Because horses and humans have lived and worked together for thousands of years, an extensive specialized vocabulary has arisen to describe virtually every horse behavioral and anatomical characteristic with a high degree of precision.

For instance, if the majority of the herd wants to stop and eat, the whole herd follows suit and stops. Recently, researchers have observed that a form of "majority rule" appears to exist among horses. An alpha mare dictates the direction in which a family herd travels, while the stallion brings up the rear, "herding" his family. A stallion is not usually successful in acquiring his own mares from other stallions until he reaches 7 or 8 years of age.

Once young males reach breeding age and begin to attempt to breed with mares or to challenge the herd stallion, the stallion drives them out of the herd to form "bachelor bands" with other young stallions. These normally consist of a mature stallion, his harem of about one to ten mares, and the mares' offspring. Horses live in family groups in primarily grassland habitats. Even domesticated horses startle easily and must, for the safety of riders, undergo careful introductions to strange objects and situations.

Their eyes are located on the sides of their heads, providing a wide field of view while grazing (slightly less than 180 degrees to each side, overlapped in front and leaving a blind spot in the rear). They have a natural tendency to flee from danger, though they will fight if cornered. In nature, horses function as prey animals. Examples of extinct horse genera include: Propalaeotherium, Mesohippus, Miohippus, Orohippus, Pliohippus, Anchitherium, Merychippus, Parahippus, Hipparion and Hippidion.

The genus Equus, to which all living equids belong, evolved a few million years ago. Horse evolution was characterized by a reduction in the number of toes, from 5 per foot, to 3 per foot, to only 1 toe per foot. In the course of roughly a million years, horses evolved from leaf-eating forest-dwellers into fast grass-eating inhabitants of the Great Plains. One of the first true horse species was the tiny Hyracotherium, also known as eohippus, "the dawn horse".

Horses are believed by scientists to have first evolved in what is now North America. At one time there were twelve families of odd-toed ungulates, though today only three survive; tapirs and rhinoceroses are the closest living relatives of the modern horse. Perissodactyls were the dominant group of large terrestrial browsing animals until the Miocene (about 20 million years ago), when even-toed ungulates, with stomachs better adapted to grass digestion, began to outcompete them. Horses and other equids are odd-toed ungulates of the order Perissodactyla, a relatively ancient group of browsing and grazing animals that first arose less than 10 million years after the dinosaurs became extinct.

All equids are part of the family Equidae, which dates back more than 50 million years. Main article: Evolution of the Horse. Full species list:. This will probably remain a novelty hybrid as these individuals tend to inherit some of the nervous, difficult nature of their zebra parent.

Recently breeders have begun crossing various species of zebra with mares or female asses to produce "zebra mules"—zorses and zonkeys (also called zedonks). A hinny is the less common hybrid of a female ass and a stallion. A mule is a hybrid of a male ass and a mare and is infertile. The Donkey, Burro or Domestic Ass, Equus asinus, like the horse, has many breeds.

Other members of the horse family include zebras, donkeys, and hemionids. The Icelandic horse has a four-beat gait called the "tölt", which equates to the rack exhibited by several American gaited breeds. Introduced by the Vikings into Iceland, Icelandic horses did not subsequently undergo the intensive selective breeding that took place in the rest of Europe from the Middle Ages onwards, and consequently bear a closer resemblance to pre-Medieval breeds. The Icelandic horse (pony-sized but called a horse) provides an opportunity to compare contemporary and historical breed appearances and behaviour.

Feral horses may provide useful insights into the behavior of ancestral wild horses. Isolated feral populations are often named for their geographic location; in Namiba feral animals known as Namib Desert Horses live in the desert, while the Sable Island Horses are resident on Sable Island, Canada. Several populations of feral horses exist, including those in the West of the United States and Canada (often called "mustangs") and in parts of Australia ("brumbies") and New Zealand ("Kaimanawa horses"). Wild animals, whose ancestors have never undergone domestication, are distinct from feral animals, who had domesticated ancestors but now live in the wild.

[1]. Small wild breeding populations of this animal exist in Mongolia. Mongolians know it as the taki, while the Kirghiz people call it a kirtag. Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), a rare Asian species, is the only true wild horse alive today.

Thanks to the efforts of the brothers Lutz Heck (director of the Berlin zoo) and Heinz Heck (director of Tierpark Munich Hellabrunn), the resulting Wild Polish Horse or Konik more closely resembles the tarpan than any other living horse. Its genetic line is lost, but its phenotype has been recreated by a "breeding back" process, in which living domesticated horses with primitive features were repeatedly interbred. The tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, became extinct in 1880. For example, the Forest Horse (Equus ferus silvaticus, also called the Diluvial Horse) is thought to have evolved into Equus ferus germanicus, and may have contributed to the development of the heavy horses of northern Europe, such as the Ardennais.

Wild species continued to survive into historic times. Competing theories exist as to the time and place of initial domestication. The earliest evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from Central Asia and dates to approximately 4,000 BCE. .

Until the middle of the 20th century, armies used horses extensively in warfare; soldiers still refer to the groups of machines that have replaced horses on the battlefield as "cavalry" units, and sometimes preserve traditional horse-oriented names for military units (Lord Strathcona's Horse). Though isolated domestication may have occurred as early as 4500 BC, clear evidence of widespread use by humans dates to no earlier than 2000 BC, as evidenced by the Sintashta chariot burials, thus firmly establishing the domestication of the horse. In some human cultures, horses are also widely used as a source of food. Most notably, horses can be ridden by a person perched on a saddle attached to the animal, and are also widely harnessed to pull objects like wheeled vehicles or plows.

Horses have long been one of the most economically important domesticated animals, and have played an important role in the transport of people and cargo for thousands of years. The horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. Bull.Zool.Nomencl., 60:81-84. Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved.

Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). 2003. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Equistar Publications, Ltd., 1996.

Hakola, B.S., R.N., C.M.I. and Susan E. Riegal, D.V.M. Illustrated Atlas of Clinical Equine Anatomy and Common Disorders of the Horse, by Ronald J.

(By members of the faculty and staff, University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine.) Harper Collins, 1996. Book of Horses: A Complete Medical Reference Guide for Horses and Foals, edited by Mordecai Siegal. Gymkhana. Steeplechase.

Vaulting (gymnastics and dance on horseback). Campdrafting. Polocrosse. 3-Day Eventing- a competition where you are judged on your total score from a day of dressage, stadium jumping and cross country.

The common clothes worn are usually brighter colors and less conservative. Cross Country Jumping, a jumping course that contains logs, and natural obstacles mostly. Show Jumping. Dressage.

Rodeo. Reining. Rapa das bestas. Polo, a team game played on horseback, involves riders using a long-handled mallet to drive a ball on the ground into the opposing team's goal while the opposing team defends their goal.

Hunter paces are usually a few miles long. Hunter paces are usually held in a series. Hunter Pacing, a sport where a trained rider rides a trail at speeds based on its condition and then people compete to ride closest to that perfect time. Jousting.

Horse show. Horse hacking. Fox hunting. Charreada, the highest form of Mexican horsemanship based on a mixture of Spanish and Native traditions.

Cavalry (sport). Bullfighting (rejoneo). It consists of bareback bronc riding and of saddle bronc riding. Bronc riding (riding a bucking "wild" horse for a timed duration) counts as a separate event, not considered part of Western riding as such.

In team roping, one horse and rider lassos a running steer's horns, while another horse and rider lassos the steer's two hind legs. In calf roping, the rider has to catch a running calf by the neck with a lasso, stop the animal in its tracks, rapidy dismount the horse and immobilize the calf by tying three of its legs together. Roping: also banned in Europe. While riding, the rider jumps off his horse onto a steer and 'wrestles' it to the ground.

Steer wrestling: Europe does not allow this activity because of animal welfare concerns, but it occurs in the United States of America, usually at rodeo events. Halter class is particularly popular with younger riders who do not yet have the skill or confidence to partake in other forms. Clothing of the handler and the halters tend to be more flashy in this discipline. In regular halter class, judges will put emphasis on the performance and build of the horse when awarding points, in 'showmanship at halter' the performance of the handler and horse are both judged equally.

The horse is taken through a short pattern where the horse and handler must demonstrate control during walk, jog and turns. The standard position of the handler is on the left side with the shoulder near the horse's eye. Halter class: here the horse is shown with only a halter and without a rider, but with a handler controlling the horse from the ground using a leadrope. In pole bending, horse and rider gallop the length of a line of six upright poles, turn sharply and weave through the poles, turn again and weave back, and gallop back to the start.

In a barrel race, horse and rider gallop around a cloverleaf pattern of barrels, making agile turns without knocking the barrels over. Barrel racing and pole bending: the timed speed/agility events of rodeo. The horses have to move sideways, make 90 degree turns while moving backwards, a fence has to be opened and/or closed while mounted, and more such maneuvers relevant to everyday ranch or trail riding tasks are demonstrated. Speed is not important, but total control of the horse is.

Trail class: in this event, the rider has to maneuver the horse through an obstacle course in a ring. The catch: the riders cannot close the gate to the pen till they have corralled all the cattle (and only the intended cattle) inside. Team penning: a popular timed event in which a team of 3 riders must select 3 to 5 marked steers out of a herd and drive them into a small pen. A jury awards points to the cutter.

The calf then tries to return to its herdmates; the rider loosens the reins and leaves it entirely to the horse to keep the calf separated, a job the best horses do with relish, savvy, and style. The horse and rider select and separate a calf out of a small group. Cutting: more than any other, this event highlights the "cow sense" prized in stock breeds such as the Quarter horse. Reining - considered by some the "dressage" of the western riding world, reining requires horse and rider to perform a precise pattern consisting of canter circles, rapid "spins" (a particularly athletic turn on the haunches), and the sliding stop (executed from a full gallop).

The horse must remain under control, with the rider directing minimal force through the reins and otherwise using minimal interference. Western pleasure - the rider must show the horse in walk, jog (a slow, controlled trot), trot and lope (a slow, controlled canter). Equitation classes occur in the Huntseat, Saddleseat, and Western disciplines. Equitation refers to those classes where judges assess the rider, not the performance of the horse.

Riders also commonly show Arabians and Morgans saddleseat in the United States. Saddleseat (also known as Park or English Pleasure riding), a uniquely American discipline, developed to show to best advantage the extravagantly animated movement of high-stepping gaited breeds such as the American Saddlebred and the Tennessee Walker. A winning show hunter has very good conformation, a smooth jumping style (with tightly-folded front legs), a good length of stride, and an appealing manner. Hunter classes in various divisions and fence heights demonstrate the horse's ability to jump smoothly and safely.

For equitation, see below. In the modern show ring hunters show "on the flat" at the walk, trot, and canter, and "over fences". Huntseat riding as a show discipline derived from English foxhunting and from the natural desire for people to prove that the superiority of their mount. In the last-named, the horses jump over fixed obstacles, unlike show jumping, where the majority of the obstacles will fall down or apart if hit by the horse.

"roads and tracks") and the "cross-country" jumping phase. Eventing, combined training, horse trials, "the Military," or "the complete test" as its French name translates, puts together the obedience of dressage with the athletic ability of show jumping, the fitness demands of a long endurance phase (a.k.a. At the Grand Prix level fences may reach a height of as much as 6 feet. Show jumping comprises a timed event judged on the ability of the horse and rider to jump over a series of obstacles, in a given order and with the fewest refusals or knockdowns of portions of the obstacles.

One dressage master has defined it as "returning the freedom of the horse while carrying the rider.". Competitive dressage has the goal of showing the horse carrying out, on request, the natural movements that it performs without thinking while running loose. Dressage ("training" in French) involves the progressive training of the horse to a high level of impulsion, collection, and obedience. The humans alternately run and ride.

Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: two humans and one horse. Ride and Tie (in North America, organized by Ride and Tie Association). Note especially the Tevis Cup. Races begin at 20 miles and peak at 100 miles.

Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an even start. The American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian dominates at the top level, has become very popular in the United States and in Europe. Harness Racing in Europe, New Zealand and Australia.

The United States Trotting Association organizes harness Racing in the United States (although the horses may also pace). Arabian Horse Racing. Appaloosa Horse Racing. Quarter Horse Racing--mostly in the United States, and sanctioned there by the American Quarter Horse Association.

Thoroughbred National Hunt racing or steeplechasing in the UK. Thoroughbred flat racing; (under the aegis of the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom and the Jockey Club of North America). Whorls, coloquially known as "cow licks" - are divergent or convergent patches of hair found anywhere on the body but mostly on the head, neck and just in front of the stifles. Stocking (white marking that extends as high as the knee or hock).

Sock (white marking that does not extend as high as the knee or hock). Ermine marks (black marks on the white just above the hoof). White Face (sometimes called Bald Face). Blaze (broad white stripe down the middle of the face).

Stripe (narrow white stripe down the middle of the face). Snip (a white patch on the muzzle). Star (a white patch between the eyes). These horses have normal eye colour, and they stay white for life.

Rarely there are true white horses born and are documented to have a dominant white gene (see Gray (horse) for a discussion of these). All white, may be the result of overlapping pinto, appaloosa, or sabino markings. White - Any non-albino white horse is called a gray, even though they appear white. Tobiano - a genetic trait among horses which produces a characteristic white pattern in the coat.

Splash - a genetically controlled horse coat variation. Sorrel - a light brown coat with a flaxen mane and tail. This color occurs while the horse is "graying out.". Rose gray: a gray horse with a pinkish tinge to its coat.

Roans also have solid colored heads that do not lighten. Roans are distinguishable from greys because roans typically do not change colour in their lifetimes, unlike gray that gradually gets lighter as a horse ages. Roan can happen on any body color; for example, there are palomino roans and dun roans. Red roans are chesnut and white hairs, blue roans are black/bay with white hairs.

Roan - a color pattern that causes white hairs to be sprinkled over the horse's body color. Perlino - Exactly like a cremello but a bay horse with two dilute genes. Often cited as being a color "within three shades of a newly minted coin", palominos actually come in all shades from extremely light, to deep chocolate. Palomino-chestnut horse that has one cream dilute gene that turns the horse to a golden, yellow, or tan shade with a flaxen (white) mane and tail.

Today, Paint horses are the world's fifth most popular breed. Paint - In 1962, the American Paint Horse Association began to recognize pinto horses with known Quarter Horse and/or Thoroughbred bloodlines as a separate breed. Specific patterns such as tobiano, overo, and tovero refer to the orientation of white on the body. Piebald is black and white, while Skewbald is white and brown.

Pinto - a multi-colored horse with large patches of brown, white, and/or black and white. It is often a grayish/silver colored horse with dark dun factors. Grulla- A black horse with a dun gene. Some gray horses that are very light must wear sunscreen.

If you would define the horse as white it is still grey unless it is albino. Gray horses can be born any color, and eventually most will turn gray or white with age. Gray - A horse with black skin and clear hairs. Fleabitten gray - refers to usually red hairs flecked in the coat of a gray horse.

Dun - Yellowish brown with a dorsal stripe along the back and occasionally zebra stripings on the legs. Dapple gray: a gray colored horse with rings, or dapples, scattered throughout. There are no true albino horses. Often called pseudo albinos, they have blue eyes.

Cremello - A chestnut horse with two dilute genes that washes out almost all colour. Chestnut- A reddish body color with no black. Buckskin- A bay horse with a gene that 'dilutes' the coat colour to a yellow, cream, or gold while keeping the black points (mane, tail, ears, legs). Brown - A bay without any black points.

Usually for a horse to be considered black it must be completely black with no brown at all, only white markings. As their foal coat begins to shed out, their black color will show through,but jet black foals are born jet black. Black foals are usually born a mousy grey color. Jet black is a blue-black shade that is fadeproof.

Ordinary black horses will fade to a rusty brownish color if the horse is exposed to sunlight on a regular basis. Black- There are two types of black, fading black and jet black. Three types - Dark bay, blood bay, light bay and just bay. Bay- From light brown to very dark brown with black mane and tail with black points.

A true Appaloosa is actually a breed, not a color. There are different patterns: blanket- white blanket that typically starts around or behind withers with dark spots mostly over the hips, snowflake - solid with white spots over hips, and leopard - which is white with dark spots over all the coat. Appaloosa - a breed of horse with spots, any color mixed with white. yearling - male or female horse one to two years old.

weanling - a young horse that has just been weaned from their mother (usually 6 months or a little older). stallion - adult, male horse that is able to produce offspring. shelt or shelty - a Shetland pony. School Horse/Pony- A horse owned by a riding academy.

pony - equine 14.2 hh or less (58 inches, 1.47 metres). The word being derived from the latin for 'light horse'. palfrey - a smooth gaited type, a riding horse, often used incorrectly to mean a woman's horse, but in fact, was ridden by knights and ladies and instead refers to the light build of the riding horses body. nag - A rude term used to describe old horses, 'ugly' horses (but beauty is only skin deep) or skinny, sickly horses.

According to BLM, though, a mustang is an unclaimed, unbranded, free-roaming horse. mustang - a feral horse found in the western plains of North America. mare - adult female horse. jenny - a female donkey.

horse - adult equine of either sex over 14.2 hh (58 inches, 1.47 m). 10 cm). One hand is equal to 4 inches (appox. Hand - a unit of measuring used frequently to measure a horses height.

hackney - a specific breed of flashy, elegant driving pony. I'm going out on a hack.". eg. Generally used only by English-style riders.

Not a trail ride or schooling ride. hack - A horseback ride taken for the purpose of pleasure, either for horse or rider. green - a term used to describe an inexperienced horse. god dog - how the Apaches referred to horses.

gelding - a castrated male horse of any age. garron - small and disdained horse. foal - infant horse of either sex. filly - female horse from birth till the age of 4.

draught horse - heavy, muscular beast of burden. destrier - a heavy, strong medieval war horse not to be confused with a charger or palfrey. colt - an unaltered male horse from birth till the age of 4. cob - any horse of a short-legged, stout variety, with short legs, and a compact body, neck and back.

Charger - a medieval war horse of lighter build not to be confused with a destrier. Brumby - a wild or untrained Australian horse. Bronco - a wild, untamed horse, typically used in reference to the American mustang. Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi).

Plains Zebra (Equus quagga). Hartmann's Mountain Zebra (Equus hartmannae). Cape Mountain Zebra (Equus zebra). Kiang (Equus kiang).

Onager (Equus hemionus). Wild Ass (Equus africanus). Domesticated Donkey (Equus asinus). Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii).

Tarpan (Equus ferus ferus) (extinct). Wild Horse (Equus ferus)

    . Domesticated Horse (Equus caballus).

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