ALDI

Aldi Nord logo Aldi Süd logo

Aldi is an international hard discount supermarket chain based in Germany. It is actually two separate companies but is commonly referred to as one. The company's name stands for Albrecht-Discount, using the founders' last name. Historically, Aldi is said to have been Germany's first real discount supermarket. Its spartan stores with low prices on a limited range of goods can now be found in more than a dozen countries.

History

The company was founded in 1946 by the brothers Karl and Theo Paul Albrecht in Essen, Germany. Back then, it comprised only one small food shop. In the year 1961, the then-Aldi chain of supermarket stores split into two sister companies (each belonging to one of the brothers) over a dispute whether to sell cigarettes and other tobacco products at the checkout. Thus today, Aldi consists of Aldi Nord (Aldi North) (where tobacco sales were deemed to be acceptable) and Aldi Süd (Aldi South) (where they were not; however Aldi Süd began selling tobacco products in 2003). The chains initially covered the respective different regions of the then-West Germany. The companies have since expanded internationally, into other European, North American, and Australian markets. In principle, the two firms share nothing but the name and a similar corporate identity; however, they describe their relationship as a "friendly alliance" and there appear to be agreements between the two insofar that they do not compete directly with each other and (except for Germany) never both operate in the same countries.

Regions where Aldi operates

A map of the countries in Europe that Aldi operates, orange: "Aldi South", dark blue:"Aldi North"

Aldi Nord operates in

  • Northern Germany
  • Belgium
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Luxembourg
  • The Netherlands
  • Portugal (coming soon)
  • Spain


Aldi Süd operates in

  • Southern Germany
  • Australia
  • Austria (where it operates under the name Hofer)
  • Ireland
  • Slovenia (where it operates under the name Hofer)
  • Switzerland
  • United Kingdom
  • USA

What you may find in an Aldi store

Aldi specializes in staple items such as food, beverages, sanitary articles and other inexpensive household items. One reason for Aldi's success is that the number of brands is very limited, you usually don't find more than two different brands for one kind of product and often only one. This increases the numbers of sales for each article and also allows Aldi stores to be smaller than supermarkets which cover the same range of products but with more diversity. Also it allowed Aldi to avoid the use of price tags even before the introduction of barcode scanners (see below).

Additionally to the standard assortment Aldi also has weekly special offers, some of them on more expensive products such as electronics, appliances or computers, usually from Medion. Although not always available, but regulary put up for sale are clothing, toys, flowers, gifts. The specials are only available in strictly limited quantities and for a limited timeframe (one week). In the past some of Aldi's early computer offers, created some kind of hysteria in Germany, with all available items sold in only a few hours.

Aldi is the largest wine retailer in Germany. Aldi mainly sells exclusively produced, custom-branded products (often identical to and produced by major brands) with brand names including "Grandessa" and "Fit and Active". American Aldi stores also feature bargain-priced, gourmet foods imported from Germany. Although Aldi emphasizes low prices, reports from a German consumer watchdog suggest that this does not negatively impact the quality of Aldi products.

Low price philosophy

Aldi's "strictly no frills" approach is evident for instance in that typically Aldi stores do not decorate aisles — or even fill shelves for that matter: Pallets of the products on offer are commonly simply parked alongside the aisles, and customers picking up products will gradually empty them. When all items on a pallet have been sold, it is replaced. Long queues at the checkout counter are also relatively common, reflecting Aldi's minimal staffing levels, as well as the competitive situation in Aldi's native Germany, where long supermarket checkout lines are part of daily life. However, due to the efficient checkout system, a long queue does not necessarily translate into longer waiting times than in other supermarkets.

These and other cost-cutting strategies save Aldi money and arguably the general price level in Aldi stores — as compared to more "upmarket" supermarkets — appears to show that at least some or most of these savings are passed on to consumer. Aldi has successfully carved its own (actually rather large) niche with this approach: While shoppers may not normally like shopping in a bland or industrial-looking (and possibly congested) store, such utter lack of frills has become part of the accepted norm with Aldi, and consumers appear to be willing to accept it because of the "incredible value" they expect to get in exchange. ("Top quality at incredibly low prices" is an Aldi marketing slogan.)

Aldi also profited from the introduction of the euro in Germany and other countries. Consumers believed that many merchants had used the currency changeover as a cover to increase prices, often substantially; this was later confirmed by independent studies. In contrast to other supermarkets, Aldi prominently listed "before and after" prices on posters in stores for months after the introduction, and generally rounded its euro prices down. As a result, Aldi earned a great deal of customer goodwill.

Advertising policy

Aldi has a policy in Germany of not advertising, apart from a weekly list of special prices called Aldi informiert (Aldi informs) that is distributed in stores, by direct mail, and sometimes printed in local newspapers. It claims this is a cost savings that can be passed on to consumers. However, in the USA, Aldi advertises regularly via weekly newspaper inserts and Aldi television commercials have begun airing on the TBS network, and in the UK print and television ads appeared in mid-2005. Aldi do not have publicly listed telephones in stores to minimize the time checkouts are unutilised.

Checkout system

Aldi's checkout procedure is highly standardized, with checkout operators sitting down in swivel chairs, passing products through a two-sided barcode scanner. Products have very long barcodes covering several sides of the packaging to speed this procedure. Cashiers save additional time by preparing the most likely amount of change while the customer is still searching for money in his/her wallet.

Aldi was, however, a latecomer to barcode scanners, and many stores only added them in 2004; previously, cashier clerks would manually enter a three-digit code for each item from memory (Aldi Nord) or the price (Aldi Süd). An advantage of this was that the cashiers could already type in the prices of all the articles on the conveyer belt even if the customers were blocking the process by not putting the articles quickly enough back into their shopping cart.

Once products have been scanned, they are put directly in the shopping cart, which has a special dock on the counter for this purpose. This is why Aldi stores in Germany insist that customers use a cart; the customer is expected to bag groceries at a separate bench. Many, if not most customers, however, ignore this rule, not least because it would force them to join the queue to leave the store even if they hadn't purchased anything. Aldi generally does not offer hand baskets. However, in Australia select stores do have hand baskets available.

Reputation

In West Germany, before about 1990, Aldi shops were often ridiculed as being cheap shops selling poor-quality goods. Aldi's customers were alleged to be only poor people who couldn't afford to shop elsewhere. Loyal German soccer fans, ashamed of their favorite team's performance, were known to wear Aldi bags over their heads as a gag. Being held in such low esteem by many did not seem to dent Aldi's profits however. After German reunification, many German middle class families had to cut down their spending and Aldi's popularity and public acceptance grew. Many individual consumers "discovered" that the poor reputation of Aldi's products was apparently undeserved. This shift in public perception was boosted by a series of cookbooks that only used Aldi ingredients, which led to the emergence of a kind of Aldi fandom into the German mainstream.

In countries such as the UK, where the level of service and presentation of mainstream supermarkets is arguably lower than in Aldi's native Germany, Aldi's public reputation does not appear to have improved in the same way. Despite this, and the strong price competition between such British retailers on precisely the basic goods Aldi sells, the firm apparently remains profitable.

In the United Kingdom, Aldi (just like it's rival Lidl) is often the centre of jokes regarding the wealth of a person, particularly with the younger generation. Many consider it to be derogatory to shop at Aldi, and as a result a lot of students will not admit to shopping there if they do.

Business practices

Many Aldi practices are common in German supermarkets but largely unique to Aldi in markets such as the U.S. and Britain. These include the system of metal gates and turnstiles forcing customers to exit through the checkout, the practice of charging for shopping bags, and the fact that Aldi until recently accepted only cash (since 2004, German stores have begun to accept the Maestro debit card). Debit cards are also accepted in the USA. Like most German retailers, Aldi does not accept major credit cards. Aldi does accept MasterCard, Bankcard and Visa in Australia for an additional 1% surcharge.

Aldi stores worldwide are approximately the same size. The company's stores in Germany are similar in size to those of competing supermarkets, and they can often be found in shopping centres or elsewhere where retail units of this size are common. However in other countries, such as Britain, France, and the U.S., Aldi stores are far smaller than those countries' typical supermarkets or hypermarkets, and tend to be free-standing, purpose-built structures.

Aldi stores often have fairly limited opening hours, such as were restricted by law (until 18:30 weeknights and 14:00 Saturdays) in Germany until these laws were relaxed somewhat in 1996 and 2004. Some (but by no means all) of its German outlets, particularly those in shopping centres, now stay open until the revised legal closing time of 20:00. On the other hand, Aldi stores in the U.S. and U.K. close around 19:00 weeknights, earlier on Saturday, and most remain closed on Sunday, in contrast to the late or 24-hour opening times of many U.S. and British supermarkets. Aldi's U.S. stores are the only ones to offer customer toilets.

In Germany Aldi is occasionally jokingly called Feinkost Albrecht (approximate translation: Albrecht Deli).

Recently the similar Lidl chain has grown faster than Aldi; its major difference in business practice is that it stocks a few name brands.

Aldi Talk

On the 7th December 2005, based on their well known brand, Aldi (both Nord and Süd) in Germany introduced a pay-as-you-go mobile phone company Aldi Talk, piggybacking on the e-plus network. They offered rates of €0,05 (approx US$ 0.06) per minute/SMS to other Aldi Talk customers and €0,15 (approx US$ 0.18) to landlines and other mobile phones. This phone offer is available on either a “starter set”, which is a SIM card and €10 (US$ 12.01) worth of credit at €19,99 (US$ 24.02), or a Medion mobile phone [1] with a SIM card at €59,99 (US$ 72.11).

Previously, Aldi Süd in Austria did a pay-as-you-go service called “yesss!” [2] with Connect Austria's One.

Competitors

  • Lidl (5000 stores)
  • Netto (1200 stores)
  • Kwiksave (UK Only)

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Previously, Aldi Süd in Austria did a pay-as-you-go service called “yesss!” [2] with Connect Austria's One. Even though in monotheistic religions, the God is considered to represent love, there are often angels or similar beings that represent love as well. This phone offer is available on either a “starter set”, which is a SIM card and €10 (US$ 12.01) worth of credit at €19,99 (US$ 24.02), or a Medion mobile phone [1] with a SIM card at €59,99 (US$ 72.11). Here is a list of the gods and goddesses of love in different mythologies. They offered rates of €0,05 (approx US$ 0.06) per minute/SMS to other Aldi Talk customers and €0,15 (approx US$ 0.18) to landlines and other mobile phones. Different cultures have deified love, typically in both male and female form. On the 7th December 2005, based on their well known brand, Aldi (both Nord and Süd) in Germany introduced a pay-as-you-go mobile phone company Aldi Talk, piggybacking on the e-plus network. Romantic love per se has few echoes in Jewish literature, although the medieval rabbi Judah Halevi wrote romantic poetry in Arabic in his younger years (he appears to have regretted this later).

Recently the similar Lidl chain has grown faster than Aldi; its major difference in business practice is that it stocks a few name brands. I). In Germany Aldi is occasionally jokingly called Feinkost Albrecht (approximate translation: Albrecht Deli). The 20th-century rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler is frequently quoted as defining love from the Jewish point-of-view as "giving without expecting to take" (from his Michtav me-Eliyahu, vol. stores are the only ones to offer customer toilets. The Biblical book Song of Songs is a considered a romantically-phrased metaphor of love between God and his people, but in its plain reading reads like a love song. Aldi's U.S. As for love between marital partners, this is deemed an essential ingredient to life: "See life with the wife you love" (Ecclesiastes 9:9).

and British supermarkets. by contemplating Divine deeds or witnessing the marvels of nature. close around 19:00 weeknights, earlier on Saturday, and most remain closed on Sunday, in contrast to the late or 24-hour opening times of many U.S. Rabbinic literature differs how this love can be developed, e.g. and U.K. As for the latter, one is commanded to love God "with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might" (Deuteronomy 6:5), taken by the Mishnah (a central text of the Jewish oral law) to refer to good deeds, willingness to sacrifice one's life rather than commit certain serious transgressions, willingness to sacrifice all one's possessions and being grateful to the Lord despite adversity (tractate Berachoth 9:5). On the other hand, Aldi stores in the U.S. As for the former, the Torah states: "Love your neighbor like yourself" (Leviticus 19:18).

Some (but by no means all) of its German outlets, particularly those in shopping centres, now stay open until the revised legal closing time of 20:00. Judaism employs a wide definition of love, both between people and between man and the Deity. Aldi stores often have fairly limited opening hours, such as were restricted by law (until 18:30 weeknights and 14:00 Saturdays) in Germany until these laws were relaxed somewhat in 1996 and 2004. Other related but dissimilar terms are Chen (grace) and Hesed, which basically combines the meaning of "affection" and "compassion" and is sometimes rendered in English as "loving-kindness". However in other countries, such as Britain, France, and the U.S., Aldi stores are far smaller than those countries' typical supermarkets or hypermarkets, and tend to be free-standing, purpose-built structures. In Hebrew Ahava is the most commonly used term for both interpersonal love and love of God. The company's stores in Germany are similar in size to those of competing supermarkets, and they can often be found in shopping centres or elsewhere where retail units of this size are common. A common viewpoint of Sufism is that through Love humankind can get back to its inherent purity and grace.

Aldi stores worldwide are approximately the same size. God in Sufism is referred to in three main terms which are the Lover, Loved, and Beloved with the last of these terms being often seen in Sufi poetry. Aldi does accept MasterCard, Bankcard and Visa in Australia for an additional 1% surcharge. Sufism is oftentimes referred to as the religion of Love. Like most German retailers, Aldi does not accept major credit cards. Since everything is a reflection of God, the school of Sufism practices to see the beauty inside the apparently ugly. Debit cards are also accepted in the USA. God desires to recognize beauty, and as if one looks at a mirror to see oneself, God "looks" at itself within the dynamics of nature.

These include the system of metal gates and turnstiles forcing customers to exit through the checkout, the practice of charging for shopping bags, and the fact that Aldi until recently accepted only cash (since 2004, German stores have begun to accept the Maestro debit card). Sufis believe that love is a projection of the essence of God to the universe. and Britain. Ishq, or divine love, is the emphasis of Sufism. Many Aldi practices are common in German supermarkets but largely unique to Aldi in markets such as the U.S. All who hold the faith have God's love, but to what degree or effort he has pleased God depends on the individual itself. Many consider it to be derogatory to shop at Aldi, and as a result a lot of students will not admit to shopping there if they do. One still has God's love, but how the person evaluates his own worth is to his own and God's own counsel.

In the United Kingdom, Aldi (just like it's rival Lidl) is often the centre of jokes regarding the wealth of a person, particularly with the younger generation. In Islam, love is more often than not used as an incentive for sinners to aspire to be as worthy of God's love as they may. Despite this, and the strong price competition between such British retailers on precisely the basic goods Aldi sells, the firm apparently remains profitable. It refers to God as being "full of loving kindness". In countries such as the UK, where the level of service and presentation of mainstream supermarkets is arguably lower than in Aldi's native Germany, Aldi's public reputation does not appear to have improved in the same way. There are no direct references stating that God is love, but amongst the 99 names of God (Allah), there is the name Al-Wadud or 'the Loving One', which is found in Surah 11:90 as well as Surah 85:14. This shift in public perception was boosted by a series of cookbooks that only used Aldi ingredients, which led to the emergence of a kind of Aldi fandom into the German mainstream. In a sense, love does encompass the Islamic view of life as universal brotherhood which applies to all who hold the faith.

Many individual consumers "discovered" that the poor reputation of Aldi's products was apparently undeserved. The booklet Narada bhakti sutra written by an unknown author distinguishes eleven forms of love. After German reunification, many German middle class families had to cut down their spending and Aldi's popularity and public acceptance grew. Hindu writers, theologians, and philosophers have distinguished nine forms of devotion that they call bhakti, for example in the Bhagavatha-Purana and according to Tulsidas. Being held in such low esteem by many did not seem to dent Aldi's profits however. A person who practices bhakti is called bhakta. Loyal German soccer fans, ashamed of their favorite team's performance, were known to wear Aldi bags over their heads as a gag. Bhakti is a Sanskrit term from Hinduism meaning 'loving devotion to the supreme God'.

Aldi's customers were alleged to be only poor people who couldn't afford to shop elsewhere. Karuna is compassion and mercy, which reduces the suffering of others. In West Germany, before about 1990, Aldi shops were often ridiculed as being cheap shops selling poor-quality goods. In contrast to kāma, prema or prem refers to elevated love. However, in Australia select stores do have hand baskets available. For many Hindu schools it is the third end in life (artha). Aldi generally does not offer hand baskets. In Hinduism kāma is pleasurable, sexual love, personified by the god Kama.

Many, if not most customers, however, ignore this rule, not least because it would force them to join the queue to leave the store even if they hadn't purchased anything. Many Christian theologians see God as the source of love, which is mirrored in humans and their relationships. This is why Aldi stores in Germany insist that customers use a cart; the customer is expected to bag groceries at a separate bench. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but the save the world through him." (NIV John 3:16-17). Once products have been scanned, they are put directly in the shopping cart, which has a special dock on the counter for this purpose. John the Apostle wrote, "For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. An advantage of this was that the cashiers could already type in the prices of all the articles on the conveyer belt even if the customers were blocking the process by not putting the articles quickly enough back into their shopping cart. Christians also believe that God felt so much agape love for man that he sacrificed his son for them.

Aldi was, however, a latecomer to barcode scanners, and many stores only added them in 2004; previously, cashier clerks would manually enter a three-digit code for each item from memory (Aldi Nord) or the price (Aldi Süd). Love never fails."(NIV 13:4-8). Cashiers save additional time by preparing the most likely amount of change while the customer is still searching for money in his/her wallet. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, and always perseveres. Products have very long barcodes covering several sides of the packaging to speed this procedure. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. Aldi's checkout procedure is highly standardized, with checkout operators sitting down in swivel chairs, passing products through a two-sided barcode scanner. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs.

Aldi do not have publicly listed telephones in stores to minimize the time checkouts are unutilised. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. However, in the USA, Aldi advertises regularly via weekly newspaper inserts and Aldi television commercials have begun airing on the TBS network, and in the UK print and television ads appeared in mid-2005. Attempting to define it he wrote, "Love is patient, love is kind. It claims this is a cost savings that can be passed on to consumers. Saint Paul glorified agape love as the most important virtue of all in 1 Corinthians, chapter 13. Aldi has a policy in Germany of not advertising, apart from a weekly list of special prices called Aldi informiert (Aldi informs) that is distributed in stores, by direct mail, and sometimes printed in local newspapers. Saint Augustine summarised this when he wrote "Love God, and do as thou wilt".

As a result, Aldi earned a great deal of customer goodwill. See The Gospel of Mark chapter 12, verses 28-34). In contrast to other supermarkets, Aldi prominently listed "before and after" prices on posters in stores for months after the introduction, and generally rounded its euro prices down. Christians believe that to love God with all your heart, mind, and strength and Love your neighbour as yourself are the two most important things in life (the greatest commandment of God, according to Jesus). Consumers believed that many merchants had used the currency changeover as a cover to increase prices, often substantially; this was later confirmed by independent studies. Lewis, an influential Christian theologian, wrote a book called The Four Loves. Aldi also profited from the introduction of the euro in Germany and other countries. C.S.

("Top quality at incredibly low prices" is an Aldi marketing slogan.). There are several Greek words for Love that are regularly referred to in Christian circles. Aldi has successfully carved its own (actually rather large) niche with this approach: While shoppers may not normally like shopping in a bland or industrial-looking (and possibly congested) store, such utter lack of frills has become part of the accepted norm with Aldi, and consumers appear to be willing to accept it because of the "incredible value" they expect to get in exchange. The strongest motivation one has in order to take the path of the Bodhisattva is the idea of salvation within unselfish love for others. These and other cost-cutting strategies save Aldi money and arguably the general price level in Aldi stores — as compared to more "upmarket" supermarkets — appears to show that at least some or most of these savings are passed on to consumer. The Bodhisattva ideal in Tibetan Buddhism involves the complete renunciation of oneself in order to take on the burden of a suffering world. However, due to the efficient checkout system, a long queue does not necessarily translate into longer waiting times than in other supermarkets. Instead, in Buddhism it refers to detachment and unselfish interest in others' welfare.

Long queues at the checkout counter are also relatively common, reflecting Aldi's minimal staffing levels, as well as the competitive situation in Aldi's native Germany, where long supermarket checkout lines are part of daily life. This is quite different from the ordinary love, which is usually about attachment and sex, which rarely occur without self-interest. When all items on a pallet have been sold, it is replaced. This love is unconditional and requires considerable self-acceptance. Aldi's "strictly no frills" approach is evident for instance in that typically Aldi stores do not decorate aisles — or even fill shelves for that matter: Pallets of the products on offer are commonly simply parked alongside the aisles, and customers picking up products will gradually empty them. Advesa and maitrī are benevolent love. Although Aldi emphasizes low prices, reports from a German consumer watchdog suggest that this does not negatively impact the quality of Aldi products. It is complementary to wisdom, and is necessary for enlightenment.

American Aldi stores also feature bargain-priced, gourmet foods imported from Germany. Karunā is compassion and mercy, which reduces the suffering of others. Aldi mainly sells exclusively produced, custom-branded products (often identical to and produced by major brands) with brand names including "Grandessa" and "Fit and Active". It is an obstacle on the path to enlightenment, since it is selfish. Aldi is the largest wine retailer in Germany. In Buddhism, Kāma is sensuous, sexual love. In the past some of Aldi's early computer offers, created some kind of hysteria in Germany, with all available items sold in only a few hours. Sayang is a word to express unconditional love, but also to express deep regret in losing something.

The specials are only available in strictly limited quantities and for a limited timeframe (one week). Jatuh cinta literally means falling in love: the initial action that triggers love. Although not always available, but regulary put up for sale are clothing, toys, flowers, gifts. Cinta is a word that defines lust or love that involves physical attraction. Additionally to the standard assortment Aldi also has weekly special offers, some of them on more expensive products such as electronics, appliances or computers, usually from Medion. In Indonesian and Malaysian linguistics perspective, love can be defined in several ways:. Also it allowed Aldi to avoid the use of price tags even before the introduction of barcode scanners (see below). As it arises from a conflation with a Greek word, there is no corresponding verb.

This increases the numbers of sales for each article and also allows Aldi stores to be smaller than supermarkets which cover the same range of products but with more diversity. This meaning, however, is not found in Classical pagan Roman literature. One reason for Aldi's success is that the number of brands is very limited, you usually don't find more than two different brands for one kind of product and often only one. Caritas is used in Latin translations of the Christian Bible to mean 'charitable love'. Aldi specializes in staple items such as food, beverages, sanitary articles and other inexpensive household items. Observare is a synonym for 'diligere'; despite the cognate with English, this verb and its corresponding noun 'observantia' often denote 'esteem' or 'affection'.
Aldi Süd operates in. The corresponding noun diligentia, however, has the meaning 'diligence' 'carefulness' and has little semantic overlap with the verb.

Aldi Nord operates in. This word would be appropriate to describe the friendship of two men. In principle, the two firms share nothing but the name and a similar corporate identity; however, they describe their relationship as a "friendly alliance" and there appear to be agreements between the two insofar that they do not compete directly with each other and (except for Germany) never both operate in the same countries. Diligere often has the notion 'to be affectionate for', 'to esteem', and rarely if ever is used of romantic love. The companies have since expanded internationally, into other European, North American, and Australian markets. Complicating the picture somewhat, Latin sometimes uses amare where English would simply say to like; this notion, however, is much more generally expressed in Latin by placere or delectare, which are used more colloquially, and the latter of which is used frequently in the love poetry of Catullus. The chains initially covered the respective different regions of the then-West Germany. Ovid wrote a guide to dating called Ars Amatoria (The Art of Lovers), which addresses in depth everything from extramarital affairs to overprotective parents.

Thus today, Aldi consists of Aldi Nord (Aldi North) (where tobacco sales were deemed to be acceptable) and Aldi Süd (Aldi South) (where they were not; however Aldi Süd began selling tobacco products in 2003). Cicero wrote a treatise called On Friendship (de Amicitia) which discusses the notion at some length. In the year 1961, the then-Aldi chain of supermarket stores split into two sister companies (each belonging to one of the brothers) over a dispute whether to sell cigarettes and other tobacco products at the checkout. This same root also produces amicus, 'friend', and amicitia, 'friendship' (often based on mutual advantage, and corresponding sometimes more closely to 'indebtedness' or 'influence'). Back then, it comprised only one small food shop. The corresponding noun is amor, which is also used in the plural form to indicate 'love affairs' or 'sexual adventures'. The company was founded in 1946 by the brothers Karl and Theo Paul Albrecht in Essen, Germany. From this verb come amans, a lover, amator, 'professional lover', often with the accessory notion of lechery, and amica, 'girlfriend' in the English sense, often as well being applied euphemistically to a prostitute.

. The Romans used it both in an affectionate sense, as well as in a Romantic or sexual sense. Its spartan stores with low prices on a limited range of goods can now be found in more than a dozen countries. Amare is the basic word for to love, as it still is in Italian today. Historically, Aldi is said to have been Germany's first real discount supermarket. The Latin language has several different verbs corresponding to the English word 'love'. The company's name stands for Albrecht-Discount, using the founders' last name. The importance of this can be seen throughout Greek mythology, in particular Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.

It is actually two separate companies but is commonly referred to as one. The host fed and provided quarters for the guest, who was only expected to repay with gratitude. Aldi is an international hard discount supermarket chain based in Germany. It was an almost ritualized friendship formed between a host and their guest, who could previously be strangers. Kwiksave (UK Only). Xenia (ξενία philoxenía), means hospitality in modern Greek, was an extremely important practice in ancient Greece. Netto (1200 stores). Storge (στοργή storgē) means affection in modern Greek; it is natural affection, like that felt by parents for offspring.

Lidl (5000 stores). Philia is motivated by practical reasons; one or both of the parties benefit from the relationship. USA. It includes loyalty to friends, family, and community, and requires virtue, equality and familiarity. United Kingdom. Philia (φιλία philía), means friendship in modern Greek, a dispassionate virtuous love, was a concept developed by Aristotle. Switzerland. Some translations list it as "love of the body".

Slovenia (where it operates under the name Hofer). Lovers and philosophers are all inspired to seek truth by eros. Ireland. Eros helps the soul recall knowledge of beauty, and contributes to an understanding of spiritual truth. Austria (where it operates under the name Hofer). Although eros is initially felt for a person, with contemplation it becomes an appreciation of the beauty within that person, or even becomes appreciation of beauty itself. Australia. Plato refined his own definition.

Southern Germany. The Greek word erota means in love. Spain. Eros (ἔρως érōs) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing. Portugal (coming soon). It has also been translated as "love of the soul". The Netherlands. However, there are some examples of agape used to mean the same as eros.

Luxembourg. It generally refers to a "pure", ideal type of love rather than the physical attraction suggested by eros. France. The word agapo is the verb I love. Denmark. The term s'agapo means I love you in Greek. Belgium. Agape (ἀγάπη agápē) means love in modern day Greek.

Northern Germany. At the same time the ancient Greek text of the Bible has examples of the verb agapo being used with the same meaning as phileo. However, with Greek as with many other languages, it has been historically difficult to separate the meanings of these words totally. For example, ancient Greek has the words philia, eros, agape, storge and xenia. Greek distinguishes several different senses in which the word love is used.

Rather than using ai shiteiru (愛している) or koi shiteiru (恋している) to say "I love you", for example, most Japanese would say suki desu (好きです), which literally means "I like you" -- suki (好き) being the same word used to express preferences for food, music, etc., as in sushi ga suki desu (寿司が好きです), or "I like sushi." Rather than diluting the sentiment, however, the implied meaning of "love" is understood. In everyday conversation, however, ai (愛) and koi (恋) are rarely used. The word aijin (愛人) means "lover" and implies an illicit, often extra-marital relationship, whereas koibito (恋人) has the connotation of "boyfriend", "girlfriend", or "partner". There are of course exceptions.

"Parental love", for example, is oya no ai (親の愛), while "to be in love with" is koi suru (恋する). Generally speaking, most forms of non-romantic love are expressed using the former, while romantic love is expressed using the latter. Linguistically, the two most common words for love are ai (愛)and koi (恋). Some sociologists (most notably, Takeo Doi) have suggested that Japanese social interactions in later life are modeled on the mother-child amae.

Japanese mothers are expected to hug and indulge their children, and children are expected to reward their mothers by clinging and serving. Amae (甘え), a Japanese word meaning "indulgent dependence", is part of the child-rearing culture of Japan. It can develop towards either selfishness or selflessness and enlightenment. In Japanese Buddhism, ai (愛) is passionate caring love, and a fundamental desire.

Reports have appeared in Chinese newspapers and other media detailing the prevalence of the phenomenon and its perceived dangers to students and the fears of parents. The concept essentially indicates a prevalent belief in contemporary Chinese culture that due to the demands of their studies (especially true in the highly competitive educational system of China), youth should not form romantic attachments lest they jeopardize their chances for success in the future. Zaolian describes both relationships among a teenaged boyfriend and girlfriend, as well as the "crushes" of early adolescence or childhood. Zaolian (Simplified: 早恋, Traditional: 早戀, pinyin: zǎoliàn), literally, "early love," is a contemporary term in frequent use for romantic feelings or attachments among children or adolescents.

A similar conceptualization in English is, "They were made for each other," "fate," or "destiny". It is very similar to serendipity. A meaningful relationship is often conceived of as dependent strong yuanfen. Yuanfen (緣份) is a connection of bound destinies.

Emotional attachment toward another person or anything. A person will express love by building good gănqíng, accomplished through helping or working for another. Gănqíng (感情), the feeling of a relationship. Although Mozi's thought was influential, the Confucian lian is how most Chinese conceive of love.

Extravagance and offensive war are inimical to ai. Ai, in Mohism, is universal love towards all beings, not just towards friends or family, without regard to reciprocation. The Chinese philosopher Mozi developed the concept of ai (愛) in reaction to Confucian lian. Lian should be pursued by all human beings, and reflects a moral life.

In Confucianism, lian is a virtuous benevolent love. In contemporary Chinese language and culture, several terms or root words are used for the concept of "love":. After that time, the passion fades, changing love from consummate to companionate, or from romantic love to liking. According to current scientific understanding of love, this transition from the attraction to the attachment phase usually happens in about 30 months.

Likewise, when a person has known a loved one for a long time, they develop a deeper attachment to their partner. At the attraction stage the person concentrates their affection on a single mate and fidelity becomes important. So what starts as infatuation or empty love may well develop into one of the fuller types of love. However, as time passes, the other elements may grow and passion may shrink — this depends upon the individual.

Appearance, smells, and other similar factors play a decisive role in screening potential mates. The primary motivator at this stage is the basic sexual instinct. Generally love will start off in the lust phase, strong in passion but weak in the other elements. Helen Fisher suggests three main phases of love: lust, attraction, and attachment.

Relationships based on similar love styles were found to last longer. The Hendricks found men tend to be more ludic and manic, whereas women tend to be storgic and pragmatic. Lee identified six basic theories that people use in their interpersonal relationships:. Susan Hendrick and Clyde Hendrick developed a Loves Attitude Scale based on John Alan Lee's theory called Love styles.

Each of these elements can be present in a relationship, producing the following combinations:. In psychologist Robert Sternberg's triangular theory of love, love is characterized by three elements: intimacy, passion and commitment. Companionate love is affection and a feeling of intimacy not accompanied by physiological arousal. Passionate love is intense longing, and is often accompanied by physiological arousal (shortness of breath, rapid heart rate).

The traditional psychological view sees love as being a combination of companionate love and passionate love. Attachment between adults is presumed to work on the same principles that lead an infant to become attached to his or her mother or father. The conventional view in biology is that there are two major drives in love — sexual attraction and attachment. There are probably elements of truth in both views — certainly love is influenced by hormones (such as oxytocin) and pheromones, and how people think and behave in love is influenced by their conceptions of love.

Psychology sees love as more of a social and cultural phenomenon. Biological models of love tend to see it as a mammalian drive, just like hunger or thirst. Refer to Religious Views below. Some traditions encourage the development of passionate love in the believer for the deity.

Reciprocally, the followers may believe that the deity loves the followers and all of creation. This love can be expressed by prayer, service, good deeds, and personal sacrifice. Most religions use the term love to express the devotion the follower has to their deity, who may be a living guru or religious teacher. Religious 'love' might be considered a euphemistic term, more closely describing feelings of deference or acquiescence.

Whether religious love can be expressed in similar terms to interpersonal love is a matter for philosophical debate. If that desire reaches the point of being acted out, it may be considered unhealthy, and fall under the category of paraphilia. (ex: "I love cheese.") In some cases there may be an erotic component to such feeling of love. People can also 'love' material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding their identity with that item.

Similarly, compassionate outreach and volunteer workers' 'love' of their cause may be born not of interpersonal love, but impersonal love coupled with altruism and strong political convictions. A person can be said to love a country, principle, or goal if they value it greatly and are deeply committed to it. .
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Love is essentially an abstract concept, easier to experience than to explain. Different people place varying degrees of importance on the kinds of love they receive. Expressions of love may include the love for a soul or mind, the love of laws and organizations, love for a body, love for nature, love of food, love of money, love for learning, love of power, love of fame, love for the respect of others, etcetera. See the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

It is precisely these cultural differences that make any universal definition of love difficult, but not impossible, to establish. Love is inherent in all human cultures and thus may be seen as a defining trait of humanity, that is, love is a quality that makes one human. Or to put simply, love responds intentionally to promote well-being (Thomas Jay Oord). Love might best be defined as acting intentionally, in sympathetic response to others (including God), to promote overall well-being.

Probably due to its emotional primacy, love is one of the most common themes in art. In ordinary use, it usually refers to interpersonal love. It can describe an intense feeling of affection, an emotion or an emotional state. Love has several different meanings in every language, from something that gives a little pleasure ("I loved that meal") to something one would die for (patriotism, pairbonding).

Mihr — angel of love in Persian mythology. Raphael — Angel of love(agape) in Judeo-Christian theology. Haniel — Angel of Venus, and of eros, in Judeo-Christian theology. Xochipilli — god in Aztec mythology.

Venus — goddess of beauty and passionate love in Roman mythology. Rati — goddess of passionate love in Hindu mythology. Kama — god of sensual love in Hindu mythology. Ishtar — goddess of love and war in Babylonian mythology.

Inanna — goddess of love and war in Sumerian mythology. Freya — goddess in Norse mythology. Eros — god of passionate love in Greek mythology. Astarte — goddess of love in Canaanite mythogy.

Aphrodite — goddess of beauty and passionate love in Greek mythology. Aonghus or Aengus— god of beauty, youth, and sensual love in Irish mythology. Amor or Cupid — god of passionate love in Roman mythology. Áine — goddess of fertility and passionate love in Irish mythology.

Two other words for love in the Greek language -- Eros (sexual love) and storge (needy child-to parent love) were never used in the New Testament. Also known as "brotherly love". Phileo - Also used in the New Testament, Phileo is a human response to something that is found to be delightful. It is parental love seen as creating goodness in the world, it is the way God is seen to love humanity, and it is seen as the kind of love that Christians aspire to have for one another.

Agape - In the New Testament, agapē is charitable, selfless, altruistic, and unconditional. It is contained in the word aiqing (愛情); qingren (情人) is a term for "lover". Qing (情), commonly meaning "feeling" or "emotion," often indicates "love" in several terms. Lian (戀) is not generally used alone, but instead as part of such terms as "being in love" (談戀愛, tan lian'ai—also containing ai), "lover" (戀人, lianren) or "homosexuality" (同性戀, tongxinglian).

Wo ai ni, "I love you") or as a noun, especially in aiqing (愛情), "love" or "romance." In mainland China since 1949, airen (愛人, originally "lover," or more literally, "love person") is the dominant word for "spouse" (with separate terms for "wife" and "husband" originally being de-emphasized); the word once had a negative connotation, which it retains among many on Taiwan. Ai (愛) is used as a verb (e.g. Agapē — selfless altruistic love; spiritual. Mania — highly emotional love; unstable; the stereotype of romantic love.

Pragma — pragmatic love. Storge — an affectionate love that slowly develops, based on similarity. Ludus — love is played as a game; love is playful. Eros — a passionate physical love based on physical appearance.

"Without expression," he warns, "even the greatest of loves can die" (1987, p.341). He stresses the importance of translating the components of love into action. Sternberg cautions that maintaining a consummate love may be even harder than achieving it. Consummate love is the most complete form of love, and it represents the ideal love relationship for which many people strive but which apparently few achieve.

Consummate love is the only type of love that includes all three components--intimacy, passion and commitment. This type of love can be exemplified by a whirlwind courtship and marriage in which a commitment is motivated largely by passion, without the stabilizing influence of intimacy. Fatuous love has the passion and the commitment components but not the intimacy component. This type of love is often found in marriages in which the passion has gone out of the relationship, but a deep affection and commitment remain.

Companionate love consists of intimacy and commitment. Romantic lovers are bonded emotionally (as in liking) and physically through passionate arousal. Romantic love is a combination of intimacy and passion. Empty love can also be seen in couples that are estranged but feel that they are bound by commitment.

In cultures in which arranged marriages are common, relationships often begin as empty love. Sometimes, a stronger love deteriorates into empty love, in which the commitment remains, but the intimacy and passion have died. Empty love consists of the commitment component without intimacy or passion. Infatuated love consists solely of passion and is often what is felt as "love at first sight." But without the intimacy and the commitment components of love, infatuated love may disappear suddenly.

Sternberg says that this intimate liking characterizes true friendships, in which a person feels a bondedness, a warmth, and a closeness with another but not intense passion or long-term commitment. In this case, liking is not used in a trivial sense. Liking includes only one of the love components - intimacy.

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