Willys

1920 Willys-Knight advertisement

Willys (pronounced "WILL-iss") was the brand name used by the United States automobile company Willys-Overland Motors, best known for its production of military and civilian Jeeps, during the last century.

History

In 1908, John North Willys bought the Overland Automotive Division of Standard Wheel Company and in 1912 renamed it Willys-Overland Motor Company. From 1912 to 1918 Willys was the second largest producer of automobiles in the United States behind only Ford Motor Company.

The Electric Auto-Lite Company was acquired by John Willys in 1914 and he changed its name to the Willys Corporation in 1917. This became the holding company for Willys-Overland and in 1919, acquired Duesenberg Motors Corporation. In 1936 Willis-Overland Motor Company was reorganized as Willys-Overland Motors. In the 1920s and 1930s, Willys was an unremarkable automaker based in Toledo, Ohio, one of dozens in the U.S. It was one of several bidders when the Department of the Army sought an automaker who could begin rapid production of a lightweight truck based on a prototype designed by American Bantam.

Production of the Willys MB began in 1941 with 8,598 units produced that year, and 359,851 units were produced before production stopped at the conclusion of World War II. The origin of the name "Jeep" has been debated for many years. Some people believe "Jeep" is a phonetic pronunciation of the abbreviation GP, from "General Purpose", that was used as part of the official Army nomenclature. The first documented use of the word "Jeep" was as the name of a charcter in the Popeye cartoon, known for his supernatural abilities (e.g., to walk up walls). It was also the name of a small tractor made by Modine before WW2. Whatever the source, the name stuck and, after the war, Willys filed a trademark claim for the name.

Willys switched production to a civilian version, called a CJ-2A, at the end of the war. The CJ-2A was an MB stripped of obviously military features, particularly the blackout lighting, and with the addition of a tailgate.

Willys struggled to find a market for the unusual vehicle, and made an effort to sell it as an alternative to the farm tractor. Tractors were in short supply having been out of production during the war. Despite this, sales of the "agri-Jeep" never took off, mainly because it was too light to provide adequate draft.

However, the CJ-2A was among the first vehicles of any kind to be equipped with four wheel drive from the factory. It gained popularity among farmers, ranchers, hunters, and others who needed a lightweight vehicle for use on unimproved roads and trails.

In 1946, a year after the introduction of the CJ-2A, Willys produced the Willys "Jeep" Utility Wagon based on the same engine and transmission, with clear styling influence from the CJ-2A Jeep. The next year came a "Jeep" Utility Truck with four wheel drive. In 1948, the Wagon was available in four wheel drive, making it the ancestor of all Sport Utility Vehicles.

Willys later produced the M38 Jeep for the U.S. Army, and continued the CJ series of civilian Jeeps.

1953 Willys advertisement

In 1953 Kaiser Motors purchased Willys-Overland and changed the name to Willys Motor Company. (Ironically, DaimlerChrysler would appropriate the Overland nameplate as a trim package with the 2002-present Jeep Grand Cherokee.) The company changed name again in 1963 to Kaiser-Jeep Corporation. The use of the Willys name was discontinued in 1965. The company was sold to American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1970 when Kaiser Industries decided to leave the automobile business. After the sale, AMC used engines it had developed for its other cars in the Jeep products to improve performance and standardize production and servicing.

Renault purchased a major stake in AMC in 1980 and took over operation of the company, producing the CJ series until 1986. Chrysler purchased AMC in 1987 after the CJ had been replaced with the Jeep Wrangler, which had little in common with the CJ series other than outward appearance. DaimlerChrysler still produces Jeep vehicles at the Toledo Complex.

List of Willys vehicles

Willys cars

1922 Willys-Knight Model 20 in the Petersen Automotive Museum
  • Willys Bermuda (at least in 1955)
  • Willys 77 (1933-1936)
  • Willys Four
  • Willys Six
  • Willys Eight
  • Willys Knight (1914-1933)
  • Willys Americar
  • also many early cars with model numbers

Overland

  • Overland Whippet (1926-1931)
  • Overland Four
  • Overland Six
  • Overland 93
  • Overland 39
  • also many early cars with model numbers

Aero-Willys

  • Aero-Willys JT (1951)
  • Aero-Willys Wing (1952)
  • Aero-Willys Scout (1953)
  • Aero-Willys Lark (1952-1954)
  • Aero-Willys Ace (1952 -1954)
  • Aero-Willys Falcon (1953)
  • Aero-Willys Eagle (1952-1954)
  • Aero-Willys 2600 (1960-1972) or Ford Aero (1955-1975) (Brazil)

Willys-Overland

  • Willys Dauphine (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil)
  • Willys Gordini (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil)
  • Willys Itamaraty (Brazil)
  • Willys Interlagos (1962-1967), licensed from Renault. 1500 produced. (Brazil)
  • Willys Executive limousine (Brazil)
  • Willys-Overland Crossley (United Kingdom)

Jeeps

  • Willys MB (1941-1946)
  • Willys CJ2A (1946-1953)
  • Willys Jeep Wagon (1946 - 1965) 300,000 produced.
  • Willys CJ3A (1946 - 1953) 132,000 are produced.
  • Willys Jeep Truck (1947 - 1965) 200,000 are produced..
  • Willys Jeepster (1948 - 1950) 19,000 are produced.
  • Willys M38 (1951 - 1971)
  • Willys CJ3B (1952 - 1968) 155,000 are produced.
  • Willys Jeep CJ5 later Jeep CJ5 (1954 - 1983) 600,000 are produced.
  • Rural Jeep (1958-1967) (Brazil)

Later models were not produced with the Willys name. It was phased out by American Motors, which was itself discontinued by Chrysler. The Jeep name still survives.


This page about Willys includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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The Jeep name still survives. Ragg is a sturdy wool fibre made into yarn and used in many rugged applications like gloves. It was phased out by American Motors, which was itself discontinued by Chrysler. This process was invented in the Heavy Woollen District of West Yorkshire and created a micro-economy in this area for many years. Later models were not produced with the Willys name. Such yarns are typically used as weft yarns with a cotton warp. DaimlerChrysler still produces Jeep vehicles at the Toledo Complex. The recycled wool may be mixed with raw wool, wool noil, or another fibre such as cotton to increase the average fibre length.

Chrysler purchased AMC in 1987 after the CJ had been replaced with the Jeep Wrangler, which had little in common with the CJ series other than outward appearance. As this process makes the wool fibres shorter, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. Renault purchased a major stake in AMC in 1980 and took over operation of the company, producing the CJ series until 1986. To make shoddy, existing wool fabric is cut or torn apart and respun. After the sale, AMC used engines it had developed for its other cars in the Jeep products to improve performance and standardize production and servicing. Shoddy is recycled or remanufactured wool. The company was sold to American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1970 when Kaiser Industries decided to leave the automobile business. Ancient Greeks lined their helmets with felt and Roman legionnaires used breastplates made of wool felt.

The use of the Willys name was discontinued in 1965. Wool felt covers piano hammers and it is used to absorb odors and noise in heavy machinery and stereo speakers. (Ironically, DaimlerChrysler would appropriate the Overland nameplate as a trim package with the 2002-present Jeep Grand Cherokee.) The company changed name again in 1963 to Kaiser-Jeep Corporation. In addition to clothing, wool has been used for carpeting, felt, and upholstery. In 1953 Kaiser Motors purchased Willys-Overland and changed the name to Willys Motor Company. (source). Army, and continued the CJ series of civilian Jeeps. These small scale farmers may raise any type of sheep they wish, so the selection of fleeces is quite wide.

Willys later produced the M38 Jeep for the U.S. There is also a thriving 'home flock' contingent of small scale farmers who raise small hobby flocks of specialty sheep for the handspinning market. In 1948, the Wagon was available in four wheel drive, making it the ancestor of all Sport Utility Vehicles. In the United States, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado also have large commercial sheep flocks and their mainstay is the Rambouillet (or French Merino). The next year came a "Jeep" Utility Truck with four wheel drive. Breeds such as Lincoln and Romney produce coarser fibres and wool of these sheep is usually used for making carpets. In 1946, a year after the introduction of the CJ-2A, Willys produced the Willys "Jeep" Utility Wagon based on the same engine and transmission, with clear styling influence from the CJ-2A Jeep. Most Australian wool comes from the merino breed.

It gained popularity among farmers, ranchers, hunters, and others who needed a lightweight vehicle for use on unimproved roads and trails. Australia, China and New Zealand are leading commercial producers of wool. However, the CJ-2A was among the first vehicles of any kind to be equipped with four wheel drive from the factory. Global wool production is approximately 1.3 million tonnes per annum of which 60% goes into apparel. Despite this, sales of the "agri-Jeep" never took off, mainly because it was too light to provide adequate draft. Australia's colonial economy was based on sheep raising and the Australian wool trade eventually overtook that of the Germans by 1845. Tractors were in short supply having been out of production during the war. German wool—based on sheep of Spanish origin—did not overtake British wool until comparatively late.

Willys struggled to find a market for the unusual vehicle, and made an effort to sell it as an alternative to the farm tractor. Spain allowed export of Merino lambs only with royal permission. The CJ-2A was an MB stripped of obviously military features, particularly the blackout lighting, and with the addition of a tailgate. In the Renaissance, Medicis of Florence built their wealth and banking system on wool trade with the aid of the Arte della Lana, the wool guild. Willys switched production to a civilian version, called a CJ-2A, at the end of the war. In 1699 English crown forbade its American colonies to trade wool with anyone else but England itself. Whatever the source, the name stuck and, after the war, Willys filed a trademark claim for the name. The smuggling of wool out of the country, known as owling, was at one time punishable by the cutting off of a hand.

It was also the name of a small tractor made by Modine before WW2. Over the centuries, various British laws controlled the wool trade or required the use of wool even in burials. The first documented use of the word "Jeep" was as the name of a charcter in the Popeye cartoon, known for his supernatural abilities (e.g., to walk up walls). English wool exports - which bordered on European monopoly - were a significant source of income to the crown. Some people believe "Jeep" is a phonetic pronunciation of the abbreviation GP, from "General Purpose", that was used as part of the official Army nomenclature. In medieval times, the wool trade was serious business. The origin of the name "Jeep" has been debated for many years. Prior to invention of shears - probably in the Iron Age - they probably plucked the wool out by hand or by bronze combs.

Production of the Willys MB began in 1941 with 8,598 units produced that year, and 359,851 units were produced before production stopped at the conclusion of World War II. As the raw material has been readily available since the widespread domestication of sheep and similar animals, the use of wool for clothing and other fabrics dates back to some of the earliest civilizations. It was one of several bidders when the Department of the Army sought an automaker who could begin rapid production of a lightweight truck based on a prototype designed by American Bantam. . In the 1920s and 1930s, Willys was an unremarkable automaker based in Toledo, Ohio, one of dozens in the U.S. The finer diameters are generally more valuable. In 1936 Willis-Overland Motor Company was reorganized as Willys-Overland Motors. The fibre diameter of wool varies from 15 micrometres (superfine merino) to 30 or more micrometres for the coarser wools.

This became the holding company for Willys-Overland and in 1919, acquired Duesenberg Motors Corporation. The quality of fleece is determined by a technique known as wool classing, whereby a qualified woolclasser tries to group wools of similar gradings together to maximise the return for the farmer or sheep owner. The Electric Auto-Lite Company was acquired by John Willys in 1914 and he changed its name to the Willys Corporation in 1917. The latter four are packaged and sold separately. From 1912 to 1918 Willys was the second largest producer of automobiles in the United States behind only Ford Motor Company. After shearing, the wool is separated into five main categories: fleece (which makes up the vast bulk), pieces, bellies, crutchings and locks. In 1908, John North Willys bought the Overland Automotive Division of Standard Wheel Company and in 1912 renamed it Willys-Overland Motor Company. The grease is generally removed for processing by scouring with detergent and alkali.

. In this state it can be worked into yarn or knitted into water-resistant mittens, such as those of the Aran Island fishermen. Willys (pronounced "WILL-iss") was the brand name used by the United States automobile company Willys-Overland Motors, best known for its production of military and civilian Jeeps, during the last century. Wool straight off a sheep contains a high level of grease (thus "greasy wool") which contains valuable lanolin. Rural Jeep (1958-1967) (Brazil). Wool is generally a creamy white colour, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors such as black, brown (also called moorit) and grey. Willys Jeep CJ5 later Jeep CJ5 (1954 - 1983) 600,000 are produced. The relative amounts of kemp to wool vary from breed to breed, and make some fleeces more desirable for spinning, felting or carding into batts for quilts or other insulating products.

Willys CJ3B (1952 - 1968) 155,000 are produced. On sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp. Willys M38 (1951 - 1971). Hair, by contrast, has little if any scale and no crimp and little ability to bind into yarn. Willys Jeepster (1948 - 1950) 19,000 are produced. A fine wool like merino may have up to a hundred crimps per inch, where the coarser wools like karakul may have as few as one to two crimps per inch. Willys Jeep Truck (1947 - 1965) 200,000 are produced.. The amount of crimp corresponds with the fineness of the wool fibres.

Willys CJ3A (1946 - 1953) 132,000 are produced. Insulation also works both ways; bedouins and tuaregs use wool clothes to keep the heat out. Willys Jeep Wagon (1946 - 1965) 300,000 produced. Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have a greater bulk than other textiles and retain air, which causes the product to retain heat. Willys CJ2A (1946-1953). They help the individual fibres attach to each other so that they stay together. Willys MB (1941-1946). Both the scaling and the crimp make it possible to spin and felt the fleece.

Willys-Overland Crossley (United Kingdom). Most of the fibre from domestic sheep has two qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it has scales which overlap like shingles on a roof and it is crimped; in some fleeces the wool fibres have more than 20 bends per inch. Willys Executive limousine (Brazil). Wool is the fibre produced as the outer coat of sheep. (Brazil). This article deals with the wool produced from domestic sheep. 1500 produced. Wool is the fibre derived from the hair of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep and goats, but the hair of other mammals such as alpacas may also be called wool.

Willys Interlagos (1962-1967), licensed from Renault. United States: .77%. Willys Itamaraty (Brazil). South Africa: 1%. Willys Gordini (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil). Sudan: 2%. Willys Dauphine (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil). India: 2%.

Aero-Willys 2600 (1960-1972) or Ford Aero (1955-1975) (Brazil). United Kingdom: 2%. Aero-Willys Eagle (1952-1954). Iran: 2%. Aero-Willys Falcon (1953). Turkey: 2%. Aero-Willys Ace (1952 -1954). Argentina: 3%.

Aero-Willys Lark (1952-1954). New Zealand: 11%. Aero-Willys Scout (1953). China: 18%. Aero-Willys Wing (1952). Australia: 25% of global wool clip (475 million kg greasy, 2004/2005). Aero-Willys JT (1951).

also many early cars with model numbers. Overland 39. Overland 93. Overland Six.

Overland Four. Overland Whippet (1926-1931). also many early cars with model numbers. Willys Americar.

Willys Knight (1914-1933). Willys Eight. Willys Six. Willys Four.

Willys 77 (1933-1936). Willys Bermuda (at least in 1955).

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