Willys1920 Willys-Knight advertisement
Willys (pronounced "WILL-iss") was the brand name used by the United States automobile company Willys-Overland Motors, best known for its production of military and civilian Jeeps, during the last century.
In 1908, John North Willys bought the Overland Automotive Division of Standard Wheel Company and in 1912 renamed it Willys-Overland Motor Company. From 1912 to 1918 Willys was the second largest producer of automobiles in the United States behind only Ford Motor Company.
The Electric Auto-Lite Company was acquired by John Willys in 1914 and he changed its name to the Willys Corporation in 1917. This became the holding company for Willys-Overland and in 1919, acquired Duesenberg Motors Corporation. In 1936 Willis-Overland Motor Company was reorganized as Willys-Overland Motors. In the 1920s and 1930s, Willys was an unremarkable automaker based in Toledo, Ohio, one of dozens in the U.S. It was one of several bidders when the Department of the Army sought an automaker who could begin rapid production of a lightweight truck based on a prototype designed by American Bantam.
Production of the Willys MB began in 1941 with 8,598 units produced that year, and 359,851 units were produced before production stopped at the conclusion of World War II. The origin of the name "Jeep" has been debated for many years. Some people believe "Jeep" is a phonetic pronunciation of the abbreviation GP, from "General Purpose", that was used as part of the official Army nomenclature. The first documented use of the word "Jeep" was as the name of a charcter in the Popeye cartoon, known for his supernatural abilities (e.g., to walk up walls). It was also the name of a small tractor made by Modine before WW2. Whatever the source, the name stuck and, after the war, Willys filed a trademark claim for the name.
Willys switched production to a civilian version, called a CJ-2A, at the end of the war. The CJ-2A was an MB stripped of obviously military features, particularly the blackout lighting, and with the addition of a tailgate.
Willys struggled to find a market for the unusual vehicle, and made an effort to sell it as an alternative to the farm tractor. Tractors were in short supply having been out of production during the war. Despite this, sales of the "agri-Jeep" never took off, mainly because it was too light to provide adequate draft.
However, the CJ-2A was among the first vehicles of any kind to be equipped with four wheel drive from the factory. It gained popularity among farmers, ranchers, hunters, and others who needed a lightweight vehicle for use on unimproved roads and trails.
In 1946, a year after the introduction of the CJ-2A, Willys produced the Willys "Jeep" Utility Wagon based on the same engine and transmission, with clear styling influence from the CJ-2A Jeep. The next year came a "Jeep" Utility Truck with four wheel drive. In 1948, the Wagon was available in four wheel drive, making it the ancestor of all Sport Utility Vehicles.
Willys later produced the M38 Jeep for the U.S. Army, and continued the CJ series of civilian Jeeps.1953 Willys advertisement
In 1953 Kaiser Motors purchased Willys-Overland and changed the name to Willys Motor Company. (Ironically, DaimlerChrysler would appropriate the Overland nameplate as a trim package with the 2002-present Jeep Grand Cherokee.) The company changed name again in 1963 to Kaiser-Jeep Corporation. The use of the Willys name was discontinued in 1965. The company was sold to American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1970 when Kaiser Industries decided to leave the automobile business. After the sale, AMC used engines it had developed for its other cars in the Jeep products to improve performance and standardize production and servicing.
Renault purchased a major stake in AMC in 1980 and took over operation of the company, producing the CJ series until 1986. Chrysler purchased AMC in 1987 after the CJ had been replaced with the Jeep Wrangler, which had little in common with the CJ series other than outward appearance. DaimlerChrysler still produces Jeep vehicles at the Toledo Complex.
List of Willys vehicles
Willys cars1922 Willys-Knight Model 20 in the Petersen Automotive Museum
Later models were not produced with the Willys name. It was phased out by American Motors, which was itself discontinued by Chrysler. The Jeep name still survives.
This page about Willys includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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The Jeep name still survives.
Chrysler purchased AMC in 1987 after the CJ had been replaced with the Jeep Wrangler, which had little in common with the CJ series other than outward appearance. The subspecies for the Gray Wolf has been a very controversial issue among taxonomists. Renault purchased a major stake in AMC in 1980 and took over operation of the company, producing the CJ series until 1986. Further taxonomic clarification may well take decades. After the sale, AMC used engines it had developed for its other cars in the Jeep products to improve performance and standardize production and servicing. Many of these seem unlikely to stand. The company was sold to American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1970 when Kaiser Industries decided to leave the automobile business. Scientists have proposed a host of subspecies.
The use of the Willys name was discontinued in 1965. Indeed, only a single wolf species may exist. (Ironically, DaimlerChrysler would appropriate the Overland nameplate as a trim package with the 2002-present Jeep Grand Cherokee.) The company changed name again in 1963 to Kaiser-Jeep Corporation. Although taxonomists have proposed many species over the years, most types clearly do not comprise true species. In 1953 Kaiser Motors purchased Willys-Overland and changed the name to Willys Motor Company. The classification of wolves and closely allied creatures offers many challenges. Army, and continued the CJ series of civilian Jeeps. However, molecular systematics now indicate very strongly that domestic dogs and wolves are more closely related than either is to any other canid, and the domestic dog is now normally classified as a subspecies of the wolf: Canis lupus familiaris.
Willys later produced the M38 Jeep for the U.S. Because the canids have evolved recently and different canids interbreed readily, untangling the true relationships has presented difficulties. In 1948, the Wagon was available in four wheel drive, making it the ancestor of all Sport Utility Vehicles. Most authorities see the wolf as the dog's direct ancestor, but others have postulated descent from the Golden Jackal. The next year came a "Jeep" Utility Truck with four wheel drive. Much debate has occurred over the relationship between the wolf and the domestic dog. In 1946, a year after the introduction of the CJ-2A, Willys produced the Willys "Jeep" Utility Wagon based on the same engine and transmission, with clear styling influence from the CJ-2A Jeep. The radio telemetry is an important component in the suite of tools used in Wisconsin to calculate the overall wolf population.
It gained popularity among farmers, ranchers, hunters, and others who needed a lightweight vehicle for use on unimproved roads and trails. Use of such radio collars enable biologists in airplanes to track the wolves and count pack sizes. However, the CJ-2A was among the first vehicles of any kind to be equipped with four wheel drive from the factory. Darting and box traps are important tools used by wildlife biologists who use the techniques to catch wolves, fit them with collars holding radio transmitters, and check their health before releasing the wolves. Despite this, sales of the "agri-Jeep" never took off, mainly because it was too light to provide adequate draft. Wolves are bred for their fur in very few locations, as they are considered as a rather problematic animal to breed, and combined with the low value of the pelt, it has driven most of the fur farms to change to utilizing other animals, such as the fox. Tractors were in short supply having been out of production during the war. It is alleged that trapping, using the right tools and equipment, can be considered as humane as hunting; however, unskilled trappers can create unnecessary suffering in animals.
Willys struggled to find a market for the unusual vehicle, and made an effort to sell it as an alternative to the farm tractor. Wolf trapping has come under heavy fire from animal rights groups, who also use it to attack other forms of trapping and hunting. The CJ-2A was an MB stripped of obviously military features, particularly the blackout lighting, and with the addition of a tailgate. The economic value of wolf pelts is limited, so it is mainly a recreation activity. Willys switched production to a civilian version, called a CJ-2A, at the end of the war. Wolves are frequently trapped, in the areas where it is legal, using snares or leg-hold traps. Whatever the source, the name stuck and, after the war, Willys filed a trademark claim for the name. Such methods include rubber ammunition, and use of guard animals.
It was also the name of a small tractor made by Modine before WW2. Other, non- or less-lethal methods of protecting livestock from wolves have been under development for the past decade. The first documented use of the word "Jeep" was as the name of a charcter in the Popeye cartoon, known for his supernatural abilities (e.g., to walk up walls). Today, most of the hunting is done on the ground or from helicopters. Some people believe "Jeep" is a phonetic pronunciation of the abbreviation GP, from "General Purpose", that was used as part of the official Army nomenclature. Poisons have been used to kill wolves during the extermination campaigns in Europe and America. The origin of the name "Jeep" has been debated for many years. This practice is seen as highly controversial.
Production of the Willys MB began in 1941 with 8,598 units produced that year, and 359,851 units were produced before production stopped at the conclusion of World War II. Some ranchers in the United States hunt wolves from helicopters or light planes, some of them calling it an effective method of controlling wolf numbers, others calling it a sport. It was one of several bidders when the Department of the Army sought an automaker who could begin rapid production of a lightweight truck based on a prototype designed by American Bantam. In the United States, as the timber wolf and other large predators been reintroduced, the USDA has been looking into the use of breeds such as the Akbash from Turkey, the Maremma from Italy, the Great Pyrenees from France and the Kuvasz from Hungary, among others. In the 1920s and 1930s, Willys was an unremarkable automaker based in Toledo, Ohio, one of dozens in the U.S. Over several centuries in some countries, shepherds and dog breeders have used selective breeding to "create" large livestock-guarding dogs that can stand up to wolves preying on flocks. In 1936 Willis-Overland Motor Company was reorganized as Willys-Overland Motors. Wolf-secure fences, relocation (in some cases), or local extermination of wolves are today the only known methods to effectively stop livestock predation.
This became the holding company for Willys-Overland and in 1919, acquired Duesenberg Motors Corporation. Sheep are frequently the most vulnerable, while horses and cattle are also at risk. The Electric Auto-Lite Company was acquired by John Willys in 1914 and he changed its name to the Willys Corporation in 1917. However, some wolves or packs can specialize in hunting livestock once the behavior is learned despite relative food supply. From 1912 to 1918 Willys was the second largest producer of automobiles in the United States behind only Ford Motor Company. As long as there are enough prey, wolves seem to avoid taking livestock. In 1908, John North Willys bought the Overland Automotive Division of Standard Wheel Company and in 1912 renamed it Willys-Overland Motor Company. Wolves are hunted for their pelt, recreation, and population control.
. However, some sources claim to have documented attacks, but in those cases, it is likely that the attacking wolves were suffering rabies, which is common in the areas in which the attacks occurred. In general, it is considered dangerous to approach or provoke wolves, as they are wild animals that will defend themselves if they feel threatened. Willys (pronounced "WILL-iss") was the brand name used by the United States automobile company Willys-Overland Motors, best known for its production of military and civilian Jeeps, during the last century. There has been no documented proof in the past 150 years that any wild, healthy wolf has killed a human; wolves are more likely to flee than to attack. Rural Jeep (1958-1967) (Brazil). The Mongols' greatest hero Genghis Khan called his people 'Clan of the Gray Wolf'. Willys Jeep CJ5 later Jeep CJ5 (1954 - 1983) 600,000 are produced. In Mongolian mythology, the Mongols believe that they are descended from a male Gray Wolf and a white doe.
Willys CJ3B (1952 - 1968) 155,000 are produced. Despite their often negative image, wolves have variously been credited, in mythology, fiction and reality, with adopting, nursing, and raising human feral children, the most famous examples being Romulus and Remus and Mowgli of The Jungle Book. Willys M38 (1951 - 1971). However, in the 20th century, with the new knowledge of wolves and the growing respect for Native American folklore, the animal has been generally depicted much more positively. Willys Jeepster (1948 - 1950) 19,000 are produced. Human fear of the wolf is responsible for most of the trouble the species has received, and the reason it was nearly hunted out of existence. Willys Jeep Truck (1947 - 1965) 200,000 are produced.. Norse mythology prominently includes three malevolent wolves: the giant Fenrisulfr, eldest child of Loki and the giantess Angrboda, (who was feared and hated by the Æsir); and Fenrisulfr's children Skoll and Hati, who will devour the sun and moon at Ragnarok.
Willys CJ3A (1946 - 1953) 132,000 are produced. The iconic examples of this image are the Big Bad Wolf and the werewolf—a human that transforms into a wolf through magic or a curse, one that is shunned and reviled in regular society. Willys Jeep Wagon (1946 - 1965) 300,000 produced. In more modern western folklore, the wolf is a creature to be feared. Willys CJ2A (1946-1953). Wulfstan, Wolfgang, Wolfhard). Willys MB (1941-1946). Many Germanic personal names used to and still include "wolf" as an element (e.g.
Willys-Overland Crossley (United Kingdom). In Proto-Indo-European society, the wolf was probably associated with the warrior class, and the term was subject to taboo deformation, the Latin lupus being an example of a mutated form of the original Proto-Indo-European *wlkwos. Willys Executive limousine (Brazil). The gray wolf is also the focal point of Pan-Turkism and related mythology. (Brazil). The wolf was also the revered totem animal of Ancient Rome (see Romulus and Remus and Lupercalia). 1500 produced. The best examples of these myths can be seen in those of the Native Americans.
Willys Interlagos (1962-1967), licensed from Renault. In many ancient myths, the wolf was portrayed as brave, honorable, and intelligent. Willys Itamaraty (Brazil). There is an ongoing controversy, since regulations of the EU may make this impossible. Willys Gordini (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil). Reindeer farmers in Lapland are affected by the increase, and other parts of the population wish to lift bans on wolf hunting. Willys Dauphine (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil). The situation is similar in Finland, where the number of wolves has been increasing over the past decades.
Aero-Willys 2600 (1960-1972) or Ford Aero (1955-1975) (Brazil). Generally, the urban population is most positive to the wolf, while people actually living in the designated "wolf zones" are far more skeptical. Aero-Willys Eagle (1952-1954). It is difficult to hinder the wolves from preying on the sheep, and in areas where the wolf has been reintroduced many farmers have quit. Aero-Willys Falcon (1953). In Norway the situation is further complicated, since sheep farmers use the forests as pasture for their animals during summer. Aero-Willys Ace (1952 -1954). In spite of the fact that attacks on people are virtually nonexistent historically, and hundreds of dogs are killed each year in hunting accidents, the wolves' possible threat to dogs and people is often cited by these people as a strong argument against the wolf's right to exist in Swedish forests.
Aero-Willys Lark (1952-1954). It has been argued that modern Scandinavian wolves are recent arrivals from Russia, not the remnants of the old wolf tribes. Aero-Willys Scout (1953). The opponents are generally the rural working class who fear competition for Roe Deer and moose; they consider the wolf to be a foreign element, much like immigrants. Aero-Willys Wing (1952). In Sweden, there is a long and ongoing conflict between some groups who claim that the wolf has no place in nature, and that it has been reintroduced by the Swedish government with some sort of secret agenda. Aero-Willys JT (1951). With the return of the wolf, these bigger coyotes are forced to return to their previous niche, or face attacks from wolves.
also many early cars with model numbers. As they started to fill in the niche of the top predator, they started to grow larger. Overland 39. Where wolves are reintroduced after a long absence, it has a marked influence on the coyote population. Overland 93. Fish and Wildlife Service. Overland Six. Reports by wildlife biologists working for the National Park Service who stated that they had seen, though rarely, wolves in Yellowstone National Park, and had photographic proof of their limited presence prior to the "reintroduction", were essentially suppressed by the U.S.
Overland Four. Recent studies have shown that the wolf would have enjoyed greater protection had it been allowed to repopulate areas on its own without human intervention. Overland Whippet (1926-1931). This includes several studies looking into the feasibility of reintroducing the wolf in places farther east, in areas like Adirondack State Park in New York and certain areas of Maine. also many early cars with model numbers. Fish and Wildlife Service, which oversees threatened and endangered species within the United States. Willys Americar. Government, primarily by the U.S.
Willys Knight (1914-1933). In fact, wolf reintroduction was pushed hard by the U.S. Willys Eight. It is curious to note that some ranchers prefer reintroduction, as they can kill wolves that eat their livestock and get reimbursement for their losses, while wild animals are protected by law. Willys Six. Not only are they slowly but surely coming back naturally from Canada, they are also being successfully reintroduced in some states such as Idaho and Wyoming. Willys Four. In the United States, wolves are repopulating where they were eradicated, and numbers have been increasing in Alaska and Minnesota, where some packs remained in the deep forests despite bounty hunting and other past eradication efforts.
Willys 77 (1933-1936). Such mediums tend to emphasize the wolf as an affectionate, devoted parent and fraternal animal that is deserving of our respect and protection as integral members of our global biodiversity. Willys Bermuda (at least in 1955). This onslaught of pro-wolf publicity, including that which is procured from nature documentaries and books, has undoubtedly played a role in changing attitudes for the better. David Mech and Luigi Boitani have arguably been the two leaders in contemporary wolf research. Biologists L.
The large amount of research done on wolves in the last half century has also helped to educate people in a way that helps them to realize how sociologically similar humans are to wolves, and how people have little to fear from these naturally cautious, complex animals. Even this undertaking has it drawbacks, because, as naturalists point out, tourists sometimes intrude on wolf habitat, consequently disturbing them in an attempt to communicate with them in this manner. In certain parks, tourists enjoy participating in wolf howls, in which a person or a group attempts to imitate a wolf's howl well enough to induce a response from resident wolves. Today, organizations such as the International Wolf Center, Defenders of Wildlife, and Mission: Wolf attempt to educate people about the true nature of wolves, and such action has proven helpful to past reintroduction efforts, especially in places such as Yellowstone National Park.
Society as a whole has begun to realize the morality in attempting to make up for centuries of undue persecution, and knows of the justification behind trying to return a portion of our ecological integrity back to the American landscape. Accordingly, while the stereotype of wolves as malicious, wanton killers and vile, worthless beasts still has influence in certain circles, a significant portion of the public has developed a more positive opinion of wolves as interesting, valuable, and noble animals. This increased awareness exposed the beneficial nature of wolves, and helped lead to their eventual endangered classification and subsequent reintroduction efforts. David Mech, and Adolph Murie helped to shift the wolf's image to that of an intelligent and affectionate creature essential to the proper functioning of a conventional North American ecosystem.
The works of wolf supporters such as Farley Mowat, L. In the late 20th century, American society underwent a dramatic change of heart. In Alaska, where they are not protected by the Act, their populations continue to be controlled (usually by aerial hunting) in an effort to increase yields for hunters. In a somewhat novel development, they have been allowed to naturally propagate in the upper Midwest, and have been reintroduced to areas in Wyoming, Idaho, and Arizona.
in some form or another by a national endangered species bill, the latest of which is the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Since the late 1960s, wolves have been protected in the U.S. Ergo, they were destroyed completely in the contiguous 48 states, with the exception of Minnesota, over the subsequent decades. It is somewhat unbelievable that wolves managed to garner such an incredible amount of hatred for having done little else than what any species would do if both its habitat and main food source were destroyed.
The corpses of affected animals would then themselves become poisonous, which tended to result in a rather long chain reaction of death. Besides traps, snares, and other mechanical methods, hunters would line carcasses with poison (usually strychnine), which would then kill the animals that preyed upon it. To accomplish this, there was no limit to the extent hunters and trappers were willing to go in order to kill predators in large numbers. With few vouching for them, wolves and other predators were destroyed en masse, resulting in a so-called "hunters paradise" free from irritating predators.
Eventually, North American society's perception of the wolf was one defined by indifference or outright hatred. When the wolves preyed on what little of their natural prey was left, hunters complained; when they then began preying on the cattle, ranchers, of course, complained, too. Humans destroyed the vast majority of their habitat and food source in North America, replacing forests with farms and wild ungulates with cattle. Wolves, for a time, were partially valued for their fur, but in the majority of circumstances (and in some instances today), they were viewed as wholly worthless and decidedly despicable creatures.
During this time, the wilderness was perceived as something to be conquered, settled, and cultivated, as through Manifest Destiny or by man's inherent worldly right. European folklore exacerbated this negative image, which was brought over to North America as it was settled. Traditionally, humans have viewed wolves negatively, perceiving them to be dangerous or as nuisances to be destroyed. The relationship between people and wolves has had a very long and turbulent history.
At the same time, this balance between wolves and their prey prevents the mass starvation of all species involved. Wolves are sensitive to fluctuations in prey abundance, making them likely to experience minor changes within their own populations. Wolves are susceptible to the same infections that affect domestic dogs, such as mange, heartworm, rabies and canine distemper, and such diseases can become epidemic, drastically reducing the wolf population in an area. The most significant mortality factors for grown wolves are hunting and poaching by humans, car accidents, and wounds suffered while hunting prey.
Pups die when food is scarce; they can also fall prey to other predators such as bears, or, less likely, coyotes, foxes, or other wolves. High mortality rates result in a relatively low life expectancy for wolves on an overall basis. Wolves that reach maturity typically live between 6 and 9 years in the wild, although in captivity they can live to be twice that age. Wolves typically reach sexual maturity after two or three years, at which point many of them will feel compelled to leave their birth packs and search out mates and territories of their own.
Letting the pups fight for the right to eat results in a secondary ranking being formed among them, and lets them practice the dominance/submission rituals that will be essential to their future survival in pack life. After a few more weeks, the pups are permitted to join the adults if they are able (they tag along as observers until about eight months, by which time they are large enough to actively participate), and will receive first dibs on anything killed, their low ranks notwithstanding. An adult or two will stay behind to ensure the safety of the pups. After two months, the restless pups will be moved to a rendezvous site, which gives them a safe place to reside while most of the adults go out to hunt.
. During the first weeks of development, the mother usually stays with her litter alone, but eventually most members of the pack will contribute to the rearing of the pups in some way. They begin eating regurgitated foods at four weeks – by which time their milk teeth have emerged – and are weaned by six weeks. During this time, the pups will become more independent, and will eventually begin to explore the area immediately outside the den before gradually roaming up to a mile away from it.
Pups reside in the den, where they are born, and stay there until they reach about 8 weeks of age (the den is usually near an open water source, and has an open "room" at the end of an underground/hillside tunnel that can be up to a couple meters long). There are 1–14 pups per litter, with the average litter size being about four to six. The gestation period lasts 60 to 63 days, and the pups are born blind, deaf, and completely dependent on their mother. Under normal circumstances, the alpha female will try to prevent this by aggressively dominating other females and physically separating them from the alpha male.
A pack usually procures one litter, though sometimes multiple litters will be born if the alpha male mates with one or more subordinate females. Wolves, unlike dogs, only mate once a year. Mating usually occurs between January and May, happening later in the year as latitude increases. This kind of organization also occurs in other pack-hunting canids, such as the Dhole and the African Hunting Dog.
Normally, only the alpha pair of the pack breeds. In one study, less than 1 out of 10 chases of moose resulted in a successful kill. Therefore, wolves must hunt almost constantly to sustain themselves. Even so, pack hunting efforts are usually fruitless. Probability dictates that these tactics are much more useful against lame, young, or old prey animals, and so it is these individuals that are most likely to fall to wolf predation.
Realizing this, wolves are not likely to spend much time testing, chasing, or harassing such individuals. Healthy, fit individuals will stand their ground against wolves, and are simply better able to effectively defend themselves, increasing the possibility of injury for the wolves involved. Hence, while wolves are certainly capable of culling the least fit from the communities of animals on which they prey, the process certainly doesn't target the feeble or the ill-suited to an outright degree. Less fit animals typically include the elderly, diseased, and young, and though these individuals are among the most likely to fall victim to predation, healthy animals may also succumb through circumstance or by chance.
Wolf packs test large populations of prey species by inducing a chase, thereby picking and ganging up on an individual that they perceive to be less fit. When pursuing large prey, wolves generally attack from all angles, targeting the necks and sides of such animals. . In fact, wolves rarely eat on a daily basis, and so they make up for this by eating up to 20 lb (9 kg) of meat when they get the chance.
They also prey on rodents and small animals in a limited manner, as a typical wolf requires between 3 and 10 lb (1.3 to 4.5 kg) of meat per day for sustenance; however, this certainly doesn't mean that a wolf will get the chance to eat everyday. Wolves' diets include, but are not limited to, elk, caribou, moose, deer, and other large ungulates. Solitary wolves depend on small animals, capturing them by pouncing and pinning them to the ground with their front paws – a common technique among canids such as foxes and coyotes. Through meticulous cooperation, a pack of wolves is able to pursue large prey for several hours before relenting, though the success rate of such chases is rather low.
Pack hunting methods range from surprise attacks to long-lasting chases, though they strongly favor the latter. Packs of wolves hunt any large herbivores in their range, while lone wolves are apt to consuming smaller animals due to their relative inability to catch anything larger. The wolf is a carnivore. Howling becomes less indiscriminate as wolves learn to distinguish howling pack members from rival wolves.
Such indiscriminate howling usually has a communicative intent, and has no adverse consequences so early in a wolf's life. The pups themselves begin howling towards the end of July, and can be provoked into howling sessions relatively easily over the following two months. Studies also show that wolves howl more frequently during the breeding season and subsequent rearing process. Observations of wolf packs suggest that howling occurs most often during the twilight hours, preceding the adults' departure to the hunt and following their return.
For example, confrontation could mean bad news if the rival pack gravely underestimates the howling pack's numbers. This concealment of numbers makes a listening rival pack wary of what action to take. During such choral sessions, wolves will howl at different tones and varying pitches, which tends to prevent a listener from accurately estimating the number of wolves involved. Some scientists speculate that such group sessions strengthen the wolves' social bonds and camaraderie—similar to community singing among humans.
Wolves will also howl for communal reasons. Thus, wolves tend to howl with great care. Adjacent packs may respond to each others' howls, which can mean trouble for the smaller of the two. As a rule of thumb, large packs will more readily draw attention to themselves than will smaller packs.
This behavior is also stimulated when a pack has something to protect, such as a fresh kill. Furthermore, howling helps to summon pack members to a specific location. Howling can also serve as a declaration of territory, as portrayed by a dominant wolf's tendency to respond to a human imitation of a "rival" individual in an area that the wolf considers its own. Howling helps pack members keep in touch, allowing them to effectively communicate in thickly forested areas or over great distances. Wolves howl for several reasons.
This ranges from subtle signals–such as a slight shift in weight–to the obvious, like rolling on the back as a sign of submission.. Wolves communicate not only by sound (such as yipping, growling, and howling), but also by body language. This kind of dominance encounter is more common in the winter months, when mating occurs. The loser of such a confrontation is frequently chased away from the pack or, rarely, may be killed as other aggressive wolves contribute to the insurgency.
While the majority of wolf aggression is non-damaging and ritualized, a high-stakes fight can easily result in injury for either or both parties. On the other hand, the challenged individual may choose to fight back, with varying degrees of intensity. An older wolf may simply choose to give way when an ambitious challenger presents itself, yielding its position without bloodshed. Loss of rank can happen gradually or suddenly.
In large packs full of easygoing wolves, or in a group of juvenile wolves, rank order may shift almost constantly, or even be circular (e.g., animal A dominates animal B, who dominates animal C, who dominates animal A). Rank, who holds it, and how it is enforced varies widely between packs and between individual animals. Wolves prefer psychological warfare to physical confrontations, meaning that high-ranking status is based more on personality or attitude than on size or physical strength. Rank order is established and maintained through a series of ritualized fights and posturing best described as ritual bluffing.
Most, males particularly, will disperse, however. Some mature individuals, usually females, may choose to stay in the original pack so as to reinforce it and help rear more pups. All the wolves in the pack assist in raising wolf pups. Usually, only the alpha pair is able to successfully rear a litter of pups (other wolves in a pack may breed, and may even produce pups, but usually they lack the freedom or the resources to raise the pups to maturity).
The death of one alpha does not affect the status of the other alpha, who will quickly take another mate. While most alpha pairs are monogamous with each other, there are exceptions. An alpha animal may preferentially mate with a lower-ranking animal, especially if the other alpha is closely related (a brother or sister, for example). In addition, one wolf typically assumes the role of omega, the lowest-ranking member of a pack. These individuals absorb the greatest amount of aggression from the rest of the pack, and consequently enjoy comparatively few individual privileges. In larger packs, there may be also be a beta wolf or wolves – a "second-in-command" to the alphas.
It is the baby-sitter and usually more puppy than wolf. The omega is the lowest. There are verious subordinates, who dominate the omega. Below the alphas are the betas, who will take over breeding responsibility as well as the pack if the alpha cannot for any reason.
The rest of the pack usually follows. The alphas do not give the other wolves orders; rather, they simply have the most freedom in choosing where to go, what to do, and when to do it. The alpha pair has the greatest amount of social freedom among all the pack members, but they are not "leaders" in the human sense of the term. Most dogs, except perhaps large, specially bred attack dogs, do not stand much of a chance against a pack of wolves protecting its territory from an unwanted intrusion.
Dispersing individuals must avoid the territories of other wolves because intruders on occupied territories are chased away or killed, a behavior that may explain wolf "predation" of dogs. Lone wolves searching for other individuals can travel very long distances seeking out suitable territories. New packs are formed when a wolf leaves its birth pack and claims a territory. The hierarchy affects all activity in the pack, from which wolf eats first to which is allowed to breed (generally only the alpha pair).
Packs can contain between two and 20 wolves, though an average pack consists of six or seven. The hierarchy of the pack is relatively strict, with the alphas at the top and the omega at the bottom. The size of the pack may change over time and is controlled by several factors, including habitat, personalities of individual wolves within a pack, and food supply. However, emerging new theories suggest the pack strategy has less to do with hunting than with reproductive success. This social structure was originally thought to allow the wolf to take prey many times its size.
Wolves function as social predators and hunt in packs organized according to a strict social hierarchy and led by an alpha male and alpha female. Therefore, any injury to the jaw line or teeth could devastate an individual, dooming it to starvation or inutility. inch of pressure, a wolf's teeth are its main weapons as well as its primary tools. Powered by 1500lbs/sq.
The long canine teeth are also important, in that they are designed to hold and subdue the prey. The mandible has six incisors, two canines, eight premolars, and six molars. The fourth upper premolars and first lower molars constitute the carnassial teeth, which are essential tools for shearing flesh. Wolves and most larger dogs share identical dentition: The maxilla has six incisors, two canines, eight premolars, and four molars. Also, precaudal glands at the base of the tail are present in wolves, whereas they are not in dogs.
Larger paw size, yellow eyes, longer legs, and bigger teeth further distinguish adult wolves from other species of canids, particularly dogs. Wolves also differ in certain skull dimensions, having a smaller orbital angle, for example, than dogs (>53 degrees for dogs compared to <45 degrees for wolves) while possessing a comparatively larger brain capacity. Wolves have stout, blocky muzzles that help distinguish them from coyotes and dogs. Though extremely unusual, it is possible for an adult wolf to retain its blue-colored eyes.
At birth, wolf pups tend to have darker fur and blue eyes that typically change to a yellow-gold or orange color when the pups are 8-16 weeks old. At the beginning of life, wolf puppies cannot eat solid food, regulate their body temperature, or even urinate without the help of their mother. The birthing itself takes about three hours for the average litter of five. She will prepare at least one den, always on high ground and near water.
The gestation period of a mother is sixty-three days. Fur color sometimes corresponds with a given wolf population's environment; for example, all-white wolves are much more common in areas with perennial snow cover. Aging wolves acquire a grayish tint in their coats. A multicolor coat characteristically lacks any clear pattern except for the dark markings around the eyes. These colors tend to mix in many populations to form predominantly blended individuals, though it is certainly not uncommon for an individual or an entire population to be entirely one color (usually all black or all white).
Coloration varies greatly, and runs from gray to gray-brown, all the way through the canine spectrum of white, red, brown, and black. Females tend to keep their winter coats further into the spring than males. Wolves have distinct winter and summer pelages that alternate in spring and autumn. The second is a dense, water-resistant undercoat that insulates.
The first layer consists of tough guard hairs designed to repel water and dirt. A wolf sometimes seems more massive than it actually is due to its bulky coat, which is made of two layers. Furthermore, scent glands between a wolf's toes help it to keep track of its location, and others of its whereabouts. Bristled hairs and blunt claws enhance grip on slippery surfaces, and special blood vessels keep paw pads from freezing.
The front paws are larger than the hind paws, and feature a fifth digit, a dewclaw, that is absent on hind paws. Wolves are digitigrade, and so the relative largeness of their feet helps to better distribute their weight on snowy surfaces. There is slight webbing between their toes, which moves them over snowy ground like a duck through water. Wolf paws are designed to traverse easily through snow, giving wolves an advantage over hampered prey.
While sprinting thus, wolves can cover up to 5 m (16 ft) per bound. They are capable of covering several miles trotting at about a 10 km/h (6 mph) pace, though they have been known to reach speeds approaching 65 km/h (40 mph) during a chase (wolves only run fast when testing potential prey). Narrow chests and powerful backs and legs contribute to the wolf's proficiency for efficient locomotion. Wolves are built for stamina, possessing features tailored for long-distance travel.
Wolves measure between 1 and 1.5 meters (39 to 59 inches) from nose to tail tip, with the tail itself consisting of approximately one quarter of overall body length. Extreme specimens reaching 80kg (176 lbs.) have been recorded in Alaska and Canada, though some people claim to have seen larger anomalous individuals (90+kg) roaming the Yukon, where some of the largest wolves in North America can be found. Roughly speaking, Males average about 45 kg (100 pounds), while females usually weigh around twenty percent less. Wolf weight and size tend to increase proportionally with worldly latitude, with height varying between 0.6 and 0.9 meters (24 to 35 inches) at the shoulder, and weight typically ranging from 30–55 kg (65-120 pounds), making wolves the largest among all wild canids.
. Carolus Linnaeus gave the wolf the scientific name Canis lupus in the 18th century.. They continue to be hunted in many areas of the world as perceived threats to livestock and human well-being, as well as for sport. , they are listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973.
In the contiguous U.S., with the exception of Minnesota and Wisconsin (where they have a threatened status). A list of potential wolf habitat reflects their adaptability as a species, and includes temperate forests, mountains, tundra, taiga, and grasslands. Gray wolves, being keystone predators, are integral components of the ecosystems to which they typically belong. Today, for a variety of human-related reasons involving widespread habitat destruction and excessive hunting, wolves inhabit only a very limited portion of their former range.
Gray wolves were once abundant and distributed over much of North America, Eurasia, and the Middle East. The wolf shares a common ancestry with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), and, according to most experts, is likely the progenitor of all dogs as they exist today (in which case, the domestic dog would more accurately be classified as Canis lupus familiaris). The Gray Wolf (Canis lupus; other forms: Timber Wolf, Wolf; British English: Grey Wolf) is a mammal of the Canidae family. pallipes) - From India to the Middle East.
l. Indian Wolf (C. occidentalis) - Western Canada, Alaska, and reintroduced into North West USA. l.
Mackenzie Valley Wolf (C. nubilus) - Far West and Eastern Canada, North East USA. l. Great Plains Wolf (C.
lycaon) - South East Canada. l. Eastern Timber Wolf (C. lupus) - from China, Mongolia, Russia and Eastern Europe to Germany, Spain and Portugal.
l. Eurasian Wolf (C. Previously mistaken for golden jackals. lupaster) - North Egypt and North East Libya.
l. Egyptian Wolf (C. italicus) - Italian Apennines. l.
Italian Wolf (C. Extinct. hodophilax) - South Japan. l.
Honshu Wolf (C. Extinct. hattai) - North Japan. l.
Hokkaido Wolf (C. cubanensis) - Russia, Georgia, between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. l. Caspian Sea Wolf (C.
communis) - Central Russia. l. Russian Wolf (C. baileyi) - Reintroduced into Arizona.
l. Mexican Wolf (C. arctos) - Canadian Arctic islands and Greenland. l.
Arctic Wolf (C. arabs) - Arabian Peninsular. l. Arabian Wolf (C.
albus) - Northern Russia. l. Tundra Wolf (C. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)
This is reminiscent of the playful behavior executed in domestic dogs. The wolf may frolic and dance around, or bow by placing the front of its body down to the ground, while holding the rear high, sometimes wagged. Playfulness – A playful lupine holds its tail high and wags it. Hunting – A wolf that is hunting is tensed, and therefore the tail is horizontal and straight.
The tongue may loll out of the mouth. Happiness – As dogs do, a lupine may wag its tail if it is in a joyful mood. Tension – An aroused wolf's tail points straight out, and the wolf may crouch as if ready to spring. The further down the tail droops, the more relaxed the wolf is.
The wolf's tail may also wag. Relaxedness – A relaxed wolf's tail points straight down, and the wolf may rest sphinxlike or on its side. The tail of a wolf that senses danger points straight out, parallel to the ground. In addition, the wolf narrows its eyes.
Suspicion – Pulling back of the ears shows a lupine is suspicious. The wolf may crouch, ready to attack if necessary. Aggression – An aggressive wolf snarls and its fur bristles. Defensive – A defensive wolf flattens its ears against its head.
There may also be whimpering or barks of fear, and the wolf may arch its back. The ears flatten down against the head, and the tail may be tucked between the legs, as with a submissive wolf. Fear – A frightened wolf tries to make its body look small and therefore less conspicuous. The wolf may also snarl.
The lips may curl up or pull back, and the incisors are displayed. Anger – An angry lupine's ears are erect, and its fur bristles. This is often accompanied by whimpering. The paws are drawn into the body.
The wolf rolls on its back and exposes its vulnerable throat and underside. Submission (passive) – Passive submission is more intense than active submission. (A more arched back and more tucked tail indicate a greater level of submission.). The back may be partially arched as the submissive wolf humbles itself to its superior.
The tail is placed down, or halfway or fully between the legs, and the muzzle often points up to the more dominant animal. Sometimes active submission is accompanied by a rapid thrusting out of the tongue and lowering of the hindquarters. Submission (active) – In active submission, the entire body is lowered, and the lips and ears are drawn back. A dominant lupine may stare penetratingly at a submissive one, pin it to the ground, "ride up" on its shoulders, or even stand on its hind legs.
This display shows the wolf's rank to all others in the pack. Often the tail is held vertical and curled toward the back. The ears are erect and forward, and the hackles bristle slightly. Dominance – A dominant wolf stands stiff legged and tall.