Willys

1920 Willys-Knight advertisement

Willys (pronounced "WILL-iss") was the brand name used by the United States automobile company Willys-Overland Motors, best known for its production of military and civilian Jeeps, during the last century.

History

In 1908, John North Willys bought the Overland Automotive Division of Standard Wheel Company and in 1912 renamed it Willys-Overland Motor Company. From 1912 to 1918 Willys was the second largest producer of automobiles in the United States behind only Ford Motor Company.

The Electric Auto-Lite Company was acquired by John Willys in 1914 and he changed its name to the Willys Corporation in 1917. This became the holding company for Willys-Overland and in 1919, acquired Duesenberg Motors Corporation. In 1936 Willis-Overland Motor Company was reorganized as Willys-Overland Motors. In the 1920s and 1930s, Willys was an unremarkable automaker based in Toledo, Ohio, one of dozens in the U.S. It was one of several bidders when the Department of the Army sought an automaker who could begin rapid production of a lightweight truck based on a prototype designed by American Bantam.

Production of the Willys MB began in 1941 with 8,598 units produced that year, and 359,851 units were produced before production stopped at the conclusion of World War II. The origin of the name "Jeep" has been debated for many years. Some people believe "Jeep" is a phonetic pronunciation of the abbreviation GP, from "General Purpose", that was used as part of the official Army nomenclature. The first documented use of the word "Jeep" was as the name of a charcter in the Popeye cartoon, known for his supernatural abilities (e.g., to walk up walls). It was also the name of a small tractor made by Modine before WW2. Whatever the source, the name stuck and, after the war, Willys filed a trademark claim for the name.

Willys switched production to a civilian version, called a CJ-2A, at the end of the war. The CJ-2A was an MB stripped of obviously military features, particularly the blackout lighting, and with the addition of a tailgate.

Willys struggled to find a market for the unusual vehicle, and made an effort to sell it as an alternative to the farm tractor. Tractors were in short supply having been out of production during the war. Despite this, sales of the "agri-Jeep" never took off, mainly because it was too light to provide adequate draft.

However, the CJ-2A was among the first vehicles of any kind to be equipped with four wheel drive from the factory. It gained popularity among farmers, ranchers, hunters, and others who needed a lightweight vehicle for use on unimproved roads and trails.

In 1946, a year after the introduction of the CJ-2A, Willys produced the Willys "Jeep" Utility Wagon based on the same engine and transmission, with clear styling influence from the CJ-2A Jeep. The next year came a "Jeep" Utility Truck with four wheel drive. In 1948, the Wagon was available in four wheel drive, making it the ancestor of all Sport Utility Vehicles.

Willys later produced the M38 Jeep for the U.S. Army, and continued the CJ series of civilian Jeeps.

1953 Willys advertisement

In 1953 Kaiser Motors purchased Willys-Overland and changed the name to Willys Motor Company. (Ironically, DaimlerChrysler would appropriate the Overland nameplate as a trim package with the 2002-present Jeep Grand Cherokee.) The company changed name again in 1963 to Kaiser-Jeep Corporation. The use of the Willys name was discontinued in 1965. The company was sold to American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1970 when Kaiser Industries decided to leave the automobile business. After the sale, AMC used engines it had developed for its other cars in the Jeep products to improve performance and standardize production and servicing.

Renault purchased a major stake in AMC in 1980 and took over operation of the company, producing the CJ series until 1986. Chrysler purchased AMC in 1987 after the CJ had been replaced with the Jeep Wrangler, which had little in common with the CJ series other than outward appearance. DaimlerChrysler still produces Jeep vehicles at the Toledo Complex.

List of Willys vehicles

Willys cars

1922 Willys-Knight Model 20 in the Petersen Automotive Museum
  • Willys Bermuda (at least in 1955)
  • Willys 77 (1933-1936)
  • Willys Four
  • Willys Six
  • Willys Eight
  • Willys Knight (1914-1933)
  • Willys Americar
  • also many early cars with model numbers

Overland

  • Overland Whippet (1926-1931)
  • Overland Four
  • Overland Six
  • Overland 93
  • Overland 39
  • also many early cars with model numbers

Aero-Willys

  • Aero-Willys JT (1951)
  • Aero-Willys Wing (1952)
  • Aero-Willys Scout (1953)
  • Aero-Willys Lark (1952-1954)
  • Aero-Willys Ace (1952 -1954)
  • Aero-Willys Falcon (1953)
  • Aero-Willys Eagle (1952-1954)
  • Aero-Willys 2600 (1960-1972) or Ford Aero (1955-1975) (Brazil)

Willys-Overland

  • Willys Dauphine (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil)
  • Willys Gordini (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil)
  • Willys Itamaraty (Brazil)
  • Willys Interlagos (1962-1967), licensed from Renault. 1500 produced. (Brazil)
  • Willys Executive limousine (Brazil)
  • Willys-Overland Crossley (United Kingdom)

Jeeps

  • Willys MB (1941-1946)
  • Willys CJ2A (1946-1953)
  • Willys Jeep Wagon (1946 - 1965) 300,000 produced.
  • Willys CJ3A (1946 - 1953) 132,000 are produced.
  • Willys Jeep Truck (1947 - 1965) 200,000 are produced..
  • Willys Jeepster (1948 - 1950) 19,000 are produced.
  • Willys M38 (1951 - 1971)
  • Willys CJ3B (1952 - 1968) 155,000 are produced.
  • Willys Jeep CJ5 later Jeep CJ5 (1954 - 1983) 600,000 are produced.
  • Rural Jeep (1958-1967) (Brazil)

Later models were not produced with the Willys name. It was phased out by American Motors, which was itself discontinued by Chrysler. The Jeep name still survives.


This page about Willys includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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The Jeep name still survives. The term "womanhood" merely means the state of being a woman; "femininity" is used to refer to a set of supposedly typical female qualities associated with a certain attitude to gender roles; "womanliness" is like "femininity", but is usually associated with a different view of gender roles; "femaleness" is a general term, but is often used as shorthand for "human femaleness"; "distaff" is an archaic adjective derived from women's conventional role as a spinner, now used only as a deliberate archaism; "muliebrity" is a neologism meant to provide a female counterpart of "virility", but used very loosely, sometimes to mean merely "womanhood", sometimes "femininity", and sometimes even as a collective term for women. It was phased out by American Motors, which was itself discontinued by Chrysler. There are various words used to refer to the quality of being a woman. Later models were not produced with the Willys name. A number of other derogatory terms for women are also in common usage. DaimlerChrysler still produces Jeep vehicles at the Toledo Complex. Some regard non-parallel usages, such as men and girls, as sexist.

Chrysler purchased AMC in 1987 after the CJ had been replaced with the Jeep Wrangler, which had little in common with the CJ series other than outward appearance. In this sense, girl may be considered to be the analogue to the British word bloke for a man. Renault purchased a major stake in AMC in 1980 and took over operation of the company, producing the CJ series until 1986. In more informal settings, the use of girl to refer to an adult female is also common practice in certain usage (such as girls' night out), even among elderly women. After the sale, AMC used engines it had developed for its other cars in the Jeep products to improve performance and standardize production and servicing. Referring to an unmarried female as woman can, in such a culture, imply that she is sexually experienced, which would be an insult to her family. The company was sold to American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1970 when Kaiser Industries decided to leave the automobile business. Conversely, in certain non-Western cultures which link family honor with female virginity, the word girl is still used to refer to a never-married woman; in this sense it is used in a fashion roughly analogous to the obsolete English maid or maiden.

The use of the Willys name was discontinued in 1965. The use remains commonplace in several other English-speaking countries. (Ironically, DaimlerChrysler would appropriate the Overland nameplate as a trim package with the 2002-present Jeep Grand Cherokee.) The company changed name again in 1963 to Kaiser-Jeep Corporation. Since the early 1970s, feminists have challenged such usage, and today, using the word in the workplace (as in office girl) is typically considered inappropriate in the United States and United Kingdom because it implies a view of women as infantile. In 1953 Kaiser Motors purchased Willys-Overland and changed the name to Willys Motor Company. Nowadays girl is also often used colloquially to refer to a young or unmarried woman. Army, and continued the CJ series of civilian Jeeps. The word girl originally meant "young person of either sex"; it was only around the beginning of the 16th century that it came to mean specifically a female child.

Willys later produced the M38 Jeep for the U.S. As previously mentioned, the term man continues to carry its original sense of "Human", though this usage results in an asymmetry which is sometimes criticized as sexist. In 1948, the Wagon was available in four wheel drive, making it the ancestor of all Sport Utility Vehicles. The equivalents for "man" in Old English were wer (a cognate of Latin vir, "man") and wǣpnedmann, literally "weaponed person". The next year came a "Jeep" Utility Truck with four wheel drive. This formation is peculiar to English. In 1946, a year after the introduction of the CJ-2A, Willys produced the Willys "Jeep" Utility Wagon based on the same engine and transmission, with clear styling influence from the CJ-2A Jeep. The English language's original word for "woman" was Old English wīf, akin to German Weib; it later became the modern word "wife." The modern word "woman" etymologically derives from wīfmann, with the addition of mann, "person", from Germanic mannaz.

It gained popularity among farmers, ranchers, hunters, and others who needed a lightweight vehicle for use on unimproved roads and trails. These changes and struggles are among the foci of the academic field of women's studies.
. However, the CJ-2A was among the first vehicles of any kind to be equipped with four wheel drive from the factory. Despite these advances, modern women in Western society still face challenges in the workplace as well as with the topics of education, violence, health care, and motherhood to name a few. Despite this, sales of the "agri-Jeep" never took off, mainly because it was too light to provide adequate draft. Through a combination of economic changes and the efforts of the feminist movement in recent decades women in most societies now have access to careers beyond the traditional one of "homemaker". Tractors were in short supply having been out of production during the war. The difficulties of obtaining this recognition are due to historical factors combined with the habits and customs history has produced.

Willys struggled to find a market for the unusual vehicle, and made an effort to sell it as an alternative to the farm tractor. The women's movement is in part a struggle for the recognition of equality of opportunity with men, and for equal rights irrespective of sex, even if special relations and conditions are willingly incurred under the form of partnership involved in marriage. The CJ-2A was an MB stripped of obviously military features, particularly the blackout lighting, and with the addition of a tailgate. Eventually, restricting women from wage labor came to be a mark of wealth and prestige in a family, while the presence of working women came to mark a household as being lower-class. Willys switched production to a civilian version, called a CJ-2A, at the end of the war. For poorer women, especially among the working classes, this often remained an ideal, for economic necessity has long compelled them to seek employment outside the home, although the occupations traditionally open to working-class women were lower in prestige and pay than those open to men. Whatever the source, the name stuck and, after the war, Willys filed a trademark claim for the name. Traditional gender roles for middle-class women typically involved domestic tasks emphasizing child care, and did not involve entering employment for wages.

It was also the name of a small tractor made by Modine before WW2. In more recent history, the gender roles of women have changed greatly. The first documented use of the word "Jeep" was as the name of a charcter in the Popeye cartoon, known for his supernatural abilities (e.g., to walk up walls). Because of their intimate knowledge of plant life, most anthropologists argue that it was women who led the Neolithic Revolution and became history's first pioneers of agriculture. Some people believe "Jeep" is a phonetic pronunciation of the abbreviation GP, from "General Purpose", that was used as part of the official Army nomenclature. In hunter-gatherer societies, women were generally the gatherers of plant foods, while men hunted meat. The origin of the name "Jeep" has been debated for many years. In many prehistoric cultures, women assumed a particular cultural role.

Production of the Willys MB began in 1941 with 8,598 units produced that year, and 359,851 units were produced before production stopped at the conclusion of World War II. Main article: gender role. It was one of several bidders when the Department of the Army sought an automaker who could begin rapid production of a lightweight truck based on a prototype designed by American Bantam. Matthew 19: 3-12 [NIV] provides detail on early Christian views on divorce (there are many other passages that speak of marriage and divorce both in Old and New Testaments, however) by relating:. In the 1920s and 1930s, Willys was an unremarkable automaker based in Toledo, Ohio, one of dozens in the U.S. Moreover, if the virgin brother refused to carry out the duty, he did not have to fulfill the duty, and the woman was given municipal compensation. In 1936 Willis-Overland Motor Company was reorganized as Willys-Overland Motors. It was possible for a divorced or a widowed woman to get remarried, but, if a widow was childless (and if her deceased husband had no children before he married her), she was to marry her deceased husband's brother if the brother was not married himself already.

This became the holding company for Willys-Overland and in 1919, acquired Duesenberg Motors Corporation. The vow of marriage could be disallowed by her father, and daughters could inherit only in the absence of sons (and then they were required to marry within their tribe). The Electric Auto-Lite Company was acquired by John Willys in 1914 and he changed its name to the Willys Corporation in 1917. Besides these instances, there was much legislation dealing with, inter alia, offences against chastity, and marriage of a man with a captive heathen woman or with a purchased slave, and a similar set of rules applied to man as well. From 1912 to 1918 Willys was the second largest producer of automobiles in the United States behind only Ford Motor Company. The ordeal was suppose to cast a curse on the adulterer (Deut 22:13~30). In 1908, John North Willys bought the Overland Automotive Division of Standard Wheel Company and in 1912 renamed it Willys-Overland Motor Company. If the evidences were lacking, then the guilt or innocence of a wife accused of adultery might be tried by the ordeal of the bitter water.

. A husband could sign a certificate of divorce if he found indecency in his wife, but if the husband accused his wife of misconduct and if proven otherwise, he was whipped and fined and could not divorce the woman until his death. Willys (pronounced "WILL-iss") was the brand name used by the United States automobile company Willys-Overland Motors, best known for its production of military and civilian Jeeps, during the last century. In most cases, divorce was carried out when the husband or the wife commited adultery, in which case the adulterer was stoned (unless shown mercy). Rural Jeep (1958-1967) (Brazil). In the Mosaic law, divorce was not to be performed easily—only under certain circumstances. Willys Jeep CJ5 later Jeep CJ5 (1954 - 1983) 600,000 are produced. Some early legal systems that are the antecedents of modern systems formalized female dependency.

Willys CJ3B (1952 - 1968) 155,000 are produced. In general, women suffer from the same illnesses as men; however there are some sex-related illnesses that are found more commonly or exclusively in women. Willys M38 (1951 - 1971). Women generally reach menopause in their late 40s or early 50s, at which point their ovaries cease producing estrogen and they can no longer become pregnant. Willys Jeepster (1948 - 1950) 19,000 are produced. The study of female reproduction and reproductive organs is called gynaecology. Willys Jeep Truck (1947 - 1965) 200,000 are produced.. After the onset of menarche, most women are able to become pregnant and bear children.

Willys CJ3A (1946 - 1953) 132,000 are produced. Out of the total population there are 101.3 men for every 100 women (source: 2001 World Almanac). Willys Jeep Wagon (1946 - 1965) 300,000 produced. Women have a lower death rate than men, even in the uterus, living on average five years longer due to a combination of factors: genetics (redundant and varied genes present on sex chromosomes in women); sociology (such as not being expected in most countries to perform military service); health-impacting choices (such as suicide or the use of cigarettes and alcohol); the presence of the female hormone estrogen, which has a cardioprotective effect in premenopausal women; and the effect of high levels of androgens in men. Willys CJ2A (1946-1953). Although fewer females than males are born (the ratio is around 1:1.05), due to a longer life expectancy there are only 81 men aged 60 or over for every 100 women, and among the oldest, there are only 53 men for every 100 women. Willys MB (1941-1946). Most women have the karyotype 46,XX, but around one in a thousand will be 47,XXX and one in 2500 will be 45,X.

Willys-Overland Crossley (United Kingdom). In terms of biology, the female sex organs are involved in the reproductive system, whereas the secondary sex characteristics are involved in nurturing children or attracting a mate. Willys Executive limousine (Brazil). (See gender identity.). (Brazil). Some women can have abnormal hormonal or chromosomal differences (such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, complete or partial androgen insensitivity syndrome or other intersex conditions), and there are women who may be without, at least for an earlier part of their lives, typical female physiology (trans, transgendered or transsexual women). 1500 produced. Biological factors are not the sole determinants of whether persons are considered, or consider themselves, women.

Willys Interlagos (1962-1967), licensed from Renault. Alchemists constructed the symbol from a circle (representing spirit) above a cross (representing matter). Willys Itamaraty (Brazil). The Venus symbol also represented femininity, and in ancient alchemy stood for copper. Willys Gordini (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil). The symbol for the planet Venus is the sign also known in biology for the female sex: a stylized representation of the goddess Venus's hand mirror: a circle with a small cross underneath (Unicode: ♀). Willys Dauphine (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil). [1] (See also Womyn.).

Aero-Willys 2600 (1960-1972) or Ford Aero (1955-1975) (Brazil). "Man" does continue to carry its original sense of "Human" however, resulting in an asymmetry sometimes criticized as sexist. Aero-Willys Eagle (1952-1954). In Middle English man displaced wer as term for "male human", whilst wyfman (which eventually evolved into woman) was retained for "female human". Aero-Willys Falcon (1953). In Old English the words wer and wyf (also wæpman and wifman) were what was used to refer to "a man" and "a woman" respectively, and "man" was gender neutral. Aero-Willys Ace (1952 -1954). This is indeed the oldest usage of "man".

Aero-Willys Lark (1952-1954). The English term "man" (from Proto-Germanic mannaz "man, person") and words derived therefrom can designate any or even all of the human race regardless of their gender or age. Aero-Willys Scout (1953). . Aero-Willys Wing (1952). The term woman (irregular plural: women) is used to indicate biological sex distinctions, cultural gender role distinctions, or both. Aero-Willys JT (1951). A woman is an adult female human, as contrasted with a man (an adult male), and a girl, (a female child).

also many early cars with model numbers. Overland 39. Overland 93. Overland Six.

Overland Four. Overland Whippet (1926-1931). also many early cars with model numbers. Willys Americar.

Willys Knight (1914-1933). Willys Eight. Willys Six. Willys Four.

Willys 77 (1933-1936). Willys Bermuda (at least in 1955).

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