Twin

Fraternal twin boys in the tub

The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and are usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day. A fetus alone in the womb is called a singleton. Due to the limited size of the mother's womb, multiple pregnancy is much less likely to carry to full term than singleton birth (twins usually around 34 to 36 weeks). Since some premature births often have health consequence to the babies, twins birth are often handled with special procedures.

Types of twins

Fraternal twins

Fraternal twins (commonly known as "non-identical twins") usually occur when two fertilized eggs are implanted in the uterine wall at the same time. The two eggs form two zygotes, and these twins are therefore also known as dizygotic as well as "biovular" twins.

Dizygotic twins, like any siblings, have a very small chance of having the exact same chromosome profile, but most likely have a number of different chromosomes that distinguish them. Dizygotic twins may be a different sex or the same sex, just as with any other siblings.

Studies show that there is a genetic basis for fraternal twinning—that is, non-identical twins do run in families. However, it is only the female that has any influence on the chances of having fraternal twins as the male cannot make her release more than one ovum.

Identical twins

Identical twins occur when a single egg is fertilized to form one zygote (monozygotic) but the zygote then divides into two separate embryos. The two embryos develop into fetuses sharing the same womb. Depending on the stage at which the zygote divides, identical twins may share the same amnion (in which case they are known as monoamniotic) or not (diamniotic). Diamniotic identical twins may share the same placenta (known as monochorionic) or not (dichorionic). All monoamniotic twins are monochorionic. Also note that any monochorionic or monoamniotic twins are identical twins. This condition does not occur for fraternal twins.

The later in pregnancy that twinning occurs, the more structures will be shared. Zygotes that twin at the earliest stages will be diamniotic and dichorionic ("di-di"). Twinning between 4 to 8 days after fertilization typically results in monochorionic-diamniotic ("mono-di") twins. Twinning between 8 to 12 days after fertilization will usually result in monochorionic-monoamniotic ("mono-mono") twins. Twinning after 12 days post-fertilization will typically result in conjoined twins.

Sharing the same amnion (or the same amnion and placenta) can cause complications in pregnancy. For example, the umbilical cords of monoamniotic twins can become entangled, reducing or interrupting the blood supply to the developing fetus. Monochorionic twins, sharing one placenta, usually also share the placental blood supply. These twins may develop such that blood passes disproportionately from one twin to the other through connecting blood vessels within their shared placenta, leading to twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. About 50% of mono-mono twins die from umbilical cord entanglement.

Monozygotic twins are genetically identical unless there has been a mutation in development, and they are almost always the same gender. (On extremely rare occasions, an original XXY zygote may form monozygotic boy/girl twins by dropping the Y chromosome for one twin and the extra X chromosome for the other.) Monozygotic twins generally look alike, although sometimes they appear as mirror images of each other. Examination of details such as fingerprints can tell them apart. As they mature, identical twins often become less alike because of lifestyle choices or external influences such as scars.

While it was originally thought that identical twins do not run in families, but occur more or less randomly, some recent research has suggested that a genetic predisposition may exist. The exact cause for the splitting of a zygote or embryo is unknown.

Identical twins can behave as differently as any other siblings (a matter of much interest to psychologists). They develop their own individual personalities to enable themselves to be identified as individual persons. Many identical twins spend most of their time together (especially as children), so people often assume that they will behave alike just as they look alike; however, this is not the case. Twins are unique individuals that establish their own individual likes and dislikes. There are usually obvious signs of differences when the identical twins are observed separately or together.

Identical twins have identical DNA but differing environmental influences throughout their lives affect which genes are switched on or off. This is called epigenetic modification. A study of 80 pairs of twins ranging in age from 3 to 74 showed that the youngest twins have relatively few epigenetic differences. The number of differences between identical twins increases with age. 50-year-old twins had over 3 times the epigenetic difference that the 3-year-old twins had. Twins who had spent their lives apart (such as those adopted by two different sets of parents at birth) had the greatest difference. (Fraga, et al., 2005).

Some percentage of monozygotic twins are called "mirror twins" or mirror image twins. These are identical twins with opposite features, that is one may be right handed and the other may be left handed; hair will whorl in the opposite direction, and so on. The incidence of mirror twinning is comparatively rare. They result from a late split of the fertilized egg at around 9-12 days. One mirror may or may not have situs inversus. This is where some or all of the organs will be on the opposite side of the body, such as the heart being on the right(Dextrocardia). Such conditions are usually associated with a higher incidence of other birth defects.

Complications of twin pregnancy

Vanishing twins

Researchers suspect that more pregnancies start out as multiples than come to term that way. Early obstetric ultrasonography exams sometimes reveal an "extra" fetus, which fails to develop and instead disintegrates and vanishes.

Conjoined twins

Conjoined twins are monozygotic twins, whose bodies are joined together at birth. This occurs where the single zygote of identical twins fails to separate completely. This condition occurs in about 1 in 100,000 pregnancies.

Parasitic twins

Sometimes one twin fetus will fail to develop completely and continue to cause problems for its surviving twin. One fetus acts as a parasite towards the other.

Sometimes the parasitic twin just becomes an almost indistinguishable part of the other.

A chimera is a person who is a completely normal human with no extra parts, but some of the parts actually came from his or her twin. A chimera may arise either from identical twin fetuses (where it would be impossible to detect), or from dizygotic fetuses, which could be identified by chromosomal comparisons from various parts of the body.

Miscarried twin

Occasionally, a woman will suffer a miscarriage early in pregnancy, yet the pregnancy will continue; one twin was miscarried but the other was able to be carried to term. Similar to vanishing twin.

Human twins

Historically, about 1 in 80 human births (1.2%) has been the result of a twin pregnancy. The rate of twinning varies greatly among ethnic groups, ranging as high as about 6% for the Yoruba or 10% for a tiny Brazilian village (see [1]). The widespread use of fertility drugs causing hyperovulation (stimulated release of multiple eggs by the mother) has caused what some call an "epidemic of multiple births". In 2001, for the first time ever in the US, the twinning rate exceeded 3% of all births. Thus, approximately 6% of children born in the US in 2001 were twins.

Nevertheless, the rate of identical twins remains at about 1 in 250 across the globe, further suggesting that pregnancies resulting in identical twins occur randomly.

Multiple births

Sometimes multiple births may involve more than two fetuses. If there are three, they are called triplets; four, quadruplets; five, quintuplets; six, sextuplets, seven, septuplets, and so on. Before the advent of ovulation-stimulating drugs, triplets were quite rare (approximately 1 in 8000 births) and higher order births so rare as to be almost unheard of. Multiple pregnancies are usually delivered before the full term of 40 weeks gestation: the average length of pregnancy is around 36 weeks for twins, 34 weeks for triplets and 32 weeks for quadruplets.

Predisposing factors

The cause of monozygotic twinning is unknown. Fewer than 20 families have been described with an inherited tendency towards monozygotic twinning (people in these families have nearly a 50% chance of delivering monozygotic twins). Some evidence suggests that the environment of the womb causes the zygote to split in most cases.

Dizygotic twin pregnancies are slightly more likely when the following factors are present in the woman:

  • She is of African descent
  • Between the age of 30 and 40 years
  • Greater than average height and weight
  • Several previous pregnancies.

Women undergoing certain fertility treatments may have a greater chance of multiple births. This can vary depending on what types of fertility treatments are used. With in vitro fertilisation (IVF), this is primarily due to the insertion of multiple embryos into the uterus. Some other treatments such as the drug Clomid can stimulate a woman to release multiple eggs, allowing the possibility of multiples. Many fertility treatments have no effect on the likelihood of multiple births.

Twin studies

Twin studies are studies that assess identical (monozygotic) twins for medical, genetic, or psychological characteristics to try to isolate genetic influence from environmental influence. Twins that have been separated early in life and raised in separate households are especially sought-after for these studies, which have been invaluable in the exploration of human nature.

Unusual Twinnings

There are some patterns of twinning that are exceedingly rare: while they have been reported to happen, they are so unusual that most obstetricians or midwives may go their entire careers without encountering a single case.

Among fraternal twins, in rare cases, the eggs are fertilised at different times with two or more acts of sexual intercourse, either within one menstrual cycle (superfecundation) or, even more rarely, later on in the pregnancy (superfetation). This can lead to the possibility of a woman carrying fraternal twins with different fathers (that is, half-siblings). One 1992 study estimates that the frequency of heteropaternal superfecundation among dizygotic twins whose parents were involved in paternity suits was approximately 2.4%; see the references section, below, for more details.

Among monozygotic twins, in extremely rare cases, twins have been born with opposite sexes (one male, one female). The probability of this is so vanishingly small (only 3 documented cases) that multiples having different genders is universally accepted as a sound basis for a clinical determination that in utero multiples are not monozygotic. When monozygotic twins are born with different genders it is because of chromosomal birth defects. In this case, although the twins did come from the same egg, it is incorrect to refer to them as genetically identical, since they have different karyotypes.

Twinning in animals

Multiple births are common in many animal species, such as cats, sheep, and ferrets. The incidence of twinning among cattle is about 1-4%, and research is underway to improve the odds of twinning, which can be more profitable for the breeder if complications can be sidestepped or managed.


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The incidence of twinning among cattle is about 1-4%, and research is underway to improve the odds of twinning, which can be more profitable for the breeder if complications can be sidestepped or managed. The most popular of these include the minature-based games Battlefleet Gothic, Epic Armageddon, Inquistor and Necromunda, all of which are available as "Specialist Games" from the Games Workshop website, and the video games Dawn of War and Fire Warrior. Multiple births are common in many animal species, such as cats, sheep, and ferrets. Warhammer 40,000 has, over the years, inspired many spin-off games. In this case, although the twins did come from the same egg, it is incorrect to refer to them as genetically identical, since they have different karyotypes. The list below contains a selection of the greatest characters. When monozygotic twins are born with different genders it is because of chromosomal birth defects. Some of these characters are more important to the universe and game than others.

The probability of this is so vanishingly small (only 3 documented cases) that multiples having different genders is universally accepted as a sound basis for a clinical determination that in utero multiples are not monozygotic. The Warhammer 40,000 universe and game are made up of many different characters, each important in some way. Among monozygotic twins, in extremely rare cases, twins have been born with opposite sexes (one male, one female). The playable armies in the game are the Chaos Space Marines, Daemonhunters, Dark Eldar, Eldar, Imperial Guard, Necrons, Orks, Space Marines, Tau, Tyranids and Witch Hunters. One 1992 study estimates that the frequency of heteropaternal superfecundation among dizygotic twins whose parents were involved in paternity suits was approximately 2.4%; see the references section, below, for more details. The Warhammer 40,000 game, and consequentially the fictional universe, is made up of many races and species. This can lead to the possibility of a woman carrying fraternal twins with different fathers (that is, half-siblings). Chaos and the Warp are still more complicated, considering there exist many other minor Chaos entities, some of which are worshipped in place of the four major powers of the warp.

Among fraternal twins, in rare cases, the eggs are fertilised at different times with two or more acts of sexual intercourse, either within one menstrual cycle (superfecundation) or, even more rarely, later on in the pregnancy (superfetation). Nurgle (decay is entropic and is associated with an negative increase in free energy) and Tzeentch (potential energy and complexity by definition oppose entropy) represent opposing forces (and both draw power from their psychological effects); Khorne and Slaanesh are more subtle – the actions of a Khornate devotee affect a victim, the actions of a Slaaneshi devotee affect the devotee (the victim is merely an instrument). There are some patterns of twinning that are exceedingly rare: while they have been reported to happen, they are so unusual that most obstetricians or midwives may go their entire careers without encountering a single case. The Chaos gods have a dynamic, antagonistic relationship; Khorne rivals Slaanesh, while Nurgle rivals Tzeentch. Twins that have been separated early in life and raised in separate households are especially sought-after for these studies, which have been invaluable in the exploration of human nature. Indeed, the gods of Chaos actually are either core aspects of the human psyche or natural forces with profound impact thereupon. Twin studies are studies that assess identical (monozygotic) twins for medical, genetic, or psychological characteristics to try to isolate genetic influence from environmental influence. The strongest of these entities are the Chaos Gods, Khorne (a god of rage and wrath), Nurgle (a god of life, death and decay), Tzeentch (a god of change, accumulating power, and magic) and Slaanesh (a god of desire and depravity).

Many fertility treatments have no effect on the likelihood of multiple births. As this is a realm of thought, a coalescence yields the often sinister warp entity. Some other treatments such as the drug Clomid can stimulate a woman to release multiple eggs, allowing the possibility of multiples. The Warp is described as a realm of energy, where thought can take physical form, and with currents and eddies that make traveling vast interstellar distances difficult, yet possible. With in vitro fertilisation (IVF), this is primarily due to the insertion of multiple embryos into the uterus. A dynamic, galaxy-spanning story line is possible because of a separate plane of existence, the Immaterium or "Warp.". This can vary depending on what types of fertility treatments are used. Much of this is controlled by the The Imperium of Man, though he is not the only galactic denizen.

Women undergoing certain fertility treatments may have a greater chance of multiple births. The physical setting of this story is the Materium, with all action here in the Milky Way Galaxy. Dizygotic twin pregnancies are slightly more likely when the following factors are present in the woman:. The only reason it can maintain any semblance of control of its population is because being worked to the bone night and day in total, oppressive adoration of the Emperor is better than being worked to the bone night and day in total, oppressive adoration of the Gods of Chaos, only to end existence as a sacrifice for a god hungry for souls. Some evidence suggests that the environment of the womb causes the zygote to split in most cases. For example, The Imperium of Man, is generally thought of as the "good side", and while it may be true that there are many good people within it, as a whole it is an oppressive, xenophobic, corrupt mess of an organization. Fewer than 20 families have been described with an inherited tendency towards monozygotic twinning (people in these families have nearly a 50% chance of delivering monozygotic twins). Giger), and popular depictions of historical settings (such as the World Wars, Victorian Britain, Imperial Rome, The Inquisitions, Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia) leads to a wholly unique fictional universe, in which every side is to some extent evil – though some are slightly less evil than others.

The cause of monozygotic twinning is unknown. R. Multiple pregnancies are usually delivered before the full term of 40 weeks gestation: the average length of pregnancy is around 36 weeks for twins, 34 weeks for triplets and 32 weeks for quadruplets. These and other sources of inspiration, such as medieval, baroque and surrealist art (especially the works of H. Before the advent of ovulation-stimulating drugs, triplets were quite rare (approximately 1 in 8000 births) and higher order births so rare as to be almost unheard of. Heinlein (Heinlein's novel Starship Troopers inspired many elements such as elite marines in powered armor, and drop pods in which encased Space Marines and equipment are fired from orbiting ships down to the battlefield). If there are three, they are called triplets; four, quadruplets; five, quintuplets; six, sextuplets, seven, septuplets, and so on. Tolkien and Robert A.

Sometimes multiple births may involve more than two fetuses. R. Nevertheless, the rate of identical twins remains at about 1 in 250 across the globe, further suggesting that pregnancies resulting in identical twins occur randomly. R. Thus, approximately 6% of children born in the US in 2001 were twins. Lovecraft, Michael Moorcock, J. In 2001, for the first time ever in the US, the twinning rate exceeded 3% of all births. The eclectic mix of inspirational sources for the Warhammer 40,000 universe include classic and contemporary sci-fi, horror and fantasy movies and television series and the works of renowned genre authors such as Isaac Asimov, Frank Herbert, H.P.

The widespread use of fertility drugs causing hyperovulation (stimulated release of multiple eggs by the mother) has caused what some call an "epidemic of multiple births". Since it originally was created as a sci-fi spin-off of the Warhammer Fantasy Battle game, the Warhammer 40,000 gameworld contains many elements of the fantasy genre, for example the concept of magic and adapted versions of classic fantasy races. The rate of twinning varies greatly among ethnic groups, ranging as high as about 6% for the Yoruba or 10% for a tiny Brazilian village (see [1]). The central and most popular elements of the Warhammer 40,000 universe are the Space Marines, futuristic versions of fantasy knights and the finest warriors of the Imperium of Mankind, a dystopian and degenerate galaxy-spanning civilization. Historically, about 1 in 80 human births (1.2%) has been the result of a twin pregnancy. The Warhammer 40,000 game world is most readily characterized as a gothic science-fantasy setting. Similar to vanishing twin. Common household items like soft drink cans, coffee cups, styrofoam packing pieces, and pill bottles can be transformed into ruined cathedrals, alien habitats, or terrain with the addition of plasticard, putty, and a bit of patience and skill.

Occasionally, a woman will suffer a miscarriage early in pregnancy, yet the pregnancy will continue; one twin was miscarried but the other was able to be carried to term. Although Games Workshop has terrain kits available, many hobbyists prefer to make their own elaborate and unique set pieces. A chimera may arise either from identical twin fetuses (where it would be impossible to detect), or from dizygotic fetuses, which could be identified by chromosomal comparisons from various parts of the body. Terrain is a very important part of play. A chimera is a person who is a completely normal human with no extra parts, but some of the parts actually came from his or her twin. These conversions are often entered into contests at sponsored tournaments and similar gaming events. Sometimes the parasitic twin just becomes an almost indistinguishable part of the other. They are also encouraged to further modify their figures and vehicles using parts from other kits and models (known as "bitz" to players), or scratch-made from plasticard, modelling putty, or whatever the modeller can scrounge up.

One fetus acts as a parasite towards the other. Since the models are hand-painted and assembled by the player, players are encouraged to design their own paint schemes as well as using the pre-designed ones displayed in the various books. Sometimes one twin fetus will fail to develop completely and continue to cause problems for its surviving twin. This is the only way to get certain factions (for example, Eldar Harlequins), which have been discontinued. This condition occurs in about 1 in 100,000 pregnancies. These are models that have been used for earlier versions of the game. This occurs where the single zygote of identical twins fails to separate completely. In addition to the current line of units, Games Workshop makes available past model lines as a part of their mail-order-only "Classic" series.

Conjoined twins are monozygotic twins, whose bodies are joined together at birth. [2]. Early obstetric ultrasonography exams sometimes reveal an "extra" fetus, which fails to develop and instead disintegrates and vanishes. A typical blister pack with one to three models will cost from £4 to £12, with the cost of boxed sets varying widely (£18 to £75), depending on the contents. Researchers suspect that more pregnancies start out as multiples than come to term that way. As of February 2006, new players wishing to start playing should expect to spend upwards of £100 to £160 for a reasonably sized army, including costs for rulebooks, codexes and paints.[1] Players must purchase units; which are available individually, in squads or in boxed sets. Such conditions are usually associated with a higher incidence of other birth defects. The latest of these global campaigns was the Eye of Terror Campaign.

This is where some or all of the organs will be on the opposite side of the body, such as the heart being on the right(Dextrocardia). These results are collated, and together affect the storyline of the game, which is then and is accounted for in the next rulebook and fiction releases. One mirror may or may not have situs inversus. Every few years, a global campaign is held in which people submit the results of their games to Games Workshop. They result from a late split of the fertilized egg at around 9-12 days. These campaigns may feature their own special rules, and are tied together by a storyline, which might alter according to the results of each scenario when it is played. The incidence of mirror twinning is comparatively rare. Some players organize a series of scenarios, called a campaign, where two or more players fight against each other in a number of battles.

These are identical twins with opposite features, that is one may be right handed and the other may be left handed; hair will whorl in the opposite direction, and so on. The simplest of these is a basic "cleanse" mission, which ends after six turns, the victor being declared based on who controls the four quarters of the battlefield; more complex goals can include night fights, take-and-hold missions, and various others. Some percentage of monozygotic twins are called "mirror twins" or mirror image twins. Each battle, at the onset, is assigned a set of additional rules and a goal (collectively called a "scenario") specific to it. (Fraga, et al., 2005). Play is divided into turns, with each player choosing specific actions for all of his units on his turn, and using dice to determine the results of those actions. Twins who had spent their lives apart (such as those adopted by two different sets of parents at birth) had the greatest difference. The games generally run from half an hour to several hours depending on the size of the armies.

50-year-old twins had over 3 times the epigenetic difference that the 3-year-old twins had. Common game sizes are usually between 500 and 2000 points, but can be much larger. The number of differences between identical twins increases with age. Before a game the players agree on how many points will be used as the maximum army size and each assemble an army up to that maximum limit. A study of 80 pairs of twins ranging in age from 3 to 74 showed that the youngest twins have relatively few epigenetic differences. The size of the army is determined by "points", with each unit having an associated cost proportionate to its potential worth on the battlefield. This is called epigenetic modification. These armies are constrained by rules contained within the Warhammer 40,000 rulebook, as well as in several army-specific Codexes.

Identical twins have identical DNA but differing environmental influences throughout their lives affect which genes are switched on or off. Each player assembles an army, consisting of pewter and plastic minature figurines - each, usually, representing a military unit from one of the official lists. There are usually obvious signs of differences when the identical twins are observed separately or together. For materials done under the previous iteration of the rules, there exist errata and FAQ files, to ensure potential rules conflicts between editions are resolved universally. Twins are unique individuals that establish their own individual likes and dislikes. A supplement covering the Taros campaign (Imperial Armour Volume 3: The Taros Campaign), including additional units and models available from the Forge World subsidiary of Games Workshop, is also available. Many identical twins spend most of their time together (especially as children), so people often assume that they will behave alike just as they look alike; however, this is not the case. The next codex to be released will be the Tau Empire, containing the new Vespid mercenaries and several other Tau updates.

They develop their own individual personalities to enable themselves to be identified as individual persons. As of January 2006 the Space Marines and Tyranid codexes have been updated to fourth edition and the new Black Templars codex was released in early November 2005. Identical twins can behave as differently as any other siblings (a matter of much interest to psychologists). As with prior versions, the main rules are included in the rule book with supplementary details being available for each army in the form of Codex books, each detailing either one army, a part of an army or sometimes extra rules for a specific form of battle (such as Cityfight). The exact cause for the splitting of a zygote or embryo is unknown. The new rulebook is published in hardcover, and a truncated version of the same rules is available as part of an introductory boxed set, Battle For Macragge, featuring the Space Marines and Tyranids. While it was originally thought that identical twins do not run in families, but occur more or less randomly, some recent research has suggested that a genetic predisposition may exist. This edition is not as major a change as prior editions were as it did not break gamers' old army lists or codexes.

As they mature, identical twins often become less alike because of lifestyle choices or external influences such as scars. The fourth edition of the game was released in 2004. Examination of details such as fingerprints can tell them apart. The rulebook was available alone, or as a boxset with minatures featuring the Space Marines and the newly introduced Dark Eldar. (On extremely rare occasions, an original XXY zygote may form monozygotic boy/girl twins by dropping the Y chromosome for one twin and the extra X chromosome for the other.) Monozygotic twins generally look alike, although sometimes they appear as mirror images of each other. The third edition was released in 1998, and again concentrated on streamlining the rules for larger battles. Monozygotic twins are genetically identical unless there has been a mutation in development, and they are almost always the same gender. An expansion pack titled Dark Millennium was later released.

About 50% of mono-mono twins die from umbilical cord entanglement. This version relied greatly on cards, and came as a boxset including Space Marine and Ork miniatures, scenery and dice, as well as the main rules. These twins may develop such that blood passes disproportionately from one twin to the other through connecting blood vessels within their shared placenta, leading to twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. This and later developments of the game are the work of editor Andy Chambers. Monochorionic twins, sharing one placenta, usually also share the placental blood supply. The second edition was published in late 1993, aimed at making it easier to fight larger battles. For example, the umbilical cords of monoamniotic twins can become entangled, reducing or interrupting the blood supply to the developing fetus. Laserburn was turned into the computer game Laser Squad that subsequently evolved into the X-COM computer games.

Sharing the same amnion (or the same amnion and placenta) can cause complications in pregnancy. The influence of these can also be seen in the prototype Necromunda game mechanics. Twinning after 12 days post-fertilization will typically result in conjoined twins. A few elements of the setting (bolters, Dreadnought armour) can be seen in a set of earlier wargaming rules called Laserburn produced by Tabletop Games. Twinning between 8 to 12 days after fertilization will usually result in monochorionic-monoamniotic ("mono-mono") twins. Much of the composition of units was determined randomly, by rolling dice. Twinning between 4 to 8 days after fertilization typically results in monochorionic-diamniotic ("mono-di") twins. This original version came as a very detailed rulebook, making it most suitable for fighting small skirmishes.

Zygotes that twin at the earliest stages will be diamniotic and dichorionic ("di-di"). Game designer Rick Priestley was responsible for creating the original rules set and the Warhammer 40,000 gameworld. The later in pregnancy that twinning occurs, the more structures will be shared. The first edition of the game, Warhammer 40,000: Rogue Trader, was published in 1987. This condition does not occur for fraternal twins. . Also note that any monochorionic or monoamniotic twins are identical twins. It allows for less regimental, formation-based movement, and deals with more advanced weaponry.

All monoamniotic twins are monochorionic. Warhammer 40,000 is the science fiction companion to Warhammer Fantasy. Diamniotic identical twins may share the same placenta (known as monochorionic) or not (dichorionic). The game requires a combination of tactics and luck. Depending on the stage at which the zygote divides, identical twins may share the same amnion (in which case they are known as monoamniotic) or not (diamniotic). Play centres around 28mm scale (approximately 1:65) miniature figurines produced by Citadel Miniatures, which represent soldiers, creatures and vehicles of war. The two embryos develop into fetuses sharing the same womb. Warhammer 40,000 (informally known as Warhammer 40K or just 40K) is a science fiction tabletop miniature wargame, produced by the British gaming company Games Workshop.

Identical twins occur when a single egg is fertilized to form one zygote (monozygotic) but the zygote then divides into two separate embryos. Games Workshop Space Marines Store Page. However, it is only the female that has any influence on the chances of having fraternal twins as the male cannot make her release more than one ovum. Games Workshop Starting Out Store Page. Studies show that there is a genetic basis for fraternal twinning—that is, non-identical twins do run in families. Eldrad Ulthran (now deceased). Dizygotic twins may be a different sex or the same sex, just as with any other siblings. Ghazghkull Mag Uruk Thraka.

Dizygotic twins, like any siblings, have a very small chance of having the exact same chromosome profile, but most likely have a number of different chromosomes that distinguish them. Cypher. The two eggs form two zygotes, and these twins are therefore also known as dizygotic as well as "biovular" twins. Creed, Lord Castellan of Cadia. Fraternal twins (commonly known as "non-identical twins") usually occur when two fertilized eggs are implanted in the uterine wall at the same time. Ursarkar E. . Abaddon the Despoiler.

Since some premature births often have health consequence to the babies, twins birth are often handled with special procedures. The four Chaos Gods (Khorne, Slaanesh, Nurgle, and Tzeentch). Due to the limited size of the mother's womb, multiple pregnancy is much less likely to carry to full term than singleton birth (twins usually around 34 to 36 weeks). Horus. A fetus alone in the womb is called a singleton. The Emperor. The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and are usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day.

Several previous pregnancies. Greater than average height and weight. Between the age of 30 and 40 years. She is of African descent.

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