Polo neck

An example of a classic polo neck.

A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked").


History

Woman in a black polo neck.

The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK). It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century.

Workwear

Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear.

Casual wear

Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item.

Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear.

Womens wear

Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look.

By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version.

In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion.

Feminist wear

This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists. The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period.

As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage.

Polo neck with sleeves. Polo neck without sleeves.

Return to fashion

By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item. However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent.

See also:

  • Spandex fetishism
  • Lacoste
  • Polo Ralph Lauren
  • Preppy
  • Tennis shirt

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However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent. The city of Winchester is twinned with Laon in France and the Winchester district is twinned with Gießen in Germany. By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item. The ancient Pilgrims' Way begins at Winchester, and runs to Canterbury. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage. and The Square contains more information on the history of Winchester. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint. The City Museum located on the corner of Minster St.

As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. Winchester also have a rugby team named Winchester RFC. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period. Winchester's association football (soccer) club, called Winchester City F.C., was founded in 1884 and has the motto "Many in Men, One in Spirit", and currently play in the Sydenhams Wessex League Division 1. The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. The famous novelist Jane Austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817 and is buried in the cathedral. This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists. Swithun was Bishop of Winchester in the mid ninth century.

In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion. St. The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version. During the middle ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. William of Wykeham (1320-1404) played an important role in the history of the town; as Bishop of Winchester he was responsible for much of the current structure of the cathedral and also founded Winchester College. By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming. A serious fire in the city in 1141 accelerated its decline.

It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look. Winchester remained the capital of Wessex, and then England, until some time after the Norman Conquest when the capital was moved to London. Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. Four main gates were positioned in the north, south, east and west plus the additional Durngate and King's Gate. Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear. The boundary of the old town is visible in places (a wooden barricade surrounded by ditches in Saxon times) now a stone wall. Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item. Built by Alfred to protect the Kingdom, they were known as 'burhs'.

Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. The town was part of a series of fortifications along the south coast. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. The Saxon street plan laid out by Alfred is still evident today: a cross shaped street system which conformed to the standard town planning system of the day - overlaying the pre-existing Roman street plan (incorporating the ecclesiastical quarter in the south-east; the judicial quarter in the south-west; the tradesmen in the north-east). Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. Although it was not the only town to have been the capital, it was established by King Alfred the Great as the main city in his kingdom in 827. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear. The town has historic importance as the capital of the ancient kingdom of Wessex from 519.

The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. Under the Romans the town, then named Venta Belgarum, was of considerable importance. Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. Settlement in the area dates back to pre-Roman times, and there is evidence of Iron Age hill forts around the city. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century. Winchester is also famous for the Royal Hampshire County Hospital, one of the oldest acute hospitals in the area. Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this. The mill is owned by the National Trust.

These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. One of these, Winchester City Mill, has recently been restored, and is again milling corn by water power. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. Historically, Winchester possessed several water mills driven by the various channels of the River Itchen that penetrate the city centre. It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. The University of Winchester (formerly University College Winchester and before that King Alfred's College) is situated within the city, as is the Winchester School of Art, part of the University of Southampton. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK). As well as the public school, Winchester College, Winchester is home to the largest state sixth form college in the country, Peter Symonds College.

The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. In the grounds of the Great Hall are a recreation of a medieval garden along with the Wedding Gates and Law Courts. . The names of the legendary Knights of the Round Table are written around the edge of the table surmounted by King Arthur on his throne.
. The table was originally unpainted, but was painted for King Henry VIII in 1522. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked"). Despite this it is still of considerable historical interest and attracts many tourists.

A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. The table actually dates from the 14th Century, and as such is not contemporary to Arthur. Tennis shirt. It is most well known for "King Arthur's" Round Table, which has hung in the hall from at least 1463. Preppy. The Great Hall was rebuilt, sometime between 1222-1235, and still exists in this form. Polo Ralph Lauren. Important historic buildings include Winchester Cathedral, built in the 12th century; the Great Hall, the only surviving portion of Winchester Castle; and Winchester College, a public school founded in 1382.

Lacoste. . Spandex fetishism. Winchester was formerly the capital of England, during the 10th and early 11th centuries. It is the seat of the City of Winchester local government district, which covers a much larger area, and is also the administrative capital and county town of Hampshire. Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre.

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