Polo neck

An example of a classic polo neck.

A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked").


History

Woman in a black polo neck.

The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK). It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century.

Workwear

Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear.

Casual wear

Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item.

Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear.

Womens wear

Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look.

By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version.

In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion.

Feminist wear

This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists. The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period.

As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage.

Polo neck with sleeves. Polo neck without sleeves.

Return to fashion

By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item. However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent.

See also:

  • Spandex fetishism
  • Lacoste
  • Polo Ralph Lauren
  • Preppy
  • Tennis shirt

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However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent.
. By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item.
. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage. The group business areas are supported by a number of business units:. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint. The Volvo Group is organised into the following business areas:.

As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. There is also a Volvo Baltic Race. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period. One of the main promotional activities for the trademark is the sailing contest Volvo Ocean Race, formerly the Whitbread Around the World Cup. The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. The Volvo™ trademark is now jointly owned (50/50) by Volvo and Ford. This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists. Instead Volvo acquired the commercial vehicles division of French Renault and the American truck manufacturer Mack.

In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion. Volvo used the funds from the sale of the automobile division to finance the purchase of Scania, another leading Swedish truck manufacturer, but the deal was stopped for competition reasons by the European Union. The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version. In the following year acquisition was completed at a price of $6.45 billion USD. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. The buyout of Volvo Cars was announced on January 28, 1998. By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming. The strategy was instead to grow as a truck manufacturer where it had a stronger market position.

It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look. Among the reasons why Volvo took the initiative to sell the automobile manufacturing was the increasing development costs for new car models, coupled with the fact that it was a relatively small producer. Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. . Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear. Renault owns 20% of the Volvo Group. Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item. The Volvo Group's net sales 2004 amounted to €22 billion.

Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. The group provides complete solutions for financing and service. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. The Volvo Group today has more than 81,000 employees, with manufacturing in 25 countries and sales in more than 185 markets. Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. Volvo is Latin for "I roll", and although fitting well to their products, vehicles, it was originally a name for a ball bearing being developed by the company SKF, which provided funding to a few employees to set up the car-manufacturing business. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear. Volvo Cars, the automobile manufacturer, has since 1999 been owned by the Ford Motor Company.

The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. It was founded in April 14, 1927 in the city of Gothenburg, as a spin-off from roller ball bearing maker SKF. Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. AB Volvo (or Aktiebolaget Volvo) is a world-leading Swedish manufacturer of commercial vehicles, buses and construction equipment, drive systems for marine and industrial applications, aerospace components and services. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century. Volvo Cars. Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this. Celero Support.

These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. Volvo Business Services. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. Volvo Technology Transfer. It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. Volvo Logistics. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK). Volvo Information Technology.

The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. Volvo Technology. . Volvo Parts.
. Volvo Powertrain. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked"). Volvo 3P.

A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. Volvo Marine. Tennis shirt. Volvo Financial Services. Preppy. Volvo Aero. Polo Ralph Lauren. Volvo Penta.

Lacoste. Volvo Construction Equipment. Spandex fetishism. Volvo Buses. Renault Trucks. Mack Trucks.

Volvo Trucks.

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