Polo neck

An example of a classic polo neck.

A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked").


History

Woman in a black polo neck.

The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK). It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century.

Workwear

Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear.

Casual wear

Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item.

Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear.

Womens wear

Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look.

By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version.

In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion.

Feminist wear

This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists. The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period.

As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage.

Polo neck with sleeves. Polo neck without sleeves.

Return to fashion

By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item. However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent.

See also:

  • Spandex fetishism
  • Lacoste
  • Polo Ralph Lauren
  • Preppy
  • Tennis shirt

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However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent. As a result, the wearing of wrist-watches has become less common among mobile phone users, who are now the majority of the population. By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item. As these phones typically display the time on their screens when not in use, it has become common to rely on them for time-keeping, effectively making the mobile phone serve the function of a pocket watch. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage. In the early 2000s, the carrying of mobile telephones has become ubiquitous in many affluent countries. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint. Wrist_PDA, although many digital watches come with extremely sophisticated data management software built in.

As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. As of 2005, the only programmable computer watches to have made it to market are the Seiko Ruputer, the Matsucom onHand, and the Fossil, Inc. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period. Several companies have however attempted to develop a computer contained in a WristWatch (see also wearable computer). The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. Now with the ubiquity of the mobile phone in many countries, which have bigger screens, buttons, and batteries, interest in incorporating extra functionality in watches seems to have declined. This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists. Such watches have also had the reputation as ugly and thus mainly geek toys.

In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion. As well as awkward user interfaces due to the tiny screens and buttons possible in a wearable package, and in some cases short battery life, the functionality available has not generally proven sufficiently compelling to attract buyers. The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version. These watches have not had sustained long-term sales success. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. In the early 2000s, a self-contained wristwatch television receiver came on the market, with a strong enough power source to provide one hour of viewing. By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming. In the early 1980s Seiko marketed a watch with a television receiver in it, although at the time television receivers were too bulky to fit in a wristwatch, and the actual receiver and its power source were in a book-sized box with a cable that ran to the wristwatch.

It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look. As miniaturized electronics become cheaper, watches have been developed containing calculators, video games, digital cameras, keydrives, GPS receivers and cellular phones. Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. A number of functionalities non directly related to time have also been inserted into watches. Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear. In 2005 for example, a company has put into market an alarm wristwatch with an accelerometer inside that monitors the user's sleep and rings during one of his almost-awake phases. Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item. Other technological enhancements to wristwatches have been explored but most of them remained unnoticed.

Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. Suunto is the only company offering a reasonable-sized watch integrating GPS. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. Early examples are the Casio PRO TREK GPS Satellite Navi and the Garmin Forerunner 201. Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. As GPS receivers are significantly more complex, very few wrist-watches integrating GPS are available and most of which are very large compared to regular watches. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear. Similarly watches with GPS time synchronisation use the satellite networks time signals.

The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. In recent years, mass production has meant that atomic watches have become as cheap as quartz watches, though market share still remains small as interest from big manufacturers is limited. Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. Similar signals are broadcast from Rugby (MSF time signal), England and Frankfurt, Germany. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century. It will also reset itself when daylight saving time changes. Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this. This radio signal tells the wristwatch exactly what time it is, in theory precise to a fraction of a nanosecond.

These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. These wristwatches normally receive a radio signal from one of the national atomic clock facilities around the world, for example the National Institute of Standards and Technology located in Colorado in the United States. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. In 1990 radio controlled wristwatches or as they are sometimes called "atomic watches" reached the market. It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. This is often used as a case study in design schools to demonstrate the commercial potential of industrial and graphic design. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK). They founded the Swiss Watch company (Swatch) and called graphic designers to redesign a new annual collection.

The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. In fact it was so cheap that if a watch broke it would be cheaper to throw it away and buy a new one than to repair it. . The result was that they could considerably reduce the pieces and production time of an analog watch.
. They joined forces with designers from many countries to reinvent the Swiss watch. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked"). At the end of the 20th century, Swiss watch makers were seeing their sales go down as analog clocks were considered obsolete.

A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. For others, analog watches are just easier to read. Tennis shirt. In fact, because digital watches are so cheap, analog watches are often worn as status symbols. Preppy. Digital watches have not replaced analog watches, despite their greater reliability and lower cost. Polo Ralph Lauren. In addition to the function of a timepiece, digital watches can have additional functions like a chronograph, calculator, video game, etc.

Lacoste. The first LCD watch with a six-digit LCD was the 1973 Seiko 06LC, although various forms of early LCD watches with a four-digit display were marketed as early as 1972 including the 1972 Gruen Teletime LCD Watch [3], [4]. Spandex fetishism. LED displays were soon superseded by liquid crystal displays (LCDs), which used less battery power. It had a red light-emitting diode (LED) display. A retail version of the Pulsar was put on sale in 1972.

The first digital watch, a Pulsar prototype in 1970, was developed jointly by Hamilton Watch Company and Electro-Data. Douglas Adams, in the introduction of his novel The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, would say that humans were 'so amazingly primitive that they still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea'. They were seen as the great new thing. Cheaper electronics permitted the popularization of the digital watch (an electronic watch with a numerical, rather than analog, display) in the second half of the 20th century.

Watch batteries come in many forms, the most common of which are silver oxide and lithium. The most common power source is the battery. A seldom used power source is temperature difference between the wearer's arm and the surrounding environment (as applied in the Citizen Eco Drive Thermo). Kinetic powered quartz watches make use of the motion of the wearer's arm turning a rotating weight, which in turn, turns a generator to supply power.

Solar powered quartz watches are powered by available light. There are solar powered, kinetically powered, battery powered and other less common power sources. There are also several variations of the quartz watch as to what actually powers the movement. The first quartz watch to enter production was the Seiko 35 SQ Astron, which appeared in 1969.

The first prototypes were made by the CEH research laboratory in Switzerland in 1962. The quartz analog watch is an electronic watch that uses a piezoelectric quartz crystal as its timing element, coupled to a mechanical movement that drives the hands. The first battery-powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500, was released in 1957 by the Hamilton Watch Company of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The first use of electrical power in watches was as a source of energy to replace the mainspring, and therefore to remove the need for winding.

The concepts are different but not mutually exclusive; a watch can be a chronograph, a chronometer, both, or neither. A chronograph is a type of complication, as explained under the heading "Complicated Watch." A chronometer is a watch or clock whose movement has been tested and certified to operate within a certain standard of accuracy by the COSC (Contrôle Officiel Suisse des Chronomètres). The similar-sounding terms chronograph and chronometer are often confused, although they mean altogether different things. Among watch enthusiasts, complicated watches are especially collectible.

Two popular complications are the chronograph complication, which is the ability of the watch movement to function as a stopwatch, and the moonphase complication, which is a display of the lunar phase. A complicated watch has one or more functionalities beyond basic time-keeping capabilities; such a functionality is called a complication. Today, many Westerners wear watches on their wrist, a direct result of the First World War. When the war ended, demobilized European and American officers were allowed to keep their wristwatches, helping to popularize the items amongst middle-class Western civilian culture.

Army contractors began to issue reliable, cheap, mass-produced wristwatches which were ideal for these purposes. As the scale of battles increased, artillery and infantry officers were required to synchronize watches in order to conduct attacks at precise moments, whilst artillery officers were in need of a large number of accurate timekeepers for rangefinding and gunnery. In addition, as increasing numbers of officers were killed in the early stages of the war, NCOs promoted to replace them often did not have pocket watches (traditionally a middle-class item out of the reach of ordinary working-class soldiers), and so relied on the army to provide them with timekeepers. During the First World War, officers in all armies soon discovered that in battlefield situations, quickly glancing at a watch on their wrist was far more convenient than fumbling in their jacket pockets for an old-fashioned pocket watch.

Being a popular figure in Paris, Cartier was soon able to sell these watches to other men. Cartier gave him a leather-band wristwatch from which Dumont never separated. It was not until the beginning of the 20th century that the Brazilian inventor Alberto Santos-Dumont, who had difficulty checking the time while in his first aircraft (Dumont was working on the invention of the aeroplane), asked his friend Louis Cartier for a watch he could use more easily. It was however considered a woman's accessory.

The wristwatch was invented by Patek Philippe at the end of the 19th century. Aaron Lufkin Dennison founded Waltham Watch Company in 1850, which was the pioneer of the industrial manufacturing by interchangeable parts, the American System of Watch Manufacturing. Eventually, miniaturization of these spring-based designs allowed for accurate portable timepieces which worked well even at sea. However, these watches only had an hour hand - a minute hand would have been useless considering the inaccuracy of the watch mechanism.

It is rumoured that Henry VIII (the portrait of Henry VIII at this link shows the medallion thought to be the back of his watch) had a pocket clock which he kept on a chain around his neck. In 1524, Peter Henlein created the first pocket watch[1][2]. In Tudor England, the development of "pocket-clockes" was enabled through the development of reliable springs and escapement mechanisms, which allowed clockmakers to compress a timekeeping device into a small, portable compartment. The invention of a spring mechanism was crucial for portable clocks.

The first reasonably accurate mechanical clocks measured time with weighted pendulums, which are useless at sea or in watches. For that reason, most maps from the 15th century to c.1800 have precise latitudes but distorted longitudes. However, the process was notoriously unreliable until the introduction of John Harrison's chronometer. The latitude could be measured by looking at the stars, but the only way a ship could measure its longitude was by comparing timezones; by comparing the midday time of the local longitude to a European meridian (usually Paris or Greenwich), a sailor could know how far he was from home.

The earliest need for portability in time keeping was navigation and mapping in the 15th century. . Watches may be collectible; they are often made of precious metals, and can be considered an article of jewelry. The back-and-forth motion of the winding rotor couples to a ratchet to automatically wind the watch.

The invention of "Automatic" or "Self-Winding" watches allowed for a constant winding without special action from the wearer: it works by an eccentric weight, called a winding rotor, that rotates to the movement of the wearer's body. a stem winder. Mechanical timepieces are still used, usually powered by a spring wound regularly by the user, e.g. Current watches are often digital watches, using a piezoelectric crystal, usually quartz, as an oscillator (see quartz clock).

leather (often synthetic), metal, or nylon), although before the 20th century most were pocket watches, which had covers and were carried separately, often in a pocket, and hooked to a watch chain. In modern times they are usually wrist-watches, worn on the wrist with a watch-strap (made of e.g. A watch is a small portable clock that displays the time and sometimes the day, date, month and year.

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