Polo neck

An example of a classic polo neck.

A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked").


History

Woman in a black polo neck.

The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK). It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century.

Workwear

Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear.

Casual wear

Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item.

Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear.

Womens wear

Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look.

By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version.

In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion.

Feminist wear

This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists. The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period.

As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage.

Polo neck with sleeves. Polo neck without sleeves.

Return to fashion

By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item. However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent.

See also:

  • Spandex fetishism
  • Lacoste
  • Polo Ralph Lauren
  • Preppy
  • Tennis shirt

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However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent. The most popular of these include the minature-based games Battlefleet Gothic, Epic Armageddon, Inquistor and Necromunda, all of which are available as "Specialist Games" from the Games Workshop website, and the video games Dawn of War and Fire Warrior. By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item. Warhammer 40,000 has, over the years, inspired many spin-off games. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage. The list below contains a selection of the greatest characters. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint. Some of these characters are more important to the universe and game than others.

As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. The Warhammer 40,000 universe and game are made up of many different characters, each important in some way. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period. The playable armies in the game are the Chaos Space Marines, Daemonhunters, Dark Eldar, Eldar, Imperial Guard, Necrons, Orks, Space Marines, Tau, Tyranids and Witch Hunters. The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. The Warhammer 40,000 game, and consequentially the fictional universe, is made up of many races and species. This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists. Chaos and the Warp are still more complicated, considering there exist many other minor Chaos entities, some of which are worshipped in place of the four major powers of the warp.

In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion. Nurgle (decay is entropic and is associated with an negative increase in free energy) and Tzeentch (potential energy and complexity by definition oppose entropy) represent opposing forces (and both draw power from their psychological effects); Khorne and Slaanesh are more subtle – the actions of a Khornate devotee affect a victim, the actions of a Slaaneshi devotee affect the devotee (the victim is merely an instrument). The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version. The Chaos gods have a dynamic, antagonistic relationship; Khorne rivals Slaanesh, while Nurgle rivals Tzeentch. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. Indeed, the gods of Chaos actually are either core aspects of the human psyche or natural forces with profound impact thereupon. By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming. The strongest of these entities are the Chaos Gods, Khorne (a god of rage and wrath), Nurgle (a god of life, death and decay), Tzeentch (a god of change, accumulating power, and magic) and Slaanesh (a god of desire and depravity).

It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look. As this is a realm of thought, a coalescence yields the often sinister warp entity. Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. The Warp is described as a realm of energy, where thought can take physical form, and with currents and eddies that make traveling vast interstellar distances difficult, yet possible. Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear. A dynamic, galaxy-spanning story line is possible because of a separate plane of existence, the Immaterium or "Warp.". Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item. Much of this is controlled by the The Imperium of Man, though he is not the only galactic denizen.

Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. The physical setting of this story is the Materium, with all action here in the Milky Way Galaxy. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. The only reason it can maintain any semblance of control of its population is because being worked to the bone night and day in total, oppressive adoration of the Emperor is better than being worked to the bone night and day in total, oppressive adoration of the Gods of Chaos, only to end existence as a sacrifice for a god hungry for souls. Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. For example, The Imperium of Man, is generally thought of as the "good side", and while it may be true that there are many good people within it, as a whole it is an oppressive, xenophobic, corrupt mess of an organization. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear. Giger), and popular depictions of historical settings (such as the World Wars, Victorian Britain, Imperial Rome, The Inquisitions, Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia) leads to a wholly unique fictional universe, in which every side is to some extent evil – though some are slightly less evil than others.

The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. R. Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. These and other sources of inspiration, such as medieval, baroque and surrealist art (especially the works of H. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century. Heinlein (Heinlein's novel Starship Troopers inspired many elements such as elite marines in powered armor, and drop pods in which encased Space Marines and equipment are fired from orbiting ships down to the battlefield). Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this. Tolkien and Robert A.

These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. R. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. R. It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. Lovecraft, Michael Moorcock, J. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK). The eclectic mix of inspirational sources for the Warhammer 40,000 universe include classic and contemporary sci-fi, horror and fantasy movies and television series and the works of renowned genre authors such as Isaac Asimov, Frank Herbert, H.P.

The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. Since it originally was created as a sci-fi spin-off of the Warhammer Fantasy Battle game, the Warhammer 40,000 gameworld contains many elements of the fantasy genre, for example the concept of magic and adapted versions of classic fantasy races. . The central and most popular elements of the Warhammer 40,000 universe are the Space Marines, futuristic versions of fantasy knights and the finest warriors of the Imperium of Mankind, a dystopian and degenerate galaxy-spanning civilization.
. The Warhammer 40,000 game world is most readily characterized as a gothic science-fantasy setting. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked"). Common household items like soft drink cans, coffee cups, styrofoam packing pieces, and pill bottles can be transformed into ruined cathedrals, alien habitats, or terrain with the addition of plasticard, putty, and a bit of patience and skill.

A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. Although Games Workshop has terrain kits available, many hobbyists prefer to make their own elaborate and unique set pieces. Tennis shirt. Terrain is a very important part of play. Preppy. These conversions are often entered into contests at sponsored tournaments and similar gaming events. Polo Ralph Lauren. They are also encouraged to further modify their figures and vehicles using parts from other kits and models (known as "bitz" to players), or scratch-made from plasticard, modelling putty, or whatever the modeller can scrounge up.

Lacoste. Since the models are hand-painted and assembled by the player, players are encouraged to design their own paint schemes as well as using the pre-designed ones displayed in the various books. Spandex fetishism. This is the only way to get certain factions (for example, Eldar Harlequins), which have been discontinued. These are models that have been used for earlier versions of the game. In addition to the current line of units, Games Workshop makes available past model lines as a part of their mail-order-only "Classic" series.

[2]. A typical blister pack with one to three models will cost from £4 to £12, with the cost of boxed sets varying widely (£18 to £75), depending on the contents. As of February 2006, new players wishing to start playing should expect to spend upwards of £100 to £160 for a reasonably sized army, including costs for rulebooks, codexes and paints.[1] Players must purchase units; which are available individually, in squads or in boxed sets. The latest of these global campaigns was the Eye of Terror Campaign.

These results are collated, and together affect the storyline of the game, which is then and is accounted for in the next rulebook and fiction releases. Every few years, a global campaign is held in which people submit the results of their games to Games Workshop. These campaigns may feature their own special rules, and are tied together by a storyline, which might alter according to the results of each scenario when it is played. Some players organize a series of scenarios, called a campaign, where two or more players fight against each other in a number of battles.

The simplest of these is a basic "cleanse" mission, which ends after six turns, the victor being declared based on who controls the four quarters of the battlefield; more complex goals can include night fights, take-and-hold missions, and various others. Each battle, at the onset, is assigned a set of additional rules and a goal (collectively called a "scenario") specific to it. Play is divided into turns, with each player choosing specific actions for all of his units on his turn, and using dice to determine the results of those actions. The games generally run from half an hour to several hours depending on the size of the armies.

Common game sizes are usually between 500 and 2000 points, but can be much larger. Before a game the players agree on how many points will be used as the maximum army size and each assemble an army up to that maximum limit. The size of the army is determined by "points", with each unit having an associated cost proportionate to its potential worth on the battlefield. These armies are constrained by rules contained within the Warhammer 40,000 rulebook, as well as in several army-specific Codexes.

Each player assembles an army, consisting of pewter and plastic minature figurines - each, usually, representing a military unit from one of the official lists. For materials done under the previous iteration of the rules, there exist errata and FAQ files, to ensure potential rules conflicts between editions are resolved universally. A supplement covering the Taros campaign (Imperial Armour Volume 3: The Taros Campaign), including additional units and models available from the Forge World subsidiary of Games Workshop, is also available. The next codex to be released will be the Tau Empire, containing the new Vespid mercenaries and several other Tau updates.

As of January 2006 the Space Marines and Tyranid codexes have been updated to fourth edition and the new Black Templars codex was released in early November 2005. As with prior versions, the main rules are included in the rule book with supplementary details being available for each army in the form of Codex books, each detailing either one army, a part of an army or sometimes extra rules for a specific form of battle (such as Cityfight). The new rulebook is published in hardcover, and a truncated version of the same rules is available as part of an introductory boxed set, Battle For Macragge, featuring the Space Marines and Tyranids. This edition is not as major a change as prior editions were as it did not break gamers' old army lists or codexes.

The fourth edition of the game was released in 2004. The rulebook was available alone, or as a boxset with minatures featuring the Space Marines and the newly introduced Dark Eldar. The third edition was released in 1998, and again concentrated on streamlining the rules for larger battles. An expansion pack titled Dark Millennium was later released.

This version relied greatly on cards, and came as a boxset including Space Marine and Ork miniatures, scenery and dice, as well as the main rules. This and later developments of the game are the work of editor Andy Chambers. The second edition was published in late 1993, aimed at making it easier to fight larger battles. Laserburn was turned into the computer game Laser Squad that subsequently evolved into the X-COM computer games.

The influence of these can also be seen in the prototype Necromunda game mechanics. A few elements of the setting (bolters, Dreadnought armour) can be seen in a set of earlier wargaming rules called Laserburn produced by Tabletop Games. Much of the composition of units was determined randomly, by rolling dice. This original version came as a very detailed rulebook, making it most suitable for fighting small skirmishes.

Game designer Rick Priestley was responsible for creating the original rules set and the Warhammer 40,000 gameworld. The first edition of the game, Warhammer 40,000: Rogue Trader, was published in 1987. . It allows for less regimental, formation-based movement, and deals with more advanced weaponry.

Warhammer 40,000 is the science fiction companion to Warhammer Fantasy. The game requires a combination of tactics and luck. Play centres around 28mm scale (approximately 1:65) miniature figurines produced by Citadel Miniatures, which represent soldiers, creatures and vehicles of war. Warhammer 40,000 (informally known as Warhammer 40K or just 40K) is a science fiction tabletop miniature wargame, produced by the British gaming company Games Workshop.

Games Workshop Space Marines Store Page. Games Workshop Starting Out Store Page. Eldrad Ulthran (now deceased). Ghazghkull Mag Uruk Thraka.

Cypher. Creed, Lord Castellan of Cadia. Ursarkar E. Abaddon the Despoiler.

The four Chaos Gods (Khorne, Slaanesh, Nurgle, and Tzeentch). Horus. The Emperor.

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