Polo neck

An example of a classic polo neck.

A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked").


History

Woman in a black polo neck.

The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK). It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century.

Workwear

Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear.

Casual wear

Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item.

Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear.

Womens wear

Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look.

By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version.

In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion.

Feminist wear

This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists. The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period.

As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage.

Polo neck with sleeves. Polo neck without sleeves.

Return to fashion

By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item. However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent.

See also:

  • Spandex fetishism
  • Lacoste
  • Polo Ralph Lauren
  • Preppy
  • Tennis shirt

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However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent. Westwood accepted a DBE in the 2006 New Year's Honours List "for services to fashion", and has twice earned the award for British Designer of the Year. By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item. Her Autumn/Winter 2005/06 collection draws inspiration from her archive, reinterpreting designs using Wolford’s exclusive knitting technology, who she has worked in close collaboration with since 2003. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage. The sale of the £50 T-shirts raised funds for the organisation. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint. We can only take democracy for granted if we insist on our liberty", she said.

As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. The hatred of arbitrary arrest by the lettres de cachet of the French monarchy caused the storming of the Bastille. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period. He spoke with pride of civilisation and democracy. The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. The first thing he explained to us was the fundamental rule of law embodied in habeas corpus. This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists. Scott, began to take classes in civic affairs.

In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion. "When I was a schoolgirl my history teacher, Mr. The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version. Westwood said she was supporting the campaign and defending habeas corpus. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. In September 2005, Westwood joined forces with the British civil rights group Liberty and launched exclusive limited design T-shirts and baby wear bearing the slogan I AM NOT A TERRORIST, please don't arrest me. By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming. The retrospective is still currently touring the world and is set to continue until 2008.

It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look. They range from early Punk garments to glamorous 'historical' evening gowns. Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. The exhibition is made up of around 145 complete outfits, grouped into the themes which have dominated her work from the early 1970s to the present day and were drawn from her own personal archive and the V&A's extensive collection. Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear. Her first major retrospective of her work was shown in 2004-2005 at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, and the National Gallery of Australia. Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item. In December 2003, she and the Wedgwood pottery company launched a series of tea sets featuring her designs.

Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. The historical influence also, was always shown in her work. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. Other influences in Westwood's work have included ethnic Peruvian influence, feminine figure, and velvet and knitwear. Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. This collection was all about 'gold and treasure, adventure and exploration'. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear. Westwood worked historical factors into her collection by using historical 17th-18th century original cutting principles and modernising them.

The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. Her design style had evolved so that her main interests included not only the youth and street culture but also tradition and technique. Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. Westwood's first runway show was the Pirate collection in London, in March 1981. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century. Together, Westwood and McLaren revolutionised fashion, and the impact is still felt today. Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this. The inclusion of more traditional elements of British design, such as tartan fabric, amongst the more uncommon elements of her style only served to make the overall effect her designs more shocking.

These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. The 'punk style' included BDSM fashion, bondage gear, safety pins, razor blades, bicycle or lavatory chains on clothing and spiked dog collars that were used as jewellery as well as the outrageous make-up and hair. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. The punk style began to gain notoriety when the Sex Pistols wore clothes from Westwood and McLaren's shop at their first gig. It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. During this period, Westwood, McLaren, and artist Jamie Reid were influenced by the Situationists. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK). The two had a son named Joseph, and Westwood continued to teach until 1971, when Malcolm decided to open a shop, Sex, and this is where Vivienne began to sell her outrageous designs.

The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. Their marriage lasted three years before she met Malcolm McLaren, later known for being the manager for punk band The Sex Pistols. . Vivienne's first husband was Derek Westwood with whom she had a child named Ben.
. There, Vivienne went to a teacher training college and then taught at a primary school in North London. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked"). When she was seventeen, her parents bought a post office and moved to the south of England, down to Harrow, Middlesex.

A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. She is linked with the Sex Pistols via Malcolm McLaren and their 'SEX/Seditionaries' boutique on King's Road, in London during the 1970s. Tennis shirt. April 8, 1941) was christened Vivienne Isabel Swire in Tintwhistle, Cheshire, is an English fashion designer largely responsible for modern punk and new wave fashions. Preppy. Dame Vivienne Westwood DBE (b. Polo Ralph Lauren.

Lacoste. Spandex fetishism.

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