Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. In Australia:. Suborder Cryptodira. There are also places named Williamsburg, Williamson, Williamsport, Williamston, Williamstown, and Williamsville, as well as. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. Williams is the name of several places in the United States of America:. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. Many famous people have been named Williams (see also People named Williams):.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. . All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Williams is a patronymic form of the name William, and is a common surname in Britain and nations with an English heritage. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. Williams, Western Australia. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. Williams Creek, Indiana.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). Williams Bay, Wisconsin. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Williams Township, Pennsylvania. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. Williams Township, Minnesota. Their exact ancestry is disputed. Williams Township, Michigan.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Williams County, Ohio. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. Williams County, North Dakota. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. Williams, South Carolina. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. Williams, Minnesota.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. Williams, Iowa. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Williams, California. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. Williams, Arizona. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. William Williams.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. Wayne Williams. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Walter Williams, economist. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Waldo Williams. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. Victoria Williams.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. Venus Williams, tennis player and sister of Serena Williams. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Vanessa Lynn Williams. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). Tonya Lee Williams. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. Tony Williams.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Tennessee Williams, playwright. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. Ted Williams, baseball player. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Susan May Williams. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Steve Williams, a name shared by a number of people.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. Steven Williams, Actor. . Stanley Williams, co-founder of the Crips street gang. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. Shirley Williams, United Kingdom politician. About 300 species are alive today. Serena Williams, tennis player and sister of Venus Williams.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Saul Williams, spoken word and hip-hop artist. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. Rozz Williams. The term is sometimes used (esp. Roy Williams, head basketball coach of the North Carolina Tar Heels. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. Roy Williams, safety for the Dallas Cowboys.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Roy Williams, wide receiver for the Detroit Lions. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Rowan Williams. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Roger Williams, founder of Rhode Island. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. Robin Williams, television and film actor.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Robbie Williams. Superfamily Testudinoidea. Richard Williams. Raymond Williams, Welsh man of letters. Percy Williams.

Novlene Williams - Jamaican athlete. Mark Williams. Lauryn Williams - African American athlete. Kenneth Williams, television and film actor.

Keller Williams, a folk/jam-band musician residing in Fredricksburg, Virginia. John Williams (see also John Williams (disambiguation)). Joe Williams. Jody Williams.

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Emlyn Williams (1905-1987), Welsh actor and dramatist. singer. Deniece Williams (born 1951), U.S. singer (Drowning Pool).

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WilliamsF1 is a successful Formula One racing team named for its founder and owner Frank Williams.

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