Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. Waterford Airport and the Port of Waterford are two important infrastructural sites in presenting the city as a regional city and centre. Suborder Cryptodira. Several important roads in Ireland meet at Waterford, the N9 road is the main road to Dublin (via the N7 road) and also passes Kilkenny, Carlow, and Kildare, among others. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. The city is an important transport centre, the Iarnrod Eireann railway system has lines to Dublin, Limerick and Wexford. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. Waterford Institute of Technology is a modern college located in the city and was founded in 1970, the city is also the location of several other noted colleges and schools.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. The most famous product of the city is Waterford Crystal which originated when a glassmaking factory was opened in the city in 1783. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Waterford is also an important education and industrial centre, and like other coastal cities this has had an impact in the economy and society. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. 8,305) and the city borders County Kilkenny and County Waterford which have 11,459 and 18,353 respectively near the city boundaries. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. Waterford's effective population is much larger than this, with many people living in the towns and villages surrounding the city: the largest of these is Tramore (pop.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). Statistics from the Central Statistics Office Census 2002 show that the population within the city is 44,594, whilst the greater urban population is 46,736. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). In the early 20th century John Redmond was MP for Waterford and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party, which almost achieved home rule and a new parliament for Ireland. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. He brought it back from France and it was first flown from a building on the Mall in Waterford. Their exact ancestry is disputed. Thomas Francis Meagher (Meagher of the sword), an Irish nationalist, made the first Irish tricolour.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. In the 19th century, great industries such as glass making and ship building thrived in the city. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. Trading with Newfoundland brought much wealth into what was then the third largest port. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. Most of the city's best architecture appeared during this time. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The 18th century was a period of huge prosperity for Waterford.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. This was ended abruptly by Oliver Cromwell, who brought the country back firmly under British rule; his nephew Henry Ireton finally took Waterford in 1651. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Waterford remained a Catholic city and participated in the confederation of Kilkenny which was an attempt to break away from English rule. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. In time, Lord Mountjoy was granted entry to the city and the citizens pledged their loyalty anew. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. The motivation for Waterford's defiance lay in the people's demand for freedom of religion - they were led by Catholic priests and reconsecrated several churches in the city - although there were also mutterings about the nationality of the new king.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. During the Reformation under King Henry VIII and his successors, Waterford remained loyal to the crown; but upon the coronation of James VI of Scotland as king of England in 1603, the citizens participated in an uprising that was common to the coastal cities of Munster and refused entry to Mountjoy, the king's lord deputy, who had just secured the surrender of Hugh O'Neill. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. As a result, King Henry VII gave the city its motto: Urbs Intacta Manet Waterfordia (Waterford remains the untaken city). The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. In the 15th century Waterford repelled two pretenders to the English throne: Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. Waterford's great parchment book (1361-1649) represents the earliest use of the English language in Ireland for official purposes.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. Throughout the medieval period, Waterford was Ireland's second city after Dublin. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Waterford and Dublin were declared royal cities, and belonged to the king, not Strongbow; Dublin was declared capital of Ireland. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). In 1171, Henry II of England became the first English king to set foot in an Irish city, by landing with a large fleet at Waterford; he did so to ensure that Ireland became an English colony and not a rival Norman country. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. This was the introduction of the Anglo-Normans into Ireland.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. In 1170 MacMorrough allied himself with Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (Strongbow); together they besieged and took Waterford after a desperate defence. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. He was trying to secure the large centres in order to advance his claim for high king of Ireland. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. In 1137, Diarmuid MacMorrough, king of Leinster, failed in an attempt to take Waterford. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. This was important as it became increasingly obvious that the control of the Viking ports, gave potential Irish High Kings, greater access to international trade, and man power.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. During the late tenth and early eleventh centuries, the rise of the Brian Boru saw Waterford and a number of other Viking ports, being firmly brought under the control of the Ua Briain dynasty. . According to the Irish annals, the Vikings re-established themselves in Ireland at Waterford in 914 and built what would be Ireland's first city. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. Waterford and all the other longphorts were vacated in 902, the Vikings having being driven out by the native Irish. About 300 species are alive today. A longphort was established at Waterford in 853.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Soon the Vikings over-wintered in Ireland at ships' havens called Longphorts. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. From 795 AD, Vikings had been raiding along the coast of Ireland. The term is sometimes used (esp. Main article - History of Waterford. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. .

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. In April 2003 an important site combining a 5th century Iron Age and 9th century Viking settlement was discovered at Woodstown near the city. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Today Waterford is the fifth largest city in the Republic of Ireland. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Waterford was Ireland's first city, founded by the vikings in 914 AD. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. Waterford (Irish: Port Lairge) is, historically, the capital of County Waterford in Ireland, though today the city is administered separately from the county, the latter having its seat in Dungarvan.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. John Condon (1901 - 1915) Youngest soldier to die on the Allied side in WWI. Superfamily Testudinoidea. Peter O'Connor (1874 - ?) Olympic Champion Jumper & Long Jump record holder. Thomas Francis Meagher (1823 - 1867) Irish Patriot. William Vincent Wallace (1814 - 1865) Composer.

Margaret Aylward (1810 - 1889) Founder of the Sisters of the Holy Faith. Thomas Wyse (1791 - 1862) Politician and Diplomat. Patricks Day as a Universal Feast Day). (Responsible for the introduction of St.

Luke Wadding (1588 - 1657) Franciscan Historian and Theologian. Peter Lombard (1555 - 1625) Archbishop of Armagh.

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