Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. The city of Winchester is twinned with Laon in France and the Winchester district is twinned with Gie├čen in Germany. Suborder Cryptodira. The ancient Pilgrims' Way begins at Winchester, and runs to Canterbury. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. and The Square contains more information on the history of Winchester. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. The City Museum located on the corner of Minster St.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Winchester also have a rugby team named Winchester RFC. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Winchester's association football (soccer) club, called Winchester City F.C., was founded in 1884 and has the motto "Many in Men, One in Spirit", and currently play in the Sydenhams Wessex League Division 1. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. The famous novelist Jane Austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817 and is buried in the cathedral. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. Swithun was Bishop of Winchester in the mid ninth century.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). St. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). During the middle ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. William of Wykeham (1320-1404) played an important role in the history of the town; as Bishop of Winchester he was responsible for much of the current structure of the cathedral and also founded Winchester College. Their exact ancestry is disputed. A serious fire in the city in 1141 accelerated its decline.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Winchester remained the capital of Wessex, and then England, until some time after the Norman Conquest when the capital was moved to London. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. Four main gates were positioned in the north, south, east and west plus the additional Durngate and King's Gate. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. The boundary of the old town is visible in places (a wooden barricade surrounded by ditches in Saxon times) now a stone wall. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. Built by Alfred to protect the Kingdom, they were known as 'burhs'.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. The town was part of a series of fortifications along the south coast. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. The Saxon street plan laid out by Alfred is still evident today: a cross shaped street system which conformed to the standard town planning system of the day - overlaying the pre-existing Roman street plan (incorporating the ecclesiastical quarter in the south-east; the judicial quarter in the south-west; the tradesmen in the north-east). Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. Although it was not the only town to have been the capital, it was established by King Alfred the Great as the main city in his kingdom in 827. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. The town has historic importance as the capital of the ancient kingdom of Wessex from 519.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. Under the Romans the town, then named Venta Belgarum, was of considerable importance. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Settlement in the area dates back to pre-Roman times, and there is evidence of Iron Age hill forts around the city. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Winchester is also famous for the Royal Hampshire County Hospital, one of the oldest acute hospitals in the area. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The mill is owned by the National Trust.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. One of these, Winchester City Mill, has recently been restored, and is again milling corn by water power. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Historically, Winchester possessed several water mills driven by the various channels of the River Itchen that penetrate the city centre. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). The University of Winchester (formerly University College Winchester and before that King Alfred's College) is situated within the city, as is the Winchester School of Art, part of the University of Southampton. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. As well as the public school, Winchester College, Winchester is home to the largest state sixth form college in the country, Peter Symonds College.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. In the grounds of the Great Hall are a recreation of a medieval garden along with the Wedding Gates and Law Courts. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. The names of the legendary Knights of the Round Table are written around the edge of the table surmounted by King Arthur on his throne. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. The table was originally unpainted, but was painted for King Henry VIII in 1522. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Despite this it is still of considerable historical interest and attracts many tourists.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The table actually dates from the 14th Century, and as such is not contemporary to Arthur. . It is most well known for "King Arthur's" Round Table, which has hung in the hall from at least 1463. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. The Great Hall was rebuilt, sometime between 1222-1235, and still exists in this form. About 300 species are alive today. Important historic buildings include Winchester Cathedral, built in the 12th century; the Great Hall, the only surviving portion of Winchester Castle; and Winchester College, a public school founded in 1382.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. . in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. Winchester was formerly the capital of England, during the 10th and early 11th centuries. The term is sometimes used (esp. It is the seat of the City of Winchester local government district, which covers a much larger area, and is also the administrative capital and county town of Hampshire. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Superfamily Kinosternoidea.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Superfamily Testudinoidea.

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