TurtleFor other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.
All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.
Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).
Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.
Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.
Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.
Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.
The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).
However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.
Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
Suborder Pleurodira. The Golf shares the Volkswagen A platform with a number of other Volkswagen Group products including the Audi A3 and TT, the Škoda Octavia, and the Seat León. Suborder Cryptodira. In the Americas, the sedan version of the Golf has always been sold as the Jetta, where it has always been more popular than its European counterpart. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Stopping the R32 comes in the form of blue-painted brake calipers with 345 mm discs at the front and 310 mm disks at the rear. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. As with the previous R32; there is permanent 4MOTION all wheel drive through 18" Zolder 20-spoke alloy wheels. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. Going from 0 to 100 km/h will take a brisk 6.5 s, reducing to 6.2 s with the direct-shift gearbox. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. It features a 3.2 L V6 FSI engine with 250 hp (184 kW) and reaches a top speed of 250 km/h.
Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). In late September, the R32 will be sold in Europe. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). However, it is already facing stiff competition from the Renault Mégane Trophy and to a greater degree, the Opel Astra OPC in Europe. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. The GTI features Fuel Stratified Injection, a turbocharger and a direct-shift gearbox. Their exact ancestry is disputed. The 5-door version is expected to arrive around the same time as the standard Golf sometime in Summer 2006.
The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. The production Golf GTI was unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show in January, 2006 and the 3-door GTI appeared at United States dealerships beginning later that month. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. The Golf V GTI is hailed as a return to form for the creator of the genre. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. There will be no convertible version of the Golf V, as the Eos coupe-convertible (to be introduced in Spring 2006) will be marketed as a separate model, and does not share any body panels with another Volkswagen model - although it is based on the Jetta/Golf platform. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The Plus would replace the Variant station wagon in the Golf lineup, although the Variant might be released.
Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. It is taller than the "regular" Golf but shorter than the Touran, the MPV version of the Golf. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. In December 2004, Volkswagen announced the Golf Plus variant of the Golf V. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. All of the Golf's engines, including the VR6, have the engine mounting points in the same place, making it possible to remove one engine and replace it with another while making few other modifications to the car. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. Options for engines and transmissions vary from country to country, but the Golf is available in 4-cylinder and VR6 gasoline-powered versions and turbo direct injection diesel-engined models in most places, with transmission options that include manual, automatic, Tiptronic, and direct shift gearbox.
Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. Indeed, the rear suspension of Golf V (a modified wishbone arrangement) bears an uncanny resemblance to that of the Focus. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. In order to counter criticisms of the average dynamics of the previous model, it is widely reputed that Volkswagen "poached" from Ford the engineering team who designed the multi-link rear suspension system of the Ford Focus, widely regarded as the class benchmark for ride and handling. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. For the presentation of the new Golf, Wolfsburg was renamed to Golfsburg for a week. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. Sales of the fifth generation began in November 2003.
The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. The Official R32 FAQ: . Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The American R32 Registry aims to account for all 5,000 R32s sold in America. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). The Golf R32's competitors (at the time of production) were the Subaru Impreza WRX STi and the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VIII, although, unlike these cars, the R32 was not run by Volkswagen in rally competitions, and lacked the playstation appeal and ultimate status as those cars. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. Volkswagen surprisingly sold all 5,000 R32s in America with little marketing and advertisements.
Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. This was a venture put out by Volkswagen which was considered to be a corporate gamble. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. Each car was sold just 13 months later. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Five thousand cars were produced and intended to be sold over a 2-year period. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. In spite of outwardly appearing very similar to the 20th Anniversary GTI, the R32 shared the vast majority of its major components with the 3.2 L Audi TT.
All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. Billed as the pinnacle of the Golf IV platform, the R32 included every performance, safety, and luxury feature VW had to offer including the all new 3.2 L VR6 engine, AWD, a new 6-speed manual transmission, independent rear suspension, automatic climate control, sport seats from Koenig, 18" OZ Aristo wheels, ESP, massive (334 mm) brakes, sunroof, and model specific bodywork. . Again, due to unexpected popularity, Volkswagen (through Volkswagen of America) decided to sell the car in North America (except Canada) as the 2004 Volkswagen R32. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. In 2003 Volkswagen produced the Golf R32 in Europe. About 300 species are alive today. Upgraded disc brakes front (12.3" vented rotors) and rear (10.3" vented rotors) helped bring things to a stop, while red powder-coated calipers added a bit of flair to the package.
The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. A 6-speed manual MQ350 transmission marked the most notable departure from the norm, and upgraded suspension stiffened up the ride and lowered the car approximately 40 mm (uprated springs and shocks, increased sway bar diameters, and revised bushings in the rear). in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. Mechanically speaking, this was the average GTI 1.8T GLS with a few exceptions. The term is sometimes used (esp. Volkswagen's premier 8-speaker Monsoon(tm) stereo system was also standard. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. This edition also came with a special golf ball shifter knob.
Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Aluminum trim came standard, complete with a numbered nameplate above the center console identifying the exact production number (US production only) of the vehicle and a black headliner. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. All 20ths had a sunroof, black leathered with silver stitching steering wheel, shifter boot and emergency brake handle, and sporty black cloth Recaro bucket seats with silver stitching accents and a red 'GTI' emblem embroidered in the middle of the back rest. Superfamily Chelonioidea. The only true option was ESP, Volkswagen's stability control feature. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. Unlike other models, there were no 'options' available.
Superfamily Trionychoidea. Inside, a few accents were noticeable. Superfamily Testudinoidea. Distribution of production was 50% Black magic pearl, 25% Jazz Blue and 25% Imola Yellow. These models were produced only in three colors: Imola Yellow, Jazz Blue and Black Magic Pearl. Blackened headlights and dark-tinted tail lights added a distinctive look, while Votex front, rear, and side skirts along with a hatch spoiler and special edition 18" OZ Aristo alloy wheels complete the exterior transformation.
The rear was also accompanied by a vintage-look chrome rabbit. On the outside, the 20th came with throwback red-lettered 'GTI' logos on the left front and right rear. Several special features distinguish this new GTI from the rest of the pack. This event, in 2003 marked the 20th anniversary of the GTI's first introduction to the US, then called the Rabbit.
Due to the popularity of a commemorative 25th anniversary edition GTI produced in Europe in 2002 (GTI 337 edition in North America), Volkswagen of America produced 4,200 so-branded '20th Anniversary Edition' GTIs and 4000 were shipped to the United States and 200 to Canada. only) | and more. 18" BBS RC Wheels with 225/40-ZR18 High-Performance Summer Tires | Greatly improved sport suspension - 1" lower overall ride height | Votex body kit with front valance, side skirts, rear hatch wing and rear valance with 3" chromed exhaust tip | 315 mm (12.4") diameter vented front and 256 mm (10") rear vented brakes with red powder coated calipers | All-new six-speed MQ350 transmission | Recaro front seats in special "LeMans" red and black cloth with custom GTI embroidery | Brushed aluminum interior trim accents | Red stitching on steering wheel, shift boot, handbrake knob and seats | Special golf ball shift knob | Aluminum pedals with rubber inserts | Stainless steel exhaust with mild sound tuning | Red trimmed floor mats | Special exterior retro GTI badging | Monsoon sound system (U.S. Starting with a 180 hp 1.8T GTI GLS, the following extra equipment and changes have been made:.
This is a very unique car for the Volkswagen lover.". "The GTI is the sport version of the Golf and since we didn't begin selling the GTI here until 1983, the name 337 seemed like a nice way to recognize the history of this vehicle and make it meaningful to our most enthusiastic drivers. "The 337 name comes from the code name for the Golf model back in the early 1970s," said Frank Maguire, vice president in charge of sales and marketing at Volkswagen of America, Inc. Only 1,500 units are being produced for the American market with an additional 250 specifically for Canada and it only came in Reflex Silver.
and $32,900 in Canada. The price of the GTI 337 was $22,225 in the U.S. The GTI 337 was officially introduced at the New York Auto Show and made it to dealers by late May 2002. Volkwagen mixed and matched engine, door and naming configurations, so it was possible to purchase a 3-door "GTI" with the 115 hp 2.0L engine and a 5-door "Golf" with the 180 hp 1.8T engine.
A 1.8 L turbocharged gas engine was introduced in 2000, along with the 2.8 L VR6. Available engines were a 2.0 L gasoline, 1.9 L turbocharged diesel TDI. This model was introduced to North America in mid 1999. A choice of three and five-door hatchbacks or a five-door station wagon were available.
Engine choices included 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.3, 2.8 and 3.2 L gasoline engines, and a 1.9 L diesel, with power ranging from 68 to 150 PS (50 to 110 kW). This Bosnian Mk.IV was for local market only. The Golf IV was also made in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Vogošća (near Sarajevo) in TAS, where Mk.I and Mk.II models were also made. The Golf IV was made in Germany, South Africa, Slovakia, Brazil, Mexico and Belgium.
As with the Golf II, a convertible version of the Golf IV was never made, although the Golf III Cabrio was facelifted to give it the frontal styling of the Golf IV hatchbacks. The average dynamics were reasonably well concealed in daily driving, though, and the car's reputation was unscathed. However, the upgrade of the vehicle's interior materials and exterior details appeared to have been done at the expense of the vehicle's engineering. Overall the level of maturity of the design and its target audience were also evident - the humorous plays on the game of golf which resulted in special edition models of the three earlier generations being called "Golf Ryder", "Golf Driver", not to mention the GTI's "golf ball" gearlever knob were dropped.
It was a deliberate attempt to take the Golf further upmarket, with a high-quality interior and higher equipment levels. The Golf IV was heavier and larger than its predecessors, but still became the biggest selling car in Europe at one point.
The diesel model was only produce for the european market and wasn't sold in the UK. The edition was sold in only 6 colour schemes and the 1000 number figures that were produced was as follows; 600 8 valve models, 150 16 valve models and 250 TDI models. Insurance was based on the standard GTI which made this version a very desirable model. 3 optional extras were made available; electric sunroof, air conditioning and metallic black paintwork.
Brush stainless steel rear twin tailpipes on the exhaust and smoked front fog and indicator lamps to match the rear lamps. The red theme continued externally with a red striping on the bumpers and red brake calipers, the wheels were 16" split rim BBS alloys, visual simuliar to the 15" that were found on VR6 model. These had the usual GTI specification but a came with checkered GTI logo'd Recaro sport seats, red seat belts, half-chrome golf ball gear knob, red stitching on the steering wheel and on the handbrake gatter and silver dialled instruments. In 1996 Volkswagen produced a limited 1000 special-edition 3-door '25th Anniversary' GTI's.
During the 1990s, Volkswagen sponsored three high-profile rock bands' European tours, and issued a special-edition Golf, with distinctive exterior markings, for each: the Golf Pink Floyd Edition (1994), the Golf Rolling Stones Edition (1995), and the Golf Bon Jovi Edition (1996). At 110 PS (81 kW/108 hp) for a 1.9 L engine, it wasn't the first diesel engine installed in a road car to achieve over 50 hp/L, but it showed the public that diesel engines could be powered without losing their fuel efficiency, while also retaining massive amounts of low-end torque, in the TDI's case, 235 N·m (173 lbf·ft) at 1900 rpm. The Golf Mk.III was also the predecessor of the diesel craze that swept through Europe in the late 1990s and early 2000s, when Volkswagen introduced the pump-injector system in the Golf TDI in 1996. Once again the Golf Driver version took its place as the official GTI-lookalike but with a more humble single-point injected 1.8 L engine.
While underpowered compared to the VR6, it was still relatively popular with driving enthusiasts in Europe (North America didn't get the GTI version proper, but had the name applied to the VR6 engine). The engine was the same enlarged to 2.0 L, with power now reaching 150 PS (110 kW/148 hp). This model was greeted with a muted sense of disenchantment with the motoring press. A 16-valve version of the third-generation Golf GTI was introduced in 1993.
The convertible version was called the Cabrio. Compare that to the Mk.II GTI that weighed 285 kg (629 lb) less but had only 139 PS (102 kW/137 hp) and a much smaller engine to tune (1.8 L). A "best of breed" VR6 variant exists which was available in a well regarded "Highline" trim; this 2.8 L VR6 engine gave a significant boost in power to 174 PS (128 kW/172 hp) for the Mk.III, a car weighing only about 1285 kg (2836 lb). The GTI variants (especially with the straight-four 4 cylinder engine) are considered to be the poorest of the performance Golfs, with significantly increased weight, but with minimal power increases.
For the first time a station wagon derivative was produced. The third-generation Golf was elected Car of the Year in 1992. The third-generation Golf was launched in November of 1991, although it did not appear in North America until 1993.
For the last year of production, the Driver was given a carburetted version of the GTI's 1781cc engine. Introduced in 1988, it featured the GTI's exterior styling, namely the twin front headlamps, and wheelarch spoilers but with a standard 1.6 litre engine. As with the Mk1, there was a "warm hatch" version known as the Golf Driver. The MkII GTI failed to make the same waves as the MkI, and failed to win back the Golf GTI's fanbase which had adopted the Peugeot 205 GTI.
The GTI was Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year for 1985, as well as VWVortex's "Best Golf of all time". In europe it was offered with the acclaimed 112bhp 1.8 8v petrol engine, and in smaller numbers, the 75 bhp 1.6 GTD turbo diesel engine. It had more suspension travel, four-wheel drive, bullbars (generally over a single headlight grill), a skidplate for protecting the engine area, and a spare wheel mounted externally on the back. There was also a version called Golf Country, designed for light off-road driving.
These cars produced 212bhp, making them the most powerful VW Golfs ever produced, until the introduction of the MKIV Golf R32 in 2003. In 1989, these cars cost in the region of £25,000 each and were primarily sold to VAG executives and management, although a few exist in Britain as of 2005. It is rumored that two models were produced with air conditioning. All of these special edition models came in black, with four doors (except two in three door), a plain two-headlight grille (not the usual GTI four headlights) and a unique blue grille detail (not red, as the GTI) and motorsport badges.
Designed and built by the Volkswagen Motorsport division, only 70 of these "G60 Limited" models exist; featuring a unique number and plaque, the G60 supercharger was combined with the 16-valve GTI engine, mated to a sports transmission and Syncro four wheel drive mechanism. A very limited edition hand-built Golf II variant exists, including all of the best features available at the time. The second-generation Golf was launched in 1983 (launched in North America in 1985) and featured a larger bodyshell and a wider range of engine options, including a GTD (In euro markets, using the 1.6 'umwelt' diesel engine), a DOHC 16-valve version of the straight-four GTI (as well as the tried and tested 1800 8v GTi), the supercharged 8v "G60" and a racing homologated variant of this, the "Rallye". The vinyl tops were insulated and manually operated, with a glass rear window.
for Karmann to install. The A1 Volkswagen convertible is of unibody construction built entirely at the factory of Karmann, from stamping to final assembly; Volkswagen supplied the engine, suspension, interior, etc. It had a reinforced body, transverse roll bar, and a high level of trim. The convertible version, named the Cabriolet, was sold from 1980 to 1993 (a convertible version of the Golf II was not made, so the Mk1 cabrio with slight modification was produced until the introdcution of the Mk III cabrio).
In 2004, Sports Car International announced the GTI Mk I as the 3rd best car of the 1980s. It was one of the first small cars to adopt fuel injection for its sports version, which raised power output of the 1588 cc engine to 110 PS (81 kW/108 hp). The GTI version, launched in Europe 1976 and the US in 1983, created a whole new type of car, the hot hatch, and was widely copied by all other manufacturers since. A version of this original Golf model, known as the Volkswagen CitiGolf, is still produced in South Africa as an entry level car.
The Golf was designed by Italian automobile architect / designer Giorgetto Giugiaro, of the ItalDesign design studio. While the Golf was not the first design with this layout (earlier examples being the Austin Maxi in the late 1960s and the Fiat 128 3P of the early 1970s), it was very successful, especially since it married these features with Volkswagen's reputation for solid build-quality and reliable engineering. The Golf was Wheels magazine's Car of the Year for 1975. Marketed in the United States and Canada from 1975 to 1984 as the Volkswagen Rabbit and in Mexico as the Volkswagen Caribe, it featured the water-cooled, front wheel drive design pioneered by the Citroën Traction Avant with the addition of a hatchback pioneered by the Renault 4.
The first Golf began production in 1974. The Golf was the central product of this new strategy. Volkswagen had acquired the Ingolstadt company in 1964 from Daimler-Benz, and crucially gained access to Audi's expertise in water-cooled engines and front wheel drive which were needed to produce a new generation of Volkswagens. The savior of the German car giant came in the form of Auto Union, which owned the famous Audi brand.
The Type 3 and Type 4 failed to attract any interest, whilst the NSU-developed K70 was an unmitigated disaster. Beetle sales were in terminal decline, and car buyers increasingly turned away from Volkswagen's air-cooled, rear-engined models. The Golf was also a crucial model for Volkswagen itself; by the early 1970s, the company was in serious financial trouble. It created the concept of a hot hatch.
The Golf is a historically important automobile, as it has been in continuous production from 1974 to the present day. . They have existed everywhere between basic personal cars and high-performance sports coupes. 5-door hatchback, station wagon (estate) and convertible (Cabrio) variants have also been available, as well as a sedan (saloon) car based on the Golf (see Volkswagen Jetta).
Most production of the Golf has been in the 3-door hatchback style. That title remains firmly with its brother, the Beetle. Considering that the only thing sucessive generations of the Volkswagen Golf have in common is the name and a vague similarity, its claim to "the best selling car of all-time worldwide" is dubious at best. The Golf is Volkswagen's best-selling badge in history, with more than 24 million built as of 2005.
The Volkswagen Golf is an automobile manufactured by Volkswagen.