Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. Virginia Tech also participates in the management of Net.Work.Virginia and the Mid Atlantic Crossroads. Suborder Cryptodira. It has participated in Suranet, Internet2, Abilene, the Lambda Rail and other such networks. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. Internet networking research is an important part of Virginia Tech's history. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. The supercomputer, called System X, was disassembled shortly after it was ranked in order for it to be replaced with Apple's rack-based servers which consume both less space and power.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. The system was made from 1100 dual processor Power Macintosh G5s and cost $5.2 million. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. In 2003, Virginia Tech created a supercomputer which ranked as the 3rd fastest in the world. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. degrees in biomedical engineering. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. and Ph.D.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). SBES offers opportunities to undergraduates and grants M.S. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). In 2002, a biomedical engineering program, called the School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (SBES), was created as a cooperative venture between Virginia Tech and Wake Forest University. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. VCOM is incorporated as a private, non-profit institution with no state interest, but is very closely affiliated with Virginia Tech on an operational level. Their exact ancestry is disputed. In 2003, a school of osteopathic medicine called the Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine opened in the Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, an office park adjacent to and owned and operated by the university as a local business incubator.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. VMRCVM and VT jointly operate an equine center in Leesburg, Virginia, and VMRCVM has a small operation on the University of Maryland's College Park, Maryland campus. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, founded in 1978, is a separate institution on the same campus, paid for by the two US states of Virginia and Maryland and jointly operated by VT and the University of Maryland. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. The Hokies developed a controversial reputation for late-season slides in the early 2000s, rising into the top 5 in October or November four times before losing and falling out of the national championship race. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. Since the 1995 season, the Hokies have finished with a top-10 ranking four times, won four conference championships (three Big East and one ACC), and played once for the national championship, losing to Florida State University 46-29 in the 2000 Sugar Bowl.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. Head coach Frank Beamer has become one of the winningest currently active head coaches in Division I-A football (178 following the 2005 season). However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. The Hokies currently have the fifth longest bowl streak in the country, having participated in bowl games each of the last 13 seasons. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. Virginia Tech has become a major power in college football in recent years. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. This rivalry continued until 1970 when VPI's football program became too large and too competitive for VMI.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. This rivalry developed into the original "Military Classic of the South," which was an annual football game between VMI and VPI. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. During the early years of VTCC, a rivalry developed between the Virginia Military Institute and Virginia Tech. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Virginia Tech's fight song, which was created in 1919, is Tech Triumph. It remains in use today, although the Old Hokie spirit yell is more widely known. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The school's major athletic rivalries include the University of Virginia, West Virginia University, and the University of Miami.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. The "athletic VT" symbol is trademarked by the university, and appears frequently on licensed merchandise. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The stylized VT (the abbreviation for Virginia Tech) is used primarily by the athletic department as a symbol for Virginia Tech athletic teams. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). Originally the teams were known as the "Fighting Gobblers" and the turkey motif was retained despite the name change. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The mascot is the Hokie Bird, a turkey-like creature.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. The word "Hokies" originated in the 1890s; see Hokies for more information. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. The word "Hokies," which originated from the Old Hokie spirit yell, is often used interchangeably with "Fighting Gobblers" to refer to the sports team, fans, students, or alumni, although the former is the official usage. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Its teams participate in the NCAA's Division I-A in the Atlantic Coast Conference, which the school joined in 2004 after leaving the Big East. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Virginia Tech's sports teams are called the Hokies; the mascot is the Hokie Bird.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The limestone is mined from various quarries in Southwestern Virginia, Tennessee, and Alabama, one of which has been operated by the university since the 1950s. . Each block of Hokie Stone is some combination of gray, brown, black, pink, orange, and maroon. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. Hokie Stone is a medley of different colored limestone, often including dolomite. About 300 species are alive today. On the Blacksburg campus, the majority of the buildings incorporate Hokie Stone as a building material.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. The university also has several commonwealth branch campus centers: Hampton Roads (Virginia Beach), National Capital Region (Falls Church- Alexandria, Virginia), Richmond, Roanoke, and the Southwest Virginia Higher Education Center in Abingdon. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The Virginia Tech campus is located within Blacksburg; the central campus is roughly bordered by Prices Fork Road to the northwest, Plantation Drive to the west, Main Street to the east, and 460-bypass to the south, though it has several thousand acres beyond the central campus. The term is sometimes used (esp. The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences offers the only two-year associate's degree program on campus, in agricultural technology. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. Bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs are offered through the College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, the College of Architecture & Urban Studies, the College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences, the Pamplin College of Business, the College of Engineering, the College of Natural Resources, the College of Science, and the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. From 1970 for the next five years, the student population grew from about 13,500 to 22,000. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Similarly, the abbreviation VT is far more common today than VPI or VPI&SU, and appears everywhere from athletic uniforms (most notably on football helmets) to the university's Internet domain vt.edu. Superfamily Chelonioidea. In the early 1990s, the school quietly authorized the official use of Virginia Tech as equivalent to the full VPI&SU name; most school documents today use the shorter name, though diplomas still spell out the formal name. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. The new acronym of VPISU was derisively spoken as Vippy-sue by students and Hahn detractors.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. As a compromise, the school added "and State University" to its name in 1970, yielding the current formal name of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Superfamily Testudinoidea. As part of this move, Tech would have taken over control of the state's other land-grant institution, a historically black college in Ettrick, Virginia south of Richmond then called Virginia State College; this failed, and that school eventually became Virginia State University. One of Hahn's more controversial missions was only partially achieved; he had visions of renaming the school from VPI to Virginia State University, reflecting the status it had achieved as a full-fledged public research university. The merger with Radford was dissolved in 1964, and in 1966, the school dropped the two-year Corps requirement for male students (in 1973, women were allowed to join the Corps; Tech was the first school in the nation to open its military wing to women).

Marshall Hahn (1962-74) was responsible for many of the changes that shaped the modern institution of Virginia Tech. President T. Later, throughout the early 20th century, another rivalry developed between Virginia Tech and the University of Virginia (founded 1819). This heartfelt and robust rivalry continued into the late 1970's, when Virginia Tech simply became too large and competitive in its athletic programs for VMI to continue competing (VMI enrolls 1,200 cadets and is the Nation's only all-cadet or classical state military college).

In fact, "The Military Classic of the South" began as a rivalry between VMI and VPI. Shortly after its founding as a Military college, a rivalry began with VPI and Virginia Military Institute (founded 1839). Virginia Tech, for a time, was the largest university in the Commonwealth of Virginia until recently being surpassed by Virginia Commonwealth University and George Mason University. VPI achieved full accreditation in 1923, and the requirement of participation in the Corps of Cadets was dropped from four years to two that same year (for men only; women, when they began enrolling in the 1920s, were never required to join).

The "Agricultural and Mechanical College" section of the name was popularly omitted almost immediately, though the name was not officially changed to Virginia Polytechnic Institute until 1944 as part of a short-lived merger with what is now Radford University. McBryde, the school reorganized its academic programs into a traditional four-year college setup (including the renaming of the mechanics department to engineering); this led to an 1896 name change to Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Polytechnic Institute. Under the 1891-1907 presidency of John M. The school considers this to be its founding date, although some would like to date it to 1851 because the school purchased land and facilities from a private Methodist school on the same site.

Founded under the provisions of the Morrill Act, the institution became a state-supported land grant military institute called the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College in 1872. .
. Virginia Tech was ranked 78th in US News and World Report's Top 100 US Universities and tied for 34th among all US public institutions.[1] In 2004, The Times ranked Virginia Tech as one of the top 200 universities in the world.[2].

Virginia Tech has the largest full-time student population in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is best known for its academic programs in agriculture, engineering, architecture, veterinary medicine, and recently for the success of its football program. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, (also referred to as VPI or more commonly Virginia Tech) is a research university in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, in the New River Valley of western Virginia near the Appalachian Mountains. Camarda, Class of 1983 (Ph.D) -- Astronaut on board the space shuttle Discovery for the STS-114 mission. Charles J.

Mark Embree - Rhodes Scholar, currently Assistant Professor of Mathematics at Rice University. William Lewis - Rhodes Scholar, Founding Director of McKinsey Global Institute. Richard Baker -- game designer. Asselstine, Class of 1970, Commissioner of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission during Three Mile Island incident.

James K. Crouch, Class of 1968 (MS) and 1971 (PhD), NASA astronaut. Roger K. Homer Hickam, Class of 1964, NASA employee and author of Rocket Boys.

Richardson, Class of 1958 (BS) and 1960 (MS), physicist at Cornell University, shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1996 for the discovery of superfluidity in He-3. Robert C. Phillips, Class of 1947, Chairman and CEO of Raytheon Corp. Thomas L.

Chris Kraft, Class of 1944, NASA architect of Mission Control and the first flight director. Cutchins III, Class of 1944, Chairman and CEO of Sovran Bank. Clifford A. Garvin, Class of 1943 (BS) and 1947 (MS), Chairman and CEO of Exxon Corp.

Clifton C. Pamplin, Sr, Class of 1933, CEO of Georgia Pacific Corp. Robert B. Donaldson Brown, Class of 1902, financial executive and corporate director with both DuPont and General Motors.

Boykin, USA, Class of 1971, Assistant Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence. Lieutenant General William G. Element, North American Aerospace Defense Command. Inge, USA, Class of 1969, Deputy Commander, United States Northern Command, and Vice Commander, U.S.

Lieutenant General Joseph R. Smith, USAF, Class of 1969. Lieutenant General Lance L. Richards, Four Star General, Class of 1956, Deputy Commander in Chief of US European Command.

General Thomas C. Army Missile Command. Moore, USA, Class of 1952, Commanding General of the U.S. Lieutenant General Robert L.

Air Forces in Europe, Southern Area. Druen,Jr., USAF, Class of 1951,commander of Allied Air Forces Southern Europe and deputy commander in chief, U.S. Lieutenant General Walter D. Cooksey, USA, Class of 1943.

Lieutenant General Howard H. Wilson, USAF, Class of 1942. Lieutenant General Joseph G. Elder, Jr., USA, Class of 1941.

Lieutenant General John H. Robinson, USMC, Class of 1940. Lieutenant General Wallace H. Pick, USA, Class of 1914.

Lieutenant General Lewis A. Maj Lloyd Williams, Class of 1907, Williams has been attributed with one of the more famous quotes of World War I: "Retreat? Hell! We just got here!". Richard Shea, class of 1948, Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions as an army first lieutenant at Pork Chop Hill during the Korean War. Femoyer, class of 1944, Eagle Scout Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions as an Army Air Force B-17 navigator on a bombing mission over Germany.

Robert E. Monteith, Class of 1944, Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions as an army lieutenant at D-Day during World War II. Jimmie W. Thomas, class of 1944, member of Virginia Tech's Athletic Hall of Fame, Awarded the Medal of Honor for action on Bougainville Island in World War II.

Herbert J. Gregory, Class of 1923, Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions as an army sergeant during the Meuse Argonne Offensive in World War I. Earle D. Gaujot, Class of 1894, Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions on the Mexican Border in 1914, the only soldier ever awarded the Medal for actions of a peacekeeping nature, brother of Antoine Gaujot.

Julien E. Gaujot, Class of 1901, Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions as an army corporal at the Battle of San Mateo during the Philippine Insurrection. Antoine A.M. Keion Carpenter--football, defensive back for the Atlanta Falcons.

Franklin Stubbs--baseball first baseman. Johnny Oates--former baseball catcher, manager for the Baltimore Orioles. Michael Vick--football, quarterback for the Atlanta Falcons. Bruce Smith--former football defensive linesman for the Buffalo Bills and the Washington Redskins.

Kevin Jones--football running back; drafted by the Detroit Lions of the NFL. Antonio Freeman--former football wide receiver. André Davis, Class of 2001--football wide receiver for the Cleveland Browns and the New England Patriots. Dell Curry--basketball player, shooting guard.

Vernell "Bimbo" Coles--member of the United States 1988 Olympic Basketball team; played in the National Basketball Association, ending his career with the Miami Heat. Frank Beamer, Class of 1969--football Coach at Virginia Tech.

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