Traxxas is a hobby level radio control model manufacturer based in the United States. Their more popular models include the T-Maxx, the Revo, and recently the Jato.
Traxxas produces a variety of cars and boats. Generally they offer electric and nitro powered versions of all their models.
The T-Maxx is a monster truck model successful enough to add an entire category of formalized racing to the industry. Previously there was no monster truck class of radio control racing. [Radio Operated Auto Racing|ROAR], the leading sanctioner of racing in the USA, is creating an entirely new class to include the monster trucks, mostly due the popularity of the T-Maxx.
The design of the T-Maxx, like many other hobby class models, has been revised since it introduction. The first revision lenghened the suspension arms and added a more powerful motor, thus becoming the T-Maxx 2.5. Further revisions received their own names, but were essentially the same truck.
The Sport Maxx model omitted the differential and drivetrain to the front wheels. The reverse capability was also left out. The S-Maxx (or Stadium Maxx) was essentially the same as the Sport Maxx, but it came with a different body shell, more race oriented tires and a two speed transmission.
In 2005, Traxxas began sponsorship of a full-size T-Maxx monster truck to promote the radio controlled version.
The E-Maxx is the electric brother to the T-Maxx. It shares the same suspension and differential parts as the T-Maxx, but is better suited to rock crawling and low-noise areas. The E-Maxx runs on two 7.2 volt battery packs, using a total of 14.4 volts to run the system.
The Revo is a monster truck with a more recent design than the T-Maxx. Notable changes include the shock system, a complex aluminum chassis, and the addition of an electronically controlled reverse.
The Jato is Traxxas' newest nitro model based on the rear wheel drive stadium truck format popular in the industry. Features that make it stand out from others include the "EZ Start" system, an automatic two speed gearbox, larger than standard wheels and tires, a 55 mph top speed, and class leading suspension travel. The Jato, as it comes out of the box, is not legal to race alongside more traditional stadium trucks in industry sanctioned events, but many local clubs allow it.
Traxxas brought onboard electric starting systems into widespread use for nitro fuel powered models. Most of their nitro powered models carry this "EZ Start" system. It consists of a small electric motor and a wiring harness to start the two-stroke nitro engine in a way similar to full size automobiles. The starter battery is kept separate from the model in a wand-like device. When plug on the wand is inserted into the vehicle's receiver, the user presses the button on the wand, and the electric motor spins the engine until ignition, or until the battery drains.
Traxxas is a top retailer in the hobby level radio control market. Their sturdy designs, while not always well-suited for racing, make many customizations and modifications possible. The E-Maxx has been used as a base chassis by the US Troops in post-invasion Iraq as a bomb scout . Ultimate Traxxas describes the complete customization of many of Traxxas' land models.
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Ultimate Traxxas describes the complete customization of many of Traxxas' land models. These include:. The E-Maxx has been used as a base chassis by the US Troops in post-invasion Iraq as a bomb scout . This in turn means that soldiers have to be trained to fight in a specific type of terrain. Their sturdy designs, while not always well-suited for racing, make many customizations and modifications possible. The terrain over which a war is fought has a big impact on the type of combat which takes place. Traxxas is a top retailer in the hobby level radio control market. Non-lethal chemical weapons, such as tear gas and pepper spray, are widely used.
When plug on the wand is inserted into the vehicle's receiver, the user presses the button on the wand, and the electric motor spins the engine until ignition, or until the battery drains. Various treaties have sought to ban its further use. The starter battery is kept separate from the model in a wand-like device. Poison gas as a chemical weapon was principally used during World War I, and resulted in an estimated 91,198 deaths and 1,205,655 injuries. It consists of a small electric motor and a wiring harness to start the two-stroke nitro engine in a way similar to full size automobiles. Intentional air pollution in combat is called chemical warfare. Most of their nitro powered models carry this "EZ Start" system. Military action produces a very small percentage of air pollution emissions.
Traxxas brought onboard electric starting systems into widespread use for nitro fuel powered models. Terrorism can be considered an extreme form of asymmetrical warfare. The Jato, as it comes out of the box, is not legal to race alongside more traditional stadium trucks in industry sanctioned events, but many local clubs allow it. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a common example of asymmetrical warfare. Features that make it stand out from others include the "EZ Start" system, an automatic two speed gearbox, larger than standard wheels and tires, a 55 mph top speed, and class leading suspension travel. This type of war often results in guerrilla tactics. The Jato is Traxxas' newest nitro model based on the rear wheel drive stadium truck format popular in the industry. Asymmetrical warfare is a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military mechanization.
Notable changes include the shock system, a complex aluminum chassis, and the addition of an electronically controlled reverse. A war where the forces in conflict belong to the same country or empire or other political entity is known as a civil war. The Revo is a monster truck with a more recent design than the T-Maxx. (Compare with unconventional warfare and nuclear warfare.). The E-Maxx runs on two 7.2 volt battery packs, using a total of 14.4 volts to run the system. "Conventional warfare" describes either:. It shares the same suspension and differential parts as the T-Maxx, but is better suited to rock crawling and low-noise areas. This usage is not always recognized as valid, however, particularly by those who do not accept the connotations of the term.
The E-Maxx is the electric brother to the T-Maxx. When one country sends armed forces to another, allegedly to restore order or prevent genocide or other crimes against humanity, or to support a legally recognized government against insurgency, that country sometimes refers to it as a police action. In 2005, Traxxas began sponsorship of a full-size T-Maxx monster truck to promote the radio controlled version. Smaller armed conflicts are often called riots, rebellions, coups, etc. The S-Maxx (or Stadium Maxx) was essentially the same as the Sport Maxx, but it came with a different body shell, more race oriented tires and a two speed transmission. Wars are a natural outgrowth of the free market and class system, and will not disappear until a world revolution occurs. The reverse capability was also left out. It sees wars as imperial ventures to enhance the power of the ruling class and divide the proletariat of the world by pitting them against each other for contrived ideals such as nationalism or religion.
The Sport Maxx model omitted the differential and drivetrain to the front wheels. The economic theories also form a part of the Marxist theory of war, which argues that all war grows out of the class war. Further revisions received their own names, but were essentially the same truck. It is most often advocated by those to the left of the political spectrum, who argue that such wars serve the interests of the wealthy, but are fought by the poor. The first revision lenghened the suspension arms and added a more powerful motor, thus becoming the T-Maxx 2.5. invasion of Iraq. The design of the T-Maxx, like many other hobby class models, has been revised since it introduction. Unquestionably a cause of some wars, from the empire building of Britain to the 1941 Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in pursuit of oil, this theory has been applied to many other conflicts including the 2003 U.S.
[Radio Operated Auto Racing|ROAR], the leading sanctioner of racing in the USA, is creating an entirely new class to include the monster trucks, mostly due the popularity of the T-Maxx. In this view, wars begin as a pursuit of new markets, of natural resources, and of wealth. Previously there was no monster truck class of radio control racing. Another school of thought argues that war can be seen as an outgrowth of economic competition in a chaotic and competitive international system. The T-Maxx is a monster truck model successful enough to add an entire category of formalized racing to the industry. For example, Sweden made efforts to deceive Nazi Germany that it would resist an attack fiercely partly by playing on the myth of Aryan superiority, and by making sure that Hermann Göring only saw Elite troops in action, often dressed up as regular soldiers, when he came to visit. . If you think that you can convince the opponent that you will fight, the opponent might desist.
Generally they offer electric and nitro powered versions of all their models. One major difficulty is that in a conflict of interests, some deception or at least not telling everything is a standard tactical component on both sides. Traxxas produces a variety of cars and boats. The American decision to enter the Vietnam War was made with the full knowledge that the communist forces would resist them, but did not believe that the guerrillas had the capability to long oppose American forces. Their more popular models include the T-Maxx, the Revo, and recently the Jato. The Argentinean dictatorship knew that the United Kingdom had the ability to defeat them, but their intelligence failed them on the question of whether the British would use their power to resist the annexation of the Falklands. Traxxas is a hobby level radio control model manufacturer based in the United States. In theory to have enough information to prevent all wars both need to be fully known.
The first is to find out the ability of an enemy, the second their intent. There are two main objectives in the gathering of intelligence. While purely random events, such as storms or the right person dying at the right time, might have had some effect on history, these only influence a single battle or slightly alter the outcome of a war, but would not mean the difference between victory and defeat. This theory is predicated on the notion that the outcome of wars is not randomly determined, but fully determined on factors such as doctrine, economies, and power.
If it had been known for certainty that the Third Reich would collapse after only a few years of war, the Nazis would not have launched the invasion at all. If in 1940 it had been known with certainty the Germans would dominate central Europe for many decades, it is unlikely the Norwegians would have resisted. The Norwegians did not know whether the German domination would be permanent and also felt that noble resistance would win them favour with the Allies and a position at the peace settlement in the event of an Allied victory. The Norwegian decision to resist the Nazi invasion was taken with the certain knowledge that Norway would fall.
Lack of information may not only be to who wins in the immediate future. The leaders of these nations chose not to resist as they saw the potential benefits being not worth the loss of life and destruction such resistance would cause. On the other hand, Finland's decision to resist a similar Soviet aggression in 1939 led to the Winter War. However, throughout history there are as many invasions and annexations that did not lead to a war, such as the U.S.-led invasion of Haiti in 1994, the Nazi invasions of Austria and Czechoslovakia preceding the Second World War, and the annexation of the Baltic states by the Soviet Union in 1940.
This notion is made harder to accept because it is far more common to study the cause of wars rather than events that failed to cause wars, and wars are far more memorable. This notion is generally agreed to by almost all scholars of war since Clausewitz. This is based on the notion that wars are reciprocal, that all wars require both a decision to attack and also a decision to resist attack. If both sides at the outset knew the result neither would fight, the loser would merely surrender and avoid the cost in lives and infrastructure that a war would cause.
This theory, advanced by scholars of international relations such as Geoffrey Blainey, argues that all wars are based on a lack of information. A popular new approach is to look at the role of information in the outbreak of wars. This theory accounts for the relative decrease in wars during the past fifty years, especially in the developed world, where advances in agriculture have made it possible to support a much larger population that was formerly the case, and where birth control has dramatically slowed the increase in population. Thomas Malthus (1766 - 1834) wrote that populations always increase until they are limited by war, disease, or famine.
This is one of the earliest expressions of what has come to be called the Malthusian theory of war, in which wars are caused by expanding populations and limited resources. Enter upon the road to the Holy Sepulcher; wrest that land from a wicked race, and subject it to yourselves.". Let hatred, therefore, depart from among you; let your quarrels end. Hence it is that you murder and devour one another, that you wage wars, and that many among you perish in civil strife.
Pope Urban in 1095, on the eve of the First Crusade, wrote, "For this land which you now inhabit, shut in on all sides by the sea and the mountain peaks, is too narrow for your large population; it scarcely furnishes food enough for its cultivators. This differs from the traditional approach of Carl von Clausewitz and Leopold von Ranke that argue it is the decisions of statesmen and the geopolitical situation that leads to war. Thus World War I was not a product of international disputes, secret treaties, or the balance of power but a product of the economic, social, and political situation within each of the states involved. One based on the works of Eckart Kehr and Hans-Ulrich Wehler sees war as the product of domestic conditions, with only the target of aggression being determined by international realities.
Sociology has thus divided into a number of schools. Rummel has found that civil wars and foreign wars are very different in origin, but Jonathan Wilkenfield using different data found just the opposite. Data looked at by R.J. Many sociologists have attempted to divide wars into types to get better correlations, but this has also produced mixed results.
One correlation that has found much support is that states that are democracies do not go to war with each other, an idea known as the democratic peace theory. A detailed study by Michael Haas found that no single variable has a strong correlation to the occurrence of wars. So far none of these formulas have successfully predicted the outbreak of future conflicts. More recent databases of wars and armed conflict have been assembled by the Correlates of War Project, Peter Brecke and the Uppsala Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
The statistical analysis of war was pioneered by Lewis Fry Richardson following World War I. Some use detailed formulas taking into account hundreds of demographic and economic values to predict when and where wars will break out. Sociology has long been very concerned with the origins of war, and many thousands of theories have been advanced, many of them contradictory. Theorists such as Ashley Montagu emphasize the top down nature of war, that almost all wars are begun not by popular pressure but by the whims of leaders and that these leaders also work to maintain a system of ideological justifications for war.
They see the fighting of animals, the skirmishes of hunter-gatherer tribes, and the organized warfare of modern societies as distinct phenomena each with their own causes. Many anthropologists also see no links between various forms of violence. To this school the acceptance of war is inculcated into each of us by the religious, ideological, and nationalistic surroundings in which we live. Thus if human societies could be reformed, war would disappear.
They see it as fundamentally cultural, learned by nurture rather than nature. Several anthropologists take a very different view of war. By this theory, war is another 'opiate of the masses' by which a state controls its people and prevents revolution. Thus the people are prevented from seeing that their true enemy is in fact their own repressive government.
War inspires fear and hate among the people of a nation, and gives them a 'legitimate' enemy upon whom they can focus this fear and hate. In his fictional book Nineteen-Eighty-Four, George Orwell talks about war being used as one of many ways to distract people. Kennedy, who argue that the organized, sustained war of humans differs more than just technologically from the territorial fights between animals. These theories have been criticized by scholars such as John G.
The earliest advocate of this theory was Konrad Lorenz. We have the same instincts of a chimpanzee but overwhelmingly more power. However, while war has a natural cause, the development of technology has accelerated human destructiveness to a level that is irrational and damaging to the species. This school tends to see war as an extension of animal behaviour, such as territoriality and competition.
A distinct branch of the psychological theories of war are the arguments based on evolutionary psychology. This extreme school of thought argues leaders that seek war such as Napoleon, Hitler, Bush and Stalin were mentally abnormal. Other psychologists have argued that while human temperament allows wars to occur, they only do so when mentally unbalanced men are in control of a nation. Critics, of course, point to various examples of female political leaders who had no qualms about using military force, such as Margaret Thatcher or Indira Gandhi.
This theory has played an important role in modern feminism. One alternative is to argue that war is only, or almost only, a male activity and if human leadership was in female hands wars would not occur. If war is innate to human nature, as is presupposed by many psychological theories, then there is little hope of ever escaping it. Periods that are seen as peaceful are actually periods of preparation for a later war or when war is suppressed by a state of great power, such as the Pax Britannica.
A solution adapted to this problem by militarists such as Franz Alexander is that peace does not really exist. If the innate psychology of the human mind is unchanging, these variations are inconsistent. In addition, they raise the question why there are sometimes long periods of peace and other eras of unending war. While these theories may have some explanatory value about why wars occur, they do not explain when or how they occur.
This combines with other notions, such as displacement where a person transfers their grievances into bias and hatred against other ethnic groups, nations, or ideologies. While this violence is repressed in normal society it needs the occasional outlet provided by war. Durban and John Bowlby have argued that human beings, especially men, are inherently violent. Psychologists such as E.F.M.
Social scientists criticize this approach arguing that at the beginning of every war some leader makes a conscious decision and that they cannot be seen as purely accidental. There are some conditions and situations that make them more likely but there can be no system for predicting where and when each one will occur. Taylor famously described wars as being like traffic accidents. P.
J. A. Historians tend to be reluctant to look for sweeping explanations for all wars. Representatives of many different academic disciplines have attempted to explain war.
There is great debate over why wars happen, even when most people do not want them to. Sometimes the term "war" will not be used in order to circumvent national constitutions which restrict the power of the executive to wage war without the agreement of other branches of government. For example, the United States Government referred to the Korean War as a "police action", and the British Government was very careful to use the term "armed conflict" instead of "war" during the Falklands War in 1982 to comply with the letter of international law. This has resulted in wars (in the sense defined in the introduction to this article) without formal declaration and combatants who officially choose terms other than "war," such as:.
Sometimes the term "war" is restricted by legal definition to those conflicts where one or both belligerents have formally declared war. By only illegalising "war against the rules", it is alleged, such treaties and conventions, in effect, sanction certain types of war. It must be noted that in war such treaties are generally thrown to one side if they interfere with the vital interests of either side; some have criticised such conventions as simply providing a fig leaf for the inhuman practice of war. 135, entered into force 21 October 1950.
A couple of examples are: Resolutions of the Geneva International Conference, Geneva, 26 October-29 October 1863 and Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 75 U.N.T.S. Treaty signing has since been a part of international diplomacy, and too many treaties to mention in this scant article have been signed. The most pervasive of those are the Geneva Conventions, the earliest of which began to take effect in the mid 1800s. A number of treaties regulate warfare, collectively referred to as the laws of war.
Charter, "save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.". The United Nations is the latest and most comprehensive attempt to, as stated in the preamble of the U.N. In modern times, increasing international attention has been paid to peacefully resolving conflicts which lead to war. In some cultures, for example, conflicts have been highly ritualized to limit actual loss of life.
While culture, law, and religion have all been factors in causing wars, they have also acted as restraints at times. Total war is the modern term for the targeting of civilians and the mobilization of an entire society; when every member of the society has to contribute to the war effort. Limitations on the targeting of civilians, what type of weapons can be used, and when combat is allowed have all fallen under these rules in different conflicts. At times throughout history, societies have attempted to limit the cost of war by formalizing it in some way.
Today, some see only just wars as legitimate, and believe that it is the goal of organizations such as the United Nations to unite the world against wars of unjust aggression. The defeat and repudiation of the fascist states and their militarism in the Second World War, the huge psychological and physical damage of nuclear war and a growth of the respect for the sanctity of individual life, as enshrined in the concept of human rights and as a cultural consequence of falling natural mortality rates and birth rates, have contributed to the current view of war. At the outbreak of World War I the writer Thomas Mann wrote, "Is not peace an element of civil corruption and war a purification, a liberation, an enormous hope?" This attitude was embraced by many societies from Sparta in Ancient Greece and the Ancient Romans to the fascist states of the 1930s. Many thinkers, such as Heinrich von Treitschke saw war as humanity's highest activity where courage, honor, and ability were more necessary than in any other endeavour.
The negative view of war has not always been held as widely as it is today. Gandhi (called "Mahatma" or "Great Soul"). This position was passionately defended by the Indian leader Mohandas K. Pacifists believe that war is inherently immoral and that no war should ever be fought.
Today war is generally seen as undesirable and morally problematic, although this view is contested by some. Although many ancient nations and some more modern ones viewed war as noble, over the sweep of history concerns about the morality of war have gradually increased. Throughout history, war has been the source of serious moral questions. The study of warfare is known as military history.
Inventions created for warfare play an important role in advances in other fields, but modern technology has greatly increased the potential cost and destruction of war. Armies with iron weapons easily defeated armies armed with bronze. As well as organizational change, technology has played a central role in the evolution of warfare. Organization and structure has since been central to warfare, as illustrated by the success of highly disciplined troops of the Roman Empire.
The earliest city states and empires in Mesopotamia became the first to employ standing armies. War seems as old as human society, and certainly features prominently in the recorded histories of state-cultures. It must be thoroughly pondered and analyzed."---The Art of War by Sun Tzu. "Warfare is the greatest affair of state, the basis of life and death, the Tao to survival or extinction.
. A war to liberate an occupied country is sometimes characterised as a "war of liberation", while a war between internal elements of the same state may constitute a civil war. A common perception of war is a series of military campaigns between at least two opposing sides involving a dispute over sovereignty, territory, resources, religion or a host of other issues. War is contrasted with peace, which is usually defined as the absence of war.
Other terms for war, which often serve as euphemisms, include armed conflict, hostilities, and police action (note). War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organizations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. Space warfare. Air warfare.
Urban warfare. Mountain warfare (sometimes called alpine warfare). Sub-aquatic warfare. Naval warfare or Aquatic warfare.
Jungle warfare. Desert warfare. Ski warfare. Arctic warfare.
War where nuclear or biological weapons are not used. A war between nation-states. "crime against international peace". "police action";.
"state aggression by armed force";. "armed conflict";.