Toyota Hi-Lux

A Toyota Hi-Lux.

The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well.

Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences.


1935

The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck.

1947

After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963.

Engine:

  • 995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW)

1964

Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K.

Engine:

  • 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW)

1969

The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. A 4-speed manual transmission was standard.

Engine:

  • 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW)
  • 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW)
  • 1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW)

1973

In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time.

Engine:

  • 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW)

1975

The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year.

Engine:

  • 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW)

1979

The next generation appeared in 1979. This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades.

Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank.

Engine:

  • 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW)
  • 1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only)

1981

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984.

1984

The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988.

Engines:

  • 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only)
  • 1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW)

1989

The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991.

Engines:

  • 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW)

1995

Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. The origins of its name are supposedly unknown...

This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back.

The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well.

Engines:

  • 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2)
  • 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4)
  • 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW)

2005

The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005.

This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005.

Engines (markets):

  • 2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa)
  • 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America)
  • 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA)
  • 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America)
  • 2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA)

Reputation

The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance.


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These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance.
. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. However, Tivos and DVRs are the main competitors with the VHS in home recording. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. It can also be more convenient to use VHS tapes because they can be rewritten easily, and VCRs can be easier than DVD recorders to use. The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. Despite DVD's better quality, however, VHS is still widely used in home recording of television programs, due to the large installed base and the lower cost of VHS recorders.

Engines (markets):. Commentators predict that 2006 will be the final year of new releases on VHS, as major studios continue to phase out VHS. This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005. Moreover, most television programs released as box sets are for sale in DVD format only. The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005. Many films released to theaters from 2004 onwards have later been released only on DVD and not on VHS, and many other new feature films are being released solely on DVD. Engines:. retailers Circuit City and Best Buy stopped selling VHS tapes in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well. Major U.S. The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. The DVD format was introduced in 1997 and has since overtaken VHS in sales and rentals. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back. In addition, it offers superior audiovisual quality, and the storage of data in digital format on tape makes for improved transfer and editing. This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. MiniDV has largely replaced 8mm tapes as the de facto camcorder standard in more recent years as it is smaller still (some MiniDV camcorders being no larger than one's hand).

The origins of its name are supposedly unknown... 8mm tapes, introduced in the early 1980s, succeeded as a format for camcorders (both in the consumer, and to an extent, professional market), as VHS and Betamax camcorders were unsuitably large and heavy in comparison. Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. As these cassettes are much more compact in design — which also means the hardware to play and record the tapes has to be more compact than VHS, and therefore more expensive — they are much more suited to portable applications such as camcorders. Engines:. Other formats such as 8mm video cassettes and MiniDV have emerged since, but these formats are by no means in complete competition with VHS. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991. Netscape.

The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Windows and Microsoft vs. The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. IBM, Macintosh vs. Engines:. The format war and the "marketing over technology" claims have taken on a life of their own, and have been used as analogies in the battles of the computer industry, including Apple vs. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988. Sony ultimately conceded the fight in the late '80s, bringing out a line of VHS VCRs.

The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. Ultimately Betamax did manage to make up some of the difference on recording time, but this was too little, too late. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. The longer tape time is sometimes cited as the defining factor in the format war, as the longer VHS tapes allowed consumers to record entire programs unattended, and arguably created the entire video rental industry by providing sufficient playing time for most feature films to be distributed on a single cassette. The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. Betamax held an early lead in the format war, offering some technical advantages, but by 1980 VHS was gaining due to its longer tape time (3 hours maximum, compared to just 60 minutes for Betamax) and JVC's less strict licensing program. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984. In fact, however, the root causes of VHS' victory are somewhat more complex.

There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. Since Betamax was widely perceived at the time as the better format, it is often stated that VHS' eventual victory was a victory of marketing over technical excellence. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. As mentioned, VHS was the winner of a protracted and somewhat bitter format war during the early 1980s against Sony's Betamax format. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. Conversely, an E-300 tape runs for 300 minutes in PAL-SP, but 200 minutes in NTSC-SP. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. For example, a T-120 tape runs for 120 minutes in NTSC-SP, but 180 minutes in PAL-SP.

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. It can easily be derived by multiplying with 3/2 or 2/3, respectively. Engine:. It is perfectly possible to record and play back a blank T-XXX tape in a PAL machine or a blank E-XXX tape in an NTSC machine, but the resulting playing time will be different than indicated. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank. In order to avoid confusion, manufacturers indicate the playing time in minutes that can be expected for the market the tape is sold in:. Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. Both NTSC and PAL/SECAM VHS cassettes are physically identical (although the signals recorded on the tape are incompatible.) However, as tape speeds differ between NTSC and PAL/SECAM, the playing time for any given cassette will vary accordingly between the systems.

This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades. Likewise, S-VHS machines for the Brazilian market record in NTSC and convert to/from PAL-M. The next generation appeared in 1979. S-VHS machines sold in SECAM markets record internally in PAL, and convert to/from SECAM during record/playback, respectively. Engine:. S-VHS only exists in PAL/625/25 and NTSC/525/30. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year. Dedicated multistandard machines can usually handle all standards listed, some high end model can even convert a tape from one standard to another by using a built-in standards converter.

A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. regular VHS machines sold in Europe nowadays can typically handle PAL, MESECAM for record and playback, plus NTSC for playback only. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. E.g. The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. These can handle VHS tapes of more than one standards. Engine:. Since the 1990s dual- and multistandard VHS machines have become more and more common.

A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time. The following signal varieties exist in conventional VHS:. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. Typically, a VHS machine can only handle signals of the country it was sold in. In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. However, a machine must be designed to record a given standard. Engine:. VHS can record and play back all varieties of analogue television signals in existence at the time VHS was devised.

A 4-speed manual transmission was standard. This format is most notably used by Fox for some of its cable networks. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. This format is the least expensive format to support a pre-read edit. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. There is also a JVC-designed component digital professional production format known as Digital-S or (officially) D9 that uses a VHS form factor tape and essentially the same mechanical tape handling techniques as an S-VHS recorder. The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. This development hampered the sales of the Betamax system somewhat, because the Betamax cassette geometry prevented a similar development.

Engine:. The magnetic tape on VHS-C cassettes is wound on one main spool and uses a gear wheel to advance the tape; the wheel and spool can also be moved by hand. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K. Since VHS-C tapes are based on the same magnetic tape as full size tapes, they can be played back in standard VHS players using a mechanical adapter, without the need of any kind of signal conversion. Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. Another variant is VHS-C (C for compact), used in some camcorders. Engine:. W-VHS caters for high definition video.

This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963. Devices have also been invented which directly connect a personal computer to VHS tape recorders for use as a data backup device. After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. Several improved versions of VHS exist, most notably S-VHS, an improved analog standard, and D-VHS, which records digital video onto a VHS form factor tape. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck. There was a time when higher-end VCRs provided functions for manually removing and adding these index marks — so that, for example, they coincide with the actual start of the program — but this feature has become hard to find in recent models. The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. These are normally written at the beginning of each recording session, and can be found using the VCR's index search function: this will fast-wind forward or backward to the nth specified index mark, and resume playback from there.

. The control track can additionally hold index marks.
. Since good tracking depends on the exact distance between the rotating drum and the fixed control/audio head reading the linear tracks, which usually varies by a couple of micrometers between machines due to manufacturing tolerances, most VCRs offer tracking adjustment, either manual or automatic, to correct such mismatches. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences. Another linear control track, at the tape's lower edge, holds pulses that mark the beginning of every frame of video; these are used to fine-tune the tape speed during playback and to get the rotating heads exactly on their helical tracks rather than having them end up somewhere between two adjacent tracks (a feature called tracking). Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. These advanced features are impossible to find on later-model VCRs due to the rise of digital video formats.

One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well. Another high-end feature was manual audio level control, which made the VHS HiFi format much more useful for high-quality audio-only recording purposes as discussed above. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. (Due to the different ways in which linear and HiFi audio are recorded, these kinds of dubbing were not possible with the HiFi tracks). The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. Without the dubbing features, this task would've required the tape to be copied to another tape which would cause generational loss. The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. This was useful, for example, for laying a song over a previously edited-together montage of short video clips that were the same total duration as that song.

2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). These would move the tape past the heads and keep the video unchanged while recording new linear audio or keep the linear audio unchanged while recording new video, respectively. 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America). Some higher-end VHS and S-VHS VCRs once offered "audio dubbing" and "video dubbing" functions. 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). Of course, for backward compatibility, hi-fi VCRs still write the linear audio track during recording, and can automatically read it during playback if the hi-fi audio is not present. 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America). The excellent sound quality of hi-fi VHS has gained it some popularity as an audio format in certain applications; in particular, ordinary home hi-fi VCRs are sometimes used by home recording enthusiasts as a handy and inexpensive medium for making high-quality stereo mixdowns and master recordings from multitrack audio tape.

2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa). When the video signal is written by the following video head, it erases and overwrites the audio signal at the surface of the tape, but leaves the deeper portion of the signal undisturbed. 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW). These audio tracks take advantage of depth multiplexing: since they use lower frequencies than the video, their magnetization signals penetrate deeper into the tape. 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4). More recent hi-fi VCRs add higher-quality stereo audio tracks which are read and written by heads located on the same spinning drum that carries the video heads, frequency modulated to the unused frequency range in between the chroma and luma signals. 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2). In the original VHS format, audio was recorded unmodulated in a single (monaural) linear track at the upper edge of the tape, which was limited in frequency response by the tape speed.

1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). The video bandwidth is achieved with a relatively low tape speed by the use of helical scan recording of a frequency modulated luminance (black and white) signal, to which a frequency-reduced "color under" chroma (hue and saturation) signal is added. 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. The vertical resolution of VHS (and all other analog recording methods) is determined by the TV standard — a maximum of 486 lines are visible in NTSC and a maximum of 576 lines in PAL. 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). The frequency modulation of the luminance signal makes higher resolutions impossible within the VHS standard, no matter how advanced the recorder's technology. 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM. VHS tapes have approximately 3 MHz of video bandwidth, and a horizontal resolution of about 240 discernible lines per scanline [1].

1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. An unofficial LP mode with half the standard speed exists on some NTSC machines, but is not part of the VHS standard. 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). Because of this, commercial prerecorded tapes were almost always recorded in SP mode. 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Of course, these speed reductions cause corresponding reductions in video quality; also, tapes recorded at the lower speed often exhibit poor playback performance on recorders other than the one they were produced on. 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). More recent machines usually allow the selection of longer recording times by lowering the tape speed: LP mode (for PAL and some NTSC machines) halves the tape speed and doubles the recording time, while EP mode (for NTSC and some newer PAL machines, aka SLP mode) drops the tape speed to one-third, for triple the recording time.

1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Most cassettes have lower recording times because they use thicker tape, which helps avoid jams; careful users generally avoid the thinnest tapes. 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). A cassette holds a maximum of about 430 m of tape at the lowest acceptable tape thickness, giving a maximum playing time of about 3.5 hours for NTSC and 5 hours for PAL at "standard" (SP) quality. 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). The tape speed is 3.335 cm/s for NTSC, 2.339 cm/s for PAL. 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). A VHS cassette contains a ½ inch (12.7 mm) wide magnetic tape wound between two spools, allowing it to be slowly passed over the various playback and recording heads of the video cassette recorder.

1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). . 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW). Most newer VHS machines do not perform this unthreading step, as due to improved engineering, head-tape contact is no longer an impediment to fast winding. 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). Early VHS machines could rewind and fast forward the tape considerably faster than a Betamax VCR since they unthreaded the tape from the playback heads before commencing any high-speed winding. 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). VHS initially offered a longer playing time than the Betamax system, and it also had the advantage of a far less complex tape transport mechanism.

995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW). VHS became a standard format for consumer recording and viewing in the 1980s and 1990s after competing in a fierce format war with Sony's Betamax and, to a lesser extent, Philips' Video 2000. Some early reports claim the name originally stood for Victor Helical Scan System. VHS officially stands for Video Home System, but it initially stood for Vertical Helical Scan, after the relative head/tape scan technique. The Video Home System, first released in September 1976, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard for video cassette recorders (VCRs), developed by JVC (with some of its critical technology under lucrative licensing agreements with Sony) and launched in 1976.

Viz Video (1993-). Buena Vista Home Entertainment (1989-). Miramax Home Entertainment, a unit of Buena Vista Home Entertainment (1989-). New Line Home Entertainment, a TimeWarner Company (1989-).

Carolco Home Video, a division of Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1988-1995). Orion Home Video, a Sony Pictures Entertainment Company (1988-1997). Anchor Bay Entertainment (1980s-). Hi-Tops Video, a Heron Communications Company (1985-1992).

Simitar Entertainment (1980s-1990s). Touchstone Home Entertainment, a unit of the Walt Disney Company (1984-). Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1984-). Family Home Entertainment, a division of Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1982-).

NBC Home Video, an NBC/Universal Company (1981-). Universal Studios Home Video, an NBC/Universal Company (1980-). Magnetic Video, the first duplicator/distributor of movies on video cassette for home use (1977-1981). Vestron Video, a division of Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1979-).

MGM Home Entertainment, a Sony Pictures Entertainment Company (1979-). Media Home Entertainment, a Heron Communications Company (1978-1992). Warner Home Video, a TimeWarner Company (1978-). HBO Video, a TimeWarner Company (1978-).

Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (1978-). Walt Disney Home Entertainment (1978-). Twentieth (20th) Century-Fox Home Entertainment, a News Corporation Company (1977-). Paramount Home Video, a Viacom Company (1976-).

E-XXX indicates playing time for PAL or SECAM in SP speed. T-XXX indicates playing time for NTSC or PAL-M in SP speed. PAL-M, Brazil). PAL/525/30 (i.e.

NTSC/525/30 (Most parts of North and South America, Japan, South Korea). MESECAM/625/25 (most other SECAM countries, notably Eastern Europe and Middle East). SECAM/625/25 (SECAM, French variety). PAL/625/25 (most of Western Europe, many parts of Asia and Africa).

08-30-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.