Toyota Hi-Lux

A Toyota Hi-Lux.

The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well.

Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences.


1935

The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck.

1947

After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963.

Engine:

  • 995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW)

1964

Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K.

Engine:

  • 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW)

1969

The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. A 4-speed manual transmission was standard.

Engine:

  • 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW)
  • 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW)
  • 1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW)

1973

In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time.

Engine:

  • 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW)

1975

The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year.

Engine:

  • 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW)

1979

The next generation appeared in 1979. This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades.

Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank.

Engine:

  • 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW)
  • 1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only)

1981

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984.

1984

The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988.

Engines:

  • 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only)
  • 1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW)

1989

The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991.

Engines:

  • 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW)

1995

Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. The origins of its name are supposedly unknown...

This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back.

The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well.

Engines:

  • 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2)
  • 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4)
  • 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW)

2005

The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005.

This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005.

Engines (markets):

  • 2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa)
  • 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America)
  • 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA)
  • 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America)
  • 2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA)

Reputation

The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance.


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These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance. This usually takes the form of a toothed gear that meshes with holes punched near the edge of the paper, or a belt or wheel with rubber or other high-friction surface that makes contact with the paper. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. A tractor is also the part of a computer printer that pulls paper into the device or pushes it along. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. NASA and other space agencies use very large tractors to ferry launch vehicles like booster rockets and space shuttles from their hangars to (and in rare cases, from) the launchpad. The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. Conversely, if to the rear, it is a called a pusher configuration.

Engines (markets):. In aircraft, a tractor configuration refers to the propellers being in front of the fuselage or wing. This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005. The term tractor or tractor unit (UK) is also applied to:. The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005. Volvo Duett was for a long time the primary choice for conversion to an EPA or A tractor, but since supply have since dried up other cars have been used, in most cases a Volvo. Engines:. This is usually done by fitting two gearboxes in a row and not using one of them.

It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well. The main difference is that an A tractor has a top speed of 30 km/h. The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. In March 31, 1975 a similar type of vehicle was introduced, the A tractor [from arbetstraktor (work tractor)]. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back. Eventually the legal loophole was closed and no new EPA tractors were allowed to be made, but the remaining were still legal, something that led to inflated prices and many protests who people that prefered EPA tractors to ordinary cars. This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. Since it was legally seen as a tractor it could be driven from 16 years of age and only required a tractor license.

The origins of its name are supposedly unknown... After the war it remained popular, now not as a farm vehicle, but as a way for young people without a driver's license to own something similar to a car. Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. When done to an older car with a ladder frame, the result was not dissimilar to a tractor and could be used as one. Engines:. An EPA tractor was simply an automobile, truck or lorry, with the passenger space was cut off behind the front seats, equipped with two gearboxes in a row. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991. During World War 2 there was a shortage of tractors in Sweden and this lead to the invention of a new type of tractor called the EPA tractor (EPA was a chain of discount stores and it was often used to signify something of lacking in quality).

The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. There are also tiny wheeled loaders, officially called Skid-steer loaders but nicknamed "Bobcat" after the original manufacturer, which are particularly suited for small excavation projects in confined areas. The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. Other modifications to the original bulldozer include making the machine smaller to let it operate in small work areas where movement is limited. Engines:. This is usually a wide open box called a bucket but other common attachments are a pallet fork and a bale grappler. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988. A front-loader or loader is a tractor with an engineering tool which consists of two hydraulic powered arms on either side of the front engine compartment and a tilting implement.

The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. One example is that loader tractors were created by removing the blade and substituting a large volume bucket and hydraulic arms which can raise and lower the bucket, thus making it useful for scooping up earth, rock and similar loose material to load it into trucks. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. Bulldozers have been further modified over time to evolve into new machines which are capable of working in ways that the original bulldozer can not. The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. Bulldozers are very powerful tractors and have excellent ground-hold, as their main tasks are to push or drag things. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984. A bulldozer is a tracked-type tractor attached with blade in the front and a rope-winch behind.

There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. When attached with engineering tools the tractor is called an engineering vehicle. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. The most common attachments for the front of a tractor are dozer blade or a bucket. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. Tractors can be fitted with engineering tools such as dozer blade, bucket, hoe, ripper, and so on. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. The durability and engine power of tractors made them very suitable for engineering tasks.

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. Their versatility and compact size makes them one of the most popular urban construction vehicles. Engine:. Their relatively small frame and precise control make backhoe-loaders very useful and common in urban engineering projects such as construction and repairs in areas too small for larger equipment. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank. Often the bucket can be replaced with other devices or tools. Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. The front assembly may be a removable attachment or permanently mounted.

This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades. Buckets with retractable bottoms are also often used for grading and scratching off sand. The next generation appeared in 1979. Some buckets have a retractable bottom, enabling them to empty their load more quickly and efficiently. Engine:. Backhoe-loaders are very common and can be used for a wide variety of tasks: construction, small demolitions, light transportation of building materials, powering building equipment, digging holes, breaking asphalt and paving roads. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year. Removable backhoe attachments almost always have a separate seat on the attachment.

A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. When the backhoe is permanently attached, the machine usually has a seat that can swivel to the rear to face the hoe controls. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. When both the loader and the backhoe are permanently attached it is almost never called a tractor, not generally used for towing and usually does not have a power take-off. The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. As the name implies, it has a loader assembly on the front and a backhoe on the back. Engine:. The most common variation of the classic farm tractor is the loader-backhoe, also called a backhoe-loader.

A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time. The spin-offs from the space race have actually facilitated automation in plowing and the use of driverless drone tractors that work in tandem with manned tractors on large corporate-scale farms. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. These technologies are used in modern, precision farming techniques. In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. Space technology has found its way into down to agriculture in the form of GPS devices, and robust on-board computers installed as optional features on farm tractors. Engine:. Some farm-type tractors are found elsewhere than on farms: with large universities' gardening departments, in public parks or for highway workman use with blowtorch cylinders strapped to its sides and a pneumatic drill air compressor permanently fastened over its power take-off.

A 4-speed manual transmission was standard. This enables a single person to attach an implement quicker and put the person in less danger when attaching the implement. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. Another way to attach an implement is via a Quick Hitch, which is attached to the three-point hitch. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. The equipment attached to the three-point hitch is usually completely supported by the tractor. The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. Equipment attached to the three-point hitch can be raised or lowered hydraulically with a control lever.

Engine:. The three-point hitch was invented by Harry Ferguson and has been a standard since the 1960s. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K. Farm implements can be attached to the rear of the tractor by either a drawbar or by a three-point hitch. Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. ROPS were first required by legislation in New Zealand in the 1960s. Engine:. Many farmers were killed by rollovers while operating tractors along steep slopes.

This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963. Row-crop tractors, before ROPS, were particularly dangerous because of their 'tricycle' design with the two front wheels spaced close together and angled inward toward the ground. After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. Before ROPS were required many farmers died when their tractors rolled on top of them. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck. For tractors with operator cabs, the ROPS is part of the frame of the cab. The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. This is especially important in open-air tractors where the ROPS is a steel beam that extends above the operator's seat.

. Modern tractors have rollover protection systems (ROPS) to prevent an operator from being crushed if the tractor rolls over.
. Some modern tractors, such as the JCB Fastrac, are now capable of much more tolerable road speeds of around 50 mph. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences. To alleviate conditions, some countries (for example the Netherlands) employ a road sign on some roads that means "no farm tractors". Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. However, when travelling on public roads, the slow operating speeds can cause problems, such as long queues or tailbacks, which can delay or aggrevate other road users.

One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well. They help give the farmer a larger degree of control in certain situations, such as field work. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. Slower speeds are necessary for most operations that are performed with a tractor. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. This allows the operator more and easier control over working speed than the throttle alone could provide. The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. Older tractors usually require that the operator depress the clutch in order to shift between gears (a limitation of straight-cut gears in the gearbox), but many modern tractors have eliminated this requirement with the introduction of technologies such as continuously variable transmission.

2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). They have several gear ratios that, generally, provide a range of speeds from less than one mile per hour up to about 25 miles per hour. 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America). Most farm tractors use a manual transmission. 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). Almost all modern tractors can also provide external hydraulic and electrical power. 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America). Modern tractors use a power take-off shaft (PTO) to provide rotary power to machinery that may be stationary or pulled.

2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa). Early tractors used belts wrapped around pulleys to power stationary equipment. 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW). Most tractors have a means to transfer power to another machine such as a baler, slasher or mower. 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4). Their size—especially with modern tractors—and the slower speeds are reasons motorists are urged to use caution when encountering a tractor on the roads. 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2). Variations of the classic style include the diminutive lawn tractors and their more capable and ruggedly constructed cousins, garden tractors, that range from about 10 to 25 horsepower and are used for smaller farm tasks and mowing grass and landscaping.

1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). Tractors can be generally classified as two-wheel drive, two-wheel drive with front wheel assist, or four-wheel drive (often with articulated steering). 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Modern farm tractors employ large diesel engines, which range in power output from 18 to 500 horsepower (15 to 400 kW). 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). When travelling on the road in the UK it is mandatory to use the foot pedal to control engine speed. 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM. This is a feature of more recent tractors, older tractors often did not have this feature.

1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. The foot throttle gives the operator more automobile-like control over the speed of the tractor for road work. 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). It also helps provide continuous power for stationary tractors that are operating an implement by shaft or belt. 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. This helps provide a constant speed in field work. 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). Unlike in automobiles, it can also be controlled from a hand-operated lever ("hand throttle").

1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. The pedal furthest to the right is the foot throttle. 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). For tractors with additional front-wheel drive this operation often engages the 4-wheel locking differential to help stop the tractor when travelling at road speeds. 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). The operator presses both pedals together to stop the tractor. 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). The split brake pedal is also used in mud or soft dirt to control a tire that spins due to loss of traction.

1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). This is usually done when it is necessary to make a tight turn. 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW). This independent left and right wheel braking augments the steering of the tractor when only the two rear wheels are driven. 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). The left brake pedal stops the left rear wheel and the right brake pedal does the same with the right side. 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). Two of the pedals on the right are the brakes.

995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW). The operator presses on this pedal to disengage the transmission for either shifting gears or stopping the tractor. The pedal on the left is the clutch. On modern farm tractors there are usually four foot-pedals, for the operator, on the floor of a tractor. This basic design has remained unchanged for a number of years, but enclosed cabs are fitted on almost all modern models, for reasons of operator safety and comfort.

The classic farm tractor is a simple open vehicle with two very large driving wheels on an axle below and slightly behind a single seat (the seat and steering wheel consequently are in the center) and the engine in front of the driver with two steerable wheels below the engine compartment. These machines were phased out during the 1920s in favour of the increasingly popular internal combustion engine. These were built around steam engines, which were not very safe and could explode or entangle their operators in the belt driven attachments. The first mechanized farm implements in the 1800's and early 1900's were steam tractors.

The farm tractor is used for pulling or pushing agricultural machinery or trailers, for ploughing, harrowing and similar tasks. The most common use of the term tractor is for the vehicles used on farms. . In Britain the word "tractor" usually means "farm tractor", and using "tractor" to mean other types of vehicles is known of in the vehicle trade but unfamiliar to much of the general public.

Most commonly the word is used to describe a vehicle intended for such a task on some other vehicle or object. A tractor (from Latin trahere "to pull") is a device intended for drawing, towing or pulling something which cannot propel itself and, often, powering it too. White. Steiger Tractor Company.

Oliver Corporation. Minneapolis Moline Tractors. Massey Ferguson. Ford Tractor Co.

Farmall. Deere & Company. David Brown Limited. Case IH and New Holland (now brands of CNH Global).

Case Corporation and International Harvester. Big Bud. Allis-Chalmers.

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