Toyota Hi-Lux

A Toyota Hi-Lux.

The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well.

Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences.


1935

The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck.

1947

After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963.

Engine:

  • 995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW)

1964

Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K.

Engine:

  • 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW)

1969

The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. A 4-speed manual transmission was standard.

Engine:

  • 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW)
  • 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW)
  • 1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW)

1973

In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time.

Engine:

  • 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW)

1975

The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year.

Engine:

  • 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW)

1979

The next generation appeared in 1979. This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades.

Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank.

Engine:

  • 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW)
  • 1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only)

1981

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984.

1984

The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988.

Engines:

  • 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only)
  • 1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW)

1989

The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991.

Engines:

  • 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW)

1995

Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. The origins of its name are supposedly unknown...

This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back.

The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well.

Engines:

  • 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2)
  • 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4)
  • 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW)

2005

The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005.

This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005.

Engines (markets):

  • 2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa)
  • 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America)
  • 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA)
  • 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America)
  • 2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA)

Reputation

The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance.


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These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance. The incidence of twinning among cattle is about 1-4%, and research is underway to improve the odds of twinning, which can be more profitable for the breeder if complications can be sidestepped or managed. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. Multiple births are common in many animal species, such as cats, sheep, and ferrets. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. In this case, although the twins did come from the same egg, it is incorrect to refer to them as genetically identical, since they have different karyotypes. The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. When monozygotic twins are born with different genders it is because of chromosomal birth defects.

Engines (markets):. The probability of this is so vanishingly small (only 3 documented cases) that multiples having different genders is universally accepted as a sound basis for a clinical determination that in utero multiples are not monozygotic. This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005. Among monozygotic twins, in extremely rare cases, twins have been born with opposite sexes (one male, one female). The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005. One 1992 study estimates that the frequency of heteropaternal superfecundation among dizygotic twins whose parents were involved in paternity suits was approximately 2.4%; see the references section, below, for more details. Engines:. This can lead to the possibility of a woman carrying fraternal twins with different fathers (that is, half-siblings).

It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well. Among fraternal twins, in rare cases, the eggs are fertilised at different times with two or more acts of sexual intercourse, either within one menstrual cycle (superfecundation) or, even more rarely, later on in the pregnancy (superfetation). The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. There are some patterns of twinning that are exceedingly rare: while they have been reported to happen, they are so unusual that most obstetricians or midwives may go their entire careers without encountering a single case. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back. Twins that have been separated early in life and raised in separate households are especially sought-after for these studies, which have been invaluable in the exploration of human nature. This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. Twin studies are studies that assess identical (monozygotic) twins for medical, genetic, or psychological characteristics to try to isolate genetic influence from environmental influence.

The origins of its name are supposedly unknown... Many fertility treatments have no effect on the likelihood of multiple births. Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. Some other treatments such as the drug Clomid can stimulate a woman to release multiple eggs, allowing the possibility of multiples. Engines:. With in vitro fertilisation (IVF), this is primarily due to the insertion of multiple embryos into the uterus. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991. This can vary depending on what types of fertility treatments are used.

The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Women undergoing certain fertility treatments may have a greater chance of multiple births. The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. Dizygotic twin pregnancies are slightly more likely when the following factors are present in the woman:. Engines:. Some evidence suggests that the environment of the womb causes the zygote to split in most cases. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988. Fewer than 20 families have been described with an inherited tendency towards monozygotic twinning (people in these families have nearly a 50% chance of delivering monozygotic twins).

The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. The cause of monozygotic twinning is unknown. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. Multiple pregnancies are usually delivered before the full term of 40 weeks gestation: the average length of pregnancy is around 36 weeks for twins, 34 weeks for triplets and 32 weeks for quadruplets. The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. Before the advent of ovulation-stimulating drugs, triplets were quite rare (approximately 1 in 8000 births) and higher order births so rare as to be almost unheard of. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984. If there are three, they are called triplets; four, quadruplets; five, quintuplets; six, sextuplets, seven, septuplets, and so on.

There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. Sometimes multiple births may involve more than two fetuses. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. Nevertheless, the rate of identical twins remains at about 1 in 250 across the globe, further suggesting that pregnancies resulting in identical twins occur randomly. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. Thus, approximately 6% of children born in the US in 2001 were twins. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. In 2001, for the first time ever in the US, the twinning rate exceeded 3% of all births.

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. The widespread use of fertility drugs causing hyperovulation (stimulated release of multiple eggs by the mother) has caused what some call an "epidemic of multiple births". Engine:. The rate of twinning varies greatly among ethnic groups, ranging as high as about 6% for the Yoruba or 10% for a tiny Brazilian village (see [1]). It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank. Historically, about 1 in 80 human births (1.2%) has been the result of a twin pregnancy. Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. Similar to vanishing twin.

This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades. Occasionally, a woman will suffer a miscarriage early in pregnancy, yet the pregnancy will continue; one twin was miscarried but the other was able to be carried to term. The next generation appeared in 1979. A chimera may arise either from identical twin fetuses (where it would be impossible to detect), or from dizygotic fetuses, which could be identified by chromosomal comparisons from various parts of the body. Engine:. A chimera is a person who is a completely normal human with no extra parts, but some of the parts actually came from his or her twin. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year. Sometimes the parasitic twin just becomes an almost indistinguishable part of the other.

A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. One fetus acts as a parasite towards the other. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. Sometimes one twin fetus will fail to develop completely and continue to cause problems for its surviving twin. The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. This condition occurs in about 1 in 100,000 pregnancies. Engine:. This occurs where the single zygote of identical twins fails to separate completely.

A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time. Conjoined twins are monozygotic twins, whose bodies are joined together at birth. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. Early obstetric ultrasonography exams sometimes reveal an "extra" fetus, which fails to develop and instead disintegrates and vanishes. In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. Researchers suspect that more pregnancies start out as multiples than come to term that way. Engine:. Such conditions are usually associated with a higher incidence of other birth defects.

A 4-speed manual transmission was standard. This is where some or all of the organs will be on the opposite side of the body, such as the heart being on the right(Dextrocardia). It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. One mirror may or may not have situs inversus. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. They result from a late split of the fertilized egg at around 9-12 days. The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. The incidence of mirror twinning is comparatively rare.

Engine:. These are identical twins with opposite features, that is one may be right handed and the other may be left handed; hair will whorl in the opposite direction, and so on. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K. Some percentage of monozygotic twins are called "mirror twins" or mirror image twins. Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. (Fraga, et al., 2005). Engine:. Twins who had spent their lives apart (such as those adopted by two different sets of parents at birth) had the greatest difference.

This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963. 50-year-old twins had over 3 times the epigenetic difference that the 3-year-old twins had. After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. The number of differences between identical twins increases with age. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck. A study of 80 pairs of twins ranging in age from 3 to 74 showed that the youngest twins have relatively few epigenetic differences. The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. This is called epigenetic modification.

. Identical twins have identical DNA but differing environmental influences throughout their lives affect which genes are switched on or off.
. There are usually obvious signs of differences when the identical twins are observed separately or together. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences. Twins are unique individuals that establish their own individual likes and dislikes. Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. Many identical twins spend most of their time together (especially as children), so people often assume that they will behave alike just as they look alike; however, this is not the case.

One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well. They develop their own individual personalities to enable themselves to be identified as individual persons. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. Identical twins can behave as differently as any other siblings (a matter of much interest to psychologists). The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. The exact cause for the splitting of a zygote or embryo is unknown. The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. While it was originally thought that identical twins do not run in families, but occur more or less randomly, some recent research has suggested that a genetic predisposition may exist.

2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). As they mature, identical twins often become less alike because of lifestyle choices or external influences such as scars. 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America). Examination of details such as fingerprints can tell them apart. 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). (On extremely rare occasions, an original XXY zygote may form monozygotic boy/girl twins by dropping the Y chromosome for one twin and the extra X chromosome for the other.) Monozygotic twins generally look alike, although sometimes they appear as mirror images of each other. 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America). Monozygotic twins are genetically identical unless there has been a mutation in development, and they are almost always the same gender.

2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa). About 50% of mono-mono twins die from umbilical cord entanglement. 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW). These twins may develop such that blood passes disproportionately from one twin to the other through connecting blood vessels within their shared placenta, leading to twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4). Monochorionic twins, sharing one placenta, usually also share the placental blood supply. 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2). For example, the umbilical cords of monoamniotic twins can become entangled, reducing or interrupting the blood supply to the developing fetus.

1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). Sharing the same amnion (or the same amnion and placenta) can cause complications in pregnancy. 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Twinning after 12 days post-fertilization will typically result in conjoined twins. 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). Twinning between 8 to 12 days after fertilization will usually result in monochorionic-monoamniotic ("mono-mono") twins. 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Twinning between 4 to 8 days after fertilization typically results in monochorionic-diamniotic ("mono-di") twins.

1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Zygotes that twin at the earliest stages will be diamniotic and dichorionic ("di-di"). 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). The later in pregnancy that twinning occurs, the more structures will be shared. 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. This condition does not occur for fraternal twins. 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). Also note that any monochorionic or monoamniotic twins are identical twins.

1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. All monoamniotic twins are monochorionic. 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). Diamniotic identical twins may share the same placenta (known as monochorionic) or not (dichorionic). 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). Depending on the stage at which the zygote divides, identical twins may share the same amnion (in which case they are known as monoamniotic) or not (diamniotic). 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). The two embryos develop into fetuses sharing the same womb.

1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). Identical twins occur when a single egg is fertilized to form one zygote (monozygotic) but the zygote then divides into two separate embryos. 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW). However, it is only the female that has any influence on the chances of having fraternal twins as the male cannot make her release more than one ovum. 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). Studies show that there is a genetic basis for fraternal twinning—that is, non-identical twins do run in families. 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). Dizygotic twins may be a different sex or the same sex, just as with any other siblings.

995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW). Dizygotic twins, like any siblings, have a very small chance of having the exact same chromosome profile, but most likely have a number of different chromosomes that distinguish them. The two eggs form two zygotes, and these twins are therefore also known as dizygotic as well as "biovular" twins. Fraternal twins (commonly known as "non-identical twins") usually occur when two fertilized eggs are implanted in the uterine wall at the same time. .

Since some premature births often have health consequence to the babies, twins birth are often handled with special procedures. Due to the limited size of the mother's womb, multiple pregnancy is much less likely to carry to full term than singleton birth (twins usually around 34 to 36 weeks). A fetus alone in the womb is called a singleton. The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and are usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day.

Several previous pregnancies. Greater than average height and weight. Between the age of 30 and 40 years. She is of African descent.

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