Toyota Hi-LuxA Toyota Hi-Lux.
The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well.
Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences.
The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck.
After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963.
Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K.
The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. A 4-speed manual transmission was standard.
In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time.
The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year.
The next generation appeared in 1979. This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades.
Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank.
The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984.
The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988.
The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991.
Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. The origins of its name are supposedly unknown...
This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back.
The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well.
The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005.
This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005.
The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance.
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These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance. Computer and video games are a subset of interactive media, which includes virtual reality, flight and engineering simulation, multimedia and the World Wide Web. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. Gamers are quite happy to use the vague term "games", or "videogame/video game" to distinguish them from board games and card games when necessary. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. Other commonly used terms include "entertainment software," "interactive entertainment media," "electronic interactive entertainment," "electronic game," "software game," and "videogame" (as one word). The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. For many, either "computer game" or "video game" describes these games as a whole.
Engines (markets):. Non-gamers use several umbrella terms for console, PC, arcade, handheld, and similar games since they do not agree on the best name. This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005. See artistic computer game modification and Machinima. The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005. Recently, computer games have also been used as a digital art medium. Engines:. After the release of Half-Life 2 Valve developed these mods for the sequel and sold them through their Internet digital distribution software, Steam.
It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well. Valve bought a number of popular mods including Counter-Strike and Day of Defeat. The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. This was the case with Valve's Half-Life. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back. Popular mods are very occasionally bought by the developers of the game. This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. Developers such as id, Valve, and Epic ship their games with the very development tools used to make the game in the first place, along with documentation to assist mod developers, which allows for the kind of success seen by popular mods such as Counter-Strike.
The origins of its name are supposedly unknown... The Internet provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute mods, and they have become an increasingly important factor in the commercial success of some games. Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. These mods can add an extra dimension of replayability and interest. Engines:. Games running on a PC are often designed with end-user modifications in mind, and this consequently allows modern computer games to be modified by gamers without much difficulty. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991. See also: video game industry practices.
The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. This has led to regular occurrences of missed deadlines and unfinished products; Duke Nukem Forever is the quintessential example of these problems. The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. The average team size as well as the average development time of a game have grown along with the size of the industry and the technology involved in creating games. Engines:. Most video game console development teams number anywhere from 20 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding 100. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988. Video games are developing fast in all areas, but the problem is of cost, and how developers intend to keep the costs low enough to attract publisher investment.
The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. Development by committee rarely works. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. The visionary for any game may come from any of the roles outlined. The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. Now, development commonly requires a large team consisting of designers, graphic designers and other artists, programmers, sound designers, musicians, and other technicians; all of which are managed by producers. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984. Video games are made by developers, who used to do this as individuals or small teams in the 80's.
There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. It's only a matter of time before video games will be as accepted as other forms of media and entertainment. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. In both cases, the attempts at censorship in the United States were struck down as a violation of First Amendment rights, and they have gone on to become fully integrated facets of society. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. Since these art forms have been around longer, the backlash against them occurred farther in the past, beyond the remembrance of today's youth. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. Moreover, it appears to be a question of age.
The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. The same situation has been applied to Comic books, music, and motion pictures. Engine:. Historically, this type of controversy and criticism is not unique to video games. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank. Proponents and opponents of censorship are often very passionate about their individual views. Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. Video game controversy comes in many forms, and censorship is a controversial subject, as well as a popular topic of debate.
This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades. Video game censorship is defined as the use of state or group power to control the playing, distribution, purchase, or sale of video games or computer games. The next generation appeared in 1979. Among others, critics of video games sometimes include parents' groups, politicians, organized religion groups, and other special interest groups, even though all these can be found in all forms of entertainment and media. Engine:. Computer and video games have been the subject of frequent controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, advertising, consumption of illegal drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, propaganda or profanity in some games. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year. Development of techniques are tested against an advanced computer player or online against other human players.
A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. A well-designed game will be easy to pick up but difficult to master, like chess. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. Games which encourage strategic thinking have well-honed rule sets that the player needs to thoroughly grasp. The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. For example an RTS game set in the past may require use of ancient armies or outwitting a famous world leader of the time. Engine:. More obvious benefits to the player is education on the game's subject matter.
A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time. It could be said that when players stare at a screen with a blank expression, it isn't one of hopeless mesmerization, but one of intense concentration. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. To win at a game, the player may devote his/her entire attention to it, and utilise newly-learnt skills or tactics. In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. An experienced player will be able to do all this in a very short period of time upon first discovering a new game- such quick learning skills can easily be transferred to other areas of mental application. Engine:. S/he must then learn the game controls and how the human-machine interface works, inclusing menus and HUDs.
A 4-speed manual transmission was standard. In order to experience the game, the player must first determine the objective(s), as well as how to complete them. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. Computer and videogames differ from other forms of entertainment in that the person experiencing them is in control, one way or another. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. Online shows are fast becoming the place to view live action gaming broadcasts such as Gamespot's 'On the Spot'. The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. Other parodies have come in the form of amateur videos on Tetris or Ghosts and Goblins, such as those of Mega 64.
Engine:. The success of Penny Arcade has attracted many people in the industry, including Ubisoft. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K. Here, the storylines or jokes revolve around current events in video gaming. Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. The other is a more traditional comic strip, containing original art, like Penny Arcade. Engine:. Sometimes these are original stories, but are often parodies of the game in which the sprite came from.
This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963. The first one is the sprite comic, such as 8 Bit Theatre, in which the artist uses sprites from the earlier Final Fantasy games to tell stories. After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. Currently there are two varieties. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck. On the Internet, gaming has also become a popular subject of many webcomics. The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. Also, video games have found themselves on MTV2, in a popular show called Video Mod, where characters from popular video games perform songs from hit artists, such as characters from The Sims 2 performing the song "Stacy's Mom" by Fountains Of Wayne.
. Some examples of this are the Catwoman and King Arthur movie games along with the entire television-to-game franchise.
One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well. Movies have had far more success moving the other direction, onto video games. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. Sometime, they even "help" more obscure/Japan-only games pick up popularity in America although rarely; To Heart would be the best example of such thing. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. cartoons, Sonic SatAM, Captain N: The Game Master and Earthworm Jim while Sonic Underground, the American Mega Man cartoon and 4Kids Entertainment's dubs (although this isn't limited to their video game-based dubs) are cited as being poor. The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. Some notable examples of major success includes the various Mario Bros.
2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). On the other hand, video games get much more success when adapted into cartoons/anime. 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America). The recently released Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children may change some people's minds though, even though it's a straight to DVD affair. 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). Films like Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, which has received mixed responses from audiences, with some saying it is a great movie, and others saying it is a very bad movie with excellent computer-generated imagery, but ultimately flopped in the box office, and Uwe Boll's House of the Dead and Alone in the Dark, which both ended up being horrible flops both in fan reactions and box office success and both ending up on the IMDB's bottom 100 movies, do not, in turn, give much confidence in whether these movies will be handled seriously. 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America). There is still debate in the movie industry on whether video games can consistently be turned into good, profitable movies.
2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa). John Woo also has producing rights on a movie based on the popular Nintendo game Metroid. 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW). Doom, a game which film makers were trying to cross over since the mid '90s, finally hit theatres 12 years after its initial release. 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4). However, after the initial bunch, many projects materialized that were never finished, but the success of films like Lara Croft: Tomb Raider has led to more films materializing. 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2). Despite the ultimately poor performance of these movies, many studios still want to turn big games into movies, hoping that the popularity of the game will help the movie.
1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). Reviews have generally been poor. 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. In the mid-90s, films for Super Mario Brothers, Street Fighter, Wing Commander and Mortal Kombat were released. 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). One of the first films based on a video game property was The Wizard, which some criticized as a 90-minute ad for Super Mario Brothers 3. 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Video game properties have had mixed success when migrating to the movies.
1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Many T-shirts are available that directly reference video games, such as one with a picture of an NES controller with the text 'Know Your Roots.' Also, video games have also become a major part in cross marketing platforms, such as in Pokémon or Yu-Gi-Oh, where a child can watch the television show, buy the trading cards, and play the various video games available. 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). Video gaming is now ingrained in popular culture in the United States. 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. PlayStation Magazine, GamePro, GameSpot, GameSpy, IGN, Amped News, and GameFAQs. 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). Numerous websites and publications devoted solely to games have been created, including Official Xbox Magazine, Nintendo Power, Official U.S.
1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. The success of computer and online gaming there is usually credited to South Korea's push for broadband Internet connections in the home and earlier bans on Japanese products (these restrictions were removed by the late 1990s). 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). StarCraft gosu (expert players) are celebrities in a game that some have called the country's national sport. 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). Developers there boast MMORPGs such as Lineage and Ragnarok Online with millions of subscribers and a third of the world's MMOG revenue. 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). Take for example South Korea.
1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). Computer games are huge business worldwide. 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW). A large number of summer blockbuster films spawn a companion game, often launching at the same time in order to share the marketing costs. 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). The game and film industries are also becoming increasingly intertwined, with companies like Sony having significant stakes in both. 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). This is untrue; in the United States, video game sales have exceeded the movies' total box office revenue each year since about 1996, but the movie studios trounce the video game publishers when the movies' "ancillary revenue" is counted, meaning sales of DVDs, sales to foreign distributors, and sales to cable TV, satellite TV, and broadcast television networks.
995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW). There is a commonly repeated, mistaken belief that video game sales now exceed the revenues of the movie industry. Retail PC game sales have been declining slightly each year since about 1998, but this fact should be taken with a grain of salt: the retail sales numbers from NPD do not include sales from online downloads, nor subscription revenue for games like MMORPGs. These figures are sales in dollars, not units; unit shipments for each category were higher than the dollar sales numbers indicate, as more software and hardware was sold at reduced prices compared to 2003. It reported that as of 2004:.
The NPD Group tracks computer and video game sales in the United States. In South Korea, computer games are preferred, especially MMORPG games and real-time strategy games; there are over 20,000 PC bang Internet cafes where computer games can be played for an hourly charge. Japanese consumers avoid computer games and instead buy video games, with a strong preference for games created in Japan, that run on Japanese consoles (1 reason the Xbox series is less popular). Sales of different types of games vary widely between these markets due to local preferences.
. China is not considered a significant market, most likely because an estimated 95% of video games sold in the country are pirated. Other significant markets include Spain, Germany, South Korea, France, and Italy. The four largest markets for computer and video games are the United States, Japan, Canada and the United Kingdom.
The average age of the video game player is now 30 , belying the myth that video games are largely a diversion for teenagers. The popularity of computer and video games, as a whole, has been increasing steadily ever since the 1984-1987 drop-off caused by the video game crash of 1983, and the popularity appears to be continuing to increase. This term has now expanded to include any game that has more direct action, with fewer long term objectives, focuses on time limits and, for the most part, shorter in-game levels. Arcade games that are no longer profitable to lease can be purchased by private individuals, many of whom then explore the game dynamics by altering the programs in minor ways.
Controls are similar to those available for many consoles (albeit usually as peripherals) and range from the classic joystick and buttons (Pac-Man), to light guns (Duck Hunt), to pads on the ground that sense pressure (Dance Dance Revolution). These are programmed, equipped, and decorated for a specific game, consisting of a video display, a set of controls, and the coin slot. Arcade games, traditionally, are "coin-operated games", played on a standalone device originally leased to commercial entertainment venues. Because they are designed to be played on the go, they were traditionally small enough to carry conveniently in a bag or jacket (the Virtual Boy being an exception to this), but due to their small size, handheld consoles have reduced processing power compared to larger consoles, meaning that games are shorter, and until the release of the Nintendo DS, were largely limited to 2D.
Handheld consoles act as their own controllers, which the player uses to interact with the game, as well as having in-built display and audio output devices. Handheld games are played on handheld game consoles, such as the Nintendo Game Boy line, the Nintendo DS and the Sony PSP. Consoles themselves branched off from personal computers around two decades ago, a fact which is still evident not only in the name, but also in many of the peripherals available for many consoles, like the keyboard and mouse peripherals released for the Sony PlayStation 2 and the Sega Dreamcast. The player usually interacts with the game through a controller, and video and sound are typically delivered to the player via a television through composite A/V cables, although most modern consoles support additional outputs, such as surround sound, progressive scan, and High Definition setups through the use of component cables.
Console games are played on a video game console,or "home console", a specialized computer specifically designed to play games of a certain format. Some of these games, such as Runescape, however, have expanded far beyond this, and can often be considered on the same level as "mainstream" PC games. Some are on going user-based games that have no ending. These games generally do not share the same magnitude of development costs, depth, or seriousness of PC and console games, and are generally quick to complete by comparison.
Online gaming began with PC games, but has expanded over time to include most modern consoles. Online Games are those which are played over the Internet. Ease of software piracy is also a much greater threat with PC games, although console hardware modifications do make it possible to play pirated games on them as well. Without the proper hardware, the game may perform poorly or not run at all, as opposed to console software, in which the software is designed based on the set hardware configuration of the console.
One possible explanation for the declining sales of personal computer games in relation to that of consoles can be found within the PC itself: a computer must meet certain minimum requirements such as CPU speed, Random access memory (RAM), system clock speed (MHz or GHz), video card memory, hard drive space, operating system, Internet connection speed (for online games) and other criteria. For more information, see sales. According to the Entertainment Software Association, console games have outsold computer games roughly four units to one in 2003 and 2004 . There is, however, a continuing movement to get the most popular games to run under the Mac and Linux operating systems, although it is still small.
Today, most major PC games require a recent version of the Windows operating system to be installed on the computer. PC games are often more detailed than console games because of early market releases of their external architecture and graphics cards. Video feedback is received by the user through the computer screen, sound through speakers or headphones. They are played on the personal computer with standard computer interface devices such as the keyboard and mouse, or additional peripherals, such as joysticks.
Personal computer games are commonly referred to as "computer games" or "PC games". During the last generation of gaming, most major PC game releases have coincided with the release of console versions, and titles initially developed for a single platform are often ported to others if they prove to be successful. Many games intended for PCs are now just as prevalent on consoles, with many developers creating versions for more than one platform. The final home platform is the PC.
The 3 main home video game platform companies are Nintendo, Microsoft, and Sony, who between them have created seven of the eight home platforms most commonly used today. Games are not interchangeable between platforms so, for example, Xbox games will not work in your PC. Personal computers, consoles, handheld systems, and arcade machines are all common. Today there are many different devices, or platforms, on which games may be played.
The increase in the popularity of online gaming has also resulted in sub-genres being formed, such as massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG). Most games nowadays are a combination of two or more genres (e.g action/RPG). The most common genres in use today include platformer, adventure, role-playing game (RPG), first person shooter (FPS), third person shooter (both these are sometimes refered to as shoot-'em-ups), sports, racing, fighting, action (note that this term is abused often), puzzle, simulation, and real time strategy (RTS). Games, like most other forms of media, may be categorized into genres based on gameplay, atmosphere, and various other factors.
Although the use of this term is often disputed, as it is considered too vague for the range of concepts it describes, it is currently the most commonly used and accepted term for this purpose when describing video games. It includes direct interaction, such as controls and interface, but also design aspects of the game, such as levels and graphics. In computer and video gaming, gameplay (sometimes called "Game mechanics") is a general term that describes player interaction with a game. The Xbox 360, will be powered by a multi-core CPU, the PlayStation 3 will be powered by Cell processor technology, and the Nintendo Revolution will allow the gamer to interact with the game via a wireless motion sensing controller and promises more innovations, although full technical specifications are yet to be revealed.
Sony with the PlayStation 3 and Nintendo with the codenamed Revolution will join Microsoft with the already released Xbox 360 in this year's "technology race". 2006 will see the continuation of the next generation of console gaming in the form of two new consoles. The end of 2005 saw the release of the Xbox 360 - the first of the next generation of consoles. In Western countries the consoles have had similar levels of success (PSP sales are slightly higher), but in Japan the DS has been a huge hit, vastly outselling the PSP.
The Nintendo DS is a highly innovative handheld, the PSP is much more powerful and also includes limited media capabilities. The other two more technically advanced handhelds to be released in 2004, the Nintendo DS (DS stands for Dual-Screen) and the PlayStation Portable (PSP), didn't help the N-Gage. In 2004 Nokia released a re-designed N-Gage, called the N-Gage QD, which didn't fare much better. It was criticised for being poorly designed, and flopped.
Nokia entered the handheld market with its N-Gage game-phone hybrid in 2003. Sega realised they could no longer compete, and announced they would discontinue the Dreamcast and no longer manufacture hardware, becoming a third-party developer in 2002. Nintendo released their successor to the Nintendo 64, the GameCube, and the first all new Game Boy since the consoles inception, the Game Boy Advance. Its flagship game, Halo: Combat Evolved, is also available at the system's launch.
In 2001 Microsoft entered the videogame console industry by releasing its new home console, the Xbox. It was an instant hit and became the best-selling computer game of all time, surpassing Myst. The Sims was also released. In 2000 Sony released the widely anticipated PlayStation 2.
1998 saw the releases of the Sega Dreamcast in Japan (1999 in the US) and the Game Boy Color from Nintendo. The Saturn was successful in Japan but a failure in North America, leaving Sega outside of the main competition. By the end of this period, Sony had dethroned Nintendo, the PlayStation outselling the Nintendo 64. In particular, SquareSoft, which had released all previous games in its Final Fantasy series for Nintendo consoles, now turned to the PlayStation; Final Fantasy VII (1997) was a huge success, establishing the popularity of role-playing games in the west and making the PlayStation the primary console for the genre.
Nintendo's choice to use cartridges instead of CD-ROMs for the Nintendo 64, unique among the consoles of this period, proved to have negative consequences. The flagship title, Super Mario 64, became a defining title for 3D platform games. After many delays, Nintendo released its 64-bit console, the Nintendo 64 in 1996, selling more than 1.5 million units in only three months. Both consoles used 32-bit technology; the door was open for 3D games.
In 1994-1995, Sega released Sega Saturn and Sony made its debut to the video gaming scene with the PlayStation. Basic 3D graphics entered the mainstream with flat-shaded polygons enabled by additional processors in game cartridges like Virtua Racing and Starfox. CD-ROM drives were first seen in this generation, as add-ons for the PC Engine in 1988 and the Megadrive in 1991. The PC Engine eventually lost out to the Super Famicom, but retained enough of a user base to support new games well into the late 1990s.
In Japan, the PC Engine's (Turbografx 16) 1987 success against the Famicom and CD drive peripheral allowed it to fend off the Mega Drive (Genesis) in 1988, which never really caught on to the same degree as outside Japan. The NEC TurboGrafx 16 was the first 16-bit system to be marketed in the region, but did not achieve a large following, partly due to a limited library of English games and effective marketing from Sega. The North American market was dominated by the Sega Genesis early on after its debut in 1989, with the Nintendo Super NES proving a strong, roughly equal rival in 1991. While some of the other systems remained in production until the mid-90s, the Game Boy remained at the top spot in sales throughout its lifespan.
Several rival handhelds also made their debut around that time, including the Sega Game Gear and Atari Lynx. Included with the system was Tetris, which became a popular puzzle game. In 1989, Nintendo released the Game Boy, the first popular handheld console. See the article on Console wars for additional information on that facet of game history.
The last two decades of game history have been marked by separate markets for games on video game consoles, home computers and handhelds. and many others of today's popular Nintendo genre. The video game crash of 1983, however, produced a dark age in the market that was not filled until the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) reached North America in 1985.This presented Americans with games such as Mario Bros. The late 1970s to early 1980s brought about the improvement of home consoles and the release of the Atari 2600, Intellivision and Colecovision.
He created a system with limited capabilities called the Magnavox Odyssey, which paved the way for the next wave of home consoles. The first home console video games, were created by Ralph Baer who is now known as the creator of video games. The 1970s also saw the release of the first home video game consoles. The paddles were white bars with a dot moving between them.
One of the best-known of these games is Pong, a simple game simulating Ping Pong. Arcade games were developed in the 1970s (Pac-man to Frogger) and led to the so-called "Golden Age of Arcade Games". The first video game was Tennis for Two created by William Higginbotham in 1958. The first primitive computer and video games were developed in the 1960s and 1970s and ran on platforms such as oscilloscopes, university mainframes and EDSAC computers.
. In common usage, "computer game" or "PC game" refers specifically to games played on a personal computer, "console game" refers to games played on specifically-designed set top box, that play through a TV and "video game" (or "videogame") refers to any game played on a device that plays through your TV but also includes PC, Console, Mobile Phone or PDA or other handheld device. To avoid ambiguity, this game software is referred to as "computer and video games" throughout this article, which explores things common to both types of game. The phrase interactive entertainment is the formal reference to computer and video games.
Usually there are rules and goals, but in more open-ended games the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of the virtual universe. These terms are not always interchangeable as some games, particularly older games, do not use a video display. A video game is a computer game where a video display such as a monitor or television is the primary feedback device. A computer game is a computer-controlled game that players may interact with.
PC game sales: $1.1 billion, down 2% from 2003 . Console and portable hardware and accessory sales: $3.7 billion, down 35% from 2003 . Console and portable software sales: $6.2 billion, up 8% from 2003 . For specific information regarding "console games" or, see console game..
For specific information regarding "computer games", see personal computer game..