Toyota Supra

The Toyota Supra was a sports car produced by Toyota. Production began in 1979. The Supra was built and designed on the legacy of Toyota's former super sports car, the 2000GT. It bore the common chassis code of "A".

Toyota Celica Supra Mk 1 (1979-1981)

Toyota Celica Supra MkI

The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 inches (doors and rear section same length as celica but rear panels differ). Most importantly, the Celica's 4-cylinder engine was replaced by an inline 6. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z; it, in some degree, succeded.

The 1979 (1978 Japan market) Mk 1 was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) single overhead cam inline-6 motor, the 2.6 L 4M-E (MA46 chassis code) (which was the first Toyota engine with electronic fuel injection). [1] In 1981, the Supra received the 2.8 L 5M-E, (MA47 Chassis code) making 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. It was also available in Japan with the 2.0 L M-EU engine MA45 chassis code) and possibly the M-TEU turbo.[2]

As with all subsequent versions of the Supra, the Mk 1 was equipped with either 5 speed manual (W50) or 4 speed automatic transmission, and it also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes, but retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the celica in the MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional LSD) In the MA46 and MA47

1981 was the last year that a Celica Supra could be purchased equipped with an 8-track stereo. [3]

Toyota Celica Supra Mk 2 (1982-1986)

Toyota Celica Supra Mk2

Though the Celica name was still used, in its second generation the Supra stood more apart from the Celica. The Mk 2, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984.

In the US, the engine was changed from the SOHC 2.8 L 5M-E to the DOHC 2.8 L 5M-GE. The MK2 came in 2 flavors: the P-type (Performance type) and the L-type (Luxury type). They were differentiated by the available options, tire/wheel combo, and body trim: the P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type had simple smaller flares molded into the metal above the wheel wells. Typically the P-type came with either 4.10:1 or 4.30:1 rear gearing, while the L-type came with 3.727:1 rear gearing. Both were offered with either the W58 manual 5-speed transmission or the A43DL (1982 only)/A43DE (1983-1986.5) 4-speed automatic transmission. The P-type came with 14X7 wheels and 225/60/14 tires, and the L-type came with 14x5.5 wheels and 195/70/14 tires. As a complement to the superb engine, the Celica Supra's suspension was specially designed by Lotus.

Around the world, the Mk 2 came with a variety of other engines. Some models sent to countries (like Sweden, Switzerland and Australia) retained the Mk 1's 5M-E (In Australia, the only petrol available at that time was leaded), while in Japan the MK2 (MA-63) offered the option of the turbocharged SOHC M-TE engine or the 2 litre twin turbo 1G-GTE (GA61). Also in Japan, where the Mk 2 was badged the Celica XX, some came with the 2.0 L 1G-GEU, since taxes were less on lower-displacement engines. Typically, non-US 5M-GE's made around 170 hp (127 kW), while the US-market version made around 145 hp (108 kW), since the exhaust system was more restrictive to comply with emissions requirements. 1984 and 1985 US models had around 165 hp (123 kW) due to 9.2:1 compression vs the former 8.8:1.

1985 was the end of the Mk 2, but delays in the manufacture of the Mk 3 led to leftover 1985 Mk 2s being offered for sale in the first half of 1986. These were just 1985 models with minor cosmetic changes, as well as the addition of the rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch.

A popular engine replacement for the Mk 2 is the 6M-GEU, which is a 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L version of the 5M-GE. This engine was never available in the Mk 2, but was offered in the JDM-only Crown and Chaser models.

Some possible chassis codes are: MA60, MA61, MA63, MA67, GA60, GA61. (After the body code L & R represented Left hand or Right hand Drive i.e., the MA61L is Left hand Drive, whereas the MA61R is Right hand Drive)

Toyota Supra Mk 3 (1986-1992)

Toyota Supra MA70

In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). Though the A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions*: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) and one without (the 7M-GE). The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154. Both were available with an optional automatic transmission, the A340E. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features.

In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced. The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, all featured leather interiors, a front intercooler inlet, were hardtops and only used MAP engine sensors. Other enhancements include higher boost (7.8psi), long lift cams, larger injectors, larger intercooler and a high flowed version of the CT26 turbocharger.

The A70 Supra was also available in two non export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE , and the GA70 with a 2.0L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE.

The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with ABS, TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension). By 1990, airbags became standard.

The 7M-GE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 in just over 6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost.

Some possible chassis codes are: MA70, MA71, JZA70, GA70.

Toyota Supra Mk 4 (1993-1998/2002)

Toyota Supra MkIV

With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sports car. The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220hp and 210lb-ft of torque, or a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320hp, 315 lb-ft of torque. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile in just under 13.1 seconds at over 109 mph. The stock turbos are capable of running around 400bhp with an unrestricted airflow/exhaust system and an aftermarket boost controller (commonly known as a BPU setup).

The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of parrallel mode as the "twin turbo" name usually implies. The way that the sequential mode operated was the first turbo starts spooling at low rpms & as the rpms increased, the second turbo joins in. This helped in reducing turbo lag. Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parrallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models

MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1200hp and run the 1/4 mile in 7.9 seconds. The stock engines are astonishingly tough, running 600bhp+ as daily drivers without having to uprate any internal components.

In 1998, Toyota ceased to export the cars from Japan, and they stopped production altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales. Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Altezza, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while other speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot.


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There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Altezza, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while other speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot. However, in New York City, lines on the New York City Subway have been referred to as "trains". Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. The term rapid transit is used for public transport such as commuter trains, metro and light rail. In 1998, Toyota ceased to export the cars from Japan, and they stopped production altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales. Maglev trains and monorails represent minor technologies in the train field. The stock engines are astonishingly tough, running 600bhp+ as daily drivers without having to uprate any internal components. They may also be called a trolley.

MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1200hp and run the 1/4 mile in 7.9 seconds. These are often protected with crossing gates. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models. The term light rail is sometimes used for a modern tram, but it may also mean an intermediate form between a tram and a train, similar to metro except that it may have level crossings. Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parrallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. In some countries such as the United Kingdom the distinction between a tramway and a railway is precise and defined in law. This helped in reducing turbo lag. A light one- or two-car rail vehicle running through the streets is not called a train but a tram, trolley, light rail vehicle or streetcar, but the distinction is not always strict.

The way that the sequential mode operated was the first turbo starts spooling at low rpms & as the rpms increased, the second turbo joins in. They can accelerate and decelerate faster than heavier, long-distance trains. The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of parrallel mode as the "twin turbo" name usually implies. Usually they run in tunnels in the city center and sometimes on elevated structures in the outer parts of the city. The stock turbos are capable of running around 400bhp with an unrestricted airflow/exhaust system and an aftermarket boost controller (commonly known as a BPU setup). The trains are electrically powered, usually by third rail, and their railroads are separate from other traffic, without level crossings. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile in just under 13.1 seconds at over 109 mph. Large cities often have a metro system, also called underground, subway or tube.

The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220hp and 210lb-ft of torque, or a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320hp, 315 lb-ft of torque. Abuse is punished by a fine. With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sports car. Passenger trains usually have emergency brake handles (or a "communication cord") that the public can operate. Some possible chassis codes are: MA70, MA71, JZA70, GA70. Double deck high speed and sleeper trains are becoming more common in Europe. The 7M-GE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 in just over 6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost. Some countries have some double-decked passenger trains for use in conurbations.

By 1990, airbags became standard. Some carriages may be laid out to have more standing room than seats, or to facilitate the carrying of prams, cycles or wheelchairs. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with ABS, TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension). For shorter distances many cities have networks of commuter trains, serving the city and its suburbs. The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. For trains connecting cities, we can distinguish inter-city trains, which do not halt at small stations, and trains that serve all stations, usually known as local trains or "stoppers" (and sometimes an intermediate kind, see also limited-stop). The A70 Supra was also available in two non export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE , and the GA70 with a 2.0L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE. Tilting is a system where the passenger cars automatically lean into curves, reducing the centrifugal forces acting on passengers and permitting higher speeds on curves in the track with greater passenger comfort.

Other enhancements include higher boost (7.8psi), long lift cams, larger injectors, larger intercooler and a high flowed version of the CT26 turbocharger. Very fast trains sometimes tilt, like the Pendolino or Talgo. The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, all featured leather interiors, a front intercooler inlet, were hardtops and only used MAP engine sensors. Very long distance trains such as those on the Trans-Siberian railway are usually not high-speed. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced. Long-distance trains, sometimes crossing several countries, may have a dining or restaurant car; they may also have sleeping cars, but not in the case of high-speed rail, these arrive at their destination before the night falls and are in competition with airplanes in speed. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. Passenger trains travel between stations; the distance between stations may vary from under 1 km to much more.

In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. Passenger trains have Passenger cars. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features. Electric trains receive their current via overhead lines or through a third rail electric system. Both were available with an optional automatic transmission, the A340E. Since the cost per mile of construction is much higher, electric traction is less favored on long-distance lines. The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154. Electric traction offers a lower cost per mile of train operation but at a very high initial cost, which can only be justified on high traffic lines.

Though the A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions*: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) and one without (the 7M-GE). Historic steam trains still run in many other countries, for the leisure and enthusiast market. The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). A few countries, most notably the People's Republic of China where coal is in cheap and plentiful supply, still use steam locomotives, but this is being gradually phased out. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. Most countries had replaced steam locomotives for day-to-day use by the 1970s. In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. From the 1920s onwards they began to be replaced by less labor intensive and cleaner (but more expensive) diesel locomotives and electric locomotives, while at about the same time self-propelled multiple unit vehicles of either power system became much more common in passenger service.

(After the body code L & R represented Left hand or Right hand Drive i.e., the MA61L is Left hand Drive, whereas the MA61R is Right hand Drive). The first trains were rope-hauled, gravity powered or pulled by horses, but from the early 19th century almost all were powered by steam locomotives. Some possible chassis codes are: MA60, MA61, MA63, MA67, GA60, GA61. A single uncoupled rail vehicle is not technically a train, but is usually referred to as such for signaling reasons. This engine was never available in the Mk 2, but was offered in the JDM-only Crown and Chaser models. Special trains are also used for track maintenance; in some places, this is called maintenance of way. A popular engine replacement for the Mk 2 is the 6M-GEU, which is a 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L version of the 5M-GE. Such mixed trains became rare in many countries, but were commonplace on the first 19th-century railroads.

These were just 1985 models with minor cosmetic changes, as well as the addition of the rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch. Transportation in Mauritania. 1985 was the end of the Mk 2, but delays in the manufacture of the Mk 3 led to leftover 1985 Mk 2s being offered for sale in the first half of 1986. Trains can also be mixed, hauling both passengers and freight, see e.g. 1984 and 1985 US models had around 165 hp (123 kW) due to 9.2:1 compression vs the former 8.8:1. Where the second locomotive is attached temporarily to assist a train up steep banks (or down them by providing breaking power) it is referred to as 'banking'. Typically, non-US 5M-GE's made around 170 hp (127 kW), while the US-market version made around 145 hp (108 kW), since the exhaust system was more restrictive to comply with emissions requirements. This practice typically being used when there are no reversing facilities available.

Also in Japan, where the Mk 2 was badged the Celica XX, some came with the 2.0 L 1G-GEU, since taxes were less on lower-displacement engines. A train with a locomotive attached each end is described as 'top and tailed'. Some models sent to countries (like Sweden, Switzerland and Australia) retained the Mk 1's 5M-E (In Australia, the only petrol available at that time was leaded), while in Japan the MK2 (MA-63) offered the option of the turbocharged SOHC M-TE engine or the 2 litre twin turbo 1G-GTE (GA61). In the United Kingdom, a train hauled by two locomotives is said to be "double-headed", and in Canada and the United States it is quite common for a long freight train to be headed by three, four, or even five locomotives. Around the world, the Mk 2 came with a variety of other engines. Freight trains comprise wagons or trucks rather than carriages, though some parcel and mail trains (especially Travelling Post Offices) are outwardly more like passenger trains. As a complement to the superb engine, the Celica Supra's suspension was specially designed by Lotus. In many parts of the world, particularly Japan and Europe, high-speed rail is utilized extensively for passenger travel.

The P-type came with 14X7 wheels and 225/60/14 tires, and the L-type came with 14x5.5 wheels and 195/70/14 tires. Alternatively, a train may consist entirely of passenger carrying coaches, some or all of which are powered as a "multiple unit". Both were offered with either the W58 manual 5-speed transmission or the A43DL (1982 only)/A43DE (1983-1986.5) 4-speed automatic transmission. A passenger train may consist of one or several locomotives, and one or more coaches. Typically the P-type came with either 4.10:1 or 4.30:1 rear gearing, while the L-type came with 3.727:1 rear gearing. Special kinds of trains running on corresponding special 'railways' are atmospheric railways, monorails, high-speed railways, Dinky Trains, maglev, rubber-tired underground, funicular and cog railways. They were differentiated by the available options, tire/wheel combo, and body trim: the P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type had simple smaller flares molded into the metal above the wheel wells. Trains can also be hauled by horses, pulled by a cable, or run downhill by gravity.

The MK2 came in 2 flavors: the P-type (Performance type) and the L-type (Luxury type). A train can consist of a combination of a locomotive and attached railroad cars, or a self-propelled multiple unit (or occasionally a single powered coach, called a railcar). In the US, the engine was changed from the SOHC 2.8 L 5M-E to the DOHC 2.8 L 5M-GE. There are various types of trains designed for particular purposes. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984. . The Mk 2, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend. In American railway terminology, and increasingly in the United Kingdom, a consist is used to describe the group of rail vehicles which make up a train.

Though the Celica name was still used, in its second generation the Supra stood more apart from the Celica. Historically the steam engine was the dominant form of locomotive power, and other sources of power (such as horses, rope, gravitiy, pneumatics, or gas turbines) are possible as well. [3]. Power is usually derived from diesel engines or from electricity supplied by trackside systems. 1981 was the last year that a Celica Supra could be purchased equipped with an 8-track stereo. Propulsion for the train is typically provided by a separate locomotive, or from individual motors in self-propelled multiple units. As with all subsequent versions of the Supra, the Mk 1 was equipped with either 5 speed manual (W50) or 4 speed automatic transmission, and it also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes, but retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the celica in the MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional LSD) In the MA46 and MA47. The guideway (permanent way) usually consists of conventional rail tracks, but might also be monorail or maglev.

It was also available in Japan with the 2.0 L M-EU engine MA45 chassis code) and possibly the M-TEU turbo.[2]. In rail transport, a train consists of a single or several connected rail vehicles that are capable of being moved together along a guideway to transport freight or passengers from one place to another along a planned route. [1] In 1981, the Supra received the 2.8 L 5M-E, (MA47 Chassis code) making 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. The 1979 (1978 Japan market) Mk 1 was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) single overhead cam inline-6 motor, the 2.6 L 4M-E (MA46 chassis code) (which was the first Toyota engine with electronic fuel injection). Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z; it, in some degree, succeded.

Most importantly, the Celica's 4-cylinder engine was replaced by an inline 6. The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 inches (doors and rear section same length as celica but rear panels differ). . It bore the common chassis code of "A".

The Supra was built and designed on the legacy of Toyota's former super sports car, the 2000GT. Production began in 1979. The Toyota Supra was a sports car produced by Toyota.

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