Toyota Supra

The Toyota Supra was a sports car produced by Toyota. Production began in 1979. The Supra was built and designed on the legacy of Toyota's former super sports car, the 2000GT. It bore the common chassis code of "A".

Toyota Celica Supra Mk 1 (1979-1981)

Toyota Celica Supra MkI

The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 inches (doors and rear section same length as celica but rear panels differ). Most importantly, the Celica's 4-cylinder engine was replaced by an inline 6. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z; it, in some degree, succeded.

The 1979 (1978 Japan market) Mk 1 was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) single overhead cam inline-6 motor, the 2.6 L 4M-E (MA46 chassis code) (which was the first Toyota engine with electronic fuel injection). [1] In 1981, the Supra received the 2.8 L 5M-E, (MA47 Chassis code) making 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. It was also available in Japan with the 2.0 L M-EU engine MA45 chassis code) and possibly the M-TEU turbo.[2]

As with all subsequent versions of the Supra, the Mk 1 was equipped with either 5 speed manual (W50) or 4 speed automatic transmission, and it also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes, but retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the celica in the MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional LSD) In the MA46 and MA47

1981 was the last year that a Celica Supra could be purchased equipped with an 8-track stereo. [3]

Toyota Celica Supra Mk 2 (1982-1986)

Toyota Celica Supra Mk2

Though the Celica name was still used, in its second generation the Supra stood more apart from the Celica. The Mk 2, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984.

In the US, the engine was changed from the SOHC 2.8 L 5M-E to the DOHC 2.8 L 5M-GE. The MK2 came in 2 flavors: the P-type (Performance type) and the L-type (Luxury type). They were differentiated by the available options, tire/wheel combo, and body trim: the P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type had simple smaller flares molded into the metal above the wheel wells. Typically the P-type came with either 4.10:1 or 4.30:1 rear gearing, while the L-type came with 3.727:1 rear gearing. Both were offered with either the W58 manual 5-speed transmission or the A43DL (1982 only)/A43DE (1983-1986.5) 4-speed automatic transmission. The P-type came with 14X7 wheels and 225/60/14 tires, and the L-type came with 14x5.5 wheels and 195/70/14 tires. As a complement to the superb engine, the Celica Supra's suspension was specially designed by Lotus.

Around the world, the Mk 2 came with a variety of other engines. Some models sent to countries (like Sweden, Switzerland and Australia) retained the Mk 1's 5M-E (In Australia, the only petrol available at that time was leaded), while in Japan the MK2 (MA-63) offered the option of the turbocharged SOHC M-TE engine or the 2 litre twin turbo 1G-GTE (GA61). Also in Japan, where the Mk 2 was badged the Celica XX, some came with the 2.0 L 1G-GEU, since taxes were less on lower-displacement engines. Typically, non-US 5M-GE's made around 170 hp (127 kW), while the US-market version made around 145 hp (108 kW), since the exhaust system was more restrictive to comply with emissions requirements. 1984 and 1985 US models had around 165 hp (123 kW) due to 9.2:1 compression vs the former 8.8:1.

1985 was the end of the Mk 2, but delays in the manufacture of the Mk 3 led to leftover 1985 Mk 2s being offered for sale in the first half of 1986. These were just 1985 models with minor cosmetic changes, as well as the addition of the rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch.

A popular engine replacement for the Mk 2 is the 6M-GEU, which is a 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L version of the 5M-GE. This engine was never available in the Mk 2, but was offered in the JDM-only Crown and Chaser models.

Some possible chassis codes are: MA60, MA61, MA63, MA67, GA60, GA61. (After the body code L & R represented Left hand or Right hand Drive i.e., the MA61L is Left hand Drive, whereas the MA61R is Right hand Drive)

Toyota Supra Mk 3 (1986-1992)

Toyota Supra MA70

In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). Though the A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions*: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) and one without (the 7M-GE). The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154. Both were available with an optional automatic transmission, the A340E. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features.

In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced. The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, all featured leather interiors, a front intercooler inlet, were hardtops and only used MAP engine sensors. Other enhancements include higher boost (7.8psi), long lift cams, larger injectors, larger intercooler and a high flowed version of the CT26 turbocharger.

The A70 Supra was also available in two non export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE , and the GA70 with a 2.0L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE.

The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with ABS, TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension). By 1990, airbags became standard.

The 7M-GE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 in just over 6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost.

Some possible chassis codes are: MA70, MA71, JZA70, GA70.

Toyota Supra Mk 4 (1993-1998/2002)

Toyota Supra MkIV

With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sports car. The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220hp and 210lb-ft of torque, or a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320hp, 315 lb-ft of torque. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile in just under 13.1 seconds at over 109 mph. The stock turbos are capable of running around 400bhp with an unrestricted airflow/exhaust system and an aftermarket boost controller (commonly known as a BPU setup).

The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of parrallel mode as the "twin turbo" name usually implies. The way that the sequential mode operated was the first turbo starts spooling at low rpms & as the rpms increased, the second turbo joins in. This helped in reducing turbo lag. Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parrallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models

MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1200hp and run the 1/4 mile in 7.9 seconds. The stock engines are astonishingly tough, running 600bhp+ as daily drivers without having to uprate any internal components.

In 1998, Toyota ceased to export the cars from Japan, and they stopped production altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales. Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Altezza, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while other speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot.


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There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Altezza, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while other speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot. . Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. Vans are also used to shuttle people and their luggage between hotels and airports, to transport commuters between parking lots and their places of work, and along established routes as mini-buses. In 1998, Toyota ceased to export the cars from Japan, and they stopped production altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales. Many mobile businesses use a van to carry almost their entire business to various places where they work (for instance, people who come to homes or places of business to perform services or to install or repair appliances). The stock engines are astonishingly tough, running 600bhp+ as daily drivers without having to uprate any internal components. Commuter vans are used as an alternative to "car pooling" and other ride sharing arrangements.

MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1200hp and run the 1/4 mile in 7.9 seconds. In urban areas of the United States full size vans have been used as commuter vans since 1977, when Dodge introduced a van that could transport up to 15 passengers. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models. In addition, many of the drivers of passenger vans drive them infrequently. Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parrallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. The result is a high center of gravity and a shifting load, particularly in passenger versions. This helped in reducing turbo lag. The bench seats allow passengers to slide if safety belts are not used (in the United States it is common for only the front seat passengers to use their safety belts) and belted passengers can still lean and shift a large amount.

The way that the sequential mode operated was the first turbo starts spooling at low rpms & as the rpms increased, the second turbo joins in. The seats in the passenger version raise the load, passengers, above the floor, further increasing the center of gravity. The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of parrallel mode as the "twin turbo" name usually implies. The van body is taller than the cab and bed of the pickup that uses the same style frame and drivetrain resulting in the basic van having a higher center of gravity than a similarly loaded pickup from which it is derived. The stock turbos are capable of running around 400bhp with an unrestricted airflow/exhaust system and an aftermarket boost controller (commonly known as a BPU setup). Recently the passenger versions have been criticized for having a tendency to roll over. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile in just under 13.1 seconds at over 109 mph. Dodge, now part of Daimler-Chrysler quit making their model in June of 2002 and replaced it with the Dodge Sprinter which may be due to roll over concerns.

The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220hp and 210lb-ft of torque, or a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320hp, 315 lb-ft of torque. Second stage manufacturers also modify the original manufacturer's body to create custom vans for the general public. With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sports car. They have been sold as both cargo and passenger models to the general public and as Cutaway van chassis versions for second stage manufacturers to make box vans, ambulances, campers and other vehicles. Some possible chassis codes are: MA70, MA71, JZA70, GA70. The frame and drive train are identical or similar to the full sized pickups made by the each manufacturer but with a snub front resulting in most of the engine protruding under a console between the front seats, often called a "dog house". The 7M-GE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 in just over 6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost. The "standard" or "full size" vans in the United States were originally manufactured by the "big three"; Dodge, Ford and General Motors.

By 1990, airbags became standard. However, minivans are usually distinguised by their smaller size, unibody architecture, and front wheel drive powertrains. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with ABS, TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension). Occasionally the term van is also used to refer to a Minivan. The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. A railway car used to carry baggage is also called a "van". The A70 Supra was also available in two non export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE , and the GA70 with a 2.0L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE. In this case there is a differentiation between a dry van, used to carry most goods, and a refrigerated van (a "reefer") used for cold goods.

Other enhancements include higher boost (7.8psi), long lift cams, larger injectors, larger intercooler and a high flowed version of the CT26 turbocharger. In the United States, a "van" can also refer to a box-shaped trailer or semitrailer used to carry goods. The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, all featured leather interiors, a front intercooler inlet, were hardtops and only used MAP engine sensors. term trailer (as in trailer park. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced. The Word "van" is a shortened version of the word caravan which originally meant a covered vehicle, though in British English this now has a similar meaning to the U.S. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. Similarly, in Australia, panel vans, recreational vehicles popular among young people in the 1970s, were based on locally-manufactured utes (short for utility, the local name for pickup).

In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. British people, mostly older ones, will also sometimes call a pickup truck a "van", something Americans would never do. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features. While the word always applies to boxy cargo vans, British English speakers will generally refer to a passenger minivan as a people-carrier or MPV, and a larger passenger van as a minibus. Both were available with an optional automatic transmission, the A340E. The word "van" has slightly different, but overlapping, meanings in different forms of English. The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154. Larger vehicles are classified as trucks or lorries.

Though the A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions*: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) and one without (the 7M-GE). Some vans can be really small, like the van versions of the Mini or can be really large like some Mercedes-Benz vans. The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). It can either be a specially designed vehicle or be based on a saloon/sedan car, the latter type often including derivatives with open backs (pick-ups etc). The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. It is generally a rather box-shaped vehicle on four wheels, about the same width and length as a large automobile, but taller and usually higher off the ground. In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. A van is a vehicle used for transporting goods or groups of people.

(After the body code L & R represented Left hand or Right hand Drive i.e., the MA61L is Left hand Drive, whereas the MA61R is Right hand Drive). Some possible chassis codes are: MA60, MA61, MA63, MA67, GA60, GA61. This engine was never available in the Mk 2, but was offered in the JDM-only Crown and Chaser models. A popular engine replacement for the Mk 2 is the 6M-GEU, which is a 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L version of the 5M-GE.

These were just 1985 models with minor cosmetic changes, as well as the addition of the rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch. 1985 was the end of the Mk 2, but delays in the manufacture of the Mk 3 led to leftover 1985 Mk 2s being offered for sale in the first half of 1986. 1984 and 1985 US models had around 165 hp (123 kW) due to 9.2:1 compression vs the former 8.8:1. Typically, non-US 5M-GE's made around 170 hp (127 kW), while the US-market version made around 145 hp (108 kW), since the exhaust system was more restrictive to comply with emissions requirements.

Also in Japan, where the Mk 2 was badged the Celica XX, some came with the 2.0 L 1G-GEU, since taxes were less on lower-displacement engines. Some models sent to countries (like Sweden, Switzerland and Australia) retained the Mk 1's 5M-E (In Australia, the only petrol available at that time was leaded), while in Japan the MK2 (MA-63) offered the option of the turbocharged SOHC M-TE engine or the 2 litre twin turbo 1G-GTE (GA61). Around the world, the Mk 2 came with a variety of other engines. As a complement to the superb engine, the Celica Supra's suspension was specially designed by Lotus.

The P-type came with 14X7 wheels and 225/60/14 tires, and the L-type came with 14x5.5 wheels and 195/70/14 tires. Both were offered with either the W58 manual 5-speed transmission or the A43DL (1982 only)/A43DE (1983-1986.5) 4-speed automatic transmission. Typically the P-type came with either 4.10:1 or 4.30:1 rear gearing, while the L-type came with 3.727:1 rear gearing. They were differentiated by the available options, tire/wheel combo, and body trim: the P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type had simple smaller flares molded into the metal above the wheel wells.

The MK2 came in 2 flavors: the P-type (Performance type) and the L-type (Luxury type). In the US, the engine was changed from the SOHC 2.8 L 5M-E to the DOHC 2.8 L 5M-GE. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984. The Mk 2, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend.

Though the Celica name was still used, in its second generation the Supra stood more apart from the Celica. [3]. 1981 was the last year that a Celica Supra could be purchased equipped with an 8-track stereo. As with all subsequent versions of the Supra, the Mk 1 was equipped with either 5 speed manual (W50) or 4 speed automatic transmission, and it also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes, but retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the celica in the MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional LSD) In the MA46 and MA47.

It was also available in Japan with the 2.0 L M-EU engine MA45 chassis code) and possibly the M-TEU turbo.[2]. [1] In 1981, the Supra received the 2.8 L 5M-E, (MA47 Chassis code) making 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. The 1979 (1978 Japan market) Mk 1 was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) single overhead cam inline-6 motor, the 2.6 L 4M-E (MA46 chassis code) (which was the first Toyota engine with electronic fuel injection). Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z; it, in some degree, succeded.

Most importantly, the Celica's 4-cylinder engine was replaced by an inline 6. The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 inches (doors and rear section same length as celica but rear panels differ). . It bore the common chassis code of "A".

The Supra was built and designed on the legacy of Toyota's former super sports car, the 2000GT. Production began in 1979. The Toyota Supra was a sports car produced by Toyota.

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