Toyota Supra

The Toyota Supra was a sports car produced by Toyota. Production began in 1979. The Supra was built and designed on the legacy of Toyota's former super sports car, the 2000GT. It bore the common chassis code of "A".

Toyota Celica Supra Mk 1 (1979-1981)

Toyota Celica Supra MkI

The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 inches (doors and rear section same length as celica but rear panels differ). Most importantly, the Celica's 4-cylinder engine was replaced by an inline 6. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z; it, in some degree, succeded.

The 1979 (1978 Japan market) Mk 1 was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) single overhead cam inline-6 motor, the 2.6 L 4M-E (MA46 chassis code) (which was the first Toyota engine with electronic fuel injection). [1] In 1981, the Supra received the 2.8 L 5M-E, (MA47 Chassis code) making 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. It was also available in Japan with the 2.0 L M-EU engine MA45 chassis code) and possibly the M-TEU turbo.[2]

As with all subsequent versions of the Supra, the Mk 1 was equipped with either 5 speed manual (W50) or 4 speed automatic transmission, and it also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes, but retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the celica in the MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional LSD) In the MA46 and MA47

1981 was the last year that a Celica Supra could be purchased equipped with an 8-track stereo. [3]

Toyota Celica Supra Mk 2 (1982-1986)

Toyota Celica Supra Mk2

Though the Celica name was still used, in its second generation the Supra stood more apart from the Celica. The Mk 2, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984.

In the US, the engine was changed from the SOHC 2.8 L 5M-E to the DOHC 2.8 L 5M-GE. The MK2 came in 2 flavors: the P-type (Performance type) and the L-type (Luxury type). They were differentiated by the available options, tire/wheel combo, and body trim: the P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type had simple smaller flares molded into the metal above the wheel wells. Typically the P-type came with either 4.10:1 or 4.30:1 rear gearing, while the L-type came with 3.727:1 rear gearing. Both were offered with either the W58 manual 5-speed transmission or the A43DL (1982 only)/A43DE (1983-1986.5) 4-speed automatic transmission. The P-type came with 14X7 wheels and 225/60/14 tires, and the L-type came with 14x5.5 wheels and 195/70/14 tires. As a complement to the superb engine, the Celica Supra's suspension was specially designed by Lotus.

Around the world, the Mk 2 came with a variety of other engines. Some models sent to countries (like Sweden, Switzerland and Australia) retained the Mk 1's 5M-E (In Australia, the only petrol available at that time was leaded), while in Japan the MK2 (MA-63) offered the option of the turbocharged SOHC M-TE engine or the 2 litre twin turbo 1G-GTE (GA61). Also in Japan, where the Mk 2 was badged the Celica XX, some came with the 2.0 L 1G-GEU, since taxes were less on lower-displacement engines. Typically, non-US 5M-GE's made around 170 hp (127 kW), while the US-market version made around 145 hp (108 kW), since the exhaust system was more restrictive to comply with emissions requirements. 1984 and 1985 US models had around 165 hp (123 kW) due to 9.2:1 compression vs the former 8.8:1.

1985 was the end of the Mk 2, but delays in the manufacture of the Mk 3 led to leftover 1985 Mk 2s being offered for sale in the first half of 1986. These were just 1985 models with minor cosmetic changes, as well as the addition of the rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch.

A popular engine replacement for the Mk 2 is the 6M-GEU, which is a 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L version of the 5M-GE. This engine was never available in the Mk 2, but was offered in the JDM-only Crown and Chaser models.

Some possible chassis codes are: MA60, MA61, MA63, MA67, GA60, GA61. (After the body code L & R represented Left hand or Right hand Drive i.e., the MA61L is Left hand Drive, whereas the MA61R is Right hand Drive)

Toyota Supra Mk 3 (1986-1992)

Toyota Supra MA70

In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). Though the A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions*: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) and one without (the 7M-GE). The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154. Both were available with an optional automatic transmission, the A340E. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features.

In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced. The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, all featured leather interiors, a front intercooler inlet, were hardtops and only used MAP engine sensors. Other enhancements include higher boost (7.8psi), long lift cams, larger injectors, larger intercooler and a high flowed version of the CT26 turbocharger.

The A70 Supra was also available in two non export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE , and the GA70 with a 2.0L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE.

The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with ABS, TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension). By 1990, airbags became standard.

The 7M-GE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 in just over 6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost.

Some possible chassis codes are: MA70, MA71, JZA70, GA70.

Toyota Supra Mk 4 (1993-1998/2002)

Toyota Supra MkIV

With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sports car. The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220hp and 210lb-ft of torque, or a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320hp, 315 lb-ft of torque. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile in just under 13.1 seconds at over 109 mph. The stock turbos are capable of running around 400bhp with an unrestricted airflow/exhaust system and an aftermarket boost controller (commonly known as a BPU setup).

The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of parrallel mode as the "twin turbo" name usually implies. The way that the sequential mode operated was the first turbo starts spooling at low rpms & as the rpms increased, the second turbo joins in. This helped in reducing turbo lag. Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parrallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models

MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1200hp and run the 1/4 mile in 7.9 seconds. The stock engines are astonishingly tough, running 600bhp+ as daily drivers without having to uprate any internal components.

In 1998, Toyota ceased to export the cars from Japan, and they stopped production altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales. Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Altezza, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while other speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot.


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There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Altezza, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while other speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot. Alternatively, Microchip offers COM port emulation firmware for their range of USB PIC microcontrollers. Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. FTDI Chip provides virtual COM drivers with its chips, to make the USB device look to the host software like a COM (RS-232) port. In 1998, Toyota ceased to export the cars from Japan, and they stopped production altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales. If your Operating System and language combination is not supported, another option is a USB to RS-232 bridge. The stock engines are astonishingly tough, running 600bhp+ as daily drivers without having to uprate any internal components. Communication between software and USB devices depends upon the Operating System (Windows, Macintosh, Linux etc) and the language you choose (Java, C++, Delphi etc).

MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1200hp and run the 1/4 mile in 7.9 seconds. See http://www.usb.org/developers/wusb/ for more details. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models. Wireless USB is well suited to wireless connection of PC centric devices, just as Bluetooth is now widely used for mobile phone centric personal networks (at much lower data rates). Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parrallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. Wireless USB is intended as a cable-replacement technology, and will use Ultra wideband wireless technology for data rates of up to 480 Mbit/s. This helped in reducing turbo lag. The USB Implementers Forum is working on a wireless networking standard based on the USB protocol.

The way that the sequential mode operated was the first turbo starts spooling at low rpms & as the rpms increased, the second turbo joins in. And [Powered USB] uses standard USB signalling with the addition of extra power lines for Point of sale terminals. The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of parrallel mode as the "twin turbo" name usually implies. (However, Microsoft uses standard USB 2.0 connectivity in its newer Xbox 360.) Similarly IBM UltraPort uses standard USB signalling, but uses a proprietary connection format. The stock turbos are capable of running around 400bhp with an unrestricted airflow/exhaust system and an aftermarket boost controller (commonly known as a BPU setup). Microsoft's Xbox game console uses standard USB 1.1 signalling in its controllers, but features a proprietary connector rather than the standard USB connector. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile in just under 13.1 seconds at over 109 mph. It typically uses USB as the underlying communication layer.

The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220hp and 210lb-ft of torque, or a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320hp, 315 lb-ft of torque. The PictBridge standard allows for interconnecting consumer imaging devices. With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sports car. Wireless USB uses UWB (Ultra Wide Band) as the radio technology. Some possible chassis codes are: MA70, MA71, JZA70, GA70. Released in May 12, 2005. The 7M-GE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 in just over 6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost. IEEE 1394b also provides rates up to approximately 3.2 Gbit/s; however, the higher rates use special physical layers which are incompatible with 1394a devices.

By 1990, airbags became standard. However unlike USB Hi-Speed systems which can change the speeds on each branch a 1394a device on a 1394b system requires all devices to fall to 1394a speeds. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with ABS, TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension). S800 requires a new physical layer, but S800 nodes can be connected to existing FireWire 1394a ports, just as USB Hi-Speed nodes will operate with older full-speed hosts. The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. This provides a new mode called S800, which operates at 786.432 Mbit/s. The A70 Supra was also available in two non export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE , and the GA70 with a 2.0L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE. In 2003, FireWire was updated with the IEEE 1394b specification.

Other enhancements include higher boost (7.8psi), long lift cams, larger injectors, larger intercooler and a high flowed version of the CT26 turbocharger. Therefore if high speed transfer is what you need you should match this with a good host controller and operating system. The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, all featured leather interiors, a front intercooler inlet, were hardtops and only used MAP engine sensors. Reducing the maximum transfers from say the theoretical 13 per frame to 10 or 9. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced. In addition to this some operating systems take a conservative approach to scheduling transactions and limit the number of transfers per frame. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. It is a testament to the flexibilty of the USB bus that it can handle wide variances in device performances.

In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. So the sustained transfer rate is a limitation of the individual device technology not the infrastructure. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features. Why then can some USB devices only sustain 34 MB/s not 55 MB/s? The main reason is usually that the devices themselves are slow and spend most of the time NAK'ing the host to indicate they are not ready - this is particularly true of memory sticks. Both were available with an optional automatic transmission, the A340E. Furthermore, the host-centric nature of USB allows the host to allocate more bandwidth to high priority devices instead of forcing them to compete for bandwidth as in Firewire. The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154. Conversely, for USB the maximum timing model is fixed and is limited only by the host-device branch (not the entire network).

Though the A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions*: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) and one without (the 7M-GE). The more devices on the bus the lower the peak performance. The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). The peer to peer nature of Firewire requires devices to arbitrate, which means a FireWire bus must wait until a given signal has propagated to all devices on the bus. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. In a multi device environment Firewire rapidly loses ground to USB: Firewire's mixed speed networks and long connection chains dramatically affect its performance. In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. While for USB 2.0 the rate can be higher 55 MB/s (for a single device).

(After the body code L & R represented Left hand or Right hand Drive i.e., the MA61L is Left hand Drive, whereas the MA61R is Right hand Drive). A single Firewire device may achieve a transfer rate for Firewire 400 as high as 41 MB/s. Some possible chassis codes are: MA60, MA61, MA63, MA67, GA60, GA61. USB transfer rates are generally higher than Firewire due to the need for Firewire devices to arbitrate for bus access. This engine was never available in the Mk 2, but was offered in the JDM-only Crown and Chaser models. USB can require more host resources than Firewire due to the need for the host to provide the arbitration and scheduling of transactions. A popular engine replacement for the Mk 2 is the 6M-GEU, which is a 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L version of the 5M-GE. The signalling rate of USB 2.0 Hi-Speed mode is 480 megabits per second, while the signalling rate of FireWire 400 (IEEE 1394a) is 393.216 Mbit/s [4].

These were just 1985 models with minor cosmetic changes, as well as the addition of the rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch. These and other differences reflect the differing design goals of the two busses: USB was designed for simplicity and low cost, while FireWire was designed for high performance, particularly in time-sensitive applications such as audio and video. 1985 was the end of the Mk 2, but delays in the manufacture of the Mk 3 led to leftover 1985 Mk 2s being offered for sale in the first half of 1986. The most significant technical differences between FireWire and USB include the following:. 1984 and 1985 US models had around 165 hp (123 kW) due to 9.2:1 compression vs the former 8.8:1. FireWire retains its popularity in many professional settings, where it is used for audio and video transfer, and data storage. Typically, non-US 5M-GE's made around 170 hp (127 kW), while the US-market version made around 145 hp (108 kW), since the exhaust system was more restrictive to comply with emissions requirements. Today, USB Hi-Speed is rapidly replacing FireWire in consumer products.

Also in Japan, where the Mk 2 was badged the Celica XX, some came with the 2.0 L 1G-GEU, since taxes were less on lower-displacement engines. The introduction of USB 2.0 Hi-Speed, with its widely advertised 480 Mbit/s signaling rate, convinced many consumers that FireWire was outdated (although this was not necessarily the case; see "USB 2.0 Hi-Speed vs FireWire" below). Some models sent to countries (like Sweden, Switzerland and Australia) retained the Mk 1's 5M-E (In Australia, the only petrol available at that time was leaded), while in Japan the MK2 (MA-63) offered the option of the turbocharged SOHC M-TE engine or the 2 litre twin turbo 1G-GTE (GA61). However, because FireWire ports were more costly to implement than USB ports, primarily due to their per-port licence fee, they were rarely provided as standard equipment on computers, and peripheral manufacturers offered many more USB devices. Around the world, the Mk 2 came with a variety of other engines. USB originally operated at a far lower data rate and used much simpler hardware, and was suitable for small peripherals such as keyboards and mice. As a complement to the superb engine, the Celica Supra's suspension was specially designed by Lotus. USB was originally seen as a complement to FireWire, which was designed as a high-speed serial bus which could efficiently interconnect peripherals such as hard disks, audio interfaces, and video equipment.

The P-type came with 14X7 wheels and 225/60/14 tires, and the L-type came with 14x5.5 wheels and 195/70/14 tires. Apple computers have used USB mice and keyboards exclusively since January 1999. Both were offered with either the W58 manual 5-speed transmission or the A43DL (1982 only)/A43DE (1983-1986.5) 4-speed automatic transmission. Mouses and keyboards are frequently fitted with USB connectors, but supplied with a small USB-to-PS/2 adaptor so that they can be used with either USB or PS/2 ports. Typically the P-type came with either 4.10:1 or 4.30:1 rear gearing, while the L-type came with 3.727:1 rear gearing. Joysticks, keypads, tablets and other human-interface devices are also progressively migrating from MIDI, PC game port, and PS/2 connectors to USB. They were differentiated by the available options, tire/wheel combo, and body trim: the P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type had simple smaller flares molded into the metal above the wheel wells. Motherboards for non-portable PCs usually have a number of USB 2.0 high-speed ports, some available at the back of the computer case, others requiring USB sockets on the front or rear of the computer to be connected via a cable to a header on the motherboard.

The MK2 came in 2 flavors: the P-type (Performance type) and the L-type (Luxury type). AT keyboard connectors are less frequently found. In the US, the engine was changed from the SOHC 2.8 L 5M-E to the DOHC 2.8 L 5M-GE. As of 2006, most PCs and motherboards have at least one USB port, but still retain PS/2 keyboard and mouse connectors. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984. Additionally, when multiple devices are connected, USB has significant advantages over FireWire,. The Mk 2, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend. However, USB ports are more usual than Firewire on consumer-level computers, which enhances the compatibility of a USB drive.

Though the Celica name was still used, in its second generation the Supra stood more apart from the Celica. An operating system designed to handle Hi-Speed USB 2.0 optimally is capable of data rates higher than Firewire, but the most commonly found [early 2006] operating systems and drivers are not. [3]. Additionally, some operating systems transfer blocks limited to the USB 1.1 size of 64 bytes, without taking advantage of the larger block sizes allowed by USB 2.0. 1981 was the last year that a Celica Supra could be purchased equipped with an 8-track stereo. The main reason for this is that the tests are conducted point to point (only one device) which means the USB system is always waiting for the drive. As with all subsequent versions of the Supra, the Mk 1 was equipped with either 5 speed manual (W50) or 4 speed automatic transmission, and it also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes, but retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the celica in the MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional LSD) In the MA46 and MA47. FireWire tends to perform better in speed benchmark tests than even Hi-Speed USB 2.0, although the latter supports a numerically higher bit-rate.

It was also available in Japan with the 2.0 L M-EU engine MA45 chassis code) and possibly the M-TEU turbo.[2]. FireWire technology is also commonly used with portable hard drives; some have both USB and FireWire ports. [1] In 1981, the Supra received the 2.8 L 5M-E, (MA47 Chassis code) making 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. Functionally, the drive appears to the user just like another internal drive.. The 1979 (1978 Japan market) Mk 1 was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) single overhead cam inline-6 motor, the 2.6 L 4M-E (MA46 chassis code) (which was the first Toyota engine with electronic fuel injection). These external drives usually contain a translating device that interfaces a drive of conventional technology (IDE, ATA, SATA, ATAPI, or even SCSI) to a USB port. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z; it, in some degree, succeded. Today, a number of manufacturers offer external, portable USB hard drives, or empty enclosures for drives, that offer performance comparable to internal drives.

Most importantly, the Celica's 4-cylinder engine was replaced by an inline 6. However, USB has one important advantage in making it possible to install and remove devices without opening the computer case, making it useful for external drives. The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 inches (doors and rear section same length as celica but rear panels differ). USB is not intended to be a primary bus for a computer's internal storage: buses such as ATA (IDE) and SCSI fulfill that role. . This was initially intended for traditional magnetic and optical drives, but has been extended to support a wide variety of devices. It bore the common chassis code of "A". USB implements connections to storage devices using a set of standards called the USB mass-storage device class.

The Supra was built and designed on the legacy of Toyota's former super sports car, the 2000GT. Those problems with the abuse of the USB power supply have inspired a number of April Fool hoaxes, like the introduction of a USB-powered George Foreman iGrill [2] and a desktop USB Fondue Set [3]. Production began in 1979. USB-powered devices attempting to draw large currents without requesting the power will not work with certain USB controllers, and will either disrupt other devices on the bus or fail to work themselves (or both). The Toyota Supra was a sports car produced by Toyota. Amongst others, a number of peripherals for IBM laptops (now made by Lenovo) are designed to use dual USB connections. For portable devices where external power is not available, but not more than 1 A is required at 5 V, devices may have connectors to allow the use of two USB cables, doubling available power but reducing the number of USB ports available to other devices.

Such devices can be used with an external power supply of adequate rating; some external hubs may, in practice, supply sufficient power. This is a common requirement of external hard and optical disc drives and other devices with motors or lamps. Some USB devices draw more power than is permitted by the specification for a single port. This can cause problems with some computers—the USB specification requires that devices connect in a low-power mode (100 mA maximum) and state how much current they need, before switching, with the host's permission, into high-power mode.

In most cases, these items contain no electronic circuitry, and thus are not proper USB devices at all. The typical example is a USB-powered reading light, but fans, battery chargers (particularly for mobile telephones) and even miniature vacuum cleaners are available. A number of devices use this power supply without participating in a proper USB network. The host operating system typically keeps track of the power requirements of the USB network and may warn the computer's operator when a given segment requires more power than is available (and will generally shut down devices or hubs in order to keep power consumption within the available resource).

When USB devices (including hubs) are first connected they are interrogated by the host controller, which inquires of each their maximum power requirements. Devices that need more than 500 mA must provide their own power. Many hubs include external power supplies which will power devices connected through them without taking power from the bus. This disallows connection of a bus-powered hub to another bus-powered hub.

Bus-powered hubs can continue to distribute the bus provided power to connected devices but the USB specification only allows for a single level of bus-powered devices from a bus-powered hub. A bus-powered device may use as much of that power as allowed by the port it is plugged into. This is often enough to power several devices, although this budget must be shared among all devices downstream of an unpowered hub. A given segment of the bus is specified to deliver up to 500 mA.

In typical situations the voltage is close to 5 V. The compliance spec requires no more than 5.25 V anywhere and no less than 4.375 V at the worst case; a low-power function after a bus-powered hub. In practice, delivered voltage can drop well below 5 V, to only slightly above 4 V. The USB connector provides a single nominally 5 volt wire from which connected USB devices may power themselves.

The maximum length of a USB cable is 5 meters; greater lengths require hubs [1]. Wireless USB is a standard being developed to extend the USB standard while maintaining backwards compatibility with USB 1.1 and USB 2.0 on the protocol level. USB On-The-Go has therefore defined two small form factor connectors, the mini-A and mini-B, and a hermaphroditic socket (mini-AB), which should stop the proliferation of proprietary designs. This facility targets units such as PDAs where the USB link might connect to a PC's host port as a device in one instance, yet connect as a host itself to a keyboard and mouse device in another instance.

Even after the cable is hooked up and the units are talking, the two units may "swap" ends under program control. An extension to USB called USB On-The-Go allows a single port to act as either a host or a device - chosen by which end of the cable plugs into the socket on the unit. For specification purposes, these devices were treated as having a captive cable. Other manufacturers of small items also developed their own small form factor connector, and a wide variety of these have appeared.

It uses a different mechanical connector while preserving the USB signaling and protocol. For example, the IBM UltraPort is a proprietary USB connector located on the top of IBM's laptop LCDs. However, the mechanical layer has changed in some examples. The A-plug is approximately 4x12 mm, the B-plug is approximately 7x8 mm, and the B-mini plug is approximately 3x7 mm.

Thus all compliant USB cables have an A plug on one end, and either a B or Mini-B on the other end. Hosts and devices include connectors (female) while cables contain plugs (male). All connectors are mechanically incompatible, with an A connector always used on the upstream (host) end, and a B connector always used on the downstream (device) end. The USB 2.0 specification also introduces the mini-B connector, for smaller devices such as PDAs, mobile phones or digital cameras.

The USB 1.0, 1.1 and 2.0 specifications define two types of connectors for the attachment of devices to the bus: A, and B. In particular:. The connectors which the USB committee specified were designed to support a number of USB's underlying goals, and to reflect lessons learned from the varied menagerie of connectors then in service. The Mini A also has an additional piece of plastic inside to prevent insertion into slave only device.

This indicates if a device supporting usb on the go (with a mini AB socket) should initially act as host, in the mini B this is open circuit. Pin 4 is called ID and is connected to pin 5 for a mini-A. Most of the pins of a mini USB connector are the same as a standard USB connector, except pin 4. This segregation is for bandwidth only; bus rules about power and hub depth still apply.

The Transaction Translator in a Hi-Speed hub (or possibly each port depending on the electrical design) will function as a completely separate Full Speed bus to Full Speed and Low Speed devices attached to it. Hi-Speed hubs have a special function called the Transaction Translator that segregates Full Speed and Low Speed bus traffic from Hi-Speed traffic. Hi-Speed devices should fall back to the slower data rate of Full Speed when plugged into a Full Speed hub. All devices are tested according to the latest spec, so recently-compliant Low Speed devices are also 2.0.

The USB-IF certifies devices and provides licenses to use special marketing logos for either "Basic-Speed" (low and full) or High-Speed after passing a compliancy test and paying a licensing fee. Though Hi-Speed devices are commonly referred to as "USB 2.0", not all USB 2.0 devices are Hi-Speed. A USB device should specify the speed it will use by correct labeling on the box it came in or sometimes on the device itself. USB supports three data rates. D+ and D− operate together; they are not separate simplex connections.

These collectively use half-duplex differential signaling to combat the effects of electromagnetic noise on longer lines. USB signals are transmitted on a twisted pair of data cables, labelled D+ and D−. The most used device classes (grouped by assigned class ID) are:. These can be used as the main device classes are continuously revised.

Each class also optionally supports a SubClass and Protocol subdefinition. If bDeviceClass is set to 0x00, the operating system will look at bInterfaceClass of each interface to determine the device class. Both of these are a single byte each, so a maximum of 253 different device classes are possible (values 0x00 and 0xFF are reserved). If the class is to be set for the entire device, the number is assigned to the bDeviceClass field of the device descriptor, and if it is to be set for a single interface on a device, it is assigned to the bInterfaceClass field of the interface descriptor.

Device classes are decided upon by the Device Working Group of the USB Implementers Forum. An operating system is supposed to implement all device classes so as to provide generic drivers for any USB device. These classes define an expected behavior in terms of device and interface descriptors so that the same device driver may be used for any device that claims to be a member of a certain class. Devices that attach to the bus can be full-custom devices requiring a full-custom device driver to be used, or may belong to a device class.

On BSD systems, dmesg will show the detailed information hierarchy. Most Linux systems also provide the lsusb command which provides USB-specific details about ports and controllers. On Microsoft Windows platforms, one can tell whether a USB controller is version 2.0 by opening the Device Manager and checking for the word "Enhanced" in its description; only USB 2.0 drivers will contain the word "Enhanced." On Linux systems, the lspci -v command will list all PCI devices, and controllers will be named OHCI, UHCI or EHCI respectively, which is also the case in the Mac OS X system profiler. All other vendors use virtual OHCI controllers.

The virtual HCD on Intel and Via EHCI controllers are UHCI. Each EHCI controller contains four virtual HCD implementations to support Full Speed and Low Speed devices. Only EHCI can support high-speed transfers. The USB 2.0 HCD implementation is called the Extended Host Controller Interface (EHCI).

During the design phase of USB 2.0 the USB-IF insisted on only one implementation. The dueling implementations forced operating system vendors and hardware vendors to develop and test on both implementations which increased cost. The main difference between OHCI and UHCI is the fact that UHCI is more software-driven than OHCI is, making UHCI slightly more processor-intensive but cheaper to implement (excluding the license fees). VIA Technologies licensed the UHCI standard from Intel; all other chipset implementers use OHCI.

However, Intel subsequently created a specification they called the Universal Host Controller Interface (UHCI) and insisted other implementers pay to license and implement UHCI. Compaq's Open Host Controller Interface (OHCI) was adopted as the standard by the USB-IF. At version 1.0 and 1.1 there were two competing HCD implementations. In practice, these are hardware registers (ports) in the computer.

The hardware that contains the host controller and the root hub has an interface toward the programmer which is called Host Controller Device (HCD) and is defined by the hardware implementer. An endpoint may however be reused among several interfaces and alternate interface settings. These interface descriptors in turn have one default interface setting and possibly more alternate interface settings which in turn have endpoint descriptors, as outlined above. Each configuration descriptor in turn has one or more interface descriptors, which describe certain aspects of the device, so that it may be used for different purposes: for example, a camera may have both audio and video interfaces.

low power mode. active vs. These configurations often correspond to states, e.g. The device connected to the bus has one (and only one) device descriptor which in turn has one or more configuration descriptors.

To access an endpoint, a hierarchical configuration must be obtained. The interrupt transfers on corresponding endpoints does not actually interrupt any traffic on the bus, they are just scheduled to be queried more often and in between any other large transfers, thus "interrupt traffic" on a USB bus is really only high-priority traffic. The host controller then polls the bus for traffic, usually in a round-robin fashion, so no device can transfer any data on the bus without explicit request from the host controller. When a device (function) or hub is attached to the host controller through any hub on the bus, it is given a unique 7 bit address on the bus by the host controller.

The pipes are also divided into four different categories by way of their transfer type:. There is always an inward and an outward pipe numbered 0 on each device. All USB devices have at least two such pipes/endpoints: namely endpoint 0 which is used to control the device on the bus. Each endpoint can transfer data in one direction only, either into or out of the device/function, so each pipe is uni-directional.

Each pipe has a maximum packet length, typically 2n bytes, so a USB packet will often contain something on the order of 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 or 1024 bytes. In these pipes, data is transferred in packets of varying length. (The OUT direction shall be interpreted out of the host controller and the IN direction is into the host controller.) Endpoint 0 is however reserved for the bus management in both directions and thus takes up two of the 32 endpoints. These endpoints (and their respective pipes) are numbered 0-15 in each direction, so a device/function can have up to 32 active pipes, 16 inward and 16 outward.

The pipes are synonymous to byte streams such as in the pipelines of Unix, however in USB lingo the term endpoint is (sloppily) used as a synonym for the entire pipe, even in the standard documentation. These devices/functions (and hubs) have associated pipes (logical channels) which are connections from the host controller to a logical entity on the device named an endpoint. There always exists one hub known as the root hub, which is attached directly to the host controller. The hubs are special purpose devices that are not officially considered functions.

In USB terminology devices are referred to as functions, because in theory what we know as a device may actually host several functions, such as a router that is a Secure Digital Card reader at the same time. USB connects several devices to a host controller through a chain of hubs. The specification is at revision 1.0a (Jan 2006). Smaller USB plugs and receptacles, called Mini-A and Mini-B, are also available, as specified by the On-The-Go Supplement to the USB 2.0 Specification.

Equipment conforming with any version of the standard will also work with devices designed to any of the previous specifications (backwards compatibility). Previous notable releases of the specification were 0.9, 1.0, and 1.1. The USB 2.0 specification was released in April 2000 and was standardized by the USB-IF at the end of 2001. Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Lucent, Microsoft, NEC, and Philips jointly led the initiative to develop a higher data transfer rate than the 1.1 specification.

The USB specification is at version 2.0 (with revisions) as of February 2006. Notable members have included Apple Computer, Hewlett-Packard, NEC, Microsoft, Intel, and Agere. The design of USB is standardized by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF), an industry standards body incorporating leading companies from the computer and electronics industries. As of 2005, the only large classes of peripherals that cannot use USB, because they need a higher data rate than USB can provide, are displays and monitors, and high-quality digital video components.

As of 2004 there were about 1 billion USB devices in the world. USB is also used extensively to connect non-networked printers, replacing the parallel ports which were widely used; USB simplifies connecting several printers to one computer. For many devices such as scanners and digital cameras, USB has become the standard connection method. USB can connect peripherals such as mice, keyboards, gamepads and joysticks, scanners, digital cameras, printers, external storage, networking components, etc.

When a device is first connected, the host enumerates and recognises it, and loads the device driver it needs. USB was designed to allow peripherals to be connected without the need to plug expansion cards into the computer's ISA, EISA, or PCI bus, and to improve plug-and-play capabilities by allowing devices to be hot-swapped (connected or disconnected without powering down or rebooting the computer). USB cables do not need to be terminated. Modern computers often have several host controllers, allowing a very large number of USB devices to be connected.

Not more than 127 devices, including the bus devices, may be connected to a single host controller. Additional USB hubs may be included in the chain, allowing branching into a tree structure, subject to a limit of 5 levels of branching per controller. A USB system has an asymmetric design, consisting of a host controller and multiple daisy-chained devices. .

Universal Serial Bus (USB) provides a serial bus standard for connecting devices, usually to computers such as PCs and the Apple Macintosh, but is also becoming commonplace on video game consoles such as Sony's PlayStation 2, Microsoft's Xbox 360, Nintendo's Revolution, and PDAs, and even devices like televisions and home stereo equipment. It appears that no work has been done on this package since 2003 so it may be abandoned. The usb.windows package has a partial Windows implementation of a usb.core.Host object, bootstrapping support, and other classes leveraging Windows USB support. Java - The Mike Stahl started work on this combination in 2003.

Java development is possible via JNI. Their COM interface allows for Delphi, C# and VB development. General - USBIO has C++ drivers for USB communication on windows from C & C++. Java - No info is available on this combination.

General - Apple has this page on General Mac USB Development. This API is unfortunately limited to Linux. Java - The jUSB project provides a Free Software (and Open Source) Java API for USB, supporting applications using Java host-side software to drive USB devices. General - http://www.linux-usb.org/.

This is the current revision. USB On-The-Go Supplement 1.0a: Released in June 2003. USB On-The-Go Supplement 1.0: Released in December 2001. As an example, a computer's port could be incapable of USB 2.0's hi-speed fast transfer rates, but still claim USB 2.0 compliance (since it supports some of USB 2.0).

This makes the backwards compatibility explicit, but it becomes more difficult to determine a device's throughput without seeing the symbol. Added three speed distinction to this standard, allowing all devices to be USB 2.0 compliant even if they were previously considered only 1.1 or 1.0 compliant. USB 2.0: Revised in December 2002. This is the current revision.

The major feature of this standard was the addition of high-speed mode. USB 2.0: Released in April 2000. USB 1.1: Released in September 1998. USB 1.0: Released in January 1996.

USB 1.0 FDR: Released in November 1995, the same year that Apple adopted the IEEE 1394 standard known as FireWire. In a FireWire network, any capable node can control the network. A USB network relies on a single host at the top of the tree to control the network. A FireWire device can communicate with any other node at any time, subject to network conditions.

USB uses a "speak-when-spoken-to" protocol; peripherals cannot communicate with the host unless the host specifically requests communication. USB networks use a tiered-star topology, while FireWire networks use a repeater-based topology. Compliant devices must either fit within the size restrictions or support a compliant extension cable which does. This was done to avoid circumstances where a device complied with the connector specification but its large size blocked adjacent ports.

Unlike most other connector standards, the USB spec also defines limits to the size of a connecting device in the area around its plug. The USB standard specifies relatively low tolerances for compliant USB connectors, intending to minimize incompatibilities in connectors produced by different vendors (a goal that has been very successfully achieved). This type of enclosure also means that there is a (moderate) degree of protection from electromagnetic interference afforded to the USB signal while it travels through the mated connector pair (this is the only location when the otherwise twisted data pair must travel a distance in parallel). This sheath is typically connected to the system ground, allowing otherwise damaging static charges to be safely discharged by this route (rather than via delicate electronic components).

The connector construction always ensures that the external sheath on the plug contacts with its counterpart in the receptacle before the four connectors within are connected. The force needed to make or break a connection is modest, allowing connections to be made in awkward circumstances or by those with motor disabilities. USB cables and small USB devices are held in place by the gripping force from the receptacle (without the need for the screws, clips, or thumbturns other connectors require). A moderate insertion/removal force is specified.

RJ-45 cabling) gender-changers are never used, making it difficult to create a cyclic USB network. Unlike other communications systems (e.g. USB does not support cyclical networks, so the connectors from incompatible USB devices are themselves incompatible. The connectors enforce the directed topology of a USB network.

The connectors are particularly cheap to manufacture. However, it is not obvious at a glance to the inexperienced user which way round a connector goes, so it is often necessary to try both ways. Connectors cannot be plugged-in upside down, and it is clear from the appearance and kinesthetic sensation of making a connection when the plug and socket are correctly mated. It is difficult to incorrectly attach a USB connector.

The encasing sheath and the tough moulded plug body mean that a connector can be dropped, stepped upon, even crushed or struck, all without damage; a considerable degree of force is needed to significantly damage a USB connector. As a result USB connectors can safely be handled, inserted, and removed, even by a small child. The electrical contacts in a USB connector are protected by an adjacent plastic tongue, and the entire connecting assembly is further protected by an enclosing metal sheath. Many previous connector designs were fragile, with pins or other delicate components prone to bending or breaking, even with the application of only very modest force.

The connectors are designed to be robust. A Hi-Speed rate of 480 Mbit/s (57 MiB/s). All USB Hubs support Full Speed. Full Speed devices divide the USB bandwidth between them in a first-come first-served basis and it is not uncommon to run out of bandwidth with several isochronous devices.

Full Speed was the fastest rate before the USB 2.0 specification and many devices fall back to Full Speed. A Full Speed rate of 12 Mbit/s (1.4 MiB/s). A Low Speed rate of 1.5 Mbit/s (183 KiB/s) that is mostly used for Human Interface Devices (HID) such as keyboards, mice and joysticks. file transfers.

bulk transfers - large sporadic transfers using all remaining available bandwidth (but with no guarantees on bandwidth or latency), e.g. pointing devices and keyboards. interrupt transfers - devices that need guaranteed quick responses (bounded latency), e.g. realtime audio or video.

isochronous transfers - at some guaranteed speed (often but not necessarily as fast as possible) but with possible data loss, e.g. by the bus control pipe number 0. control transfers - typically used for short, simple commands to the device, and a status response, used e.g.

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