Toyota Supra

The Toyota Supra was a sports car produced by Toyota. Production began in 1979. The Supra was built and designed on the legacy of Toyota's former super sports car, the 2000GT. It bore the common chassis code of "A".

Toyota Celica Supra Mk 1 (1979-1981)

Toyota Celica Supra MkI

The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 inches (doors and rear section same length as celica but rear panels differ). Most importantly, the Celica's 4-cylinder engine was replaced by an inline 6. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z; it, in some degree, succeded.

The 1979 (1978 Japan market) Mk 1 was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) single overhead cam inline-6 motor, the 2.6 L 4M-E (MA46 chassis code) (which was the first Toyota engine with electronic fuel injection). [1] In 1981, the Supra received the 2.8 L 5M-E, (MA47 Chassis code) making 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. It was also available in Japan with the 2.0 L M-EU engine MA45 chassis code) and possibly the M-TEU turbo.[2]

As with all subsequent versions of the Supra, the Mk 1 was equipped with either 5 speed manual (W50) or 4 speed automatic transmission, and it also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes, but retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the celica in the MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional LSD) In the MA46 and MA47

1981 was the last year that a Celica Supra could be purchased equipped with an 8-track stereo. [3]

Toyota Celica Supra Mk 2 (1982-1986)

Toyota Celica Supra Mk2

Though the Celica name was still used, in its second generation the Supra stood more apart from the Celica. The Mk 2, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984.

In the US, the engine was changed from the SOHC 2.8 L 5M-E to the DOHC 2.8 L 5M-GE. The MK2 came in 2 flavors: the P-type (Performance type) and the L-type (Luxury type). They were differentiated by the available options, tire/wheel combo, and body trim: the P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type had simple smaller flares molded into the metal above the wheel wells. Typically the P-type came with either 4.10:1 or 4.30:1 rear gearing, while the L-type came with 3.727:1 rear gearing. Both were offered with either the W58 manual 5-speed transmission or the A43DL (1982 only)/A43DE (1983-1986.5) 4-speed automatic transmission. The P-type came with 14X7 wheels and 225/60/14 tires, and the L-type came with 14x5.5 wheels and 195/70/14 tires. As a complement to the superb engine, the Celica Supra's suspension was specially designed by Lotus.

Around the world, the Mk 2 came with a variety of other engines. Some models sent to countries (like Sweden, Switzerland and Australia) retained the Mk 1's 5M-E (In Australia, the only petrol available at that time was leaded), while in Japan the MK2 (MA-63) offered the option of the turbocharged SOHC M-TE engine or the 2 litre twin turbo 1G-GTE (GA61). Also in Japan, where the Mk 2 was badged the Celica XX, some came with the 2.0 L 1G-GEU, since taxes were less on lower-displacement engines. Typically, non-US 5M-GE's made around 170 hp (127 kW), while the US-market version made around 145 hp (108 kW), since the exhaust system was more restrictive to comply with emissions requirements. 1984 and 1985 US models had around 165 hp (123 kW) due to 9.2:1 compression vs the former 8.8:1.

1985 was the end of the Mk 2, but delays in the manufacture of the Mk 3 led to leftover 1985 Mk 2s being offered for sale in the first half of 1986. These were just 1985 models with minor cosmetic changes, as well as the addition of the rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch.

A popular engine replacement for the Mk 2 is the 6M-GEU, which is a 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L version of the 5M-GE. This engine was never available in the Mk 2, but was offered in the JDM-only Crown and Chaser models.

Some possible chassis codes are: MA60, MA61, MA63, MA67, GA60, GA61. (After the body code L & R represented Left hand or Right hand Drive i.e., the MA61L is Left hand Drive, whereas the MA61R is Right hand Drive)

Toyota Supra Mk 3 (1986-1992)

Toyota Supra MA70

In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). Though the A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions*: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) and one without (the 7M-GE). The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154. Both were available with an optional automatic transmission, the A340E. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features.

In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced. The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, all featured leather interiors, a front intercooler inlet, were hardtops and only used MAP engine sensors. Other enhancements include higher boost (7.8psi), long lift cams, larger injectors, larger intercooler and a high flowed version of the CT26 turbocharger.

The A70 Supra was also available in two non export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE , and the GA70 with a 2.0L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE.

The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with ABS, TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension). By 1990, airbags became standard.

The 7M-GE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 in just over 6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost.

Some possible chassis codes are: MA70, MA71, JZA70, GA70.

Toyota Supra Mk 4 (1993-1998/2002)

Toyota Supra MkIV

With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sports car. The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220hp and 210lb-ft of torque, or a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320hp, 315 lb-ft of torque. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile in just under 13.1 seconds at over 109 mph. The stock turbos are capable of running around 400bhp with an unrestricted airflow/exhaust system and an aftermarket boost controller (commonly known as a BPU setup).

The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of parrallel mode as the "twin turbo" name usually implies. The way that the sequential mode operated was the first turbo starts spooling at low rpms & as the rpms increased, the second turbo joins in. This helped in reducing turbo lag. Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parrallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models

MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1200hp and run the 1/4 mile in 7.9 seconds. The stock engines are astonishingly tough, running 600bhp+ as daily drivers without having to uprate any internal components.

In 1998, Toyota ceased to export the cars from Japan, and they stopped production altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales. Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Altezza, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while other speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot.


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There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Altezza, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while other speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot. See articles Stereoscopy and 3-D film. Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. The first commercially available HD players are expected to debut at the 2006 NAB Show in Las Vegas in April. In 1998, Toyota ceased to export the cars from Japan, and they stopped production altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales. New HD DVD and HD Blu-ray disks will greatly improve the 3D effect, in color coded stereo programs. The stock engines are astonishingly tough, running 600bhp+ as daily drivers without having to uprate any internal components. Simple Red/Cyan plastic glasses provide the means to view the images discreetly to form a stereoscopic view of the content.

MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1200hp and run the 1/4 mile in 7.9 seconds. This left and right layer technique is occasionally used for network broadcast, or recent "anaglyph" releases of 3D movies on DVD. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models. Stereoscopic video requires either two channels — a right channel for the right eye and a left channel for the left eye or two overlayed color coded layers. Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parrallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. in videoconferencing delivered on channels of fixed bandwidth, a constant bit rate (CBR) must be used. This helped in reducing turbo lag. For real-time and non-buffered video streaming when the available bandwidth is fixed, e.g.

The way that the sequential mode operated was the first turbo starts spooling at low rpms & as the rpms increased, the second turbo joins in. On fast motion scenes, a variable bit rate uses more bits than it does on slow motion scenes of similar duration yet achieves a consistent visual quality. The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of parrallel mode as the "twin turbo" name usually implies. Variable bit rate (VBR) is a strategy to maximize the visual video quality and minimize the bit rate. The stock turbos are capable of running around 400bhp with an unrestricted airflow/exhaust system and an aftermarket boost controller (commonly known as a BPU setup). HDTV has a still higher quality, with a bit rate of 10 Mbit/s. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile in just under 13.1 seconds at over 109 mph. For example, VHS, with a bit rate of about 1 Mbit/s, is lower quality than DVD, with a bit rate of about 5 Mbit/s.

The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220hp and 210lb-ft of torque, or a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320hp, 315 lb-ft of torque. A higher bit rate allows better video quality. With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sports car. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit or Megabits per second (Mbit/s). Some possible chassis codes are: MA70, MA71, JZA70, GA70. Bit rate is a measure of the rate of information content in a video stream. The 7M-GE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 in just over 6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost. The most common modern standards are MPEG-2, used for DVD and satellite television, and MPEG-4, used for home video.

By 1990, airbags became standard. Likewise, temporal redundancy can be reduced by registering differences between frames; this task is known as interframe compression, including motion compensation and other techniques. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with ABS, TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension). Broadly speaking, spatial redundancy is reduced by registering differences between parts of a single frame; this task is known as intraframe compression and is closely related to image compression. The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. Video data contains spatial and temporal redundancy, making uncompressed video streams extremely inefficient. The A70 Supra was also available in two non export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE , and the GA70 with a 2.0L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE. A wide variety of methods are used to compress video streams.

Other enhancements include higher boost (7.8psi), long lift cams, larger injectors, larger intercooler and a high flowed version of the CT26 turbocharger. The expert then rates the impaired video using a scale ranging from "impairments are imperceptible" to "impairments are very annoying". The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, all featured leather interiors, a front intercooler inlet, were hardtops and only used MAP engine sensors. In DSIS, each expert views an unimpaired reference video followed by an impaired version of the same video. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced. One of the standardized method is the Double Stimulus Impairment Scale (DSIS). There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. Many subjective video quality methods are described in the ITU-T recommendation BT.500.

In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. The subjective video quality of a video processing system may be evaluated as follows:. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features. Video quality can be measured with formal metrics like PSNR or with subjective video quality using expert observation. Both were available with an optional automatic transmission, the A340E. 4:4:4, 4:2:2, 4:2:0). The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154. A common way to reduce the number of bits per pixel in digital video is by chroma subsampling (e.g.

Though the A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions*: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) and one without (the 7M-GE). The number of distinct colours that can be represented by a pixel depends on the number of bits per pixel (bpp). The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). It corresponds closely to the YUV scheme used in PAL television and the YDbDr scheme used by SÉCAM television. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. YIQ is used in NTSC television. In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. Color model name describes the video color representation.

(After the body code L & R represented Left hand or Right hand Drive i.e., the MA61L is Left hand Drive, whereas the MA61R is Right hand Drive). Pixels on computer monitors are usually square, but pixels used in digital video have non-square aspect ratios, such as those used in the PAL and NTSC variants of the CCIR 601 digital video standard, and the corresponding anamorphic widescreen formats. Some possible chassis codes are: MA60, MA61, MA63, MA67, GA60, GA61. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack (also known as "Academy standard") is around 1.37:1. This engine was never available in the Mk 2, but was offered in the JDM-only Crown and Chaser models. High definition televisions use an aspect ratio of 16:9, or about 1.78:1. A popular engine replacement for the Mk 2 is the 6M-GEU, which is a 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L version of the 5M-GE. The screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4:3, or 1.33:1.

These were just 1985 models with minor cosmetic changes, as well as the addition of the rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch. Aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements. 1985 was the end of the Mk 2, but delays in the manufacture of the Mk 3 led to leftover 1985 Mk 2s being offered for sale in the first half of 1986. For example 512×512×512 voxels resolution, now used for simple 3D-video, can be displayed even on some PDAs. 1984 and 1985 US models had around 165 hp (123 kW) due to 9.2:1 compression vs the former 8.8:1. Video resolution for 3D-video is measured in voxels (volume picture element, representing a value in three dimensional space). Typically, non-US 5M-GE's made around 170 hp (127 kW), while the US-market version made around 145 hp (108 kW), since the exhaust system was more restrictive to comply with emissions requirements. 1920 pixels per scan line by 1080 scan lines, progressive, at 60 frames per second.

Also in Japan, where the Mk 2 was badged the Celica XX, some came with the 2.0 L 1G-GEU, since taxes were less on lower-displacement engines. New high-definition televisions (HDTV) are capable of resolutions up to 1920×1080p60, i.e. Some models sent to countries (like Sweden, Switzerland and Australia) retained the Mk 1's 5M-E (In Australia, the only petrol available at that time was leaded), while in Japan the MK2 (MA-63) offered the option of the turbocharged SOHC M-TE engine or the 2 litre twin turbo 1G-GTE (GA61). Standard-definition television (SDTV) is specified as 640×480i60 for NTSC and 720×576i50 for PAL or SÉCAM resolution. Around the world, the Mk 2 came with a variety of other engines. The size of a video image is measured in pixels for digital video or horizontal scan lines for analog video. As a complement to the superb engine, the Celica Supra's suspension was specially designed by Lotus. Deinterlacing inevitably decreases video quality.

The P-type came with 14X7 wheels and 225/60/14 tires, and the L-type came with 14x5.5 wheels and 195/70/14 tires. A procedure known as deinterlacing can be used for converting an interlaced stream, such as analog, DVD, or satellite, to be processed by progressive scan devices, such as TFT TV-sets, projectors, and plasma panels. Both were offered with either the W58 manual 5-speed transmission or the A43DL (1982 only)/A43DE (1983-1986.5) 4-speed automatic transmission. The result is a much higher perceived resolution. Typically the P-type came with either 4.10:1 or 4.30:1 rear gearing, while the L-type came with 3.727:1 rear gearing. In progressive scan systems, each frame includes all of the scan lines. They were differentiated by the available options, tire/wheel combo, and body trim: the P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type had simple smaller flares molded into the metal above the wheel wells. For example, PAL video format is often specified as 576i50, where 576 indicates the horizontal resolution, i indicates interlacing, and 50 indicates 50 (single-field) frames per second.

The MK2 came in 2 flavors: the P-type (Performance type) and the L-type (Luxury type). Abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. In the US, the engine was changed from the SOHC 2.8 L 5M-E to the DOHC 2.8 L 5M-GE. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984. The horizontal scan lines of each interlaced frame are numbered consecutively and partitioned into two fields: the odd field consisting of the odd-numbered lines and the even field consisting of the even-numbered lines. The Mk 2, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend. Interlacing was invented as a way to achieve good visual quality within the limitations of a narrow bandwidth.

Though the Celica name was still used, in its second generation the Supra stood more apart from the Celica. Video can be interlaced or progressive. [3]. To achieve the illusion of a moving image, the minimum frame rate is about ten frames per second. 1981 was the last year that a Celica Supra could be purchased equipped with an 8-track stereo. PAL (Europe, Asia, Australia, etc.) and SECAM (France, Russia, parts of Africa etc.) standards specify 25 fps, while NTSC (USA, Canada, Japan, etc.) specifies 30 fps. As with all subsequent versions of the Supra, the Mk 1 was equipped with either 5 speed manual (W50) or 4 speed automatic transmission, and it also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes, but retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the celica in the MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional LSD) In the MA46 and MA47. Frame rate, the number of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second (fps) for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras.

It was also available in Japan with the 2.0 L M-EU engine MA45 chassis code) and possibly the M-TEU turbo.[2]. In the UK, the term video is often used informally to refer to both video recorders and video cassettes; the meaning is normally clear from the context. [1] In 1981, the Supra received the 2.8 L 5M-E, (MA47 Chassis code) making 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. The format of 3D-video is fixed in MPEG-4 Part 16 Animation Framework eXtension (AFX). The 1979 (1978 Japan market) Mk 1 was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) single overhead cam inline-6 motor, the 2.6 L 4M-E (MA46 chassis code) (which was the first Toyota engine with electronic fuel injection). Six or eight cameras with realtime depth measurement are typically used to capture 3D-video streams. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z; it, in some degree, succeded. 3D-video, digital video in three dimensions, premiered at the end of 20th century.

Most importantly, the Celica's 4-cylinder engine was replaced by an inline 6. (See List of digital television deployments by country.). The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 inches (doors and rear section same length as celica but rear panels differ). Digital television (DTV) is a relatively recent format with higher quality than earlier television formats and has become a standard for television video. . Quality of video essentially depends on the capturing method and storage used. It bore the common chassis code of "A". Video can be recorded and transmitted in various physical media: in celluloid film when recorded by mechanical cameras, in PAL or NTSC electric signals when recorded by video cameras, or in MPEG-4 or DV digital media when recorded by digital cameras.

The Supra was built and designed on the legacy of Toyota's former super sports car, the 2000GT. The term video (from the Latin for "I see") commonly refers to several storage formats for moving pictures: digital video formats, including DVD, QuickTime, and MPEG-4; and analog videotapes, including VHS and Betamax. Production began in 1979. . The Toyota Supra was a sports car produced by Toyota. Video is the technology of capturing, recording, processing, transmitting, and reconstructing moving pictures, typically using celluloid film, electronic signals, or digital media. Calculate the average marks for each HRC based on the experts' ratings.

Carry out testing. Invite a sufficient number of experts, preferably not fewer than 15. Choose a test method for how to present video sequences to experts and to collect their ratings. Choose the settings of the system to evaluate (the HRC).

Choose the video sequences (the SRC) to use for testing.

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