Toyota Camry

Late-model Toyota Camry (left) and Ford Excursion (right)

The Toyota Camry is a popular midsize car manufactured by Toyota in Georgetown, Kentucky, USA; Australia; and Japan.

The United States is the Camry's biggest market, where it competes with the Honda Accord, the Nissan Altima, and the Ford Fusion. The Camry sells very well in USA, Australia and a number of Asian markets. It has not sold as well in Europe and Japan - many critize its design as ill-suited for European and Japanese tastes. In Japan and Asia, its main rivals are the Nissan Teana and the Honda Accord.

An upbranded luxury version of the Camry is sold under the Lexus ES nameplate in the United States and is called the Windom in Japan.

The Camry name was first launched in 1980 with the Toyota Celica Camry. The first model line independently named the Toyota Camry was launched in 1982 for the 1983 model year. It is primarily configured as a four-door sedan but at different times has also been available as a five-door hatchback, two-door coupe, and a station wagon. An offshoot of the Camry, the Camry Solara, has been available as a coupe and a convertible.

The Camry underwent major redesigns and upgrades in model years 1987, 1992 (1990 in Japan), 1997, 2002 and an anticipated redesign is planned to be launched in 2006 for model year 2007 in the United States.

Other than the original Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry has always been an FF layout vehicle. This means the engine is transversely mounted to drive the front wheels. Some models have been offered with all wheel drive.

The second and third-generation Camrys were rebadged to be sold as the Holden Apollo in Australia. The Holden equivalents were not successful even though they came from the same factory as the Camry. Since 2000, Daihatsu has sold a Camry twin named the Altis.

The name comes from the English phonetic of the Japanese word "kan-muri," which means "crown."

Market

The Camry is consistently ranked as one of the most popular vehicles in the North American market. It is Toyota's bread-and-butter vehicle, so its marketing and sales strategy is cautious, aimed squarely at the center of buyer demographics; as most Camry buyers are not car enthusiasts.

The Camry is positioned directly below the Toyota Avalon and the Lexus ES 330 In its two largest markets, Australia and North America. It is considered a sub-luxury midsize sedan. The Camry is rarely optioned above the Avalon or ES 330, but a fully equipped Corolla slightly overlaps with the base-model Camry.

The Camry was less popular in Europe, where the design was considered bland and incompatible with European driving habits. Toyota positioned the Camry as a BMW 5-Series rival, yet it lacked the cachet to compete. Following long-term poor sales, the Camry was withdrawn altogether from Europe in 2004, leaving the smaller, UK-built Avensis as the top-of-the-line sedan. Because there is no station wagon version for the fifth generation Camry, the Camry sedan and the Avensis station wagon are sold side by side in markets like New Zealand.

After the introduction of the fourth-generation Camry, sales in Japan dipped. Prior to the fourth-generation, Toyota adapted the Camry's design to suit Japanese tax laws and domestic market requirements. These versions of the Camry are bounded by a certain set of dimensions which would otherwise be unsuitable for export markets. These modified-for-Japan models were called the Vista, which became separate from the Camry in 2000.

For the fourth-generation Camry, Toyota decided to split the Vista from the Camry. Both models still share a large number of components, but the fourth-generation split was the more significant than the previous re-engineered splits. The Vista is sized according to domestic vehicle tax laws, and the Camry (now called the Camry Gracia) are not adapted, sold identical to foreign market cars. This put the Camry at a disadvantage as its size is placed at the lower-end of a higher tax category, which included cars such as the Crown and Aristo. Both arguably aimed at the higher-end of the market than the Camry. The introduction of the A32-series Nissan Cefiro in 1994 may have prompted Toyota to change its strategy, despite the poor sales of the Scepter, basically a RoW third-generation Camry, which was sold between 1992-1994 (only 4,885 units sold in total). The continued success of the Nissan Cefiro (and afterwards the Nissan Teana) meant that some customers are willing to pay extra taxes for a larger family car, and so this marketing strategy continued.

As of 2005, the Camry is produced at Toyota plants in Japan, Australia; and Georgetown, Kentucky, USA, with CKD assembly operations in Vietnam, Philippines; and Thailand. It is also assembled from CKD-kits at Toyota's local partners in Malaysia and Taiwan. [1]

The Camry was imported into China as the Toyota Jiamei until 2005. Thereafter, the car is assembled locally and known as the Toyota Kaimeirui, which sounds closer to "Camry".

Current competition

The Camry's perennial competitor, the Honda Accord, is often described as sportier and has traditionally been equipped with a few more performance-oriented options. North American sales figures between the Accord and the Camry are usually comparable, indicating that consumers in the Camry's target demographic are more interested in the smoother ride and quieter performance of the Camry. In US, most recent comparisons have placed the car against the Nissan Altima, Mitsubishi Galant, Mazda6, and the Chevrolet Malibu; and although the Camry isn't always the clear winner, it nevertheless remains a solid competitor. [2] [3]

In most parts of Asia, the Camry remains competitive against the Honda Accord, with the exception of China and Japan. In China, both the Nissan Teana and Honda Accord (some of Camry's main competitors) are produced locally, and hence have a price advantage against the imported Camry. In Japan, its only competitor is the Nissan Cefiro (and afterwards, the Nissan Teana), but Nissan consistently outsells Toyota in this market segment.

In Australasia, the Camry sells well in comparison to the top-selling family cars, the Ford Falcon and General Motors' Holden Commodore.

In Europe, the Camry's success was always limited due to excessive size (which put into competition with the Opel/Vauxhall Omega and Ford Scorpio) and low-build quality when compared to the European-developed Carina E and Avensis. The Camry will no longer be available in Europe from 2006.

Model history

There is some dispute over the generational naming of the Toyota Camry. Most sources note the first generation Camry to have been produced as a 1983 model. A fewer number of sources state the first generation to have started in 1980 as the Toyota Celica Camry. This article follows the former convention.

It should also be noted that the Japanese-language version of this article follows the convention that includes the 1980 to 1982 model.

Toyota Celica Camry (1980–2)

Originally launched as the Toyota Celica Camry in January 1980 for the Japanese home market, this model was essentially a second-generation Toyota Carina with updated body-styling and a front-end that resembled a 1978 Toyota Celica XX (known as the Celica Supra in export markets).

The car used the rear wheel drive Celica platform (which was shared by both the Corona and Carina) and was powered by either a 1.6 L 12T-U engine producing 88 hp JIS (65 kW) and 128 N·m (94 ft·lbf) or a 1.8 L 13T-U engine producing 95 hp JIS (70 kW) and 147 N·m (108 ft·lbf). Towards the end of its model lifecycle, Toyota introduced a sports version of the Celica Camry equipped with the 16-valve DOHC 2.0 L engine from the Celica. This is the most sought after version of the Celica Camry in the secondhand market today.

Although it has an identical 2500 mm (98.4 in) wheelbase to the Celica, the Corona, and the Carina, it is longer than the Carina but shorter than both the Corona and Celica. During its model cycle, over 100,000 units were sold in Japan. The Celica Camry was also exported to a number of markets using the Carina's name, and it replaced the second-generation Carina in those markets.

First generation (1983–6)

In 1982 for the 1983 model year, the Camry became an independent model line, and was sold as a midsize four-door sedan and five-door hatchback. There were limited exports, predominantly to right-hand-drive markets. At this point, Camry was positioned above the Carina and Corona, two other mid-sized models made by Toyota. A twin was announced at this point: the Toyota Vista.

In North America, the Camry was available with a 92 hp SAE (68 kW) 2.0 L I4 engine or a 74 hp 2.0 L I4 turbodiesel engine, and could be purchased with either a five-speed manual transmission or a four-speed automatic. In contrast to the rear wheel drive Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry was a front wheel drive vehicle built on an all-new platform.

The design of the first-generation Camry fit well within the box-shaped trends of the early 1980s. Additionally, the vehicle size and available options were characteristic of Japanese-designed cars of the time; the Camry was a small, inexpensive sedan with solid but spartan construction and competed indirectly against larger American counterparts.

Second generation (1987–1991)

The second-generation model debuted in 1986 for the 1987 model year, and included a station wagon but dropped the hatchback. At this point, it was still regarded as a midsize car. In 1988, all wheel drive (called All-Trac) and a 160 hp JIS (118 kW) 2.5 L V6 engine were added as options for the first time. The V6 featured dual overhead camshafts, much like the upgraded 130 hp JIS (96 kW) 4 cylinder.

In 1991, anti-lock brakes became optional on the V6, LE, and wagon models.

The Kentucky plant also began producing Camrys in 1988, where three trim levels of the second-generation Camry were made: the unbadged base model, the DX, and the LE. The 2.5 L engine and Camry chassis was repackaged as the upscale Lexus ES 250. The ES 250 was essentially the Japanese-market Camry hardtop.

The second-generation Camry was extremely popular in the United States and it is not at all uncommon to see examples on American roads.

Third generation (1992–1996)

The third-generation Camry (first sold in 1990 in Japan; in the US as a 1992 model year car) is regarded as the first to break into the large-car market, or what Toyota billed at the time as "world-sized". This model marked the transition away from an inexpensive four door vehicle into a larger, more luxurious family sedan.

However, in Japan, the 1992 Camry was a different vehicle, which shared its doors and fenders with the exported model, but was limited to the 1700 mm (66.9 in) width required to fit into a lower tax bracket (the 'number 5' bracket). The wider export model was called the Toyota Scepter in its home market.

In the United States, an automatic transmission became the only option on all but the base and sport-model Camrys, whereas previously, a manual transmission was available on nearly all trim levels.

In that market, both the four and six-cylinder engines received upgrades in displacement and power: the four was upped to 2.2 L and 130 hp SAE (97 kW), and the V6 to 3.0 L and 185 hp SAE (137 kW). In addition to the DX (also sometimes called Deluxe) and LE trims, 1992 saw the addition of an XLE luxury trim and the SE sport trim—presumably introduced to compete with the Nissan Maxima SE.

Some other countries followed the 2.2 L and 3.0 L engine choice. Toyota in New Zealand sold these models as the 220 and V6 respectively, the smaller-engined car filling the gap of the departed Corona.

It shared the rounded-body-panel look of many imports of similar vintage: the Toyota Corolla, Honda Accord, and Nissan Altima, to name a few. This was a departure from the second-generation models which, although they had many more rounded panels than the first-generation Camrys, were nevertheless generally slab-sided in shape. The third-generation Camrys had rounded features and a very curved silhouette.

The Vista continued in parallel, available in addition as a hardtop sedan. This is a similar car to the then new Windom, which formed the basis of the Lexus ES 300 in foreign markets, equipped with a 3.0 L V6 engine.

In 1994, Toyota released a coupe version of the Camry with styling very similar to the four door version. This vehicle would be dropped for the next generation, although it would later be replaced by the Camry Solara (discussed below).

The same year, the Japanese home market saw a revised, 1700 mm wide Camry and Vista, with different sheetmetal, on the same platform. (The Japanese version of this page lists this as a 'fifth-generation' model.)

The third-generation Camry was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1992 and 1993.

Australia

In Australia, the Camry 4-cylinder models consisted of the Executive, CSI and Ultima sedan models (automatic only). The V6 range was known as the Camry Vienta and also consisted of the Executive, CSI and Ultima sedan model. The Camry Vientas were available in automatic transmission only. In 1993, a new sedan model called the Touring Series was launched which was fitted with sports suspension. In 1994, the range was revised slightly, where the Executive models was renamed CSI and the CSI was renamed the CSX model.

In July 1995, the facelifted model was launched in Australia and was now built at the new Altona plant. The 4 cylinder range consisted of the CSI and CSX models. The V6 models were simply known as the Vienta. The Ultima sedan was renamed the Grande model, and manual transmission was now available in the CSI and Touring Series sedan models. Towards the end of the model run, limited edition Getaway and Intrigue sedan models were launched.

Fourth generation (1997–2001)

The fourth-generation Camry was launched in Japan in December 1996. It continued as a sedan and station wagon (called the Camry Gracia in Japan), though the latter model was not sold in the United States. Many people thought the Toyota RAV4 SUV in North America led to the demise of the Camry wagon. This generation was launched in the US for the 1997 model year. In 2000, the sedan models received a mid-model upgrade to the front and rear fascias, but remained otherwise similar to the 1999 models. The Japanese Scepter ceased to exist as the Japanese Camrys adopted the 1795 mm wide platform.

The Vista began departing from the Camry, remaining 1700 mm wide and eventually forming the basis of the growing Corolla. In addition, the Vista's sheetmetal resembled a tall, formal sedan, while the Camry became sleeker. This "split" continues today.

The Lexus ES 300 was again built from the Windom, which uses the Camry chassis.

The Camry Solara was added in both coupé and convertible form in 1999. In contrast to the third-generation Camry two door, the Camry Solara was a significant styling departure from the four door. The Solara was available in SE and SLE trim, corresponding roughly to the sedan's LE and XLE trims.

In the United States, the four door Camry SE was dropped and the base model was renamed the CE for the 1998 model year. Both the LE and the XLE trims were carried over from the previous generation. The XLE was available with either the 2.2 L I4 or the 3.0 L V6 engine, although the Solara SLE was only available with the V6.

Power was increased slightly to 133 hp SAE (99 kW) for the 5S-FE 2.2 L I4 and 194 hp SAE (145 kW) for the 1MZ-FE V6. Manual transmissions were only available on the CE trim level and any Solara model.

This was the first Camry to be sold as a Daihatsu; the Daihatsu Altis was identical to the export version of the Camry.

The Camry V6 was again on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1997.

Australia

In Australia, unlike the previous generation, the nameplate Camry was also applied to the V6 variants, while the Vienta V6 range was revised as the "upmarket" models. The line-up of 4 cylinder Camry models consisted of the CSI, Conquest and CSX models (automatic transmission only), all three variants were available in sedan or wagon. The Camry V6 models consisted of CSI and Conquest, with the wagon models only available in automatic transmission. The Camry V6 Touring Series sedan model was launched in March 1999. The Vienta line up consisted of VXI and Grande sedan models and the VXI wagon. The VXI model was basically a V6-powered version of the 4-cylinder Camry CSX model.

In September 2000, the revised Camry range was launched. The Vienta V6 range was discontinued due to the launch of the Avalon sedan in July 2000 and two new models were added to the Camry range: the top-of-the-range Azura V6 sedan and the Touring Series V6 sportswagon model, both of which were available in automatic transmission only. Towards the end of the model run, the limited edition Intrigue and Advantage sedan models were launched.

Fifth generation (2002–2006)

In September 2001, the latest Toyota Camry was released as a larger sedan (taking styling cues from the successful Vitz, Corolla and Solara coupé) only, but without a station wagon for the first time (a similarly styled wagon was sold on the Japanese home market however, as the Toyota Mark II Blit). This model was launched in most export markets, including the United States, as a 2002 model year car.

The styling of the fifth-generation Camry is somewhat similar to the fourth-generation model in that both have gently curved surfaces accented by sharp creases. However, the front end of the car is relatively short, leaving a great deal of the length to the cabin, a technique adopted by compact cars. In contrast to the fairly squat fourth-generation Camry, the fifth generation is a decidedly tall vehicle. It is 2.5 in (64 mm) taller and has a 2 in (51 mm) longer wheelbase than the previous model.

In the United States for 2002, the basic CE model was dropped but the SE sport model was reintroduced. Both the LE and SE models are available with a manual transmission when equipped with the four-cylinder engine now up to 2.4 L and 163 hp (122 kW). Any model may be equipped with a V6 or an automatic transmission, although the manual transmission is not available on V6 models.

The 2002 Camry Solara remained on the fourth generation chassis, and received only minor styling upgrades to the front and rear ends. However the Solara did receive the same 2.4 L I4 engine now available on the Camry.

In late 2004, the 2005 Camry was introduced with new upgrades such as a chrome grille (though the SE had a sportier grille), a new taillight design, and new wheels. A new trim level was added (the standard model) priced lower than the Camry LE. Interior upgrades to the Camry included a rear center head restraint, a storage bin in the door, optitron gauges, and standard leather seating on XLE V6 models.

The second generation Camry Solara was introduced in August 2004. Again, styling from the Camry was radically different, taking design cues from the Lexus SC 430. The 2.4 L engine was still offered, however, a new 3.3 L V6 was optional. The V6 was coupled with a 5-speed automatic transmission. In addition to SE and SLE trims, a new SE Sport was offered. Unlike the first generation Solara, the SLE trim could be had with the four-cylinder engine.

Daihatsu continued with its twin Altis model for the Japanese market.

Australia & New Zealand

In Australia and New Zealand, the 2002-2006 Camry is available in four different trims: the Altise, Ateva, Sportivo and Azura, . The Altise, Ateva, and Sportivo are available with either the 2.4 L VVTi four cylinder or the 3.0 L V6 engine, and the Azura was only available in V6. Only the Altise and Sportivo models may be fitted with a manual transmission— all other models are equipped with an automatic transmission. In 2003, the V6 Altise Sport model was introduced, which is basically the Altise model with the sports suspension that was fitted on the Sportivo and Azura models and was available in manual and automatic trasmission. The Australian and New Zealand Camry Sportivo corresponds roughly to the American Camry SE.

The Australian and New Zealand models were significantly different from the other Camry models around the world and had around 77% locally developed components to suit Australian/NZ roads and driving conditions. The brakes, body panels (which would only fit on the Australian and New Zealand made body and chassis), headlights, seats and suspension were all locally developed after 10000kms of extensive testing in New Zealand under the supervision of Toyota engineers. Power output on the Altise Sport, V6 Sportivo and Azura models was 145 kW (194 hp) compared with the 141 kW (189 hp) of the standard V6 models due to the variable back pressure exhaust system that boosts low-down torque and top-end power.

When the revised range was launched in Australia and New Zealand in September 2004, the Grande model was reintroduced which together with the Azura model, were the top-of-the-range models. The Grande however was fitted with the standard suspension rather than the sports suspension as fitted on the Azura model. The Grande and Azura models have Satellite Navigation (GPS) as standard equipment, and were the first Toyota models in Australia to be fitted with the new Toyota Link system. The Toyota Link system is a state-of-the-art satellite and mobile SMS GSM communications system that gives the driver access to roadside assistance and emergency help via the electrochromatic rear view mirror. In August 2005 the Altise Sport model was reintroduced (V6 auto only) together with Altise Limited (four-cylinder and V6) that replaced the Altise and has additional features.

Sixth generation (2007)

The next-generation Camry will be completely redesigned and made in Georgetown, Kentucky. It will be a 2007 model introduced at the 2006 North American International Auto Show [4] along with its identical hybrid twin, the Camry HV.

The new Camry has a 2.4 L I4 making 158 hp (118 kW) with 4 trim levels: CE, LE, SE, and XLE. It will also have an optional 3.5 L V6 making 268 hp (200 kW) with three trims: LE, SE, and XLE. The V6 will be available with a 6-speed sequential transmission. A spilt-folding rear seat is not available on the SE trim. A navigation system with cell-phone link and heated leather seats are available for the SE and the V6-powered XLE. A keyless entry/remote starter is optional on the V6-powered XLE. The CE and LE trims have similar hubcap designs like the gen 5 02-04 models.

Camry Hybrid

For 2006, Toyota will create a hybrid gas/electric Camry when it is redesigned as the 2007 Toyota Camry called the Camry Hybrid. It will use a Hybrid Synergy Drive setup similar to that of the Toyota Prius, Toyota Highlander Hybrid and Lexus RX 400h, which mates Toyota's 3MZ V6 with an electric motor. However, the Camry Hybrid will utilize a 4-cylinder gasoline engine as opposed to a V6, a setup that will produce 192 hp (143 kW).

Standard features include remote entry and start, side torso airbags, knee airbags and side-curtain airbags.The Camry Hybrid will be built at the company's Georgetown, Kentucky plant, with about 45,000 projected per year.

For more information see: Toyota Camry Hybrid.

Crash test results

Both the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) [5] and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) [6] publish crash information for the third-, fourth-, and fifth-generation Camry. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) scores crash ratings as one to five stars for front and side crashes. Similarly, the IIHS scores crash performance with a four-level grade (Good, Acceptable, Marginal, and Poor) in multiple categories and overall.

Third generation

The third-generation Camry was tested only frontal (NHTSA) and frontal offset (IIHS) crashes. NHTSA gave the vehicle four stars for the driver and between three and four stars for the passenger, depending on the year. [7] The IIHS scored it acceptable overall, with three out of six categories listed as good and the other three listed as acceptable. [8] In comparison, the similar-vintage Honda Accord fared similarly (although somewhat worse) [9], the Ford Taurus did notably better [10], and the Nissan Maxima performed much worse. [11]

Fourth generation

The fourth-generation Camry was tested for frontal and side impacts (NHTSA) and frontal offset (IIHS) crashes, but scored significantly better than the third generation in all frontal tests. [12] [13] Additionally, the IIHS website lists the 1997-2001 Camry as being a BEST PICK in frontal crash tests.

The NHTSA gave the Camry four stars in side impact tests when fitted with side airbags and three stars without. [14]

Fifth generation

The fifth-generation Camry was tested for front, side, and rollover crashes (NHTSA) and rear, side (with and without side airbags), and frontal offset crashes (IIHS). The fifth-generation frontal performance was similar to that for the fourth-generation. [15] [16] It was also again listed as a BEST PICK in frontal crashes. Similarly, IIHS side impacts with airbags was rated as good overall with good in most categories. [17]

However, side crash performance without airbags was only two stars in 2002 (NHTSA) [18] and poor, the lowest score on the IIHS scale. [19] Three out of the nine categories were scored as poor, including Head protection, driver, Injury:Head/neck, and Injury:Torso, rear passenger. The IIHS website notes that although Toyota changed the design of 2004 Camrys to improve side performance, the changes would not significantly impact the crash performance of vehicles without side airbags.

NHTSA rollover performance is listed as five stars for 2001 models and four stars thereafter. IIHS rear-crash performance was rated as marginal for Camrys with cloth seats and poor for Camrys with leather seats. [20]

Theft statistics

The Camry is reportedly the most stolen car in the United States. [21] This can be partly attributed to the fact that the Camry has been the top selling car in the U.S. for several years. In 2001, for example, the second-generation Camry was the most-stolen vehicle, whereas the fourth-generation Camry was the 79th most stolen.

The Camry received an "average" theft loss index in yearly reports generated by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) for every year between 1992 and 2004 except 1997, when it received a "worse than average." [22] Each of these reports only covers the previous three model years (e.g., the 1992 report covers 1989-1991 Camrys).

Racing and aftermarket

Due to the Camry's size and market orientation, it is not a suitable candidate for professional motorsports activities. So far, the one and only time a Camry that has been used by a works Toyota team as a race car is during the 1990's, where Toyota South Africa commissioned a third-generation Camry, built according to FIA's Class-2 Super Touring regulations, to be raced in the South African Touring Car Championship. It only achieved moderate success as the competition comprised of other more suitable machinery, for example BMW 320i's prepared by Team Schnitzer. In spite of past failures, there nonetheless exists evidence that late-model Camrys have been raced in other minor championships. [23] The Camry's popularity and Toyota's reputation for reliability means that older-model Camrys occasionally surface in amateur motorsports. As the matter of fact, the South African Super Touring Camry is still being raced by a private individual in Australia in 2005, despite the car being more than 10 years old.

On January 23, 2006, Toyota announced that their 2007 version of the Camry will be entered for NASCAR's elite Busch and Nextel Cup series, starting in the 2007 season, marking the first appearance by a vehicle made by an automobile manufacturer not based in the United States to compete in NASCAR's top two series since the 1950s. Since 2004, Tundra pickups have competed in the Craftsman Truck Series.

Toyota's in-house motor sport department, Toyota Racing Development, as well as Toyota Team Europe and TOM'S, does offer performance parts for the fourth- and fifth-generation Camry. Aftermarket performance parts for the Camry are significantly more limited than for sportier vehicles; however, even a bona-fide supercharger has been developed specifically for the Camry. [24] [25]


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[24] [25]. These include:. Aftermarket performance parts for the Camry are significantly more limited than for sportier vehicles; however, even a bona-fide supercharger has been developed specifically for the Camry. This in turn means that soldiers have to be trained to fight in a specific type of terrain. Toyota's in-house motor sport department, Toyota Racing Development, as well as Toyota Team Europe and TOM'S, does offer performance parts for the fourth- and fifth-generation Camry. The terrain over which a war is fought has a big impact on the type of combat which takes place. Since 2004, Tundra pickups have competed in the Craftsman Truck Series. Non-lethal chemical weapons, such as tear gas and pepper spray, are widely used.

On January 23, 2006, Toyota announced that their 2007 version of the Camry will be entered for NASCAR's elite Busch and Nextel Cup series, starting in the 2007 season, marking the first appearance by a vehicle made by an automobile manufacturer not based in the United States to compete in NASCAR's top two series since the 1950s. Various treaties have sought to ban its further use. As the matter of fact, the South African Super Touring Camry is still being raced by a private individual in Australia in 2005, despite the car being more than 10 years old. Poison gas as a chemical weapon was principally used during World War I, and resulted in an estimated 91,198 deaths and 1,205,655 injuries. [23] The Camry's popularity and Toyota's reputation for reliability means that older-model Camrys occasionally surface in amateur motorsports. Intentional air pollution in combat is called chemical warfare. In spite of past failures, there nonetheless exists evidence that late-model Camrys have been raced in other minor championships. Military action produces a very small percentage of air pollution emissions.

It only achieved moderate success as the competition comprised of other more suitable machinery, for example BMW 320i's prepared by Team Schnitzer. Terrorism can be considered an extreme form of asymmetrical warfare. So far, the one and only time a Camry that has been used by a works Toyota team as a race car is during the 1990's, where Toyota South Africa commissioned a third-generation Camry, built according to FIA's Class-2 Super Touring regulations, to be raced in the South African Touring Car Championship. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a common example of asymmetrical warfare. Due to the Camry's size and market orientation, it is not a suitable candidate for professional motorsports activities. This type of war often results in guerrilla tactics. The Camry received an "average" theft loss index in yearly reports generated by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) for every year between 1992 and 2004 except 1997, when it received a "worse than average." [22] Each of these reports only covers the previous three model years (e.g., the 1992 report covers 1989-1991 Camrys). Asymmetrical warfare is a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military mechanization.

In 2001, for example, the second-generation Camry was the most-stolen vehicle, whereas the fourth-generation Camry was the 79th most stolen. A war where the forces in conflict belong to the same country or empire or other political entity is known as a civil war. for several years. (Compare with unconventional warfare and nuclear warfare.). [21] This can be partly attributed to the fact that the Camry has been the top selling car in the U.S. "Conventional warfare" describes either:. The Camry is reportedly the most stolen car in the United States. This usage is not always recognized as valid, however, particularly by those who do not accept the connotations of the term.

[20]. When one country sends armed forces to another, allegedly to restore order or prevent genocide or other crimes against humanity, or to support a legally recognized government against insurgency, that country sometimes refers to it as a police action. IIHS rear-crash performance was rated as marginal for Camrys with cloth seats and poor for Camrys with leather seats. Smaller armed conflicts are often called riots, rebellions, coups, etc. NHTSA rollover performance is listed as five stars for 2001 models and four stars thereafter. Wars are a natural outgrowth of the free market and class system, and will not disappear until a world revolution occurs. The IIHS website notes that although Toyota changed the design of 2004 Camrys to improve side performance, the changes would not significantly impact the crash performance of vehicles without side airbags. It sees wars as imperial ventures to enhance the power of the ruling class and divide the proletariat of the world by pitting them against each other for contrived ideals such as nationalism or religion.

[19] Three out of the nine categories were scored as poor, including Head protection, driver, Injury:Head/neck, and Injury:Torso, rear passenger. The economic theories also form a part of the Marxist theory of war, which argues that all war grows out of the class war. However, side crash performance without airbags was only two stars in 2002 (NHTSA) [18] and poor, the lowest score on the IIHS scale. It is most often advocated by those to the left of the political spectrum, who argue that such wars serve the interests of the wealthy, but are fought by the poor. [17]. invasion of Iraq. Similarly, IIHS side impacts with airbags was rated as good overall with good in most categories. Unquestionably a cause of some wars, from the empire building of Britain to the 1941 Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in pursuit of oil, this theory has been applied to many other conflicts including the 2003 U.S.

[15] [16] It was also again listed as a BEST PICK in frontal crashes. In this view, wars begin as a pursuit of new markets, of natural resources, and of wealth. The fifth-generation frontal performance was similar to that for the fourth-generation. Another school of thought argues that war can be seen as an outgrowth of economic competition in a chaotic and competitive international system. The fifth-generation Camry was tested for front, side, and rollover crashes (NHTSA) and rear, side (with and without side airbags), and frontal offset crashes (IIHS). For example, Sweden made efforts to deceive Nazi Germany that it would resist an attack fiercely partly by playing on the myth of Aryan superiority, and by making sure that Hermann Göring only saw Elite troops in action, often dressed up as regular soldiers, when he came to visit. [14]. If you think that you can convince the opponent that you will fight, the opponent might desist.

The NHTSA gave the Camry four stars in side impact tests when fitted with side airbags and three stars without. One major difficulty is that in a conflict of interests, some deception or at least not telling everything is a standard tactical component on both sides. [12] [13] Additionally, the IIHS website lists the 1997-2001 Camry as being a BEST PICK in frontal crash tests. The American decision to enter the Vietnam War was made with the full knowledge that the communist forces would resist them, but did not believe that the guerrillas had the capability to long oppose American forces. The fourth-generation Camry was tested for frontal and side impacts (NHTSA) and frontal offset (IIHS) crashes, but scored significantly better than the third generation in all frontal tests. The Argentinean dictatorship knew that the United Kingdom had the ability to defeat them, but their intelligence failed them on the question of whether the British would use their power to resist the annexation of the Falklands. [11]. In theory to have enough information to prevent all wars both need to be fully known.

[8] In comparison, the similar-vintage Honda Accord fared similarly (although somewhat worse) [9], the Ford Taurus did notably better [10], and the Nissan Maxima performed much worse. The first is to find out the ability of an enemy, the second their intent. [7] The IIHS scored it acceptable overall, with three out of six categories listed as good and the other three listed as acceptable. There are two main objectives in the gathering of intelligence. NHTSA gave the vehicle four stars for the driver and between three and four stars for the passenger, depending on the year. While purely random events, such as storms or the right person dying at the right time, might have had some effect on history, these only influence a single battle or slightly alter the outcome of a war, but would not mean the difference between victory and defeat. The third-generation Camry was tested only frontal (NHTSA) and frontal offset (IIHS) crashes. This theory is predicated on the notion that the outcome of wars is not randomly determined, but fully determined on factors such as doctrine, economies, and power.

Similarly, the IIHS scores crash performance with a four-level grade (Good, Acceptable, Marginal, and Poor) in multiple categories and overall. If it had been known for certainty that the Third Reich would collapse after only a few years of war, the Nazis would not have launched the invasion at all. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) scores crash ratings as one to five stars for front and side crashes. If in 1940 it had been known with certainty the Germans would dominate central Europe for many decades, it is unlikely the Norwegians would have resisted. Both the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) [5] and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) [6] publish crash information for the third-, fourth-, and fifth-generation Camry. The Norwegians did not know whether the German domination would be permanent and also felt that noble resistance would win them favour with the Allies and a position at the peace settlement in the event of an Allied victory. For more information see: Toyota Camry Hybrid. The Norwegian decision to resist the Nazi invasion was taken with the certain knowledge that Norway would fall.

Standard features include remote entry and start, side torso airbags, knee airbags and side-curtain airbags.The Camry Hybrid will be built at the company's Georgetown, Kentucky plant, with about 45,000 projected per year. Lack of information may not only be to who wins in the immediate future. However, the Camry Hybrid will utilize a 4-cylinder gasoline engine as opposed to a V6, a setup that will produce 192 hp (143 kW). The leaders of these nations chose not to resist as they saw the potential benefits being not worth the loss of life and destruction such resistance would cause. It will use a Hybrid Synergy Drive setup similar to that of the Toyota Prius, Toyota Highlander Hybrid and Lexus RX 400h, which mates Toyota's 3MZ V6 with an electric motor. On the other hand, Finland's decision to resist a similar Soviet aggression in 1939 led to the Winter War. For 2006, Toyota will create a hybrid gas/electric Camry when it is redesigned as the 2007 Toyota Camry called the Camry Hybrid. However, throughout history there are as many invasions and annexations that did not lead to a war, such as the U.S.-led invasion of Haiti in 1994, the Nazi invasions of Austria and Czechoslovakia preceding the Second World War, and the annexation of the Baltic states by the Soviet Union in 1940.

The CE and LE trims have similar hubcap designs like the gen 5 02-04 models. This notion is made harder to accept because it is far more common to study the cause of wars rather than events that failed to cause wars, and wars are far more memorable. A keyless entry/remote starter is optional on the V6-powered XLE. This notion is generally agreed to by almost all scholars of war since Clausewitz. A navigation system with cell-phone link and heated leather seats are available for the SE and the V6-powered XLE. This is based on the notion that wars are reciprocal, that all wars require both a decision to attack and also a decision to resist attack. A spilt-folding rear seat is not available on the SE trim. If both sides at the outset knew the result neither would fight, the loser would merely surrender and avoid the cost in lives and infrastructure that a war would cause.

The V6 will be available with a 6-speed sequential transmission. This theory, advanced by scholars of international relations such as Geoffrey Blainey, argues that all wars are based on a lack of information. It will also have an optional 3.5 L V6 making 268 hp (200 kW) with three trims: LE, SE, and XLE. A popular new approach is to look at the role of information in the outbreak of wars. The new Camry has a 2.4 L I4 making 158 hp (118 kW) with 4 trim levels: CE, LE, SE, and XLE. This theory accounts for the relative decrease in wars during the past fifty years, especially in the developed world, where advances in agriculture have made it possible to support a much larger population that was formerly the case, and where birth control has dramatically slowed the increase in population. It will be a 2007 model introduced at the 2006 North American International Auto Show [4] along with its identical hybrid twin, the Camry HV. Thomas Malthus (1766 - 1834) wrote that populations always increase until they are limited by war, disease, or famine.

The next-generation Camry will be completely redesigned and made in Georgetown, Kentucky. This is one of the earliest expressions of what has come to be called the Malthusian theory of war, in which wars are caused by expanding populations and limited resources. In August 2005 the Altise Sport model was reintroduced (V6 auto only) together with Altise Limited (four-cylinder and V6) that replaced the Altise and has additional features. Enter upon the road to the Holy Sepulcher; wrest that land from a wicked race, and subject it to yourselves.". The Toyota Link system is a state-of-the-art satellite and mobile SMS GSM communications system that gives the driver access to roadside assistance and emergency help via the electrochromatic rear view mirror. Let hatred, therefore, depart from among you; let your quarrels end. The Grande and Azura models have Satellite Navigation (GPS) as standard equipment, and were the first Toyota models in Australia to be fitted with the new Toyota Link system. Hence it is that you murder and devour one another, that you wage wars, and that many among you perish in civil strife.

The Grande however was fitted with the standard suspension rather than the sports suspension as fitted on the Azura model. Pope Urban in 1095, on the eve of the First Crusade, wrote, "For this land which you now inhabit, shut in on all sides by the sea and the mountain peaks, is too narrow for your large population; it scarcely furnishes food enough for its cultivators. When the revised range was launched in Australia and New Zealand in September 2004, the Grande model was reintroduced which together with the Azura model, were the top-of-the-range models. This differs from the traditional approach of Carl von Clausewitz and Leopold von Ranke that argue it is the decisions of statesmen and the geopolitical situation that leads to war. Power output on the Altise Sport, V6 Sportivo and Azura models was 145 kW (194 hp) compared with the 141 kW (189 hp) of the standard V6 models due to the variable back pressure exhaust system that boosts low-down torque and top-end power. Thus World War I was not a product of international disputes, secret treaties, or the balance of power but a product of the economic, social, and political situation within each of the states involved. The brakes, body panels (which would only fit on the Australian and New Zealand made body and chassis), headlights, seats and suspension were all locally developed after 10000kms of extensive testing in New Zealand under the supervision of Toyota engineers. One based on the works of Eckart Kehr and Hans-Ulrich Wehler sees war as the product of domestic conditions, with only the target of aggression being determined by international realities.

The Australian and New Zealand models were significantly different from the other Camry models around the world and had around 77% locally developed components to suit Australian/NZ roads and driving conditions. Sociology has thus divided into a number of schools. The Australian and New Zealand Camry Sportivo corresponds roughly to the American Camry SE. Rummel has found that civil wars and foreign wars are very different in origin, but Jonathan Wilkenfield using different data found just the opposite. In 2003, the V6 Altise Sport model was introduced, which is basically the Altise model with the sports suspension that was fitted on the Sportivo and Azura models and was available in manual and automatic trasmission. Data looked at by R.J. Only the Altise and Sportivo models may be fitted with a manual transmission— all other models are equipped with an automatic transmission. Many sociologists have attempted to divide wars into types to get better correlations, but this has also produced mixed results.

The Altise, Ateva, and Sportivo are available with either the 2.4 L VVTi four cylinder or the 3.0 L V6 engine, and the Azura was only available in V6. One correlation that has found much support is that states that are democracies do not go to war with each other, an idea known as the democratic peace theory. In Australia and New Zealand, the 2002-2006 Camry is available in four different trims: the Altise, Ateva, Sportivo and Azura, . A detailed study by Michael Haas found that no single variable has a strong correlation to the occurrence of wars. Daihatsu continued with its twin Altis model for the Japanese market. So far none of these formulas have successfully predicted the outbreak of future conflicts. Unlike the first generation Solara, the SLE trim could be had with the four-cylinder engine. More recent databases of wars and armed conflict have been assembled by the Correlates of War Project, Peter Brecke and the Uppsala Department of Peace and Conflict Research.

In addition to SE and SLE trims, a new SE Sport was offered. The statistical analysis of war was pioneered by Lewis Fry Richardson following World War I. The V6 was coupled with a 5-speed automatic transmission. Some use detailed formulas taking into account hundreds of demographic and economic values to predict when and where wars will break out. The 2.4 L engine was still offered, however, a new 3.3 L V6 was optional. Sociology has long been very concerned with the origins of war, and many thousands of theories have been advanced, many of them contradictory. Again, styling from the Camry was radically different, taking design cues from the Lexus SC 430. Theorists such as Ashley Montagu emphasize the top down nature of war, that almost all wars are begun not by popular pressure but by the whims of leaders and that these leaders also work to maintain a system of ideological justifications for war.

The second generation Camry Solara was introduced in August 2004. They see the fighting of animals, the skirmishes of hunter-gatherer tribes, and the organized warfare of modern societies as distinct phenomena each with their own causes. Interior upgrades to the Camry included a rear center head restraint, a storage bin in the door, optitron gauges, and standard leather seating on XLE V6 models. Many anthropologists also see no links between various forms of violence. A new trim level was added (the standard model) priced lower than the Camry LE. To this school the acceptance of war is inculcated into each of us by the religious, ideological, and nationalistic surroundings in which we live. In late 2004, the 2005 Camry was introduced with new upgrades such as a chrome grille (though the SE had a sportier grille), a new taillight design, and new wheels. Thus if human societies could be reformed, war would disappear.

However the Solara did receive the same 2.4 L I4 engine now available on the Camry. They see it as fundamentally cultural, learned by nurture rather than nature. The 2002 Camry Solara remained on the fourth generation chassis, and received only minor styling upgrades to the front and rear ends. Several anthropologists take a very different view of war. Any model may be equipped with a V6 or an automatic transmission, although the manual transmission is not available on V6 models. By this theory, war is another 'opiate of the masses' by which a state controls its people and prevents revolution. Both the LE and SE models are available with a manual transmission when equipped with the four-cylinder engine now up to 2.4 L and 163 hp (122 kW). Thus the people are prevented from seeing that their true enemy is in fact their own repressive government.

In the United States for 2002, the basic CE model was dropped but the SE sport model was reintroduced. War inspires fear and hate among the people of a nation, and gives them a 'legitimate' enemy upon whom they can focus this fear and hate. It is 2.5 in (64 mm) taller and has a 2 in (51 mm) longer wheelbase than the previous model. In his fictional book Nineteen-Eighty-Four, George Orwell talks about war being used as one of many ways to distract people. In contrast to the fairly squat fourth-generation Camry, the fifth generation is a decidedly tall vehicle. Kennedy, who argue that the organized, sustained war of humans differs more than just technologically from the territorial fights between animals. However, the front end of the car is relatively short, leaving a great deal of the length to the cabin, a technique adopted by compact cars. These theories have been criticized by scholars such as John G.

The styling of the fifth-generation Camry is somewhat similar to the fourth-generation model in that both have gently curved surfaces accented by sharp creases. The earliest advocate of this theory was Konrad Lorenz. This model was launched in most export markets, including the United States, as a 2002 model year car. We have the same instincts of a chimpanzee but overwhelmingly more power. In September 2001, the latest Toyota Camry was released as a larger sedan (taking styling cues from the successful Vitz, Corolla and Solara coupé) only, but without a station wagon for the first time (a similarly styled wagon was sold on the Japanese home market however, as the Toyota Mark II Blit). However, while war has a natural cause, the development of technology has accelerated human destructiveness to a level that is irrational and damaging to the species. Towards the end of the model run, the limited edition Intrigue and Advantage sedan models were launched. This school tends to see war as an extension of animal behaviour, such as territoriality and competition.

The Vienta V6 range was discontinued due to the launch of the Avalon sedan in July 2000 and two new models were added to the Camry range: the top-of-the-range Azura V6 sedan and the Touring Series V6 sportswagon model, both of which were available in automatic transmission only. A distinct branch of the psychological theories of war are the arguments based on evolutionary psychology. In September 2000, the revised Camry range was launched. This extreme school of thought argues leaders that seek war such as Napoleon, Hitler, Bush and Stalin were mentally abnormal. The VXI model was basically a V6-powered version of the 4-cylinder Camry CSX model. Other psychologists have argued that while human temperament allows wars to occur, they only do so when mentally unbalanced men are in control of a nation. The Vienta line up consisted of VXI and Grande sedan models and the VXI wagon. Critics, of course, point to various examples of female political leaders who had no qualms about using military force, such as Margaret Thatcher or Indira Gandhi.

The Camry V6 Touring Series sedan model was launched in March 1999. This theory has played an important role in modern feminism. The Camry V6 models consisted of CSI and Conquest, with the wagon models only available in automatic transmission. One alternative is to argue that war is only, or almost only, a male activity and if human leadership was in female hands wars would not occur. The line-up of 4 cylinder Camry models consisted of the CSI, Conquest and CSX models (automatic transmission only), all three variants were available in sedan or wagon. If war is innate to human nature, as is presupposed by many psychological theories, then there is little hope of ever escaping it. In Australia, unlike the previous generation, the nameplate Camry was also applied to the V6 variants, while the Vienta V6 range was revised as the "upmarket" models. Periods that are seen as peaceful are actually periods of preparation for a later war or when war is suppressed by a state of great power, such as the Pax Britannica.

The Camry V6 was again on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1997. A solution adapted to this problem by militarists such as Franz Alexander is that peace does not really exist. This was the first Camry to be sold as a Daihatsu; the Daihatsu Altis was identical to the export version of the Camry. If the innate psychology of the human mind is unchanging, these variations are inconsistent. Manual transmissions were only available on the CE trim level and any Solara model. In addition, they raise the question why there are sometimes long periods of peace and other eras of unending war. Power was increased slightly to 133 hp SAE (99 kW) for the 5S-FE 2.2 L I4 and 194 hp SAE (145 kW) for the 1MZ-FE V6. While these theories may have some explanatory value about why wars occur, they do not explain when or how they occur.

The XLE was available with either the 2.2 L I4 or the 3.0 L V6 engine, although the Solara SLE was only available with the V6. This combines with other notions, such as displacement where a person transfers their grievances into bias and hatred against other ethnic groups, nations, or ideologies. Both the LE and the XLE trims were carried over from the previous generation. While this violence is repressed in normal society it needs the occasional outlet provided by war. In the United States, the four door Camry SE was dropped and the base model was renamed the CE for the 1998 model year. Durban and John Bowlby have argued that human beings, especially men, are inherently violent. The Solara was available in SE and SLE trim, corresponding roughly to the sedan's LE and XLE trims. Psychologists such as E.F.M.

In contrast to the third-generation Camry two door, the Camry Solara was a significant styling departure from the four door. Social scientists criticize this approach arguing that at the beginning of every war some leader makes a conscious decision and that they cannot be seen as purely accidental. The Camry Solara was added in both coupé and convertible form in 1999. There are some conditions and situations that make them more likely but there can be no system for predicting where and when each one will occur. The Lexus ES 300 was again built from the Windom, which uses the Camry chassis. Taylor famously described wars as being like traffic accidents. This "split" continues today. P.

In addition, the Vista's sheetmetal resembled a tall, formal sedan, while the Camry became sleeker. J. The Vista began departing from the Camry, remaining 1700 mm wide and eventually forming the basis of the growing Corolla. A. The Japanese Scepter ceased to exist as the Japanese Camrys adopted the 1795 mm wide platform. Historians tend to be reluctant to look for sweeping explanations for all wars. In 2000, the sedan models received a mid-model upgrade to the front and rear fascias, but remained otherwise similar to the 1999 models. Representatives of many different academic disciplines have attempted to explain war.

This generation was launched in the US for the 1997 model year. There is great debate over why wars happen, even when most people do not want them to. Many people thought the Toyota RAV4 SUV in North America led to the demise of the Camry wagon. Sometimes the term "war" will not be used in order to circumvent national constitutions which restrict the power of the executive to wage war without the agreement of other branches of government. It continued as a sedan and station wagon (called the Camry Gracia in Japan), though the latter model was not sold in the United States. For example, the United States Government referred to the Korean War as a "police action", and the British Government was very careful to use the term "armed conflict" instead of "war" during the Falklands War in 1982 to comply with the letter of international law. The fourth-generation Camry was launched in Japan in December 1996. This has resulted in wars (in the sense defined in the introduction to this article) without formal declaration and combatants who officially choose terms other than "war," such as:.

Towards the end of the model run, limited edition Getaway and Intrigue sedan models were launched. Sometimes the term "war" is restricted by legal definition to those conflicts where one or both belligerents have formally declared war. The Ultima sedan was renamed the Grande model, and manual transmission was now available in the CSI and Touring Series sedan models. By only illegalising "war against the rules", it is alleged, such treaties and conventions, in effect, sanction certain types of war. The V6 models were simply known as the Vienta. It must be noted that in war such treaties are generally thrown to one side if they interfere with the vital interests of either side; some have criticised such conventions as simply providing a fig leaf for the inhuman practice of war. The 4 cylinder range consisted of the CSI and CSX models. 135, entered into force 21 October 1950.

In July 1995, the facelifted model was launched in Australia and was now built at the new Altona plant. A couple of examples are: Resolutions of the Geneva International Conference, Geneva, 26 October-29 October 1863 and Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 75 U.N.T.S. In 1994, the range was revised slightly, where the Executive models was renamed CSI and the CSI was renamed the CSX model. Treaty signing has since been a part of international diplomacy, and too many treaties to mention in this scant article have been signed. In 1993, a new sedan model called the Touring Series was launched which was fitted with sports suspension. The most pervasive of those are the Geneva Conventions, the earliest of which began to take effect in the mid 1800s. The Camry Vientas were available in automatic transmission only. A number of treaties regulate warfare, collectively referred to as the laws of war.

The V6 range was known as the Camry Vienta and also consisted of the Executive, CSI and Ultima sedan model. Charter, "save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.". In Australia, the Camry 4-cylinder models consisted of the Executive, CSI and Ultima sedan models (automatic only). The United Nations is the latest and most comprehensive attempt to, as stated in the preamble of the U.N. The third-generation Camry was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1992 and 1993. In modern times, increasing international attention has been paid to peacefully resolving conflicts which lead to war. (The Japanese version of this page lists this as a 'fifth-generation' model.). In some cultures, for example, conflicts have been highly ritualized to limit actual loss of life.

The same year, the Japanese home market saw a revised, 1700 mm wide Camry and Vista, with different sheetmetal, on the same platform. While culture, law, and religion have all been factors in causing wars, they have also acted as restraints at times. This vehicle would be dropped for the next generation, although it would later be replaced by the Camry Solara (discussed below). Total war is the modern term for the targeting of civilians and the mobilization of an entire society; when every member of the society has to contribute to the war effort. In 1994, Toyota released a coupe version of the Camry with styling very similar to the four door version. Limitations on the targeting of civilians, what type of weapons can be used, and when combat is allowed have all fallen under these rules in different conflicts. This is a similar car to the then new Windom, which formed the basis of the Lexus ES 300 in foreign markets, equipped with a 3.0 L V6 engine. At times throughout history, societies have attempted to limit the cost of war by formalizing it in some way.

The Vista continued in parallel, available in addition as a hardtop sedan. Today, some see only just wars as legitimate, and believe that it is the goal of organizations such as the United Nations to unite the world against wars of unjust aggression. The third-generation Camrys had rounded features and a very curved silhouette. The defeat and repudiation of the fascist states and their militarism in the Second World War, the huge psychological and physical damage of nuclear war and a growth of the respect for the sanctity of individual life, as enshrined in the concept of human rights and as a cultural consequence of falling natural mortality rates and birth rates, have contributed to the current view of war. This was a departure from the second-generation models which, although they had many more rounded panels than the first-generation Camrys, were nevertheless generally slab-sided in shape. At the outbreak of World War I the writer Thomas Mann wrote, "Is not peace an element of civil corruption and war a purification, a liberation, an enormous hope?" This attitude was embraced by many societies from Sparta in Ancient Greece and the Ancient Romans to the fascist states of the 1930s. It shared the rounded-body-panel look of many imports of similar vintage: the Toyota Corolla, Honda Accord, and Nissan Altima, to name a few. Many thinkers, such as Heinrich von Treitschke saw war as humanity's highest activity where courage, honor, and ability were more necessary than in any other endeavour.

Toyota in New Zealand sold these models as the 220 and V6 respectively, the smaller-engined car filling the gap of the departed Corona. The negative view of war has not always been held as widely as it is today. Some other countries followed the 2.2 L and 3.0 L engine choice. Gandhi (called "Mahatma" or "Great Soul"). In addition to the DX (also sometimes called Deluxe) and LE trims, 1992 saw the addition of an XLE luxury trim and the SE sport trim—presumably introduced to compete with the Nissan Maxima SE. This position was passionately defended by the Indian leader Mohandas K. In that market, both the four and six-cylinder engines received upgrades in displacement and power: the four was upped to 2.2 L and 130 hp SAE (97 kW), and the V6 to 3.0 L and 185 hp SAE (137 kW). Pacifists believe that war is inherently immoral and that no war should ever be fought.

In the United States, an automatic transmission became the only option on all but the base and sport-model Camrys, whereas previously, a manual transmission was available on nearly all trim levels. Today war is generally seen as undesirable and morally problematic, although this view is contested by some. The wider export model was called the Toyota Scepter in its home market. Although many ancient nations and some more modern ones viewed war as noble, over the sweep of history concerns about the morality of war have gradually increased. However, in Japan, the 1992 Camry was a different vehicle, which shared its doors and fenders with the exported model, but was limited to the 1700 mm (66.9 in) width required to fit into a lower tax bracket (the 'number 5' bracket). Throughout history, war has been the source of serious moral questions. This model marked the transition away from an inexpensive four door vehicle into a larger, more luxurious family sedan. The study of warfare is known as military history.

The third-generation Camry (first sold in 1990 in Japan; in the US as a 1992 model year car) is regarded as the first to break into the large-car market, or what Toyota billed at the time as "world-sized". Inventions created for warfare play an important role in advances in other fields, but modern technology has greatly increased the potential cost and destruction of war. The second-generation Camry was extremely popular in the United States and it is not at all uncommon to see examples on American roads. Armies with iron weapons easily defeated armies armed with bronze. The ES 250 was essentially the Japanese-market Camry hardtop. As well as organizational change, technology has played a central role in the evolution of warfare. The 2.5 L engine and Camry chassis was repackaged as the upscale Lexus ES 250. Organization and structure has since been central to warfare, as illustrated by the success of highly disciplined troops of the Roman Empire.

The Kentucky plant also began producing Camrys in 1988, where three trim levels of the second-generation Camry were made: the unbadged base model, the DX, and the LE. The earliest city states and empires in Mesopotamia became the first to employ standing armies. In 1991, anti-lock brakes became optional on the V6, LE, and wagon models. War seems as old as human society, and certainly features prominently in the recorded histories of state-cultures. The V6 featured dual overhead camshafts, much like the upgraded 130 hp JIS (96 kW) 4 cylinder. It must be thoroughly pondered and analyzed."---The Art of War by Sun Tzu. In 1988, all wheel drive (called All-Trac) and a 160 hp JIS (118 kW) 2.5 L V6 engine were added as options for the first time. "Warfare is the greatest affair of state, the basis of life and death, the Tao to survival or extinction.

At this point, it was still regarded as a midsize car. . The second-generation model debuted in 1986 for the 1987 model year, and included a station wagon but dropped the hatchback. A war to liberate an occupied country is sometimes characterised as a "war of liberation", while a war between internal elements of the same state may constitute a civil war. Additionally, the vehicle size and available options were characteristic of Japanese-designed cars of the time; the Camry was a small, inexpensive sedan with solid but spartan construction and competed indirectly against larger American counterparts. A common perception of war is a series of military campaigns between at least two opposing sides involving a dispute over sovereignty, territory, resources, religion or a host of other issues. The design of the first-generation Camry fit well within the box-shaped trends of the early 1980s. War is contrasted with peace, which is usually defined as the absence of war.

In contrast to the rear wheel drive Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry was a front wheel drive vehicle built on an all-new platform. Other terms for war, which often serve as euphemisms, include armed conflict, hostilities, and police action (note). In North America, the Camry was available with a 92 hp SAE (68 kW) 2.0 L I4 engine or a 74 hp 2.0 L I4 turbodiesel engine, and could be purchased with either a five-speed manual transmission or a four-speed automatic. War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organizations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. A twin was announced at this point: the Toyota Vista. Space warfare. At this point, Camry was positioned above the Carina and Corona, two other mid-sized models made by Toyota. Air warfare.

There were limited exports, predominantly to right-hand-drive markets. Urban warfare. In 1982 for the 1983 model year, the Camry became an independent model line, and was sold as a midsize four-door sedan and five-door hatchback. Mountain warfare (sometimes called alpine warfare). The Celica Camry was also exported to a number of markets using the Carina's name, and it replaced the second-generation Carina in those markets. Sub-aquatic warfare. During its model cycle, over 100,000 units were sold in Japan. Naval warfare or Aquatic warfare.

Although it has an identical 2500 mm (98.4 in) wheelbase to the Celica, the Corona, and the Carina, it is longer than the Carina but shorter than both the Corona and Celica. Jungle warfare. This is the most sought after version of the Celica Camry in the secondhand market today. Desert warfare. Towards the end of its model lifecycle, Toyota introduced a sports version of the Celica Camry equipped with the 16-valve DOHC 2.0 L engine from the Celica. Ski warfare. The car used the rear wheel drive Celica platform (which was shared by both the Corona and Carina) and was powered by either a 1.6 L 12T-U engine producing 88 hp JIS (65 kW) and 128 N·m (94 ft·lbf) or a 1.8 L 13T-U engine producing 95 hp JIS (70 kW) and 147 N·m (108 ft·lbf). Arctic warfare.

Originally launched as the Toyota Celica Camry in January 1980 for the Japanese home market, this model was essentially a second-generation Toyota Carina with updated body-styling and a front-end that resembled a 1978 Toyota Celica XX (known as the Celica Supra in export markets). War where nuclear or biological weapons are not used. It should also be noted that the Japanese-language version of this article follows the convention that includes the 1980 to 1982 model. A war between nation-states. This article follows the former convention. "crime against international peace". A fewer number of sources state the first generation to have started in 1980 as the Toyota Celica Camry. "police action";.

Most sources note the first generation Camry to have been produced as a 1983 model. "state aggression by armed force";. There is some dispute over the generational naming of the Toyota Camry. "armed conflict";. The Camry will no longer be available in Europe from 2006. In Europe, the Camry's success was always limited due to excessive size (which put into competition with the Opel/Vauxhall Omega and Ford Scorpio) and low-build quality when compared to the European-developed Carina E and Avensis.

In Australasia, the Camry sells well in comparison to the top-selling family cars, the Ford Falcon and General Motors' Holden Commodore. In Japan, its only competitor is the Nissan Cefiro (and afterwards, the Nissan Teana), but Nissan consistently outsells Toyota in this market segment. In China, both the Nissan Teana and Honda Accord (some of Camry's main competitors) are produced locally, and hence have a price advantage against the imported Camry. In most parts of Asia, the Camry remains competitive against the Honda Accord, with the exception of China and Japan.

[2] [3]. In US, most recent comparisons have placed the car against the Nissan Altima, Mitsubishi Galant, Mazda6, and the Chevrolet Malibu; and although the Camry isn't always the clear winner, it nevertheless remains a solid competitor. North American sales figures between the Accord and the Camry are usually comparable, indicating that consumers in the Camry's target demographic are more interested in the smoother ride and quieter performance of the Camry. The Camry's perennial competitor, the Honda Accord, is often described as sportier and has traditionally been equipped with a few more performance-oriented options.

Thereafter, the car is assembled locally and known as the Toyota Kaimeirui, which sounds closer to "Camry". The Camry was imported into China as the Toyota Jiamei until 2005. [1]. It is also assembled from CKD-kits at Toyota's local partners in Malaysia and Taiwan.

As of 2005, the Camry is produced at Toyota plants in Japan, Australia; and Georgetown, Kentucky, USA, with CKD assembly operations in Vietnam, Philippines; and Thailand. The continued success of the Nissan Cefiro (and afterwards the Nissan Teana) meant that some customers are willing to pay extra taxes for a larger family car, and so this marketing strategy continued. The introduction of the A32-series Nissan Cefiro in 1994 may have prompted Toyota to change its strategy, despite the poor sales of the Scepter, basically a RoW third-generation Camry, which was sold between 1992-1994 (only 4,885 units sold in total). Both arguably aimed at the higher-end of the market than the Camry.

This put the Camry at a disadvantage as its size is placed at the lower-end of a higher tax category, which included cars such as the Crown and Aristo. The Vista is sized according to domestic vehicle tax laws, and the Camry (now called the Camry Gracia) are not adapted, sold identical to foreign market cars. Both models still share a large number of components, but the fourth-generation split was the more significant than the previous re-engineered splits. For the fourth-generation Camry, Toyota decided to split the Vista from the Camry.

These modified-for-Japan models were called the Vista, which became separate from the Camry in 2000. These versions of the Camry are bounded by a certain set of dimensions which would otherwise be unsuitable for export markets. Prior to the fourth-generation, Toyota adapted the Camry's design to suit Japanese tax laws and domestic market requirements. After the introduction of the fourth-generation Camry, sales in Japan dipped.

Because there is no station wagon version for the fifth generation Camry, the Camry sedan and the Avensis station wagon are sold side by side in markets like New Zealand. Following long-term poor sales, the Camry was withdrawn altogether from Europe in 2004, leaving the smaller, UK-built Avensis as the top-of-the-line sedan. Toyota positioned the Camry as a BMW 5-Series rival, yet it lacked the cachet to compete. The Camry was less popular in Europe, where the design was considered bland and incompatible with European driving habits.

The Camry is rarely optioned above the Avalon or ES 330, but a fully equipped Corolla slightly overlaps with the base-model Camry. It is considered a sub-luxury midsize sedan. The Camry is positioned directly below the Toyota Avalon and the Lexus ES 330 In its two largest markets, Australia and North America. It is Toyota's bread-and-butter vehicle, so its marketing and sales strategy is cautious, aimed squarely at the center of buyer demographics; as most Camry buyers are not car enthusiasts.

The Camry is consistently ranked as one of the most popular vehicles in the North American market. . The name comes from the English phonetic of the Japanese word "kan-muri," which means "crown.". Since 2000, Daihatsu has sold a Camry twin named the Altis.

The Holden equivalents were not successful even though they came from the same factory as the Camry. The second and third-generation Camrys were rebadged to be sold as the Holden Apollo in Australia. Some models have been offered with all wheel drive. This means the engine is transversely mounted to drive the front wheels.

Other than the original Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry has always been an FF layout vehicle. The Camry underwent major redesigns and upgrades in model years 1987, 1992 (1990 in Japan), 1997, 2002 and an anticipated redesign is planned to be launched in 2006 for model year 2007 in the United States. An offshoot of the Camry, the Camry Solara, has been available as a coupe and a convertible. It is primarily configured as a four-door sedan but at different times has also been available as a five-door hatchback, two-door coupe, and a station wagon.

The first model line independently named the Toyota Camry was launched in 1982 for the 1983 model year. The Camry name was first launched in 1980 with the Toyota Celica Camry. An upbranded luxury version of the Camry is sold under the Lexus ES nameplate in the United States and is called the Windom in Japan. In Japan and Asia, its main rivals are the Nissan Teana and the Honda Accord.

It has not sold as well in Europe and Japan - many critize its design as ill-suited for European and Japanese tastes. The Camry sells very well in USA, Australia and a number of Asian markets. The United States is the Camry's biggest market, where it competes with the Honda Accord, the Nissan Altima, and the Ford Fusion. The Toyota Camry is a popular midsize car manufactured by Toyota in Georgetown, Kentucky, USA; Australia; and Japan.

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