Toyota Camry

Late-model Toyota Camry (left) and Ford Excursion (right)

The Toyota Camry is a popular midsize car manufactured by Toyota in Georgetown, Kentucky, USA; Australia; and Japan.

The United States is the Camry's biggest market, where it competes with the Honda Accord, the Nissan Altima, and the Ford Fusion. The Camry sells very well in USA, Australia and a number of Asian markets. It has not sold as well in Europe and Japan - many critize its design as ill-suited for European and Japanese tastes. In Japan and Asia, its main rivals are the Nissan Teana and the Honda Accord.

An upbranded luxury version of the Camry is sold under the Lexus ES nameplate in the United States and is called the Windom in Japan.

The Camry name was first launched in 1980 with the Toyota Celica Camry. The first model line independently named the Toyota Camry was launched in 1982 for the 1983 model year. It is primarily configured as a four-door sedan but at different times has also been available as a five-door hatchback, two-door coupe, and a station wagon. An offshoot of the Camry, the Camry Solara, has been available as a coupe and a convertible.

The Camry underwent major redesigns and upgrades in model years 1987, 1992 (1990 in Japan), 1997, 2002 and an anticipated redesign is planned to be launched in 2006 for model year 2007 in the United States.

Other than the original Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry has always been an FF layout vehicle. This means the engine is transversely mounted to drive the front wheels. Some models have been offered with all wheel drive.

The second and third-generation Camrys were rebadged to be sold as the Holden Apollo in Australia. The Holden equivalents were not successful even though they came from the same factory as the Camry. Since 2000, Daihatsu has sold a Camry twin named the Altis.

The name comes from the English phonetic of the Japanese word "kan-muri," which means "crown."

Market

The Camry is consistently ranked as one of the most popular vehicles in the North American market. It is Toyota's bread-and-butter vehicle, so its marketing and sales strategy is cautious, aimed squarely at the center of buyer demographics; as most Camry buyers are not car enthusiasts.

The Camry is positioned directly below the Toyota Avalon and the Lexus ES 330 In its two largest markets, Australia and North America. It is considered a sub-luxury midsize sedan. The Camry is rarely optioned above the Avalon or ES 330, but a fully equipped Corolla slightly overlaps with the base-model Camry.

The Camry was less popular in Europe, where the design was considered bland and incompatible with European driving habits. Toyota positioned the Camry as a BMW 5-Series rival, yet it lacked the cachet to compete. Following long-term poor sales, the Camry was withdrawn altogether from Europe in 2004, leaving the smaller, UK-built Avensis as the top-of-the-line sedan. Because there is no station wagon version for the fifth generation Camry, the Camry sedan and the Avensis station wagon are sold side by side in markets like New Zealand.

After the introduction of the fourth-generation Camry, sales in Japan dipped. Prior to the fourth-generation, Toyota adapted the Camry's design to suit Japanese tax laws and domestic market requirements. These versions of the Camry are bounded by a certain set of dimensions which would otherwise be unsuitable for export markets. These modified-for-Japan models were called the Vista, which became separate from the Camry in 2000.

For the fourth-generation Camry, Toyota decided to split the Vista from the Camry. Both models still share a large number of components, but the fourth-generation split was the more significant than the previous re-engineered splits. The Vista is sized according to domestic vehicle tax laws, and the Camry (now called the Camry Gracia) are not adapted, sold identical to foreign market cars. This put the Camry at a disadvantage as its size is placed at the lower-end of a higher tax category, which included cars such as the Crown and Aristo. Both arguably aimed at the higher-end of the market than the Camry. The introduction of the A32-series Nissan Cefiro in 1994 may have prompted Toyota to change its strategy, despite the poor sales of the Scepter, basically a RoW third-generation Camry, which was sold between 1992-1994 (only 4,885 units sold in total). The continued success of the Nissan Cefiro (and afterwards the Nissan Teana) meant that some customers are willing to pay extra taxes for a larger family car, and so this marketing strategy continued.

As of 2005, the Camry is produced at Toyota plants in Japan, Australia; and Georgetown, Kentucky, USA, with CKD assembly operations in Vietnam, Philippines; and Thailand. It is also assembled from CKD-kits at Toyota's local partners in Malaysia and Taiwan. [1]

The Camry was imported into China as the Toyota Jiamei until 2005. Thereafter, the car is assembled locally and known as the Toyota Kaimeirui, which sounds closer to "Camry".

Current competition

The Camry's perennial competitor, the Honda Accord, is often described as sportier and has traditionally been equipped with a few more performance-oriented options. North American sales figures between the Accord and the Camry are usually comparable, indicating that consumers in the Camry's target demographic are more interested in the smoother ride and quieter performance of the Camry. In US, most recent comparisons have placed the car against the Nissan Altima, Mitsubishi Galant, Mazda6, and the Chevrolet Malibu; and although the Camry isn't always the clear winner, it nevertheless remains a solid competitor. [2] [3]

In most parts of Asia, the Camry remains competitive against the Honda Accord, with the exception of China and Japan. In China, both the Nissan Teana and Honda Accord (some of Camry's main competitors) are produced locally, and hence have a price advantage against the imported Camry. In Japan, its only competitor is the Nissan Cefiro (and afterwards, the Nissan Teana), but Nissan consistently outsells Toyota in this market segment.

In Australasia, the Camry sells well in comparison to the top-selling family cars, the Ford Falcon and General Motors' Holden Commodore.

In Europe, the Camry's success was always limited due to excessive size (which put into competition with the Opel/Vauxhall Omega and Ford Scorpio) and low-build quality when compared to the European-developed Carina E and Avensis. The Camry will no longer be available in Europe from 2006.

Model history

There is some dispute over the generational naming of the Toyota Camry. Most sources note the first generation Camry to have been produced as a 1983 model. A fewer number of sources state the first generation to have started in 1980 as the Toyota Celica Camry. This article follows the former convention.

It should also be noted that the Japanese-language version of this article follows the convention that includes the 1980 to 1982 model.

Toyota Celica Camry (1980–2)

Originally launched as the Toyota Celica Camry in January 1980 for the Japanese home market, this model was essentially a second-generation Toyota Carina with updated body-styling and a front-end that resembled a 1978 Toyota Celica XX (known as the Celica Supra in export markets).

The car used the rear wheel drive Celica platform (which was shared by both the Corona and Carina) and was powered by either a 1.6 L 12T-U engine producing 88 hp JIS (65 kW) and 128 N·m (94 ft·lbf) or a 1.8 L 13T-U engine producing 95 hp JIS (70 kW) and 147 N·m (108 ft·lbf). Towards the end of its model lifecycle, Toyota introduced a sports version of the Celica Camry equipped with the 16-valve DOHC 2.0 L engine from the Celica. This is the most sought after version of the Celica Camry in the secondhand market today.

Although it has an identical 2500 mm (98.4 in) wheelbase to the Celica, the Corona, and the Carina, it is longer than the Carina but shorter than both the Corona and Celica. During its model cycle, over 100,000 units were sold in Japan. The Celica Camry was also exported to a number of markets using the Carina's name, and it replaced the second-generation Carina in those markets.

First generation (1983–6)

In 1982 for the 1983 model year, the Camry became an independent model line, and was sold as a midsize four-door sedan and five-door hatchback. There were limited exports, predominantly to right-hand-drive markets. At this point, Camry was positioned above the Carina and Corona, two other mid-sized models made by Toyota. A twin was announced at this point: the Toyota Vista.

In North America, the Camry was available with a 92 hp SAE (68 kW) 2.0 L I4 engine or a 74 hp 2.0 L I4 turbodiesel engine, and could be purchased with either a five-speed manual transmission or a four-speed automatic. In contrast to the rear wheel drive Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry was a front wheel drive vehicle built on an all-new platform.

The design of the first-generation Camry fit well within the box-shaped trends of the early 1980s. Additionally, the vehicle size and available options were characteristic of Japanese-designed cars of the time; the Camry was a small, inexpensive sedan with solid but spartan construction and competed indirectly against larger American counterparts.

Second generation (1987–1991)

The second-generation model debuted in 1986 for the 1987 model year, and included a station wagon but dropped the hatchback. At this point, it was still regarded as a midsize car. In 1988, all wheel drive (called All-Trac) and a 160 hp JIS (118 kW) 2.5 L V6 engine were added as options for the first time. The V6 featured dual overhead camshafts, much like the upgraded 130 hp JIS (96 kW) 4 cylinder.

In 1991, anti-lock brakes became optional on the V6, LE, and wagon models.

The Kentucky plant also began producing Camrys in 1988, where three trim levels of the second-generation Camry were made: the unbadged base model, the DX, and the LE. The 2.5 L engine and Camry chassis was repackaged as the upscale Lexus ES 250. The ES 250 was essentially the Japanese-market Camry hardtop.

The second-generation Camry was extremely popular in the United States and it is not at all uncommon to see examples on American roads.

Third generation (1992–1996)

The third-generation Camry (first sold in 1990 in Japan; in the US as a 1992 model year car) is regarded as the first to break into the large-car market, or what Toyota billed at the time as "world-sized". This model marked the transition away from an inexpensive four door vehicle into a larger, more luxurious family sedan.

However, in Japan, the 1992 Camry was a different vehicle, which shared its doors and fenders with the exported model, but was limited to the 1700 mm (66.9 in) width required to fit into a lower tax bracket (the 'number 5' bracket). The wider export model was called the Toyota Scepter in its home market.

In the United States, an automatic transmission became the only option on all but the base and sport-model Camrys, whereas previously, a manual transmission was available on nearly all trim levels.

In that market, both the four and six-cylinder engines received upgrades in displacement and power: the four was upped to 2.2 L and 130 hp SAE (97 kW), and the V6 to 3.0 L and 185 hp SAE (137 kW). In addition to the DX (also sometimes called Deluxe) and LE trims, 1992 saw the addition of an XLE luxury trim and the SE sport trim—presumably introduced to compete with the Nissan Maxima SE.

Some other countries followed the 2.2 L and 3.0 L engine choice. Toyota in New Zealand sold these models as the 220 and V6 respectively, the smaller-engined car filling the gap of the departed Corona.

It shared the rounded-body-panel look of many imports of similar vintage: the Toyota Corolla, Honda Accord, and Nissan Altima, to name a few. This was a departure from the second-generation models which, although they had many more rounded panels than the first-generation Camrys, were nevertheless generally slab-sided in shape. The third-generation Camrys had rounded features and a very curved silhouette.

The Vista continued in parallel, available in addition as a hardtop sedan. This is a similar car to the then new Windom, which formed the basis of the Lexus ES 300 in foreign markets, equipped with a 3.0 L V6 engine.

In 1994, Toyota released a coupe version of the Camry with styling very similar to the four door version. This vehicle would be dropped for the next generation, although it would later be replaced by the Camry Solara (discussed below).

The same year, the Japanese home market saw a revised, 1700 mm wide Camry and Vista, with different sheetmetal, on the same platform. (The Japanese version of this page lists this as a 'fifth-generation' model.)

The third-generation Camry was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1992 and 1993.

Australia

In Australia, the Camry 4-cylinder models consisted of the Executive, CSI and Ultima sedan models (automatic only). The V6 range was known as the Camry Vienta and also consisted of the Executive, CSI and Ultima sedan model. The Camry Vientas were available in automatic transmission only. In 1993, a new sedan model called the Touring Series was launched which was fitted with sports suspension. In 1994, the range was revised slightly, where the Executive models was renamed CSI and the CSI was renamed the CSX model.

In July 1995, the facelifted model was launched in Australia and was now built at the new Altona plant. The 4 cylinder range consisted of the CSI and CSX models. The V6 models were simply known as the Vienta. The Ultima sedan was renamed the Grande model, and manual transmission was now available in the CSI and Touring Series sedan models. Towards the end of the model run, limited edition Getaway and Intrigue sedan models were launched.

Fourth generation (1997–2001)

The fourth-generation Camry was launched in Japan in December 1996. It continued as a sedan and station wagon (called the Camry Gracia in Japan), though the latter model was not sold in the United States. Many people thought the Toyota RAV4 SUV in North America led to the demise of the Camry wagon. This generation was launched in the US for the 1997 model year. In 2000, the sedan models received a mid-model upgrade to the front and rear fascias, but remained otherwise similar to the 1999 models. The Japanese Scepter ceased to exist as the Japanese Camrys adopted the 1795 mm wide platform.

The Vista began departing from the Camry, remaining 1700 mm wide and eventually forming the basis of the growing Corolla. In addition, the Vista's sheetmetal resembled a tall, formal sedan, while the Camry became sleeker. This "split" continues today.

The Lexus ES 300 was again built from the Windom, which uses the Camry chassis.

The Camry Solara was added in both coupé and convertible form in 1999. In contrast to the third-generation Camry two door, the Camry Solara was a significant styling departure from the four door. The Solara was available in SE and SLE trim, corresponding roughly to the sedan's LE and XLE trims.

In the United States, the four door Camry SE was dropped and the base model was renamed the CE for the 1998 model year. Both the LE and the XLE trims were carried over from the previous generation. The XLE was available with either the 2.2 L I4 or the 3.0 L V6 engine, although the Solara SLE was only available with the V6.

Power was increased slightly to 133 hp SAE (99 kW) for the 5S-FE 2.2 L I4 and 194 hp SAE (145 kW) for the 1MZ-FE V6. Manual transmissions were only available on the CE trim level and any Solara model.

This was the first Camry to be sold as a Daihatsu; the Daihatsu Altis was identical to the export version of the Camry.

The Camry V6 was again on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1997.

Australia

In Australia, unlike the previous generation, the nameplate Camry was also applied to the V6 variants, while the Vienta V6 range was revised as the "upmarket" models. The line-up of 4 cylinder Camry models consisted of the CSI, Conquest and CSX models (automatic transmission only), all three variants were available in sedan or wagon. The Camry V6 models consisted of CSI and Conquest, with the wagon models only available in automatic transmission. The Camry V6 Touring Series sedan model was launched in March 1999. The Vienta line up consisted of VXI and Grande sedan models and the VXI wagon. The VXI model was basically a V6-powered version of the 4-cylinder Camry CSX model.

In September 2000, the revised Camry range was launched. The Vienta V6 range was discontinued due to the launch of the Avalon sedan in July 2000 and two new models were added to the Camry range: the top-of-the-range Azura V6 sedan and the Touring Series V6 sportswagon model, both of which were available in automatic transmission only. Towards the end of the model run, the limited edition Intrigue and Advantage sedan models were launched.

Fifth generation (2002–2006)

In September 2001, the latest Toyota Camry was released as a larger sedan (taking styling cues from the successful Vitz, Corolla and Solara coupé) only, but without a station wagon for the first time (a similarly styled wagon was sold on the Japanese home market however, as the Toyota Mark II Blit). This model was launched in most export markets, including the United States, as a 2002 model year car.

The styling of the fifth-generation Camry is somewhat similar to the fourth-generation model in that both have gently curved surfaces accented by sharp creases. However, the front end of the car is relatively short, leaving a great deal of the length to the cabin, a technique adopted by compact cars. In contrast to the fairly squat fourth-generation Camry, the fifth generation is a decidedly tall vehicle. It is 2.5 in (64 mm) taller and has a 2 in (51 mm) longer wheelbase than the previous model.

In the United States for 2002, the basic CE model was dropped but the SE sport model was reintroduced. Both the LE and SE models are available with a manual transmission when equipped with the four-cylinder engine now up to 2.4 L and 163 hp (122 kW). Any model may be equipped with a V6 or an automatic transmission, although the manual transmission is not available on V6 models.

The 2002 Camry Solara remained on the fourth generation chassis, and received only minor styling upgrades to the front and rear ends. However the Solara did receive the same 2.4 L I4 engine now available on the Camry.

In late 2004, the 2005 Camry was introduced with new upgrades such as a chrome grille (though the SE had a sportier grille), a new taillight design, and new wheels. A new trim level was added (the standard model) priced lower than the Camry LE. Interior upgrades to the Camry included a rear center head restraint, a storage bin in the door, optitron gauges, and standard leather seating on XLE V6 models.

The second generation Camry Solara was introduced in August 2004. Again, styling from the Camry was radically different, taking design cues from the Lexus SC 430. The 2.4 L engine was still offered, however, a new 3.3 L V6 was optional. The V6 was coupled with a 5-speed automatic transmission. In addition to SE and SLE trims, a new SE Sport was offered. Unlike the first generation Solara, the SLE trim could be had with the four-cylinder engine.

Daihatsu continued with its twin Altis model for the Japanese market.

Australia & New Zealand

In Australia and New Zealand, the 2002-2006 Camry is available in four different trims: the Altise, Ateva, Sportivo and Azura, . The Altise, Ateva, and Sportivo are available with either the 2.4 L VVTi four cylinder or the 3.0 L V6 engine, and the Azura was only available in V6. Only the Altise and Sportivo models may be fitted with a manual transmission— all other models are equipped with an automatic transmission. In 2003, the V6 Altise Sport model was introduced, which is basically the Altise model with the sports suspension that was fitted on the Sportivo and Azura models and was available in manual and automatic trasmission. The Australian and New Zealand Camry Sportivo corresponds roughly to the American Camry SE.

The Australian and New Zealand models were significantly different from the other Camry models around the world and had around 77% locally developed components to suit Australian/NZ roads and driving conditions. The brakes, body panels (which would only fit on the Australian and New Zealand made body and chassis), headlights, seats and suspension were all locally developed after 10000kms of extensive testing in New Zealand under the supervision of Toyota engineers. Power output on the Altise Sport, V6 Sportivo and Azura models was 145 kW (194 hp) compared with the 141 kW (189 hp) of the standard V6 models due to the variable back pressure exhaust system that boosts low-down torque and top-end power.

When the revised range was launched in Australia and New Zealand in September 2004, the Grande model was reintroduced which together with the Azura model, were the top-of-the-range models. The Grande however was fitted with the standard suspension rather than the sports suspension as fitted on the Azura model. The Grande and Azura models have Satellite Navigation (GPS) as standard equipment, and were the first Toyota models in Australia to be fitted with the new Toyota Link system. The Toyota Link system is a state-of-the-art satellite and mobile SMS GSM communications system that gives the driver access to roadside assistance and emergency help via the electrochromatic rear view mirror. In August 2005 the Altise Sport model was reintroduced (V6 auto only) together with Altise Limited (four-cylinder and V6) that replaced the Altise and has additional features.

Sixth generation (2007)

The next-generation Camry will be completely redesigned and made in Georgetown, Kentucky. It will be a 2007 model introduced at the 2006 North American International Auto Show [4] along with its identical hybrid twin, the Camry HV.

The new Camry has a 2.4 L I4 making 158 hp (118 kW) with 4 trim levels: CE, LE, SE, and XLE. It will also have an optional 3.5 L V6 making 268 hp (200 kW) with three trims: LE, SE, and XLE. The V6 will be available with a 6-speed sequential transmission. A spilt-folding rear seat is not available on the SE trim. A navigation system with cell-phone link and heated leather seats are available for the SE and the V6-powered XLE. A keyless entry/remote starter is optional on the V6-powered XLE. The CE and LE trims have similar hubcap designs like the gen 5 02-04 models.

Camry Hybrid

For 2006, Toyota will create a hybrid gas/electric Camry when it is redesigned as the 2007 Toyota Camry called the Camry Hybrid. It will use a Hybrid Synergy Drive setup similar to that of the Toyota Prius, Toyota Highlander Hybrid and Lexus RX 400h, which mates Toyota's 3MZ V6 with an electric motor. However, the Camry Hybrid will utilize a 4-cylinder gasoline engine as opposed to a V6, a setup that will produce 192 hp (143 kW).

Standard features include remote entry and start, side torso airbags, knee airbags and side-curtain airbags.The Camry Hybrid will be built at the company's Georgetown, Kentucky plant, with about 45,000 projected per year.

For more information see: Toyota Camry Hybrid.

Crash test results

Both the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) [5] and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) [6] publish crash information for the third-, fourth-, and fifth-generation Camry. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) scores crash ratings as one to five stars for front and side crashes. Similarly, the IIHS scores crash performance with a four-level grade (Good, Acceptable, Marginal, and Poor) in multiple categories and overall.

Third generation

The third-generation Camry was tested only frontal (NHTSA) and frontal offset (IIHS) crashes. NHTSA gave the vehicle four stars for the driver and between three and four stars for the passenger, depending on the year. [7] The IIHS scored it acceptable overall, with three out of six categories listed as good and the other three listed as acceptable. [8] In comparison, the similar-vintage Honda Accord fared similarly (although somewhat worse) [9], the Ford Taurus did notably better [10], and the Nissan Maxima performed much worse. [11]

Fourth generation

The fourth-generation Camry was tested for frontal and side impacts (NHTSA) and frontal offset (IIHS) crashes, but scored significantly better than the third generation in all frontal tests. [12] [13] Additionally, the IIHS website lists the 1997-2001 Camry as being a BEST PICK in frontal crash tests.

The NHTSA gave the Camry four stars in side impact tests when fitted with side airbags and three stars without. [14]

Fifth generation

The fifth-generation Camry was tested for front, side, and rollover crashes (NHTSA) and rear, side (with and without side airbags), and frontal offset crashes (IIHS). The fifth-generation frontal performance was similar to that for the fourth-generation. [15] [16] It was also again listed as a BEST PICK in frontal crashes. Similarly, IIHS side impacts with airbags was rated as good overall with good in most categories. [17]

However, side crash performance without airbags was only two stars in 2002 (NHTSA) [18] and poor, the lowest score on the IIHS scale. [19] Three out of the nine categories were scored as poor, including Head protection, driver, Injury:Head/neck, and Injury:Torso, rear passenger. The IIHS website notes that although Toyota changed the design of 2004 Camrys to improve side performance, the changes would not significantly impact the crash performance of vehicles without side airbags.

NHTSA rollover performance is listed as five stars for 2001 models and four stars thereafter. IIHS rear-crash performance was rated as marginal for Camrys with cloth seats and poor for Camrys with leather seats. [20]

Theft statistics

The Camry is reportedly the most stolen car in the United States. [21] This can be partly attributed to the fact that the Camry has been the top selling car in the U.S. for several years. In 2001, for example, the second-generation Camry was the most-stolen vehicle, whereas the fourth-generation Camry was the 79th most stolen.

The Camry received an "average" theft loss index in yearly reports generated by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) for every year between 1992 and 2004 except 1997, when it received a "worse than average." [22] Each of these reports only covers the previous three model years (e.g., the 1992 report covers 1989-1991 Camrys).

Racing and aftermarket

Due to the Camry's size and market orientation, it is not a suitable candidate for professional motorsports activities. So far, the one and only time a Camry that has been used by a works Toyota team as a race car is during the 1990's, where Toyota South Africa commissioned a third-generation Camry, built according to FIA's Class-2 Super Touring regulations, to be raced in the South African Touring Car Championship. It only achieved moderate success as the competition comprised of other more suitable machinery, for example BMW 320i's prepared by Team Schnitzer. In spite of past failures, there nonetheless exists evidence that late-model Camrys have been raced in other minor championships. [23] The Camry's popularity and Toyota's reputation for reliability means that older-model Camrys occasionally surface in amateur motorsports. As the matter of fact, the South African Super Touring Camry is still being raced by a private individual in Australia in 2005, despite the car being more than 10 years old.

On January 23, 2006, Toyota announced that their 2007 version of the Camry will be entered for NASCAR's elite Busch and Nextel Cup series, starting in the 2007 season, marking the first appearance by a vehicle made by an automobile manufacturer not based in the United States to compete in NASCAR's top two series since the 1950s. Since 2004, Tundra pickups have competed in the Craftsman Truck Series.

Toyota's in-house motor sport department, Toyota Racing Development, as well as Toyota Team Europe and TOM'S, does offer performance parts for the fourth- and fifth-generation Camry. Aftermarket performance parts for the Camry are significantly more limited than for sportier vehicles; however, even a bona-fide supercharger has been developed specifically for the Camry. [24] [25]


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[24] [25]. Virginia Tech also participates in the management of Net.Work.Virginia and the Mid Atlantic Crossroads. Aftermarket performance parts for the Camry are significantly more limited than for sportier vehicles; however, even a bona-fide supercharger has been developed specifically for the Camry. It has participated in Suranet, Internet2, Abilene, the Lambda Rail and other such networks. Toyota's in-house motor sport department, Toyota Racing Development, as well as Toyota Team Europe and TOM'S, does offer performance parts for the fourth- and fifth-generation Camry. Internet networking research is an important part of Virginia Tech's history. Since 2004, Tundra pickups have competed in the Craftsman Truck Series. The supercomputer, called System X, was disassembled shortly after it was ranked in order for it to be replaced with Apple's rack-based servers which consume both less space and power.

On January 23, 2006, Toyota announced that their 2007 version of the Camry will be entered for NASCAR's elite Busch and Nextel Cup series, starting in the 2007 season, marking the first appearance by a vehicle made by an automobile manufacturer not based in the United States to compete in NASCAR's top two series since the 1950s. The system was made from 1100 dual processor Power Macintosh G5s and cost $5.2 million. As the matter of fact, the South African Super Touring Camry is still being raced by a private individual in Australia in 2005, despite the car being more than 10 years old. In 2003, Virginia Tech created a supercomputer which ranked as the 3rd fastest in the world. [23] The Camry's popularity and Toyota's reputation for reliability means that older-model Camrys occasionally surface in amateur motorsports. degrees in biomedical engineering. In spite of past failures, there nonetheless exists evidence that late-model Camrys have been raced in other minor championships. and Ph.D.

It only achieved moderate success as the competition comprised of other more suitable machinery, for example BMW 320i's prepared by Team Schnitzer. SBES offers opportunities to undergraduates and grants M.S. So far, the one and only time a Camry that has been used by a works Toyota team as a race car is during the 1990's, where Toyota South Africa commissioned a third-generation Camry, built according to FIA's Class-2 Super Touring regulations, to be raced in the South African Touring Car Championship. In 2002, a biomedical engineering program, called the School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (SBES), was created as a cooperative venture between Virginia Tech and Wake Forest University. Due to the Camry's size and market orientation, it is not a suitable candidate for professional motorsports activities. VCOM is incorporated as a private, non-profit institution with no state interest, but is very closely affiliated with Virginia Tech on an operational level. The Camry received an "average" theft loss index in yearly reports generated by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) for every year between 1992 and 2004 except 1997, when it received a "worse than average." [22] Each of these reports only covers the previous three model years (e.g., the 1992 report covers 1989-1991 Camrys). In 2003, a school of osteopathic medicine called the Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine opened in the Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, an office park adjacent to and owned and operated by the university as a local business incubator.

In 2001, for example, the second-generation Camry was the most-stolen vehicle, whereas the fourth-generation Camry was the 79th most stolen. VMRCVM and VT jointly operate an equine center in Leesburg, Virginia, and VMRCVM has a small operation on the University of Maryland's College Park, Maryland campus. for several years. The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, founded in 1978, is a separate institution on the same campus, paid for by the two US states of Virginia and Maryland and jointly operated by VT and the University of Maryland. [21] This can be partly attributed to the fact that the Camry has been the top selling car in the U.S. The Hokies developed a controversial reputation for late-season slides in the early 2000s, rising into the top 5 in October or November four times before losing and falling out of the national championship race. The Camry is reportedly the most stolen car in the United States. Since the 1995 season, the Hokies have finished with a top-10 ranking four times, won four conference championships (three Big East and one ACC), and played once for the national championship, losing to Florida State University 46-29 in the 2000 Sugar Bowl.

[20]. Head coach Frank Beamer has become one of the winningest currently active head coaches in Division I-A football (178 following the 2005 season). IIHS rear-crash performance was rated as marginal for Camrys with cloth seats and poor for Camrys with leather seats. The Hokies currently have the fifth longest bowl streak in the country, having participated in bowl games each of the last 13 seasons. NHTSA rollover performance is listed as five stars for 2001 models and four stars thereafter. Virginia Tech has become a major power in college football in recent years. The IIHS website notes that although Toyota changed the design of 2004 Camrys to improve side performance, the changes would not significantly impact the crash performance of vehicles without side airbags. This rivalry continued until 1970 when VPI's football program became too large and too competitive for VMI.

[19] Three out of the nine categories were scored as poor, including Head protection, driver, Injury:Head/neck, and Injury:Torso, rear passenger. This rivalry developed into the original "Military Classic of the South," which was an annual football game between VMI and VPI. However, side crash performance without airbags was only two stars in 2002 (NHTSA) [18] and poor, the lowest score on the IIHS scale. During the early years of VTCC, a rivalry developed between the Virginia Military Institute and Virginia Tech. [17]. Virginia Tech's fight song, which was created in 1919, is Tech Triumph. It remains in use today, although the Old Hokie spirit yell is more widely known. Similarly, IIHS side impacts with airbags was rated as good overall with good in most categories. The school's major athletic rivalries include the University of Virginia, West Virginia University, and the University of Miami.

[15] [16] It was also again listed as a BEST PICK in frontal crashes. The "athletic VT" symbol is trademarked by the university, and appears frequently on licensed merchandise. The fifth-generation frontal performance was similar to that for the fourth-generation. The stylized VT (the abbreviation for Virginia Tech) is used primarily by the athletic department as a symbol for Virginia Tech athletic teams. The fifth-generation Camry was tested for front, side, and rollover crashes (NHTSA) and rear, side (with and without side airbags), and frontal offset crashes (IIHS). Originally the teams were known as the "Fighting Gobblers" and the turkey motif was retained despite the name change. [14]. The mascot is the Hokie Bird, a turkey-like creature.

The NHTSA gave the Camry four stars in side impact tests when fitted with side airbags and three stars without. The word "Hokies" originated in the 1890s; see Hokies for more information. [12] [13] Additionally, the IIHS website lists the 1997-2001 Camry as being a BEST PICK in frontal crash tests. The word "Hokies," which originated from the Old Hokie spirit yell, is often used interchangeably with "Fighting Gobblers" to refer to the sports team, fans, students, or alumni, although the former is the official usage. The fourth-generation Camry was tested for frontal and side impacts (NHTSA) and frontal offset (IIHS) crashes, but scored significantly better than the third generation in all frontal tests. Its teams participate in the NCAA's Division I-A in the Atlantic Coast Conference, which the school joined in 2004 after leaving the Big East. [11]. Virginia Tech's sports teams are called the Hokies; the mascot is the Hokie Bird.

[8] In comparison, the similar-vintage Honda Accord fared similarly (although somewhat worse) [9], the Ford Taurus did notably better [10], and the Nissan Maxima performed much worse. The limestone is mined from various quarries in Southwestern Virginia, Tennessee, and Alabama, one of which has been operated by the university since the 1950s. [7] The IIHS scored it acceptable overall, with three out of six categories listed as good and the other three listed as acceptable. Each block of Hokie Stone is some combination of gray, brown, black, pink, orange, and maroon. NHTSA gave the vehicle four stars for the driver and between three and four stars for the passenger, depending on the year. Hokie Stone is a medley of different colored limestone, often including dolomite. The third-generation Camry was tested only frontal (NHTSA) and frontal offset (IIHS) crashes. On the Blacksburg campus, the majority of the buildings incorporate Hokie Stone as a building material.

Similarly, the IIHS scores crash performance with a four-level grade (Good, Acceptable, Marginal, and Poor) in multiple categories and overall. The university also has several commonwealth branch campus centers: Hampton Roads (Virginia Beach), National Capital Region (Falls Church- Alexandria, Virginia), Richmond, Roanoke, and the Southwest Virginia Higher Education Center in Abingdon. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) scores crash ratings as one to five stars for front and side crashes. The Virginia Tech campus is located within Blacksburg; the central campus is roughly bordered by Prices Fork Road to the northwest, Plantation Drive to the west, Main Street to the east, and 460-bypass to the south, though it has several thousand acres beyond the central campus. Both the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) [5] and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) [6] publish crash information for the third-, fourth-, and fifth-generation Camry. The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences offers the only two-year associate's degree program on campus, in agricultural technology. For more information see: Toyota Camry Hybrid. Bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs are offered through the College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, the College of Architecture & Urban Studies, the College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences, the Pamplin College of Business, the College of Engineering, the College of Natural Resources, the College of Science, and the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine.

Standard features include remote entry and start, side torso airbags, knee airbags and side-curtain airbags.The Camry Hybrid will be built at the company's Georgetown, Kentucky plant, with about 45,000 projected per year. From 1970 for the next five years, the student population grew from about 13,500 to 22,000. However, the Camry Hybrid will utilize a 4-cylinder gasoline engine as opposed to a V6, a setup that will produce 192 hp (143 kW). Similarly, the abbreviation VT is far more common today than VPI or VPI&SU, and appears everywhere from athletic uniforms (most notably on football helmets) to the university's Internet domain vt.edu. It will use a Hybrid Synergy Drive setup similar to that of the Toyota Prius, Toyota Highlander Hybrid and Lexus RX 400h, which mates Toyota's 3MZ V6 with an electric motor. In the early 1990s, the school quietly authorized the official use of Virginia Tech as equivalent to the full VPI&SU name; most school documents today use the shorter name, though diplomas still spell out the formal name. For 2006, Toyota will create a hybrid gas/electric Camry when it is redesigned as the 2007 Toyota Camry called the Camry Hybrid. The new acronym of VPISU was derisively spoken as Vippy-sue by students and Hahn detractors.

The CE and LE trims have similar hubcap designs like the gen 5 02-04 models. As a compromise, the school added "and State University" to its name in 1970, yielding the current formal name of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. A keyless entry/remote starter is optional on the V6-powered XLE. As part of this move, Tech would have taken over control of the state's other land-grant institution, a historically black college in Ettrick, Virginia south of Richmond then called Virginia State College; this failed, and that school eventually became Virginia State University. A navigation system with cell-phone link and heated leather seats are available for the SE and the V6-powered XLE. One of Hahn's more controversial missions was only partially achieved; he had visions of renaming the school from VPI to Virginia State University, reflecting the status it had achieved as a full-fledged public research university. A spilt-folding rear seat is not available on the SE trim. The merger with Radford was dissolved in 1964, and in 1966, the school dropped the two-year Corps requirement for male students (in 1973, women were allowed to join the Corps; Tech was the first school in the nation to open its military wing to women).

The V6 will be available with a 6-speed sequential transmission. Marshall Hahn (1962-74) was responsible for many of the changes that shaped the modern institution of Virginia Tech. It will also have an optional 3.5 L V6 making 268 hp (200 kW) with three trims: LE, SE, and XLE. President T. The new Camry has a 2.4 L I4 making 158 hp (118 kW) with 4 trim levels: CE, LE, SE, and XLE. Later, throughout the early 20th century, another rivalry developed between Virginia Tech and the University of Virginia (founded 1819). It will be a 2007 model introduced at the 2006 North American International Auto Show [4] along with its identical hybrid twin, the Camry HV. This heartfelt and robust rivalry continued into the late 1970's, when Virginia Tech simply became too large and competitive in its athletic programs for VMI to continue competing (VMI enrolls 1,200 cadets and is the Nation's only all-cadet or classical state military college).

The next-generation Camry will be completely redesigned and made in Georgetown, Kentucky. In fact, "The Military Classic of the South" began as a rivalry between VMI and VPI. In August 2005 the Altise Sport model was reintroduced (V6 auto only) together with Altise Limited (four-cylinder and V6) that replaced the Altise and has additional features. Shortly after its founding as a Military college, a rivalry began with VPI and Virginia Military Institute (founded 1839). The Toyota Link system is a state-of-the-art satellite and mobile SMS GSM communications system that gives the driver access to roadside assistance and emergency help via the electrochromatic rear view mirror. Virginia Tech, for a time, was the largest university in the Commonwealth of Virginia until recently being surpassed by Virginia Commonwealth University and George Mason University. The Grande and Azura models have Satellite Navigation (GPS) as standard equipment, and were the first Toyota models in Australia to be fitted with the new Toyota Link system. VPI achieved full accreditation in 1923, and the requirement of participation in the Corps of Cadets was dropped from four years to two that same year (for men only; women, when they began enrolling in the 1920s, were never required to join).

The Grande however was fitted with the standard suspension rather than the sports suspension as fitted on the Azura model. The "Agricultural and Mechanical College" section of the name was popularly omitted almost immediately, though the name was not officially changed to Virginia Polytechnic Institute until 1944 as part of a short-lived merger with what is now Radford University. When the revised range was launched in Australia and New Zealand in September 2004, the Grande model was reintroduced which together with the Azura model, were the top-of-the-range models. McBryde, the school reorganized its academic programs into a traditional four-year college setup (including the renaming of the mechanics department to engineering); this led to an 1896 name change to Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Polytechnic Institute. Power output on the Altise Sport, V6 Sportivo and Azura models was 145 kW (194 hp) compared with the 141 kW (189 hp) of the standard V6 models due to the variable back pressure exhaust system that boosts low-down torque and top-end power. Under the 1891-1907 presidency of John M. The brakes, body panels (which would only fit on the Australian and New Zealand made body and chassis), headlights, seats and suspension were all locally developed after 10000kms of extensive testing in New Zealand under the supervision of Toyota engineers. The school considers this to be its founding date, although some would like to date it to 1851 because the school purchased land and facilities from a private Methodist school on the same site.

The Australian and New Zealand models were significantly different from the other Camry models around the world and had around 77% locally developed components to suit Australian/NZ roads and driving conditions. Founded under the provisions of the Morrill Act, the institution became a state-supported land grant military institute called the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College in 1872. The Australian and New Zealand Camry Sportivo corresponds roughly to the American Camry SE. . In 2003, the V6 Altise Sport model was introduced, which is basically the Altise model with the sports suspension that was fitted on the Sportivo and Azura models and was available in manual and automatic trasmission.
. Only the Altise and Sportivo models may be fitted with a manual transmission— all other models are equipped with an automatic transmission. Virginia Tech was ranked 78th in US News and World Report's Top 100 US Universities and tied for 34th among all US public institutions.[1] In 2004, The Times ranked Virginia Tech as one of the top 200 universities in the world.[2].

The Altise, Ateva, and Sportivo are available with either the 2.4 L VVTi four cylinder or the 3.0 L V6 engine, and the Azura was only available in V6. Virginia Tech has the largest full-time student population in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is best known for its academic programs in agriculture, engineering, architecture, veterinary medicine, and recently for the success of its football program. In Australia and New Zealand, the 2002-2006 Camry is available in four different trims: the Altise, Ateva, Sportivo and Azura, . Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, (also referred to as VPI or more commonly Virginia Tech) is a research university in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, in the New River Valley of western Virginia near the Appalachian Mountains. Daihatsu continued with its twin Altis model for the Japanese market. Camarda, Class of 1983 (Ph.D) -- Astronaut on board the space shuttle Discovery for the STS-114 mission. Unlike the first generation Solara, the SLE trim could be had with the four-cylinder engine. Charles J.

In addition to SE and SLE trims, a new SE Sport was offered. Mark Embree - Rhodes Scholar, currently Assistant Professor of Mathematics at Rice University. The V6 was coupled with a 5-speed automatic transmission. William Lewis - Rhodes Scholar, Founding Director of McKinsey Global Institute. The 2.4 L engine was still offered, however, a new 3.3 L V6 was optional. Richard Baker -- game designer. Again, styling from the Camry was radically different, taking design cues from the Lexus SC 430. Asselstine, Class of 1970, Commissioner of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission during Three Mile Island incident.

The second generation Camry Solara was introduced in August 2004. James K. Interior upgrades to the Camry included a rear center head restraint, a storage bin in the door, optitron gauges, and standard leather seating on XLE V6 models. Crouch, Class of 1968 (MS) and 1971 (PhD), NASA astronaut. A new trim level was added (the standard model) priced lower than the Camry LE. Roger K. In late 2004, the 2005 Camry was introduced with new upgrades such as a chrome grille (though the SE had a sportier grille), a new taillight design, and new wheels. Homer Hickam, Class of 1964, NASA employee and author of Rocket Boys.

However the Solara did receive the same 2.4 L I4 engine now available on the Camry. Richardson, Class of 1958 (BS) and 1960 (MS), physicist at Cornell University, shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1996 for the discovery of superfluidity in He-3. The 2002 Camry Solara remained on the fourth generation chassis, and received only minor styling upgrades to the front and rear ends. Robert C. Any model may be equipped with a V6 or an automatic transmission, although the manual transmission is not available on V6 models. Phillips, Class of 1947, Chairman and CEO of Raytheon Corp. Both the LE and SE models are available with a manual transmission when equipped with the four-cylinder engine now up to 2.4 L and 163 hp (122 kW). Thomas L.

In the United States for 2002, the basic CE model was dropped but the SE sport model was reintroduced. Chris Kraft, Class of 1944, NASA architect of Mission Control and the first flight director. It is 2.5 in (64 mm) taller and has a 2 in (51 mm) longer wheelbase than the previous model. Cutchins III, Class of 1944, Chairman and CEO of Sovran Bank. In contrast to the fairly squat fourth-generation Camry, the fifth generation is a decidedly tall vehicle. Clifford A. However, the front end of the car is relatively short, leaving a great deal of the length to the cabin, a technique adopted by compact cars. Garvin, Class of 1943 (BS) and 1947 (MS), Chairman and CEO of Exxon Corp.

The styling of the fifth-generation Camry is somewhat similar to the fourth-generation model in that both have gently curved surfaces accented by sharp creases. Clifton C. This model was launched in most export markets, including the United States, as a 2002 model year car. Pamplin, Sr, Class of 1933, CEO of Georgia Pacific Corp. In September 2001, the latest Toyota Camry was released as a larger sedan (taking styling cues from the successful Vitz, Corolla and Solara coupé) only, but without a station wagon for the first time (a similarly styled wagon was sold on the Japanese home market however, as the Toyota Mark II Blit). Robert B. Towards the end of the model run, the limited edition Intrigue and Advantage sedan models were launched. Donaldson Brown, Class of 1902, financial executive and corporate director with both DuPont and General Motors.

The Vienta V6 range was discontinued due to the launch of the Avalon sedan in July 2000 and two new models were added to the Camry range: the top-of-the-range Azura V6 sedan and the Touring Series V6 sportswagon model, both of which were available in automatic transmission only. Boykin, USA, Class of 1971, Assistant Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence. In September 2000, the revised Camry range was launched. Lieutenant General William G. The VXI model was basically a V6-powered version of the 4-cylinder Camry CSX model. Element, North American Aerospace Defense Command. The Vienta line up consisted of VXI and Grande sedan models and the VXI wagon. Inge, USA, Class of 1969, Deputy Commander, United States Northern Command, and Vice Commander, U.S.

The Camry V6 Touring Series sedan model was launched in March 1999. Lieutenant General Joseph R. The Camry V6 models consisted of CSI and Conquest, with the wagon models only available in automatic transmission. Smith, USAF, Class of 1969. The line-up of 4 cylinder Camry models consisted of the CSI, Conquest and CSX models (automatic transmission only), all three variants were available in sedan or wagon. Lieutenant General Lance L. In Australia, unlike the previous generation, the nameplate Camry was also applied to the V6 variants, while the Vienta V6 range was revised as the "upmarket" models. Richards, Four Star General, Class of 1956, Deputy Commander in Chief of US European Command.

The Camry V6 was again on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1997. General Thomas C. This was the first Camry to be sold as a Daihatsu; the Daihatsu Altis was identical to the export version of the Camry. Army Missile Command. Manual transmissions were only available on the CE trim level and any Solara model. Moore, USA, Class of 1952, Commanding General of the U.S. Power was increased slightly to 133 hp SAE (99 kW) for the 5S-FE 2.2 L I4 and 194 hp SAE (145 kW) for the 1MZ-FE V6. Lieutenant General Robert L.

The XLE was available with either the 2.2 L I4 or the 3.0 L V6 engine, although the Solara SLE was only available with the V6. Air Forces in Europe, Southern Area. Both the LE and the XLE trims were carried over from the previous generation. Druen,Jr., USAF, Class of 1951,commander of Allied Air Forces Southern Europe and deputy commander in chief, U.S. In the United States, the four door Camry SE was dropped and the base model was renamed the CE for the 1998 model year. Lieutenant General Walter D. The Solara was available in SE and SLE trim, corresponding roughly to the sedan's LE and XLE trims. Cooksey, USA, Class of 1943.

In contrast to the third-generation Camry two door, the Camry Solara was a significant styling departure from the four door. Lieutenant General Howard H. The Camry Solara was added in both coupé and convertible form in 1999. Wilson, USAF, Class of 1942. The Lexus ES 300 was again built from the Windom, which uses the Camry chassis. Lieutenant General Joseph G. This "split" continues today. Elder, Jr., USA, Class of 1941.

In addition, the Vista's sheetmetal resembled a tall, formal sedan, while the Camry became sleeker. Lieutenant General John H. The Vista began departing from the Camry, remaining 1700 mm wide and eventually forming the basis of the growing Corolla. Robinson, USMC, Class of 1940. The Japanese Scepter ceased to exist as the Japanese Camrys adopted the 1795 mm wide platform. Lieutenant General Wallace H. In 2000, the sedan models received a mid-model upgrade to the front and rear fascias, but remained otherwise similar to the 1999 models. Pick, USA, Class of 1914.

This generation was launched in the US for the 1997 model year. Lieutenant General Lewis A. Many people thought the Toyota RAV4 SUV in North America led to the demise of the Camry wagon. Maj Lloyd Williams, Class of 1907, Williams has been attributed with one of the more famous quotes of World War I: "Retreat? Hell! We just got here!". It continued as a sedan and station wagon (called the Camry Gracia in Japan), though the latter model was not sold in the United States. Richard Shea, class of 1948, Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions as an army first lieutenant at Pork Chop Hill during the Korean War. The fourth-generation Camry was launched in Japan in December 1996. Femoyer, class of 1944, Eagle Scout Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions as an Army Air Force B-17 navigator on a bombing mission over Germany.

Towards the end of the model run, limited edition Getaway and Intrigue sedan models were launched. Robert E. The Ultima sedan was renamed the Grande model, and manual transmission was now available in the CSI and Touring Series sedan models. Monteith, Class of 1944, Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions as an army lieutenant at D-Day during World War II. The V6 models were simply known as the Vienta. Jimmie W. The 4 cylinder range consisted of the CSI and CSX models. Thomas, class of 1944, member of Virginia Tech's Athletic Hall of Fame, Awarded the Medal of Honor for action on Bougainville Island in World War II.

In July 1995, the facelifted model was launched in Australia and was now built at the new Altona plant. Herbert J. In 1994, the range was revised slightly, where the Executive models was renamed CSI and the CSI was renamed the CSX model. Gregory, Class of 1923, Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions as an army sergeant during the Meuse Argonne Offensive in World War I. In 1993, a new sedan model called the Touring Series was launched which was fitted with sports suspension. Earle D. The Camry Vientas were available in automatic transmission only. Gaujot, Class of 1894, Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions on the Mexican Border in 1914, the only soldier ever awarded the Medal for actions of a peacekeeping nature, brother of Antoine Gaujot.

The V6 range was known as the Camry Vienta and also consisted of the Executive, CSI and Ultima sedan model. Julien E. In Australia, the Camry 4-cylinder models consisted of the Executive, CSI and Ultima sedan models (automatic only). Gaujot, Class of 1901, Awarded the Medal of Honor for actions as an army corporal at the Battle of San Mateo during the Philippine Insurrection. The third-generation Camry was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1992 and 1993. Antoine A.M. (The Japanese version of this page lists this as a 'fifth-generation' model.). Keion Carpenter--football, defensive back for the Atlanta Falcons.

The same year, the Japanese home market saw a revised, 1700 mm wide Camry and Vista, with different sheetmetal, on the same platform. Franklin Stubbs--baseball first baseman. This vehicle would be dropped for the next generation, although it would later be replaced by the Camry Solara (discussed below). Johnny Oates--former baseball catcher, manager for the Baltimore Orioles. In 1994, Toyota released a coupe version of the Camry with styling very similar to the four door version. Michael Vick--football, quarterback for the Atlanta Falcons. This is a similar car to the then new Windom, which formed the basis of the Lexus ES 300 in foreign markets, equipped with a 3.0 L V6 engine. Bruce Smith--former football defensive linesman for the Buffalo Bills and the Washington Redskins.

The Vista continued in parallel, available in addition as a hardtop sedan. Kevin Jones--football running back; drafted by the Detroit Lions of the NFL. The third-generation Camrys had rounded features and a very curved silhouette. Antonio Freeman--former football wide receiver. This was a departure from the second-generation models which, although they had many more rounded panels than the first-generation Camrys, were nevertheless generally slab-sided in shape. André Davis, Class of 2001--football wide receiver for the Cleveland Browns and the New England Patriots. It shared the rounded-body-panel look of many imports of similar vintage: the Toyota Corolla, Honda Accord, and Nissan Altima, to name a few. Dell Curry--basketball player, shooting guard.

Toyota in New Zealand sold these models as the 220 and V6 respectively, the smaller-engined car filling the gap of the departed Corona. Vernell "Bimbo" Coles--member of the United States 1988 Olympic Basketball team; played in the National Basketball Association, ending his career with the Miami Heat. Some other countries followed the 2.2 L and 3.0 L engine choice. Frank Beamer, Class of 1969--football Coach at Virginia Tech. In addition to the DX (also sometimes called Deluxe) and LE trims, 1992 saw the addition of an XLE luxury trim and the SE sport trim—presumably introduced to compete with the Nissan Maxima SE. In that market, both the four and six-cylinder engines received upgrades in displacement and power: the four was upped to 2.2 L and 130 hp SAE (97 kW), and the V6 to 3.0 L and 185 hp SAE (137 kW).

In the United States, an automatic transmission became the only option on all but the base and sport-model Camrys, whereas previously, a manual transmission was available on nearly all trim levels. The wider export model was called the Toyota Scepter in its home market. However, in Japan, the 1992 Camry was a different vehicle, which shared its doors and fenders with the exported model, but was limited to the 1700 mm (66.9 in) width required to fit into a lower tax bracket (the 'number 5' bracket). This model marked the transition away from an inexpensive four door vehicle into a larger, more luxurious family sedan.

The third-generation Camry (first sold in 1990 in Japan; in the US as a 1992 model year car) is regarded as the first to break into the large-car market, or what Toyota billed at the time as "world-sized". The second-generation Camry was extremely popular in the United States and it is not at all uncommon to see examples on American roads. The ES 250 was essentially the Japanese-market Camry hardtop. The 2.5 L engine and Camry chassis was repackaged as the upscale Lexus ES 250.

The Kentucky plant also began producing Camrys in 1988, where three trim levels of the second-generation Camry were made: the unbadged base model, the DX, and the LE. In 1991, anti-lock brakes became optional on the V6, LE, and wagon models. The V6 featured dual overhead camshafts, much like the upgraded 130 hp JIS (96 kW) 4 cylinder. In 1988, all wheel drive (called All-Trac) and a 160 hp JIS (118 kW) 2.5 L V6 engine were added as options for the first time.

At this point, it was still regarded as a midsize car. The second-generation model debuted in 1986 for the 1987 model year, and included a station wagon but dropped the hatchback. Additionally, the vehicle size and available options were characteristic of Japanese-designed cars of the time; the Camry was a small, inexpensive sedan with solid but spartan construction and competed indirectly against larger American counterparts. The design of the first-generation Camry fit well within the box-shaped trends of the early 1980s.

In contrast to the rear wheel drive Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry was a front wheel drive vehicle built on an all-new platform. In North America, the Camry was available with a 92 hp SAE (68 kW) 2.0 L I4 engine or a 74 hp 2.0 L I4 turbodiesel engine, and could be purchased with either a five-speed manual transmission or a four-speed automatic. A twin was announced at this point: the Toyota Vista. At this point, Camry was positioned above the Carina and Corona, two other mid-sized models made by Toyota.

There were limited exports, predominantly to right-hand-drive markets. In 1982 for the 1983 model year, the Camry became an independent model line, and was sold as a midsize four-door sedan and five-door hatchback. The Celica Camry was also exported to a number of markets using the Carina's name, and it replaced the second-generation Carina in those markets. During its model cycle, over 100,000 units were sold in Japan.

Although it has an identical 2500 mm (98.4 in) wheelbase to the Celica, the Corona, and the Carina, it is longer than the Carina but shorter than both the Corona and Celica. This is the most sought after version of the Celica Camry in the secondhand market today. Towards the end of its model lifecycle, Toyota introduced a sports version of the Celica Camry equipped with the 16-valve DOHC 2.0 L engine from the Celica. The car used the rear wheel drive Celica platform (which was shared by both the Corona and Carina) and was powered by either a 1.6 L 12T-U engine producing 88 hp JIS (65 kW) and 128 N·m (94 ft·lbf) or a 1.8 L 13T-U engine producing 95 hp JIS (70 kW) and 147 N·m (108 ft·lbf).

Originally launched as the Toyota Celica Camry in January 1980 for the Japanese home market, this model was essentially a second-generation Toyota Carina with updated body-styling and a front-end that resembled a 1978 Toyota Celica XX (known as the Celica Supra in export markets). It should also be noted that the Japanese-language version of this article follows the convention that includes the 1980 to 1982 model. This article follows the former convention. A fewer number of sources state the first generation to have started in 1980 as the Toyota Celica Camry.

Most sources note the first generation Camry to have been produced as a 1983 model. There is some dispute over the generational naming of the Toyota Camry. The Camry will no longer be available in Europe from 2006. In Europe, the Camry's success was always limited due to excessive size (which put into competition with the Opel/Vauxhall Omega and Ford Scorpio) and low-build quality when compared to the European-developed Carina E and Avensis.

In Australasia, the Camry sells well in comparison to the top-selling family cars, the Ford Falcon and General Motors' Holden Commodore. In Japan, its only competitor is the Nissan Cefiro (and afterwards, the Nissan Teana), but Nissan consistently outsells Toyota in this market segment. In China, both the Nissan Teana and Honda Accord (some of Camry's main competitors) are produced locally, and hence have a price advantage against the imported Camry. In most parts of Asia, the Camry remains competitive against the Honda Accord, with the exception of China and Japan.

[2] [3]. In US, most recent comparisons have placed the car against the Nissan Altima, Mitsubishi Galant, Mazda6, and the Chevrolet Malibu; and although the Camry isn't always the clear winner, it nevertheless remains a solid competitor. North American sales figures between the Accord and the Camry are usually comparable, indicating that consumers in the Camry's target demographic are more interested in the smoother ride and quieter performance of the Camry. The Camry's perennial competitor, the Honda Accord, is often described as sportier and has traditionally been equipped with a few more performance-oriented options.

Thereafter, the car is assembled locally and known as the Toyota Kaimeirui, which sounds closer to "Camry". The Camry was imported into China as the Toyota Jiamei until 2005. [1]. It is also assembled from CKD-kits at Toyota's local partners in Malaysia and Taiwan.

As of 2005, the Camry is produced at Toyota plants in Japan, Australia; and Georgetown, Kentucky, USA, with CKD assembly operations in Vietnam, Philippines; and Thailand. The continued success of the Nissan Cefiro (and afterwards the Nissan Teana) meant that some customers are willing to pay extra taxes for a larger family car, and so this marketing strategy continued. The introduction of the A32-series Nissan Cefiro in 1994 may have prompted Toyota to change its strategy, despite the poor sales of the Scepter, basically a RoW third-generation Camry, which was sold between 1992-1994 (only 4,885 units sold in total). Both arguably aimed at the higher-end of the market than the Camry.

This put the Camry at a disadvantage as its size is placed at the lower-end of a higher tax category, which included cars such as the Crown and Aristo. The Vista is sized according to domestic vehicle tax laws, and the Camry (now called the Camry Gracia) are not adapted, sold identical to foreign market cars. Both models still share a large number of components, but the fourth-generation split was the more significant than the previous re-engineered splits. For the fourth-generation Camry, Toyota decided to split the Vista from the Camry.

These modified-for-Japan models were called the Vista, which became separate from the Camry in 2000. These versions of the Camry are bounded by a certain set of dimensions which would otherwise be unsuitable for export markets. Prior to the fourth-generation, Toyota adapted the Camry's design to suit Japanese tax laws and domestic market requirements. After the introduction of the fourth-generation Camry, sales in Japan dipped.

Because there is no station wagon version for the fifth generation Camry, the Camry sedan and the Avensis station wagon are sold side by side in markets like New Zealand. Following long-term poor sales, the Camry was withdrawn altogether from Europe in 2004, leaving the smaller, UK-built Avensis as the top-of-the-line sedan. Toyota positioned the Camry as a BMW 5-Series rival, yet it lacked the cachet to compete. The Camry was less popular in Europe, where the design was considered bland and incompatible with European driving habits.

The Camry is rarely optioned above the Avalon or ES 330, but a fully equipped Corolla slightly overlaps with the base-model Camry. It is considered a sub-luxury midsize sedan. The Camry is positioned directly below the Toyota Avalon and the Lexus ES 330 In its two largest markets, Australia and North America. It is Toyota's bread-and-butter vehicle, so its marketing and sales strategy is cautious, aimed squarely at the center of buyer demographics; as most Camry buyers are not car enthusiasts.

The Camry is consistently ranked as one of the most popular vehicles in the North American market. . The name comes from the English phonetic of the Japanese word "kan-muri," which means "crown.". Since 2000, Daihatsu has sold a Camry twin named the Altis.

The Holden equivalents were not successful even though they came from the same factory as the Camry. The second and third-generation Camrys were rebadged to be sold as the Holden Apollo in Australia. Some models have been offered with all wheel drive. This means the engine is transversely mounted to drive the front wheels.

Other than the original Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry has always been an FF layout vehicle. The Camry underwent major redesigns and upgrades in model years 1987, 1992 (1990 in Japan), 1997, 2002 and an anticipated redesign is planned to be launched in 2006 for model year 2007 in the United States. An offshoot of the Camry, the Camry Solara, has been available as a coupe and a convertible. It is primarily configured as a four-door sedan but at different times has also been available as a five-door hatchback, two-door coupe, and a station wagon.

The first model line independently named the Toyota Camry was launched in 1982 for the 1983 model year. The Camry name was first launched in 1980 with the Toyota Celica Camry. An upbranded luxury version of the Camry is sold under the Lexus ES nameplate in the United States and is called the Windom in Japan. In Japan and Asia, its main rivals are the Nissan Teana and the Honda Accord.

It has not sold as well in Europe and Japan - many critize its design as ill-suited for European and Japanese tastes. The Camry sells very well in USA, Australia and a number of Asian markets. The United States is the Camry's biggest market, where it competes with the Honda Accord, the Nissan Altima, and the Ford Fusion. The Toyota Camry is a popular midsize car manufactured by Toyota in Georgetown, Kentucky, USA; Australia; and Japan.

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