My Neighbor Totoro

My Neighbor Totoro (となりのトトロ - Tonari no Totoro) is a 1988 Japanese animated movie directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli.

Troma Films produced a 1993 dub of the film co-produced by Jerry Beck. It was released on VHS and DVD by Fox Home Video. Troma and Fox's rights to this version expired in 2004.

An ani-manga version of My Neighbor Totoro was published in English by Viz Communications starting on November 10, 2004.

The film will be re-released by Disney on March 7, 2006. It features a new dub cast. The DVD release will be the first version of the film in the United States to include both Japanese and English language tracks, as Fox did not have the rights to the Japanese audio track for their version.

Characters

  • Satsuki Kusakabe - An 11-year-old girl.
  • Mei Kusakabe - Satsuki's younger sister, pre-school age (4 years old).
  • Professor Kusakabe - The girls' father.
  • Totoro - 3 Totoro appear in the film:
    • King Totoro (Ō Totoro) - The grey, friendly forest spirit who is the largest of the three (at least 3 meters tall); when someone says "totoro", they are usually referring to him. Mei has a habit of mispronouncing things. She tried to say "tororu", the Japanese word for troll. Ō in that case means "large" but the English dub calls that Totoro "King Totoro".
    • Medium Totoro (Chū Totoro) - The blue, medium-size (about 60 centimeters tall) one. Looks very similar to King Totoro.
    • Small Totoro (Chibi Totoro) - The white, smallest (about 20 centimeters tall) one, with the power of invisibility.
  • Kanta - A preteen boy of their village, ambivalent towards Satsuki.
  • "Nanny" - Kanta's grandmother, who sometimes takes care of the girls.
  • Catbus or Nekobasu - a cat that has become a bus.

Plot

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow. My Neighbor Totoro.

The movie is a slow-moving yet fascinating portrayal of Japanese rural life. It is set during a summer of the 1950s. A university professor from the city and his two daughters move into an old house near a forest, while his wife recovers from tuberculosis in a nearby convalescence home. His daughters discover "soot sprites", which their father rationalizes as makkurokurosuke — an optical illusion seen when moving from light to dark places (glossed as dust bunnies in the 1993 English dub; in the Disney version they are called "Soot Gremlins".).

Mei discovers a small Totoro, which leads her to find a large forest spirit living in a hollow under a Camphor Laurel by a small jinja. Mei names it Totoro. Her father tells her that this is the "King of the Forest". Not everyone can see the spirits of the forest, only the pure of heart. Mei is enchanted with them and determined to find the King of the Forest. One rainy night, while the girls are waiting for their father's bus which is running late, they encounter the giant Totoro who is looking rather forlorn with only a leaf for protection against the rain. When Satsuki gives him her umbrella, he's delighted at both the shelter and the sounds it makes as water hits it. This begins a series of encounters as the spirits allow the children to partake in their nightly activities.

Later, Mei and Satsuki are disappointed to learn that their mother's planned homecoming visit that upcoming weekend has been postponed because mother's condition has worsened. Satsuki understands why the visit was cancelled, but Mei does not, and a frustrated Satsuki yells at Mei and the girls end up not speaking to each other for several hours. Then, Mei gets lost while trying to bring an ear of healthy corn to her mother at the hospital, and a frantic Satsuki runs everywhere searching for her. Satsuki and the villagers get a major scare when a girl's sandal is found in a pond and they begin to fear that Mei has drowned, but Satsuki confirms that the sandal is not Mei's. Satsuki finally seeks Totoro's help. He is delighted to be of assistance, and with his help Mei is quickly found.

The movie features the Catbus, a grinning feline bus summoned by Totoro which rescues Mei and whisks her and Satsuki over the countryside to see their mother in hospital. When the cat bus finally leaves them it fades into the evening shadows, in the manner of Lewis Carroll's Cheshire cat. In the movie's final scene, Professor and Mrs. Kusakabe discover Mei's ear of corn on the windowsill of Mrs. Kusakabe's hospital room, carved with the inscription "To Mommy," as the girls and the Totoros watch from a nearby tree, happy that mother seems to be feeling better.

Trivia

  • The name Totoro is Mei's mispronunciation of "tororu", Japanese for troll, which she saw in a story book (Three Billy Goats Gruff) and decided was the same kind of creature.
  • The main Totoro has become a mascot for Studio Ghibli, gracing the studio's logo at the start of their films.
DVD case cover for My Neighbor Totoro from the original 20th Century Fox release. The Walt Disney Company has planned a re-release with a new voice cast. The DVD Cover for Disney's recent dub of My Neighbor Totoro.
  • My Neighbor Totoro was released as a double feature with Grave of the Fireflies. There are two theories for this: one was that Totoro would not be successful. Another theory is that "Grave of the Fireflies" (directed by Miyazaki's longtime colleague Isao Takahata) was believed to be too depressing for audiences as a stand-alone product, and thus needed a lighter animation to accompany it. Incidentally, the late Yoshifumi Kondo provided character designs for both films.
  • The Cat Bus originates from the Japanese belief that if a cat grows old enough it gains magical shape-changing powers and is called a bake neko. The Cat Bus is a bake neko that saw a bus and decided to become one. Bake neko are mentioned in several Ghibli films.
  • Satsuki and Mei's mother's implied suffering from spinal tuberculosis (also known as Pott's disease) is somewhat autobiographical, as Hayao Miyazaki's mother suffered from the same illness.
  • Ken Jennings, the winner of the most games in the history of the TV game show Jeopardy!, carries a small plush "Totoro" figure in his pocket for good luck.
  • Satsuki and Mei were both born in the month of May. Satsuki is the old Japanese name for the month of May, and Mei's name comes from the English name.
  • In the Japanese version, their father's position in his university is not explicitly given by Satsuki as in the English dub.
  • The character of Totoro made a cameo appearance in one episode of the Gainax TV series Kareshi Kanojo no Jijo (His and Her Circumstances), which was likely director Hideaki Anno's way of paying tribute to Miyazaki (Anno worked as a key animator on Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind in 1984 and considers Miyazaki a mentor). In fact, Gainax reportedly invited the animator who did the original key animation for Totoro to work on that scene, although they never revealed the animator's name.
  • During the closing credits, Miyazaki purposely inserted art of Satsuki and Mei playing with other human children and not with the Totoros. In fact, he asserted that the girls would never see the Totoros again (chiefly because he believed that if the girls retreated into the world of the Totoros, they would never return to their own world), but that the Totoros would always be around and watching over them. Pavilion reproduction of Satsuki & Mei’s House in Japan.
  • In limited stores (in North America and Japan), collectable "My Neighbor Totoro" toys are on sale.
  • In the word "makkurokurosuke" (used when calling the 'Soot spirits' in the Fox dub), makkurokuro would mean "pitch black black" and "suke" is a common element in boys names. In the Disney dub, they are referred to as "Soot Gremlins".
  • It is believed Hayoa Miyazaki made the film because he was tired of good-and-evil conflicts, and decided it was time just to have fun.
  • In 1993, Fox released the first english version of "My Neighbor Totoro", produced by John Daly and Derek Gibson (the producers of The Terminator) with co-producer Jerry Beck. Fox and Troma's rights to the film expired in 2004.
  • The Disney version is slated for DVD release on March 7, 2006, but it appeared in the 2005 Hollywood Film Festival and on television prior to this. The world premiere for the Disney version was on October 23, 2005 after the premiere of Kiss, Kiss, Bang, Bang. The Turner Classic Movies cable television network held the television premiere of Disney's new English dub on January 19, 2006, as part of the network's January salute to Hayao Miyazaki. (TCM aired the dub as well as the original Japanese with English subtitles.)
  • The 2005 World Expo in Japan featured a "Totoro" house which was a recreation of the house in which Satsuki and Mei lived in the movie.

Credits

Direction, Original Story & Screenplay
Music
Production
Executive Producer
Producer

Cast

The movie stars the following actors (listed in (Disney) English version/(Streamline) English version/Japanese version format):

  • Dakota Fanning/the late Lisa Michelson/Noriko Hidaka: Satsuki Kusakabe
  • Elle Fanning/Cheryl Chase/Chika Sakamoto: Mei Kusakabe
  • Timothy Daly/Steve Kramer/Shigesato Itoi: Professor Kusakabe
  • Lea Salonga/Alexandra Kenworthy/Sumi Shimamoto: Mrs. Kusakabe
  • Pat Carroll/Natalie Core/Tanie Kitabayashi: Nanny
  • Frank Welker/Hitoshi Takagi/Hitoshi Takagi: Totoro

This page about Totoro includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Totoro
News stories about Totoro
External links for Totoro
Videos for Totoro
Wikis about Totoro
Discussion Groups about Totoro
Blogs about Totoro
Images of Totoro

The movie stars the following actors (listed in (Disney) English version/(Streamline) English version/Japanese version format):.
. Kusakabe's hospital room, carved with the inscription "To Mommy," as the girls and the Totoros watch from a nearby tree, happy that mother seems to be feeling better. However, Tivos and DVRs are the main competitors with the VHS in home recording. Kusakabe discover Mei's ear of corn on the windowsill of Mrs. It can also be more convenient to use VHS tapes because they can be rewritten easily, and VCRs can be easier than DVD recorders to use. In the movie's final scene, Professor and Mrs. Despite DVD's better quality, however, VHS is still widely used in home recording of television programs, due to the large installed base and the lower cost of VHS recorders.

When the cat bus finally leaves them it fades into the evening shadows, in the manner of Lewis Carroll's Cheshire cat. Commentators predict that 2006 will be the final year of new releases on VHS, as major studios continue to phase out VHS. The movie features the Catbus, a grinning feline bus summoned by Totoro which rescues Mei and whisks her and Satsuki over the countryside to see their mother in hospital. Moreover, most television programs released as box sets are for sale in DVD format only. He is delighted to be of assistance, and with his help Mei is quickly found. Many films released to theaters from 2004 onwards have later been released only on DVD and not on VHS, and many other new feature films are being released solely on DVD. Satsuki finally seeks Totoro's help. retailers Circuit City and Best Buy stopped selling VHS tapes in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

Satsuki and the villagers get a major scare when a girl's sandal is found in a pond and they begin to fear that Mei has drowned, but Satsuki confirms that the sandal is not Mei's. Major U.S. Then, Mei gets lost while trying to bring an ear of healthy corn to her mother at the hospital, and a frantic Satsuki runs everywhere searching for her. The DVD format was introduced in 1997 and has since overtaken VHS in sales and rentals. Satsuki understands why the visit was cancelled, but Mei does not, and a frustrated Satsuki yells at Mei and the girls end up not speaking to each other for several hours. In addition, it offers superior audiovisual quality, and the storage of data in digital format on tape makes for improved transfer and editing. Later, Mei and Satsuki are disappointed to learn that their mother's planned homecoming visit that upcoming weekend has been postponed because mother's condition has worsened. MiniDV has largely replaced 8mm tapes as the de facto camcorder standard in more recent years as it is smaller still (some MiniDV camcorders being no larger than one's hand).

This begins a series of encounters as the spirits allow the children to partake in their nightly activities. 8mm tapes, introduced in the early 1980s, succeeded as a format for camcorders (both in the consumer, and to an extent, professional market), as VHS and Betamax camcorders were unsuitably large and heavy in comparison. When Satsuki gives him her umbrella, he's delighted at both the shelter and the sounds it makes as water hits it. As these cassettes are much more compact in design — which also means the hardware to play and record the tapes has to be more compact than VHS, and therefore more expensive — they are much more suited to portable applications such as camcorders. One rainy night, while the girls are waiting for their father's bus which is running late, they encounter the giant Totoro who is looking rather forlorn with only a leaf for protection against the rain. Other formats such as 8mm video cassettes and MiniDV have emerged since, but these formats are by no means in complete competition with VHS. Mei is enchanted with them and determined to find the King of the Forest. Netscape.

Not everyone can see the spirits of the forest, only the pure of heart. Windows and Microsoft vs. Her father tells her that this is the "King of the Forest". IBM, Macintosh vs. Mei names it Totoro. The format war and the "marketing over technology" claims have taken on a life of their own, and have been used as analogies in the battles of the computer industry, including Apple vs. Mei discovers a small Totoro, which leads her to find a large forest spirit living in a hollow under a Camphor Laurel by a small jinja. Sony ultimately conceded the fight in the late '80s, bringing out a line of VHS VCRs.

His daughters discover "soot sprites", which their father rationalizes as makkurokurosuke — an optical illusion seen when moving from light to dark places (glossed as dust bunnies in the 1993 English dub; in the Disney version they are called "Soot Gremlins".). Ultimately Betamax did manage to make up some of the difference on recording time, but this was too little, too late. A university professor from the city and his two daughters move into an old house near a forest, while his wife recovers from tuberculosis in a nearby convalescence home. The longer tape time is sometimes cited as the defining factor in the format war, as the longer VHS tapes allowed consumers to record entire programs unattended, and arguably created the entire video rental industry by providing sufficient playing time for most feature films to be distributed on a single cassette. It is set during a summer of the 1950s. Betamax held an early lead in the format war, offering some technical advantages, but by 1980 VHS was gaining due to its longer tape time (3 hours maximum, compared to just 60 minutes for Betamax) and JVC's less strict licensing program. The movie is a slow-moving yet fascinating portrayal of Japanese rural life. In fact, however, the root causes of VHS' victory are somewhat more complex.

. Since Betamax was widely perceived at the time as the better format, it is often stated that VHS' eventual victory was a victory of marketing over technical excellence. The DVD release will be the first version of the film in the United States to include both Japanese and English language tracks, as Fox did not have the rights to the Japanese audio track for their version. As mentioned, VHS was the winner of a protracted and somewhat bitter format war during the early 1980s against Sony's Betamax format. It features a new dub cast. Conversely, an E-300 tape runs for 300 minutes in PAL-SP, but 200 minutes in NTSC-SP. The film will be re-released by Disney on March 7, 2006. For example, a T-120 tape runs for 120 minutes in NTSC-SP, but 180 minutes in PAL-SP.

An ani-manga version of My Neighbor Totoro was published in English by Viz Communications starting on November 10, 2004. It can easily be derived by multiplying with 3/2 or 2/3, respectively. Troma and Fox's rights to this version expired in 2004. It is perfectly possible to record and play back a blank T-XXX tape in a PAL machine or a blank E-XXX tape in an NTSC machine, but the resulting playing time will be different than indicated. It was released on VHS and DVD by Fox Home Video. In order to avoid confusion, manufacturers indicate the playing time in minutes that can be expected for the market the tape is sold in:. Troma Films produced a 1993 dub of the film co-produced by Jerry Beck. Both NTSC and PAL/SECAM VHS cassettes are physically identical (although the signals recorded on the tape are incompatible.) However, as tape speeds differ between NTSC and PAL/SECAM, the playing time for any given cassette will vary accordingly between the systems.

My Neighbor Totoro (となりのトトロ - Tonari no Totoro) is a 1988 Japanese animated movie directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli. Likewise, S-VHS machines for the Brazilian market record in NTSC and convert to/from PAL-M. Frank Welker/Hitoshi Takagi/Hitoshi Takagi: Totoro. S-VHS machines sold in SECAM markets record internally in PAL, and convert to/from SECAM during record/playback, respectively. Pat Carroll/Natalie Core/Tanie Kitabayashi: Nanny. S-VHS only exists in PAL/625/25 and NTSC/525/30. Kusakabe. Dedicated multistandard machines can usually handle all standards listed, some high end model can even convert a tape from one standard to another by using a built-in standards converter.

Lea Salonga/Alexandra Kenworthy/Sumi Shimamoto: Mrs. regular VHS machines sold in Europe nowadays can typically handle PAL, MESECAM for record and playback, plus NTSC for playback only. Timothy Daly/Steve Kramer/Shigesato Itoi: Professor Kusakabe. E.g. Elle Fanning/Cheryl Chase/Chika Sakamoto: Mei Kusakabe. These can handle VHS tapes of more than one standards. Dakota Fanning/the late Lisa Michelson/Noriko Hidaka: Satsuki Kusakabe. Since the 1990s dual- and multistandard VHS machines have become more and more common.

The 2005 World Expo in Japan featured a "Totoro" house which was a recreation of the house in which Satsuki and Mei lived in the movie. The following signal varieties exist in conventional VHS:. (TCM aired the dub as well as the original Japanese with English subtitles.). Typically, a VHS machine can only handle signals of the country it was sold in. The Turner Classic Movies cable television network held the television premiere of Disney's new English dub on January 19, 2006, as part of the network's January salute to Hayao Miyazaki. However, a machine must be designed to record a given standard. The world premiere for the Disney version was on October 23, 2005 after the premiere of Kiss, Kiss, Bang, Bang. VHS can record and play back all varieties of analogue television signals in existence at the time VHS was devised.

The Disney version is slated for DVD release on March 7, 2006, but it appeared in the 2005 Hollywood Film Festival and on television prior to this. This format is most notably used by Fox for some of its cable networks. Fox and Troma's rights to the film expired in 2004. This format is the least expensive format to support a pre-read edit. In 1993, Fox released the first english version of "My Neighbor Totoro", produced by John Daly and Derek Gibson (the producers of The Terminator) with co-producer Jerry Beck. There is also a JVC-designed component digital professional production format known as Digital-S or (officially) D9 that uses a VHS form factor tape and essentially the same mechanical tape handling techniques as an S-VHS recorder. It is believed Hayoa Miyazaki made the film because he was tired of good-and-evil conflicts, and decided it was time just to have fun. This development hampered the sales of the Betamax system somewhat, because the Betamax cassette geometry prevented a similar development.

In the Disney dub, they are referred to as "Soot Gremlins". The magnetic tape on VHS-C cassettes is wound on one main spool and uses a gear wheel to advance the tape; the wheel and spool can also be moved by hand. In the word "makkurokurosuke" (used when calling the 'Soot spirits' in the Fox dub), makkurokuro would mean "pitch black black" and "suke" is a common element in boys names. Since VHS-C tapes are based on the same magnetic tape as full size tapes, they can be played back in standard VHS players using a mechanical adapter, without the need of any kind of signal conversion. In limited stores (in North America and Japan), collectable "My Neighbor Totoro" toys are on sale. Another variant is VHS-C (C for compact), used in some camcorders. In fact, he asserted that the girls would never see the Totoros again (chiefly because he believed that if the girls retreated into the world of the Totoros, they would never return to their own world), but that the Totoros would always be around and watching over them. Pavilion reproduction of Satsuki & Mei’s House in Japan. . W-VHS caters for high definition video.

During the closing credits, Miyazaki purposely inserted art of Satsuki and Mei playing with other human children and not with the Totoros. Devices have also been invented which directly connect a personal computer to VHS tape recorders for use as a data backup device. In fact, Gainax reportedly invited the animator who did the original key animation for Totoro to work on that scene, although they never revealed the animator's name. Several improved versions of VHS exist, most notably S-VHS, an improved analog standard, and D-VHS, which records digital video onto a VHS form factor tape. The character of Totoro made a cameo appearance in one episode of the Gainax TV series Kareshi Kanojo no Jijo (His and Her Circumstances), which was likely director Hideaki Anno's way of paying tribute to Miyazaki (Anno worked as a key animator on Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind in 1984 and considers Miyazaki a mentor). There was a time when higher-end VCRs provided functions for manually removing and adding these index marks — so that, for example, they coincide with the actual start of the program — but this feature has become hard to find in recent models. In the Japanese version, their father's position in his university is not explicitly given by Satsuki as in the English dub. These are normally written at the beginning of each recording session, and can be found using the VCR's index search function: this will fast-wind forward or backward to the nth specified index mark, and resume playback from there.

Satsuki is the old Japanese name for the month of May, and Mei's name comes from the English name. The control track can additionally hold index marks. Satsuki and Mei were both born in the month of May. Since good tracking depends on the exact distance between the rotating drum and the fixed control/audio head reading the linear tracks, which usually varies by a couple of micrometers between machines due to manufacturing tolerances, most VCRs offer tracking adjustment, either manual or automatic, to correct such mismatches. Ken Jennings, the winner of the most games in the history of the TV game show Jeopardy!, carries a small plush "Totoro" figure in his pocket for good luck. Another linear control track, at the tape's lower edge, holds pulses that mark the beginning of every frame of video; these are used to fine-tune the tape speed during playback and to get the rotating heads exactly on their helical tracks rather than having them end up somewhere between two adjacent tracks (a feature called tracking). Satsuki and Mei's mother's implied suffering from spinal tuberculosis (also known as Pott's disease) is somewhat autobiographical, as Hayao Miyazaki's mother suffered from the same illness. These advanced features are impossible to find on later-model VCRs due to the rise of digital video formats.

Bake neko are mentioned in several Ghibli films. Another high-end feature was manual audio level control, which made the VHS HiFi format much more useful for high-quality audio-only recording purposes as discussed above. The Cat Bus is a bake neko that saw a bus and decided to become one. (Due to the different ways in which linear and HiFi audio are recorded, these kinds of dubbing were not possible with the HiFi tracks). The Cat Bus originates from the Japanese belief that if a cat grows old enough it gains magical shape-changing powers and is called a bake neko. Without the dubbing features, this task would've required the tape to be copied to another tape which would cause generational loss. Incidentally, the late Yoshifumi Kondo provided character designs for both films. This was useful, for example, for laying a song over a previously edited-together montage of short video clips that were the same total duration as that song.

Another theory is that "Grave of the Fireflies" (directed by Miyazaki's longtime colleague Isao Takahata) was believed to be too depressing for audiences as a stand-alone product, and thus needed a lighter animation to accompany it. These would move the tape past the heads and keep the video unchanged while recording new linear audio or keep the linear audio unchanged while recording new video, respectively. My Neighbor Totoro was released as a double feature with Grave of the Fireflies. There are two theories for this: one was that Totoro would not be successful. Some higher-end VHS and S-VHS VCRs once offered "audio dubbing" and "video dubbing" functions. The main Totoro has become a mascot for Studio Ghibli, gracing the studio's logo at the start of their films. Of course, for backward compatibility, hi-fi VCRs still write the linear audio track during recording, and can automatically read it during playback if the hi-fi audio is not present. The name Totoro is Mei's mispronunciation of "tororu", Japanese for troll, which she saw in a story book (Three Billy Goats Gruff) and decided was the same kind of creature. The excellent sound quality of hi-fi VHS has gained it some popularity as an audio format in certain applications; in particular, ordinary home hi-fi VCRs are sometimes used by home recording enthusiasts as a handy and inexpensive medium for making high-quality stereo mixdowns and master recordings from multitrack audio tape.

Catbus or Nekobasu - a cat that has become a bus. When the video signal is written by the following video head, it erases and overwrites the audio signal at the surface of the tape, but leaves the deeper portion of the signal undisturbed. "Nanny" - Kanta's grandmother, who sometimes takes care of the girls. These audio tracks take advantage of depth multiplexing: since they use lower frequencies than the video, their magnetization signals penetrate deeper into the tape. Kanta - A preteen boy of their village, ambivalent towards Satsuki. More recent hi-fi VCRs add higher-quality stereo audio tracks which are read and written by heads located on the same spinning drum that carries the video heads, frequency modulated to the unused frequency range in between the chroma and luma signals. Small Totoro (Chibi Totoro) - The white, smallest (about 20 centimeters tall) one, with the power of invisibility. In the original VHS format, audio was recorded unmodulated in a single (monaural) linear track at the upper edge of the tape, which was limited in frequency response by the tape speed.

Looks very similar to King Totoro. The video bandwidth is achieved with a relatively low tape speed by the use of helical scan recording of a frequency modulated luminance (black and white) signal, to which a frequency-reduced "color under" chroma (hue and saturation) signal is added. Medium Totoro (Chū Totoro) - The blue, medium-size (about 60 centimeters tall) one. The vertical resolution of VHS (and all other analog recording methods) is determined by the TV standard — a maximum of 486 lines are visible in NTSC and a maximum of 576 lines in PAL. Ō in that case means "large" but the English dub calls that Totoro "King Totoro". The frequency modulation of the luminance signal makes higher resolutions impossible within the VHS standard, no matter how advanced the recorder's technology. She tried to say "tororu", the Japanese word for troll. VHS tapes have approximately 3 MHz of video bandwidth, and a horizontal resolution of about 240 discernible lines per scanline [1].

Mei has a habit of mispronouncing things. An unofficial LP mode with half the standard speed exists on some NTSC machines, but is not part of the VHS standard. King Totoro (Ō Totoro) - The grey, friendly forest spirit who is the largest of the three (at least 3 meters tall); when someone says "totoro", they are usually referring to him. Because of this, commercial prerecorded tapes were almost always recorded in SP mode. Totoro - 3 Totoro appear in the film:

    . Of course, these speed reductions cause corresponding reductions in video quality; also, tapes recorded at the lower speed often exhibit poor playback performance on recorders other than the one they were produced on. Professor Kusakabe - The girls' father. More recent machines usually allow the selection of longer recording times by lowering the tape speed: LP mode (for PAL and some NTSC machines) halves the tape speed and doubles the recording time, while EP mode (for NTSC and some newer PAL machines, aka SLP mode) drops the tape speed to one-third, for triple the recording time.

    Mei Kusakabe - Satsuki's younger sister, pre-school age (4 years old). Most cassettes have lower recording times because they use thicker tape, which helps avoid jams; careful users generally avoid the thinnest tapes. Satsuki Kusakabe - An 11-year-old girl. A cassette holds a maximum of about 430 m of tape at the lowest acceptable tape thickness, giving a maximum playing time of about 3.5 hours for NTSC and 5 hours for PAL at "standard" (SP) quality. The tape speed is 3.335 cm/s for NTSC, 2.339 cm/s for PAL. A VHS cassette contains a ½ inch (12.7 mm) wide magnetic tape wound between two spools, allowing it to be slowly passed over the various playback and recording heads of the video cassette recorder.

    . Most newer VHS machines do not perform this unthreading step, as due to improved engineering, head-tape contact is no longer an impediment to fast winding. Early VHS machines could rewind and fast forward the tape considerably faster than a Betamax VCR since they unthreaded the tape from the playback heads before commencing any high-speed winding. VHS initially offered a longer playing time than the Betamax system, and it also had the advantage of a far less complex tape transport mechanism.

    VHS became a standard format for consumer recording and viewing in the 1980s and 1990s after competing in a fierce format war with Sony's Betamax and, to a lesser extent, Philips' Video 2000. Some early reports claim the name originally stood for Victor Helical Scan System. VHS officially stands for Video Home System, but it initially stood for Vertical Helical Scan, after the relative head/tape scan technique. The Video Home System, first released in September 1976, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard for video cassette recorders (VCRs), developed by JVC (with some of its critical technology under lucrative licensing agreements with Sony) and launched in 1976.

    Viz Video (1993-). Buena Vista Home Entertainment (1989-). Miramax Home Entertainment, a unit of Buena Vista Home Entertainment (1989-). New Line Home Entertainment, a TimeWarner Company (1989-).

    Carolco Home Video, a division of Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1988-1995). Orion Home Video, a Sony Pictures Entertainment Company (1988-1997). Anchor Bay Entertainment (1980s-). Hi-Tops Video, a Heron Communications Company (1985-1992).

    Simitar Entertainment (1980s-1990s). Touchstone Home Entertainment, a unit of the Walt Disney Company (1984-). Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1984-). Family Home Entertainment, a division of Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1982-).

    NBC Home Video, an NBC/Universal Company (1981-). Universal Studios Home Video, an NBC/Universal Company (1980-). Magnetic Video, the first duplicator/distributor of movies on video cassette for home use (1977-1981). Vestron Video, a division of Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1979-).

    MGM Home Entertainment, a Sony Pictures Entertainment Company (1979-). Media Home Entertainment, a Heron Communications Company (1978-1992). Warner Home Video, a TimeWarner Company (1978-). HBO Video, a TimeWarner Company (1978-).

    Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (1978-). Walt Disney Home Entertainment (1978-). Twentieth (20th) Century-Fox Home Entertainment, a News Corporation Company (1977-). Paramount Home Video, a Viacom Company (1976-).

    E-XXX indicates playing time for PAL or SECAM in SP speed. T-XXX indicates playing time for NTSC or PAL-M in SP speed. PAL-M, Brazil). PAL/525/30 (i.e.

    NTSC/525/30 (Most parts of North and South America, Japan, South Korea). MESECAM/625/25 (most other SECAM countries, notably Eastern Europe and Middle East). SECAM/625/25 (SECAM, French variety). PAL/625/25 (most of Western Europe, many parts of Asia and Africa).

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