My Neighbor Totoro
My Neighbor Totoro (となりのトトロ - Tonari no Totoro) is a 1988 Japanese animated movie directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli.
Troma Films produced a 1993 dub of the film co-produced by Jerry Beck. It was released on VHS and DVD by Fox Home Video. Troma and Fox's rights to this version expired in 2004.
An ani-manga version of My Neighbor Totoro was published in English by Viz Communications starting on November 10, 2004.
The film will be re-released by Disney on March 7, 2006. It features a new dub cast. The DVD release will be the first version of the film in the United States to include both Japanese and English language tracks, as Fox did not have the rights to the Japanese audio track for their version.
PlotSpoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow. My Neighbor Totoro.
The movie is a slow-moving yet fascinating portrayal of Japanese rural life. It is set during a summer of the 1950s. A university professor from the city and his two daughters move into an old house near a forest, while his wife recovers from tuberculosis in a nearby convalescence home. His daughters discover "soot sprites", which their father rationalizes as makkurokurosuke — an optical illusion seen when moving from light to dark places (glossed as dust bunnies in the 1993 English dub; in the Disney version they are called "Soot Gremlins".).
Mei discovers a small Totoro, which leads her to find a large forest spirit living in a hollow under a Camphor Laurel by a small jinja. Mei names it Totoro. Her father tells her that this is the "King of the Forest". Not everyone can see the spirits of the forest, only the pure of heart. Mei is enchanted with them and determined to find the King of the Forest. One rainy night, while the girls are waiting for their father's bus which is running late, they encounter the giant Totoro who is looking rather forlorn with only a leaf for protection against the rain. When Satsuki gives him her umbrella, he's delighted at both the shelter and the sounds it makes as water hits it. This begins a series of encounters as the spirits allow the children to partake in their nightly activities.
Later, Mei and Satsuki are disappointed to learn that their mother's planned homecoming visit that upcoming weekend has been postponed because mother's condition has worsened. Satsuki understands why the visit was cancelled, but Mei does not, and a frustrated Satsuki yells at Mei and the girls end up not speaking to each other for several hours. Then, Mei gets lost while trying to bring an ear of healthy corn to her mother at the hospital, and a frantic Satsuki runs everywhere searching for her. Satsuki and the villagers get a major scare when a girl's sandal is found in a pond and they begin to fear that Mei has drowned, but Satsuki confirms that the sandal is not Mei's. Satsuki finally seeks Totoro's help. He is delighted to be of assistance, and with his help Mei is quickly found.
The movie features the Catbus, a grinning feline bus summoned by Totoro which rescues Mei and whisks her and Satsuki over the countryside to see their mother in hospital. When the cat bus finally leaves them it fades into the evening shadows, in the manner of Lewis Carroll's Cheshire cat. In the movie's final scene, Professor and Mrs. Kusakabe discover Mei's ear of corn on the windowsill of Mrs. Kusakabe's hospital room, carved with the inscription "To Mommy," as the girls and the Totoros watch from a nearby tree, happy that mother seems to be feeling better.
The movie stars the following actors (listed in (Disney) English version/(Streamline) English version/Japanese version format):
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The movie stars the following actors (listed in (Disney) English version/(Streamline) English version/Japanese version format):. The Turbo-charged engines took over the F1 field and ended the Ford Cosworth DFV era in the mid 1980s. Kusakabe's hospital room, carved with the inscription "To Mommy," as the girls and the Totoros watch from a nearby tree, happy that mother seems to be feeling better. The project's high cost was compensated for by its performance, and led to other engine manufacturers following suit. Kusakabe discover Mei's ear of corn on the windowsill of Mrs. Renault was the first manufacturer to apply turbo technology in the F1 field, in 1977. In the movie's final scene, Professor and Mrs. In Formula 1, in the so called "Turbo Era" of 1977 and onwards, engines with a capacity of 1500 cc could achieve anywhere from 1000 to 1500 hp (746 to 1119 kW) (Renault, Honda, BMW).
When the cat bus finally leaves them it fades into the evening shadows, in the manner of Lewis Carroll's Cheshire cat. Pontiac also introduced a turbo in 1980 and Volvo Cars followed in 1981. The movie features the Catbus, a grinning feline bus summoned by Totoro which rescues Mei and whisks her and Satsuki over the countryside to see their mother in hospital. Buick was the first GM division to bring back the turbo, in 1977, followed by the famed Mercedes-Benz 300D and Saab 99 in 1978. He is delighted to be of assistance, and with his help Mei is quickly found. BMW led the resurgence of the automobile turbo with the 1973 2002 Turbo, with Porsche following with the 911 Turbo, introduced at the 1974 Paris Motor Show. Satsuki finally seeks Totoro's help. Turbos were also leading at Le Mans in 1976.
Satsuki and the villagers get a major scare when a girl's sandal is found in a pond and they begin to fear that Mei has drowned, but Satsuki confirms that the sandal is not Mei's. The Offy turbo peaked at over 1,000 hp in 1973, while Porsche dominated the Can-Am series with a 1100 hp 917/30. Then, Mei gets lost while trying to bring an ear of healthy corn to her mother at the hospital, and a frantic Satsuki runs everywhere searching for her. Offenhauser's turbocharged engines returned to Indianapolis in 1966, with victories coming in 1968. Satsuki understands why the visit was cancelled, but Mei does not, and a frustrated Satsuki yells at Mei and the girls end up not speaking to each other for several hours. Both of these engines were abandoned within a few years, and GM's next turbo engine came more than two decades later. Later, Mei and Satsuki are disappointed to learn that their mother's planned homecoming visit that upcoming weekend has been postponed because mother's condition has worsened. Its Turbo Jetfire was a 215 in³ (3.5 L) V8, while the Corvair engine was a 140 in³ (2.3 L) flat-6.
This begins a series of encounters as the spirits allow the children to partake in their nightly activities. The Oldsmobile is often recognized as the first, since it came out a few months earlier than the Corvair. When Satsuki gives him her umbrella, he's delighted at both the shelter and the sounds it makes as water hits it. The A-body Oldsmobile Cutlass and Chevrolet Corvair were both fitted with turbochargers in 1962. One rainy night, while the girls are waiting for their father's bus which is running late, they encounter the giant Totoro who is looking rather forlorn with only a leaf for protection against the rain. The first production turbocharged automobile engines came from General Motors. Mei is enchanted with them and determined to find the King of the Forest. The turbocharger hit the automobile world in 1952 when Fred Agabashian qualified for pole position at the Indianapolis 500 and led for 100 miles before tire shards disabled the blower.
Not everyone can see the spirits of the forest, only the pure of heart. Turbo-Diesel trucks were produced in Europe and America (notably by Cummins) after 1949. Her father tells her that this is the "King of the Forest". It is important to note that turbosupercharged aircraft engines actually utilized a gear-driven centrifugal type supercharger in series with a turbocharger. Mei names it Totoro. Aircraft such as the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and B-29 Superfortress all used exhaust driven "turbo-superchargers" to increase high altitude engine power. Mei discovers a small Totoro, which leads her to find a large forest spirit living in a hollow under a Camphor Laurel by a small jinja. The primary purpose behind most aircraft-based applications was to increase the altitude at which the airplane can fly, by compensating for the lower atmospheric pressure present at high altitude.
His daughters discover "soot sprites", which their father rationalizes as makkurokurosuke — an optical illusion seen when moving from light to dark places (glossed as dust bunnies in the 1993 English dub; in the Disney version they are called "Soot Gremlins".). Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1930s prior to World War II. A university professor from the city and his two daughters move into an old house near a forest, while his wife recovers from tuberculosis in a nearby convalescence home. The engine was tested at Pike's Peak in Colorado at 14,000 feet to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power losses usually experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of altitude. It is set during a summer of the 1950s. One of the first applications of a turbocharger to a non-Diesel engine came when General Electric engineer, Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine. The movie is a slow-moving yet fascinating portrayal of Japanese rural life. Diesel ships and locomotives with turbochargers began appearing in the 1920s.
. His patent for the internal combustion turbocharger was applied for in 1905. The DVD release will be the first version of the film in the United States to include both Japanese and English language tracks, as Fox did not have the rights to the Japanese audio track for their version. The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer, Alfred Buchi, who had been working on steam turbines. It features a new dub cast. On September 21, 2005, Foresight Vehicle announced the first known implementation of such unit for automobiles, under the name TIGERS (Turbo-generator Integrated Gas Energy Recovery System).. The film will be re-released by Disney on March 7, 2006. Turbo-Alternator is a form of turbocharger that generates electricity instead of boosting engine's air flow.
An ani-manga version of My Neighbor Totoro was published in English by Viz Communications starting on November 10, 2004. Special attention to engine cooling and component strength is required because of the increased combustion heat and power. Troma and Fox's rights to this version expired in 2004. Most applications produced by the major manufacturers (Beech, Cessna, Piper and others) increase the maximum engine intake air pressure by as much as 35%. It was released on VHS and DVD by Fox Home Video. For this reason, such aircraft are sometimes refered to as being turbo-normalised. Troma Films produced a 1993 dub of the film co-produced by Jerry Beck. In aftermarket applications, aircraft turbochargers sometimes do not overboost the engine, but rather compress ambient air to sea-level pressure.
My Neighbor Totoro (となりのトトロ - Tonari no Totoro) is a 1988 Japanese animated movie directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli. As the aircraft climbs, the wastegate is gradually closed, maintaining the manifold pressure at or above sea-level. Frank Welker/Hitoshi Takagi/Hitoshi Takagi: Totoro. In the interests of engine longevity, the wastegate is usually kept open, or nearly so, at sea-level to keep from overboosting the engine. Pat Carroll/Natalie Core/Tanie Kitabayashi: Nanny. The wastegate is controlled manually, or by a pneumatic/hydraulic control system, or, as is becoming more and more common, by a flight computer. Kusakabe. Most modern turbocharged aircraft use an adjustable wastegate.
Lea Salonga/Alexandra Kenworthy/Sumi Shimamoto: Mrs. Small car turbos are increasingly being used as the basis for small jet engines used for flying model aircraft—though the conversion is a highly specialised job—one not without its dangers. Timothy Daly/Steve Kramer/Shigesato Itoi: Professor Kusakabe. Contemporary examples of turbocharged performance cars include the Dodge SRT-4, Volkswagen GTI, Subaru Impreza WRX, Mazda RX-7, Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution, and the Porsche 911 Turbo. Elle Fanning/Cheryl Chase/Chika Sakamoto: Mei Kusakabe. The Porsche 944 utilized a turbo unit in the 944 Turbo (Porsche internal model number 951), to great advantage, bringing its 0-100 km/h (0-60 mph) times very close to its contemporary non-turbo "big brother", the Porsche 928. Dakota Fanning/the late Lisa Michelson/Noriko Hidaka: Satsuki Kusakabe. Saab has been the leading car maker using turbochargers in production cars, starting with the 1978 Saab 99.
The 2005 World Expo in Japan featured a "Totoro" house which was a recreation of the house in which Satsuki and Mei lived in the movie. Small cars in particular benefit from this technology, as there is often little room to fit a larger-output (and physically larger) engine. (TCM aired the dub as well as the original Japanese with English subtitles.).
The Disney version is slated for DVD release on March 7, 2006, but it appeared in the 2005 Hollywood Film Festival and on television prior to this. Turbocharging is very common on diesel engines in conventional automobiles, in trucks, for marine and heavy machinery applications. Fox and Troma's rights to the film expired in 2004. Many diesel engines do not have any wastegate because the amount of exhaust energy is controlled directly by the amount of fuel injected into the engine, and slight variations in boost pressure do not make a difference for the engine. In 1993, Fox released the first english version of "My Neighbor Totoro", produced by John Daly and Derek Gibson (the producers of The Terminator) with co-producer Jerry Beck. This is limited to keep the turbo inside its design operating range by controlling the wastegate which shunts the exhaust gases away from the exhaust side turbine. It is believed Hayoa Miyazaki made the film because he was tired of good-and-evil conflicts, and decided it was time just to have fun. Boost refers to the increased manifold pressure that is generated by the intake side turbine.
In the Disney dub, they are referred to as "Soot Gremlins". On modern diesel engines, this problem is virtually eliminated by utilising a variable geometry turbocharger. In the word "makkurokurosuke" (used when calling the 'Soot spirits' in the Fox dub), makkurokuro would mean "pitch black black" and "suke" is a common element in boys names. Race cars often utilise anti-lag to completely eliminate lag at the cost of reduced turbocharger life. In limited stores (in North America and Japan), collectable "My Neighbor Totoro" toys are on sale. Putting your foot down at 1200 engine rpm and having no boost until 2000 engine rpm is an example of boost threshold and not lag. In fact, he asserted that the girls would never see the Totoros again (chiefly because he believed that if the girls retreated into the world of the Totoros, they would never return to their own world), but that the Totoros would always be around and watching over them. Pavilion reproduction of Satsuki & Mei’s House in Japan. . Newer turbocharger and engine developments have caused boost thresholds to steadily decline to where day-to-day use feels perfectly natural.
During the closing credits, Miyazaki purposely inserted art of Satsuki and Mei playing with other human children and not with the Totoros. The boost threshold of a turbo system describes the minimum turbo rpm at which the turbo is physically able to supply the requested boost level. In fact, Gainax reportedly invited the animator who did the original key animation for Totoro to work on that scene, although they never revealed the animator's name. Lag is not to be confused with the boost threshold, however many publications still make this basic mistake. The character of Totoro made a cameo appearance in one episode of the Gainax TV series Kareshi Kanojo no Jijo (His and Her Circumstances), which was likely director Hideaki Anno's way of paying tribute to Miyazaki (Anno worked as a key animator on Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind in 1984 and considers Miyazaki a mentor). An example of this is the current BMW E60 5-Series 535d. In the Japanese version, their father's position in his university is not explicitly given by Satsuki as in the English dub. Sequential turbochargers are usually much more complicated than single or twin-turbocharger systems because they require what amount to three sets of pipes-intake and wastegate pipes for the two turbochargers as well as valves to control the direction of the exhaust gases.
Satsuki is the old Japanese name for the month of May, and Mei's name comes from the English name. Such combinations are referred to as "sequential turbos". Satsuki and Mei were both born in the month of May. Being individually smaller they do not suffer from excessive lag and having the second turbo operating at a higher rpm range allows it to get to full rotational speed before it is required. Ken Jennings, the winner of the most games in the history of the TV game show Jeopardy!, carries a small plush "Totoro" figure in his pocket for good luck. Below this rpm, both exhaust and air inlet of the secondary turbo are closed . Satsuki and Mei's mother's implied suffering from spinal tuberculosis (also known as Pott's disease) is somewhat autobiographical, as Hayao Miyazaki's mother suffered from the same illness. Early designs would have one turbocharger active up to a certain rpm, after which both turbochargers are active.
Bake neko are mentioned in several Ghibli films. A typical arrangement for this is to have one turbo active across the entire rev range of the engine and one coming on-line at higher rpm. The Cat Bus is a bake neko that saw a bus and decided to become one. Some car makers combat lag by using two small turbos (like Toyota, Subaru, Maserati, Mazda, and Audi). The Cat Bus originates from the Japanese belief that if a cat grows old enough it gains magical shape-changing powers and is called a bake neko. Such an arrangement of turbos is typically referred to as a "twin turbo" setup. Incidentally, the late Yoshifumi Kondo provided character designs for both films. The two smaller turbos produce the same (or more) aggregate amount of boost as a larger single turbo, but since they are smaller they reach their optimal rpm, and thus optimal boost delivery, faster.
Another theory is that "Grave of the Fireflies" (directed by Miyazaki's longtime colleague Isao Takahata) was believed to be too depressing for audiences as a stand-alone product, and thus needed a lighter animation to accompany it. Other setups, most notably in V-type engines, utilize two identically-sized but smaller turbos, each fed by a separate set of exhaust streams from the engine. My Neighbor Totoro was released as a double feature with Grave of the Fireflies. There are two theories for this: one was that Totoro would not be successful. Turbine clipping is measured and specified in degrees. The main Totoro has become a mascot for Studio Ghibli, gracing the studio's logo at the start of their films. The amount a turbine wheel is and can be clipped is highly application-specific. The name Totoro is Mei's mispronunciation of "tororu", Japanese for troll, which she saw in a story book (Three Billy Goats Gruff) and decided was the same kind of creature. This imparts less impedance onto the flow of exhaust gasses at low rpm, allowing the vehicle to retain more of its low-end torque, but also pushes the effective boost rpm to a slightly higher level.
Catbus or Nekobasu - a cat that has become a bus. By clipping a minute portion off the tip of each blade of the turbine wheel, less restriction is imposed upon the escaping exhaust gases. "Nanny" - Kanta's grandmother, who sometimes takes care of the girls. Another common method of equalizing turbo lag, is to have the turbine wheel "clipped", or to reduce the surface area of the turbine wheel's rotating blades. Kanta - A preteen boy of their village, ambivalent towards Satsuki. Lag is also reduced by using a precision bearing rather than a fluid bearing, this reduces friction rather than rotational inertia but contributes to faster acceleration of the turbo's rotating assembly. Small Totoro (Chibi Totoro) - The white, smallest (about 20 centimeters tall) one, with the power of invisibility. Increasing the upper-deck air pressure and improving the wastegate response help but there are cost increases and reliability disadvantages that car manufacturers are not happy about.
Looks very similar to King Totoro. Another way to reduce lag is to change the aspect ratio of the turbine by reducing the diameter and increasing the gas-flow path-length. Medium Totoro (Chū Totoro) - The blue, medium-size (about 60 centimeters tall) one. Unfortunately, their relative fragility limits the maximum boost they can supply. Ō in that case means "large" but the English dub calls that Totoro "King Totoro". Ceramic turbines are a big help in this direction. She tried to say "tororu", the Japanese word for troll. Lag can be reduced by lowering the rotational inertia of the turbine, for example by using lighter parts to allow the spool-up to happen more quickly.
Mei has a habit of mispronouncing things. Conversely on light loads or at low rpm a turbocharger supplies less boost and the engine is more efficient than a supercharged engine. King Totoro (Ō Totoro) - The grey, friendly forest spirit who is the largest of the three (at least 3 meters tall); when someone says "totoro", they are usually referring to him. (Centrifugal superchargers do not build boost at low RPM's like a positive displacement supercharger will). Totoro - 3 Totoro appear in the film:
Mei Kusakabe - Satsuki's younger sister, pre-school age (4 years old). A lag is sometimes felt by the driver of a turbocharged vehicle as a delay between pushing on the accelerator pedal and feeling the turbo kick-in. Satsuki Kusakabe - An 11-year-old girl. Diesel engines are usually much kinder to turbos because their exhaust gas temperature is much lower than that of gasoline engines and because most operators allow the engine to idle and do not switch it off immediately after heavy use. In custom applications utilising tubular headers rather than cast iron manifolds, the need for a cooldown period is reduced because the lighter headers store much less heat than heavy cast iron manifolds. It is still a good idea to not shut the engine off while the turbo and manifold are still glowing.
The water boils in the cartridge when the engine is shut off and forms a natural recirculation to drain away the heat. Turbos with watercooled bearing cartridges have a protective barrier against coking. A turbo timer is a device designed to keep an automotive engine running for a pre-specified period of time, in order to execute this cool-down period automatically. Even small particles of burnt oil will accumulate and lead to choking the oil supply and failure.
Not doing this will also result in the critical oil supply to the turbocharger being severed when the engine stops while the turbine housing and exhaust manifold are still very hot, leading to coking (burning) of the lubricating oil trapped in the unit when the heat soaks into the bearings and later, failure of the supply of oil when the engine is next started causing rapid bearing wear and failure. This lets the turbo rotating assembly cool from the lower exhaust gas temperatures. Saab, in its owner manuals, recommends a period of just 30 seconds. After high speed operation of the engine it is important to let the engine run at idle speed for one to three minutes before turning off the engine.
The use of synthetic oils is recommended in turbo engines. Replacing a turbo that lets go and sheds its blades will be expensive. As long as the oil supply is clean and the exhaust gas does not become overheated (lean mixtures or retarded spark timing on a gasoline engine) a turbocharger can be very reliable but care of the unit is important. Turbocharger manufacturer Aerocharger uses the term 'Variable Area Turbine Nozzle' (VATN) to describe this type of turbine nozzle.
This type of turbine is called a Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT). It utilised a turbo from Garrett, called the VNT-25 because it uses the same compressor and shaft as the more common Garrett T-25. The first car manufacturer to use these turbos was the limited-production 1989 Shelby CSX-VNT. The vanes are controlled by a membrane identical to the one on a wastegate but the level of control required is a bit different.
In many setups these turbos don't even need a wastegate. These turbochargers have minimal amount of lag, have a low boost threshold, and are very efficient at higher engine speeds. Some turbochargers utilise a set of vanes in the exhaust housing to maintain a constant gas velocity across the turbine, the same kind of control as used on power plant turbines. Another method of raising the boost pressure is through the use of check and bleed valves to keep the pressure at the membrane lower than the pressure within the system.
This solenoid can be controlled by Automatic Performance Control, the engine's electronic control unit or an after market boost control computer. The wastegate is opened and closed by the compressed air from turbo (the upper-deck pressure) and can be raised by using a solenoid to regulate the pressure fed to the wastegate membrane. This regulates the rotational speed of the turbine and the output of the compressor. To manage the upper-deck air pressure the turbocharger's exhaust gas flow is regulated with a wastegate that bypasses excess exhaust gas entering the turbocharger's turbine.
Turbochargers with foil bearings are in development which eliminates the need for bearing cooling or oil delivery systems. Some car makers use water cooled turbochargers for added bearing life. Lower friction means the turbo shaft can be made of lighter materials, reducing so-called turbo lag or boost lag. Some turbochargers use incredibly precise ball bearings that offer less friction than a fluid bearing but these are also suspended in fluid-dampened cavities.
The oil is usually taken from the engine-oil circuit and usually needs to be cooled by an oil cooler before it circulates through the engine. These feature a flowing layer of oil that suspends and cools the moving parts. Such high rotation speeds would cause problems for standard ball bearings leading to failure so most turbo-chargers use fluid bearings. A turbo spins very fast; most peak between 80,000 and 150,000 rpm (using low inertia turbos, 190,000 rpm) depending on size, weight of the rotating parts, boost pressure developed and compressor design.
Compressed air from a turbo may be (and most commonly is, on petrol engines) cooled before it is fed into the cylinders, using an intercooler or a charge air cooler (a heat-exchange device). It is not uncommon for a turbocharger to be pushing out air that is 90 °C (200°F). When a gas is compressed, its temperature rises. The pumping-effect heating can be alleviated by aftercooling (sometimes called intercooling).
The higher temperature is a volumetric efficiency downgrade for both types of engine. This increase in charge temperature is a limiting factor for petrol engines that can only tolerate a limited increase in charge temperature before detonation occurs. A main disadvantage of high boost pressures for internal combustion engines is that compressing the inlet air increases its temperature. This last factor makes turbocharging aircraft engines considerably advantageous—and was the original reason for development of the device.
However, for operation at altitude, the power recovery of a turbocharger makes a big difference to total power output of both engine types. This disadvantage does not apply to specifically designed turbocharged diesel engines. A disadvantage in gasoline engines is that the compression ratio should be lowered (so as not to exceed maximum compression pressure and to prevent engine knocking) which reduces engine efficiency when operating at low power. This engine rpm is referred to as the boost threshold.
Because it is a centrifugal pump, a typical turbocharger, depending on design, will only start to deliver boost from a certain rpm where the engine starts producing enough exhaust gas to spin the turbocharger fast enough to make pressure. For automobile use, typical boost pressure is in the general area of 80 kPa (11.6 lbf/in²), but it can be much more. However, there are some parasitic losses due to heat and exhaust backpressure from the turbine, so turbochargers are generally only about 80% efficient, at peak efficiency, because it takes some work for the engine to push those gases through the turbocharger turbine (which is acting as a restriction in the exhaust) and the now-compressed intake air has been heated, reducing its density. For example, at 100% efficiency a turbocharger providing 101 kPa (14.7 lbf/in²) of boost would effectively double the amount of air entering the engine because the total pressure is twice atmospheric pressure.
The energy from the extra fuel leads to more overall engine power. The increase in pressure is called "boost" and is measured in pascals, bars or lbf/in². The additional fuel is provided by the proper tuning of the fuel injectors or carburetor. This greatly improves the volumetric efficiency of the engine, and thereby creates more power.
The compressor increases the pressure of the air entering the engine, so a greater mass of oxygen enters the combustion chamber in the same time interval (an increase in fuel is required to keep the mixture the same air to fuel ratio). But because of "turbo lag" (see below), engines with mechanical superchargers are typically more responsive. Because the turbine of a turbocharger is in-itself a heat engine, a turbocharger equipped engine will normally compress the intake air more efficiently than a mechanical supercharger. The term supercharger is very often used when referring to a mechanically driven turbocharger, which is most often driven from the engine's crankshaft by means of a belt (otherwise, and in many aircraft engines, by a geartrain), whereas a turbocharger is exhaust-driven, the name turbocharger being a contraction of the earlier "turbosupercharger".
The compressor and turbine spin on the same shaft, similar to a turbojet aircraft engine. A turbocharger also has a turbine that powers the compressor using wasted energy from the exhaust gases. All superchargers have a gas compressor in the intake tract of the engine which compresses the intake air above atmospheric pressure, greatly increasing the volumetric efficiency beyond that of naturally-aspirated engines. A turbocharger is an exhaust gas driven supercharger.
. A key advantage of turbochargers is that they offer a considerable increase in engine power with only a slight increase in weight. A turbocharger is an exhaust gas driven compressor used in internal-combustion engines to increase the power output of the engine by increasing the mass of oxygen entering the engine. For other meanings of turbo, see turbo (disambiguation).
This article describes the internal combustion engine component often known as a turbo. Automobile magazine (February 2006).. Happy 100th Birthday to the Turbocharger. Don Sherman.
The higher intake charge temperatures of forced-induction engines reduces the amount of compression that is possible with a gasoline/petrol engine, whereas diesel engines are far less sensitive to this. Gasoline/petrol engines differ from this in that both fuel and air are introduced during the intake cycle and both are compressed during the compression cycle. Diesel engines blow nothing but air into the cylinders during cylinder charging, squirting fuel into the cylinder only after the intake valve has closed and compression has begun. Diesel engines have a narrower band of engine speeds at which they operate, thus making the operating characteristics of the turbocharger over that "rev range" less of a compromise than on a gasoline-powered engine.
Gasoline engines often require extensive modification for turbocharging. Diesel engines require more robust construction because they already run at very high compression ratio and at high temperatures so they generally require little additional reinforcement to be able to cope with the addition of the turbocharger. Naturally-aspirated diesels have lower power-to-weight ratios compared to gasoline engines; turbocharging will improve this P:W ratio.