Topaz

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).

Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring

The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.

Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Etymology and historical/mythical usage

The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.

Topaz is also the birthstone of November.

Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring

References

  • Webmineral
  • Mindat with location data
  • Mineral galleries

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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Altezza, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while other speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. In 1998, Toyota ceased to export the cars from Japan, and they stopped production altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales. The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. The stock engines are astonishingly tough, running 600bhp+ as daily drivers without having to uprate any internal components.

It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1200hp and run the 1/4 mile in 7.9 seconds. Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parrallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. This helped in reducing turbo lag.

When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. The way that the sequential mode operated was the first turbo starts spooling at low rpms & as the rpms increased, the second turbo joins in. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of parrallel mode as the "twin turbo" name usually implies. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. The stock turbos are capable of running around 400bhp with an unrestricted airflow/exhaust system and an aftermarket boost controller (commonly known as a BPU setup). Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile in just under 13.1 seconds at over 109 mph.

The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220hp and 210lb-ft of torque, or a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320hp, 315 lb-ft of torque. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sports car. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. Some possible chassis codes are: MA70, MA71, JZA70, GA70. The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. The 7M-GE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 in just over 6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost.

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. By 1990, airbags became standard. Mineral galleries. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with ABS, TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension). Mindat with location data. The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. Webmineral. The A70 Supra was also available in two non export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE , and the GA70 with a 2.0L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE.

Other enhancements include higher boost (7.8psi), long lift cams, larger injectors, larger intercooler and a high flowed version of the CT26 turbocharger. The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, all featured leather interiors, a front intercooler inlet, were hardtops and only used MAP engine sensors. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made.

In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features. Both were available with an optional automatic transmission, the A340E. The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154.

Though the A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions*: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) and one without (the 7M-GE). The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra.

(After the body code L & R represented Left hand or Right hand Drive i.e., the MA61L is Left hand Drive, whereas the MA61R is Right hand Drive). Some possible chassis codes are: MA60, MA61, MA63, MA67, GA60, GA61. This engine was never available in the Mk 2, but was offered in the JDM-only Crown and Chaser models. A popular engine replacement for the Mk 2 is the 6M-GEU, which is a 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L version of the 5M-GE.

These were just 1985 models with minor cosmetic changes, as well as the addition of the rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch. 1985 was the end of the Mk 2, but delays in the manufacture of the Mk 3 led to leftover 1985 Mk 2s being offered for sale in the first half of 1986. 1984 and 1985 US models had around 165 hp (123 kW) due to 9.2:1 compression vs the former 8.8:1. Typically, non-US 5M-GE's made around 170 hp (127 kW), while the US-market version made around 145 hp (108 kW), since the exhaust system was more restrictive to comply with emissions requirements.

Also in Japan, where the Mk 2 was badged the Celica XX, some came with the 2.0 L 1G-GEU, since taxes were less on lower-displacement engines. Some models sent to countries (like Sweden, Switzerland and Australia) retained the Mk 1's 5M-E (In Australia, the only petrol available at that time was leaded), while in Japan the MK2 (MA-63) offered the option of the turbocharged SOHC M-TE engine or the 2 litre twin turbo 1G-GTE (GA61). Around the world, the Mk 2 came with a variety of other engines. As a complement to the superb engine, the Celica Supra's suspension was specially designed by Lotus.

The P-type came with 14X7 wheels and 225/60/14 tires, and the L-type came with 14x5.5 wheels and 195/70/14 tires. Both were offered with either the W58 manual 5-speed transmission or the A43DL (1982 only)/A43DE (1983-1986.5) 4-speed automatic transmission. Typically the P-type came with either 4.10:1 or 4.30:1 rear gearing, while the L-type came with 3.727:1 rear gearing. They were differentiated by the available options, tire/wheel combo, and body trim: the P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type had simple smaller flares molded into the metal above the wheel wells.

The MK2 came in 2 flavors: the P-type (Performance type) and the L-type (Luxury type). In the US, the engine was changed from the SOHC 2.8 L 5M-E to the DOHC 2.8 L 5M-GE. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984. The Mk 2, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend.

Though the Celica name was still used, in its second generation the Supra stood more apart from the Celica. [3]. 1981 was the last year that a Celica Supra could be purchased equipped with an 8-track stereo. As with all subsequent versions of the Supra, the Mk 1 was equipped with either 5 speed manual (W50) or 4 speed automatic transmission, and it also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes, but retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the celica in the MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional LSD) In the MA46 and MA47.

It was also available in Japan with the 2.0 L M-EU engine MA45 chassis code) and possibly the M-TEU turbo.[2]. [1] In 1981, the Supra received the 2.8 L 5M-E, (MA47 Chassis code) making 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. The 1979 (1978 Japan market) Mk 1 was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) single overhead cam inline-6 motor, the 2.6 L 4M-E (MA46 chassis code) (which was the first Toyota engine with electronic fuel injection). Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z; it, in some degree, succeded.

Most importantly, the Celica's 4-cylinder engine was replaced by an inline 6. The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 inches (doors and rear section same length as celica but rear panels differ). . It bore the common chassis code of "A".

The Supra was built and designed on the legacy of Toyota's former super sports car, the 2000GT. Production began in 1979. The Toyota Supra was a sports car produced by Toyota.

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