Topaz

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).

Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring

The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.

Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Etymology and historical/mythical usage

The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.

Topaz is also the birthstone of November.

Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring

References

  • Webmineral
  • Mindat with location data
  • Mineral galleries

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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. For a list of all toys on which there are currently articles, see Category:Toys.. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. This is not intended to be a complete list. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. After a name change, the Slinky was sold as a toy for both genders in stores throughout the United States. The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. He spent two years fine-tuning the design to find the best gauge of steel and coil.

It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. He was intrigued by the way it flopped around on the floor. Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. [9] In 1943 Richard James was experimenting with Torsion springs as part of his military research when he saw one come loose and fall to the floor. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. Similarly, Play-Doh was created as a wallpaper cleaner. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. Later, Peter Hodgson recognized the potential as a childhood plaything and packaged it as Silly Putty.

When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. After trying to create a replacement for synthetic rubber, Earl Warrick inadvertently invented "nutty putty" during World War II. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. Newton's cradle, a desk toy designed by Simon Prebble, demonstrates the conservation of momentum and energy. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. Popularized in the 1980s, solving the cube requires some planning and problem-solving skills. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. A popular toy for this age group was the Rubix Cube.

The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Educational toys for children of a greater age often contain some puzzle, problem-solving technique, or mathematical proposition. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. [8]. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. Play-Doh, Silly Putty and other hands-on materials allow the child to make toys of their own. The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. Mental agility, beginning with childhood, is challenged by toyish puzzle of spatial relationships.

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. Marbles, jackstones, and stackable blocks requiring use of hands and bodies. Mineral galleries. Coordination and other manual skills develop from subsequent childhood activities of interaction with toys. Mindat with location data. During this time, infants begin to recognize shapes, colors and after repetitive use, the nascent person attains familiarity with object reinforcing memory recollection. Webmineral. Toys for infants include those with distinguishable sounds, bright colors, and a unique feel.

Besides entertainment, toys also serve to enhance cognitive behavior and to stimulate creativity. Often toys serve a dual purpose. [7] Rag dolls were especially prevalent among young girls. [6] Ornately dressed dolls were often used by rulers as gifts for other regal women.

Toy soldiers, hobby horses as well as other military toys, such as wooden swords and shields, were used as training devices for aspiring knights. Musical toys such as whistles were also common among the young.[5] Adolescents played with tops, usually large and wooden, as well as marbles made of clay, and large hoops. Common German toys included rattles and wheeled pull-toys for younger children. The German city of Nuremberg led the way in the manufacture of toys, especially dolls.

Most historians believe that the first commercial production of toys began in Germany in the 15th century. However, it is not indicative of the popularity of toys during this time. Since most toys during the Middle Ages were made of clay, wood and wax, toys in this period are rare artifacts. The Hopi kachina doll is a spiritual doll given to women and children.

[4] The Inca, for example, had a rolling toy even though their adult culture did not employ the wheel. In 1000 B.C., kites were popular in China. In Ancient Rome, girls played with dolls made of wax or terra cotta, while boys played with sticks and bows and arrows. The Greeks decorated the two halves of the yo-yo with pictures of their gods and were given up when they entered adulthood.

[3] The toy was made of wood, stone, or terra cotta. The first verified mention of the yo-yo comes from Ancient Greece in the year 500 B.C. Chinese yo-yos were traditionally made of wood. Thousands of years ago, Egyptian children played dolls with wigs and movable limbs, made in stone, pottery, and wood.[2] The yo-yo is considered the second oldest toy, believed to have originated in China over 2,500 years ago.

Arguably the oldest toy is the doll. People constructed the earliest toys from materials they had on hand, such as rocks, sticks, or clay. The history of toys closely follows the development of human society. .

As a rule, if something game-like lacks an explicit end state, it is a toy, not a game. Some things usually thought to be games are actually toys, such as the computer game SimCity and its spinoffs, which are called software toys. The haulage company owned by Eddie Stobart produced model lorries, which now subsidise the business. Some notable examples are Star Wars and Manchester United.

Many successful films, television programs, books and sport teams have official merchandise, quite often toys will be made and sold. A number of these copyrighted, mass-produced toys are associated with particular decades in the twentieth century. [1] Two comparatively recent developments of toys have been their mass production, technological sophistication and copyrighting. The origin of the word is unknown but is believed to have been first used in the 14th century.

Toys have existed for thousands of years; dolls either of infants, animals, or soldiers, and miniature representations of the tools of adults are readily found at archaeological sites. They may either be the sole device used in an enjoyable activity or one of many. A toy is something to play with, for children, adults or both. Nerf.

Yo-Yo (1930s onwards). Chinese yo-yo (diabolo). Footbag. Soap-box cart.

Pogo stick. Marbles. Hula Hoop (1950s). Frisbee (1950s).

Bungee Balls. physical activity and dexterity toys

    . Zoetrope. Spinning top.

    View-master. Kaleidoscope. Science and optical

      . Matchbox cars.

      Model collecting

        . Carpet railway. Model railway
          . Model car.

          Model building

            . Toy weapon. Toy piano. Miniaturized items
              .

              Rubik's Cube. Mechanical puzzle

                . Easy Bake Oven. Newton's cradle.

                Magic trick. Jack-in-the-Box. Cotton reel tank. Mechanical toys

                  .

                  Ant Farm. Educational toy

                    . Stencil. Spirograph.

                    Decoder pen. Drawing toys

                      . Sock monkey. Teddy bear.

                      Pound Puppies. Stuffed animals

                        . Toy soldier. Jumping Jack.

                        Digital pet. Playmobil. Action figures. Raggedy Ann.

                        Dolls

                          . Figures
                            . Zome. Tinkertoy.

                            Stickle bricks. Mega Bloks. Meccano. Märklin.

                            Lincoln Logs. LEGO. K'NEX. Jovo.

                            Gami, Plastic Origami. Erector Set. Construction toys

                              . Toys! Henry Holt and Company; ISBN 0805061967.

                              Wulffson, Don L.

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