Topaz

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).

Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring

The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.

Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Etymology and historical/mythical usage

The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.

Topaz is also the birthstone of November.

Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring

References

  • Webmineral
  • Mindat with location data
  • Mineral galleries

This page about Topaz includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "W" and "w" for upper and lower case respectively. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. The EBCDIC code for capital W is 230 and for lowercase w is 166. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. The ASCII code for capital W is 87 and for lowercase w is 119; or in binary 01010111 and 01110111, correspondingly. The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In Unicode the capital W is codepoint U+0057 and the lowercase w is U+0077.

It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Bush's nickname of "Dubya". Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. In the Texas dialect of American English, the name is often condensed to two syllables rather than three, resulting in George W. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. A few speakers therefore shorten the name "double u" into "dub" only, although this is rather rare and nonstandard; for example, University of Washington is known colloquially as "U Dub". It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. This gives the nine-syllable initialism www the irony of being an abbreviation that takes more syllables to say than the unabbreviated form.

When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. "Double U" is the only English letter name with more than one syllable. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. The equivalent representation of the [w] sound in the Cyrillic alphabet is Ў, a letter unique to the Belarusian language. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. See more (in Hebrew). Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. For example many Israelis say "Hollyvud" rather than "Hollywood" or "Darvin" rather than "Darwin".

The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. In Hebrew the same letter, waw or vav is used to spell both [w] and [v], which can make problems in some cases. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. When a spelling for the [w] sound in a native word is needed, a spelling from the native alphabet, such as U or OU, can be used instead. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. In the alphabets of modern Romance languages, it is not used either, except in foreign names and words recently borrowed (le week-end, il watt, el kiwi). The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It is however recognized and maintained in names, like "William".

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. In the Swedish and Finnish alphabets, "W" is seen as a variant of "V" and not a separate letter. Mineral galleries. There are only four major European languages that use W in native words: English, German, Polish, and Dutch. Mindat with location data. In Dutch, W is a labiodental approximant (with the exception of words with EEUW, which have /eːw/), or other diphthongs containing -UW. Webmineral. In German—as in Romance—the phoneme [w] was lost; this is why German W represents [v] rather than [w].

The Latin [w] sound developed into Romance [v]; therefore V no longer adequately represented Germanic [w]. This digraph was not extensively used, the sound usually being represented instead by the runic wynn (Ƿ), but W gained popularity after the Norman Conquest, and by 1300 it had taken wynn's place in common use. The earliest form of the letter W was a doubled V used in the 7th century by the earliest writers of Old English; it is from this <uu> digraph that the modern name "double U" comes. Its name in English is double-u.

W is the twenty-third letter of the modern Latin alphabet. w or w/ is an abbreviation for the word "with". In Final Fantasy XI, Japanese players use "w" to be used in the terms of "lol", also constantly used by English players as well. In NetHack, "w" is the command to wield (or unwield) a weapon, and "W" is the command to wear armor.

W is the symbol for Wario, a Nintendo character. In computing and video games,

    . In the Champaign-Decatur-Springfield TV Market (DMA 82)(see Media market), a W is inserted over the picture in an upper corner when the National Weather Service issues a weather watch or warning, etc (see Severe weather terminology#Watches.2C Warnings and Advisories as defined by the NWS. On the TV show "Good Eats," W is an ill-tempered kitchen supply salesperson.

    W is the name of a Canadian specialty service dedicated to women's issues, formerly called WTN; see W Network. In television,

      . W is generally used as the first letter of callsigns allocated to broadcast television or radio stations east of the Mississippi river. In radiocommunication, W is one of the ITU prefixes allocated to the United States.

      W Hotels is an international chain of boutique hotels in urban centers. In publishing, W is the name of an American fashion magazine; see W (magazine). In weather forecasting, geography, and weather vanes, W stands for west, one of the four cardinal directions. In the United Kingdom, W stands for West London.

      As the first letter of a postal code,

        . Dubya is generally used by opponents of Bush, or by those making fun of him. "W" is used by Bush himself, on campaign signs, and by many of his supporters. Bush, sometimes spelled out as "Dubya" (the President's name is sometimes written "George Double-U Bush").

        In politics, W is a nickname of American President George W. W is a kind of a subatomic particle, the W boson. W is often the variable for energy or work, measured in joules. In physics,

          .

          W is the symbol for the watt, the SI derived unit for power. In the SI system,

            . In journalism, the Five Ws are who, what, when, where and why. Also, as Internet Slang, it can be used as "lol".

            There is also a J-Pop act called W (Double You). In Japan, W is commonly used in slang and advertising to represent the English loanword "double". In Italy, W (which does not appear in the Italian alphabet) stands for Viva ("long live"). In the International Phonetic Alphabet, [w] represents a labial-velar approximant.

            In population genetics, w is the symbol for fitness. WZ denotes female in the WZ sex-determination system. In genetics W denotes the W chromosome.

              . In film, W is the name of a 1973 American film; see W (film).

              W is the name of a graphical windowing system for Unix platforms; see W Window System. w is a command on Unix systems that displays information on users who are currently logged in. This is because in some programs (e.g., many Unix shells) the keystroke control-W is used to delete the previous word. ^W is often used jokingly to indicate the intended deletion of the previous word (see also H).

              In computing,

                . In chemistry, W is the symbol for tungsten, after its German name, Wolfram. In calendars, W is often an abbreviation for Wednesday. In biochemistry, W is the symbol for tryptophan.

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