Tile

Mission, or barrel, roof tiles

A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, clay, stone, porcelain or even glass. Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of baked clay. Less precisely, the modern term can refer to any sort of construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game).

Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiles are most often made from ceramic, with a hard glaze finish, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, slate, and reformed ceramic slurry, which is cast in a mould and fired.


Roof tiles

Fancy Japanese roof tiles The largest (6000 m²)
wooden shingle roof
in Europe: Zakopane, Poland

Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as clay, slate, or wood (wooden tiles are called shingles). Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used. Some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze.

Because of their long history, a large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved. These include:

  • Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows. This profile is suitable for stone and wooden tiles, and most recently, solar cells.
  • Roman tiles - flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end at a convex curve at the other, to allow interlocking.
  • Pantiles - with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to interlock. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field.
  • Mission or barrel tiles are semi-cylindrical tiles made by forming clay around a log and laid in alternating columns of convex and concave tiles.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. The tiles are usually hung in parallel rows, with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the nails that hold the row below.

There are also roof tiles for special positions, particularly where the planes of the several pitches meet. They include ridge, hip and valley tiles.

Floor tiles

6"x6" porcelain floor tiles

These are commonly made of ceramic, clay, porcelain or stone. Clay tiles may be painted and glazed. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and oftentimes a latex additive for extra strength. The spaces between the tiles are nowadays filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used.

See Laying tile

Wall tiles

Tilework on the wall of the Bond Street tube station

While ancient Roman building bricks were broader and thinner than modern ones and are therefore usually called tiles, the term wall tile is normally applied to finishing tiles. These are usually ceramic, but other materials such as mirrored glass or polished metal can be used. Wall tiles are usually glazed, and are often patterned by painting or embossing. Pictorial tiles, consisting of many tiles that the installer assembles like a jigsaw puzzle to form a single large picture, are available.

Modern wall tiles are fixed to a wall using a synthetic bonding agent tile adhesive for dry areas, or a cement-based mortar for areas prone to moisture, such as bath or shower walls. The spaces between the tiles are filled with a fine cement called unsanded grout. The excess grout is scraped off with a hard rubber block called a float immediately after applying; further, the grout is wiped again with a moist sponge before it completely hardens. The sponging provides added moisture to strengthen the grout as it cures. Finally, a cloth is rubbed over the wall tile to remove any haze which may remain from residual grout.

Decorative tilework

Ancient mosaic in the British Museum. Typical tilework on buildings in Santarém, Portugal.

Decorative tilework typically takes the form of mosaic upon the walls, floor, or ceiling of a building. Although decorative tilework was known and extensively practiced in the ancient world (as evidenced in the magnificent mosaics of Pompeii and Herculaneum), it perhaps reached its greatest expression during the Islamic period.

Some places, notably Portugal, have a tradition of tilework on buildings that continues today.

In the United States, decorative tiles were in vogue, especially in southern California, in the 1920s and 1930s. Prominent among art tile makers during this period was Ernest A. Batchelder.

Islamic tilework

Tilework of Hazrat Masoumeh shrine, Qom. First constructed in the late 8th century.

Perhaps because of the tenets of Moslem law (sharia) which disavow religious icons and images in favor of more abstract and universal representations of the divine, many consider decorative tilework to have reached a pinnacle of expression and detail during the Islamic period. Palaces, public buildings, and mosques were heavily decorated with dense, often massive mosaics and friezes of astonishing complexity. As both the influence and the extent of Islam spread during the Middle Ages this artistic tradition was carried along, finding expression from the gardens and courtyards of Málaga in Moorish Spain to the mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.

The mathematics of tiling

Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps. These shapes are said to tessellate (from the Latin tessera, 'tile'). For detailed information on tilings see the tessellation page.

History of tiles

Tiles were developed as a product of earthenware pottery, either as an alternative use for fragments of broken pottery (called potsherds) or as an independent invention. Tiles have been used in construction for at least 4000 years, by the Romans, Greeks, Babylonians, Phoenicians and many other cultures.


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Tiles have been used in construction for at least 4000 years, by the Romans, Greeks, Babylonians, Phoenicians and many other cultures. For the low bandwith users it takes a while to load. Tiles were developed as a product of earthenware pottery, either as an alternative use for fragments of broken pottery (called potsherds) or as an independent invention. The images are organized as a gallery. For detailed information on tilings see the tessellation page. Please wisit the page Pictures of Republic of Turkey for the sights. These shapes are said to tessellate (from the Latin tessera, 'tile'). Because of different historical factors playing an important role in defining a Turkish identity, the culture of Turkey is an interesting combination of clear efforts to be "modern" and Western, combined with the necessity felt to maintain religious and historical values.

Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps. (See Jews of Turkey for more). As both the influence and the extent of Islam spread during the Middle Ages this artistic tradition was carried along, finding expression from the gardens and courtyards of Málaga in Moorish Spain to the mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. The Jewish population in Turkey is one of the largest and most prominent outside of Israel. Palaces, public buildings, and mosques were heavily decorated with dense, often massive mosaics and friezes of astonishing complexity. The Ecumenical Orthodox Patriarch (patrik) governs the Greek-Orthodox Church in Turkey and acts as the spiritual leader of all Orthodox churches throughout the world, the Armenian patrik the Armenian Church, while the Jewish community is lead by the Hahambasi, Turkey's Chief Rabbi, all based in Istanbul. Perhaps because of the tenets of Moslem law (sharia) which disavow religious icons and images in favor of more abstract and universal representations of the divine, many consider decorative tilework to have reached a pinnacle of expression and detail during the Islamic period. The department is criticised by the Alevi Muslims for not supporting their beliefs.

Batchelder. The department supports Sunni Islam and has commissions authorised to give Fatwa judgements on Islamic issues. Prominent among art tile makers during this period was Ernest A. Imams are trained in Imam vocational schools and at theology departments at universities. In the United States, decorative tiles were in vogue, especially in southern California, in the 1920s and 1930s. As a consequence, they control all mosques and Muslim clerics. Some places, notably Portugal, have a tradition of tilework on buildings that continues today. The Diyanet is the main Islamic framework established after abolition of the Ulama and Seyh-ul-Islam of the old régime.

Although decorative tilework was known and extensively practiced in the ancient world (as evidenced in the magnificent mosaics of Pompeii and Herculaneum), it perhaps reached its greatest expression during the Islamic period. The mainstream Hanafi school of Sunni Islam is largely organised by the state, through Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı (Department of Religious Affairs). Decorative tilework typically takes the form of mosaic upon the walls, floor, or ceiling of a building. The religious sensibilities are represented through conservative parties, such as the currently ruling AKP party. Finally, a cloth is rubbed over the wall tile to remove any haze which may remain from residual grout. No party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief. The sponging provides added moisture to strengthen the grout as it cures. The Turkish constitution recognises freedom of religion for individuals, and the religious communities are placed under the protection of state, but the constitution explicitly states that they cannot become involved in the political process, by forming a religious party for example.

The excess grout is scraped off with a hard rubber block called a float immediately after applying; further, the grout is wiped again with a moist sponge before it completely hardens. The constitutional rule that prohibits discrimination on religious grounds, is taken very seriously. The spaces between the tiles are filled with a fine cement called unsanded grout. Even though the state does not have any/or promote any religion, it actively monitors the area between the religions. Modern wall tiles are fixed to a wall using a synthetic bonding agent tile adhesive for dry areas, or a cement-based mortar for areas prone to moisture, such as bath or shower walls. Unlike other Muslim-majority countries, there is a strong tradition of separation of church and state (in this case mosque and state) in Turkey. Pictorial tiles, consisting of many tiles that the installer assembles like a jigsaw puzzle to form a single large picture, are available. The remaining 4%-5% of the population are of other religions, mostly Christian (Greek Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic (Gregorian), Syriac Orthodox, Roman Catholics and Protestants), Jewish, Bahá'ís, and the Yezidis.

Wall tiles are usually glazed, and are often patterned by painting or embossing. There is also a Twelver Shia minority, mainly of Azeri descent. These are usually ceramic, but other materials such as mirrored glass or polished metal can be used. About 15-20% of the population are Alevi Muslims. While ancient Roman building bricks were broader and thinner than modern ones and are therefore usually called tiles, the term wall tile is normally applied to finishing tiles. Most belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. See Laying tile
. Nominally, 95%-96% of the population is Muslim.

The spaces between the tiles are nowadays filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used. Today the Turkish economy is diverse enough to subsidise individual artists with great freedom. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and oftentimes a latex additive for extra strength. This was done as both a process of modernisation and of creating a cultural identity. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into the fine arts, such as paintings, sculptures and architecture amongst other things. Clay tiles may be painted and glazed. As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-driven former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, the increase in the methods of artistic expression followed.

These are commonly made of ceramic, clay, porcelain or stone. Turkey has a very diverse culture derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. They include ridge, hip and valley tiles. Turkey is the most modern and westernized country in the Islamic world, and western Turkish social life has few differences from European social life. There are also roof tiles for special positions, particularly where the planes of the several pitches meet. R&D strengths include agriculture, forestry, health, biotechnology, nuclear technologies, minerals, materials, IT, and defence. The tiles are usually hung in parallel rows, with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the nails that hold the row below. There are 64 research institutes and organisations.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey coordinates basic and applied research and development. These include:. For graduate studies, two further years is necessary, as is typical throughout the world. Because of their long history, a large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved. Universities provide either two or four years of education for undergraduate studies. Some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze. However, university students are a lucky minority in Turkey.

Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used. Some universities can compete with the best world universities whereas some are unable to provide the necessary educational standards due to financial problems and underfunding. Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as clay, slate, or wood (wooden tiles are called shingles). The capacity in total of Turkish universities is approximately 300.000. . State universities charge very low fees and foundationals are highly expensive with fees up to $15 000 or sometimes even more.
. There are two types of universities, state and (private) foundational.

Tiles are most often made from ceramic, with a hard glaze finish, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, slate, and reformed ceramic slurry, which is cast in a mould and fired. There are approximately 85 universities in Turkey. Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. From 1998 the universities were given greater autonomy, and were encouraged to raise funds from partnerships with industry. Less precisely, the modern term can refer to any sort of construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game). Tertiary education is the responsibility of the Higher Education Council, and funding is provided by the state. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of baked clay. The 15 main universities are in Istanbul, Ankara.

Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. There are around 820 higher education institutes including universities, with a total student enrollment of over 1 million. A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, clay, stone, porcelain or even glass. Education is compulsory and free from ages 6 to 14. Mission or barrel tiles are semi-cylindrical tiles made by forming clay around a log and laid in alternating columns of convex and concave tiles. Recently, many have also settled in Russia and other neighbouring countries. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field. Due to a demand for an increased labour force in Western Europe between 1960 and 1980 many Turkish citizens emigrated to West Germany, the Netherlands, France and other Western European countries, forming a significant overseas population.

Pantiles - with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to interlock. Minorities include Armenians, Syriacs, Greeks, Georgians, Hamshenis, Jews, Levantines, Ossetians, Pomaks, and Roma (Roma is a name for Gypsies). Roman tiles - flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end at a convex curve at the other, to allow interlocking. The term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey, since the Turkish State only considers the communities mentioned in the text of Treaty of Lausanne. This profile is suitable for stone and wooden tiles, and most recently, solar cells. Turkey has always sought to restrict any expression of Kurdishniess and introduced many tough laws to stifle the use of the langauge and manifestation of Kurdish ehnicity including a ban on parents naming their chidlren Kurdish names. Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows. According to the CIA fact book, 15% of the population are ethnic Kurds including Zazas Kurds.

Kurds are original inhabitants of Anatolia and they use Kurdish as their primary language and the knowledge of the language was stated by the 12.7% of the population in total, but there are many Turkish-speaking Kurds. The largest non-Turkic nation are the Kurds, a distinct ethnic group concentrated in the east, North Kurdistan, who make up more than 25% of the total population. However, The other ethnic groups include, Abkhaz, Albanians, Arabs, Assyrians, Bosniaks, Chechens, Circassians, Ingush, and Laz. The Turkish population which is more than 70% are of Turkish ethnicity.

The Turkish state sought to create a different definition to define the citizens of Anatolia but in essence it has labelled all ethnic groups living in Turkey as ethnic Turk. The legal use of term "Turkish" (a citizen of Turkey) has made it difficult for non-Turkic nations living in Anatolia to exercise their cultural rights. Turkey is obliged to apply EU employment and social laws to qualify for membership. Turkey's labour force is flexible, with a wide spectrum of skills from the unskilled to highly educated.

According to the CIA World Factbook, other natural resources include coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, uranium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower. Several major new pipelines are planned, especially the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline for Caspian oilfields, the longest one in the world, which recently opened in 2005. The pipeline network in Turkey included 1,738 km for crude oil, 2,321 km for petroleum products, and 708 km for natural gas in 1999. Turkey is a net oil and gas importer.

(In essence, they "slashed off some zeroes".) This was meant to be a symbol of a stronger currency, after a long period of high inflation that had devalued the currency so greatly. Recently, the "New Turkish lira" was introduced, worth 1 million old lira. For a time, the lira was synonymous with an low-valued currency. Meanwhile the public sector fiscal deficit has regularly exceeded 10% of GDP - due in large part to the huge burden of interest payments, which in 2001 accounted for more than 50% of central government spending - while inflation has remained in the high double digit range.

Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. In recent years the economic situation has been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances. Continued slow global growth and serious political tensions in the Middle East cast a shadow over growth prospects in the future. Results in 2002 were much better, because of strong financial support from the IMF and tighter fiscal policy.

Foreign direct investment in Turkey remains low - less than USD 1 billion annually. The insurance market is officially regulated through the Ministery of Commerce. In 1954, life insurance was exempted from this requirement. Government regulations passed in 1929 required all insurance companies to reinsure 30% of each policy with National Reinsurance Corp.

The Istanbul Stock Exchange opened in 1985 and Istanbul Gold Exchange in 1995. However, over-staffing remains a problem. Political involvement was minimized and loaning policies were changed. The five big state-owned banks restructured during 2001.

There are also Middle Eastern Trading Banks, which practice an Islamic type of trading. Currently more then 34% of the assets are concentrated in the Agricultural Bank (Ziraat Bankasi), Housing Bank (Yapi Kredi Bankasi), IsBank and Akbank. This financial breakdown brought the number of banks to 31. There was a recession followed by the floating of the lira.

In late 2000 and early 2001 a growing trade deficit and weaknesses in the banking sector plunged the economy into crisis. In 1998 there were 72 banks. The bank has 25 domestic branches, as well as branches in New York, London, Frankfurt, and Zurich. All foreign exchange transfers are exclusively handled by the central bank.

It also has the obligation to provide for the monetary requirements of the state agricultural and commercial enterprises. It possesses the sole right to issue notes. "The Central Bank of Republic of Turkey" was founded in 1930, as a privileged joint-stock company. Turkish destinations such as Antalya have become very popular among Russian and Eastern European tourists.

Over the years, Turkey has emerged as a popular tourist destination for many Europeans, often competing with Greece, Italy and Spain. The total revenue was $18.2 billion and with an average expenditure of $679 per tourist. In the year 2005 Turkey, 21,122,798 tourists vacationed in Turkey. According to the travel agencies TUI and THOMAS COOK, 31 hotels out of 100 best hotels of the world are located in Turkey.

Tourism is one of the most dynamic and fast developing sectors in Turkey. There were 19 million fixed phone lines, 36 million mobile phones, and 12 million Internet users by the August, 2005. Private sector companies operate in mobile telephony and Internet access. Telecommunications were liberalised in 2004 after the creation of the Telecommunication Authority.

There were 118 airports in 1999, including six international airports in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Trabzon, Dalaman and Antalya. There are 1,200 km of navigable waterways. The rail network was 8,682 km in 1999, including 2,133 km of electrified track. The road network was an estimated 382,397 km in 1999, including 95,599 km of paved roads and 1,749 km of motorways.

Large factories of international firms such as Mercedes, FIAT, and Toyota are providing jobs for thousands of people. Most of the production of machines, consumer goods, and tools take place in hundreds of small machine shops. The automotive industry, which is the seventh largest in Europe, is also an important part of the economy, since 1970s. Sugar-beet industry is the number one, which produces more than domestic use.

Also, brick, tile, glass, leather, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, metalworking, cordage, flour milling, vegetable oil, paper products, plastic products and rubber processing. The largest industry - and largest exporter - is textiles and clothing, which is almost entirely in private hands, next to petroleum refineries (Izmir, Istanbul, Adana, and Kayseri), Iron and Steel Mill at Karabuk and Eregli Iron and Steel works. However livestock products, including meat, milk, wool, and eggs, contributed to more than 1/3 of the value of agricultural output. The livestock industry, compared to initial years of the republic showed little improvement in productivity, and the later years of the decade saw stagnation.

Observers note that coordination of the efforts of different research units and links between extension services are inadequate. Research is organised by commodity, with independent units for such major crops as cotton, tobacco, and citrus fruit. The pay disparity in this sector is traditionally very high and incentives to train people do not cover this gap. The inability to spread the use of new technologies has been attributed to a reluctance of trained personnel to work in the field.

Agricultural research is distributed among nearly 100 government institutions and universities. This has been attributed to shortages of qualified advisers, transportation, and equipment. Given all the efforts of the government, agricultural extension and research services are poorly organised in Turkey. G.A.P shows a very promising future for the southeastern agriculture.

The government has also initiated many planned projects, such as the G.A.P project. Turkey is continuously improving the process of dismantling the incentive system; fertiliser and pesticide subsidies have been curtailed, and remaining price supports have been gradually converted to floor prices. These traditions are expected to change with the EU accession process. Many old agricultural attitudes remain widespread.

Today, many of the institutions established between 1930 and 1980 continue to play important roles in the practices of farmers. Agricultural loans are issued with negative interest rates. However, since the 1980's agriculture has been in a state of decline compared to the total economy. The agricultural output has been growing at a respectable rate.

Turkey has been self-sufficient in food production since the 1980s. It is estimated that 50% of the population lives under the international standards of poverty, especially in the war torn south-east areas. Turkey has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. Turkey's economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that in 2001 still accounted for 40% of employment.

The climate is a Mediterranean temperate climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet and cold winters, though conditions can be much harsher in the more arid interior. See the list of cities in Turkey. Other important cities include İzmir, Bursa, Adana, Trabzon, Malatya, Gaziantep, Erzurum, Kayseri, İzmit (Kocaeli), Konya, Mersin, Diyarbakır, Antalya and Samsun. The capital of Turkey is the city of Ankara, but the largest city is İstanbul.

Major provinces include: Istanbul 11 million, Ankara 4 million, Izmir 3.5 million, Bursa 2.1 million, Konya 2.2 million, Adana 1.8 million. The province usually bears the same name as the provincial capital, also called the central subprovince; exceptions are Hatay (capital: Antakya), Kocaeli (capital: İzmit) and Sakarya (capital: Adapazarı). Each province is divided into subprovinces (ilçeler; singular ilçe). Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces (iller in Turkish; singular il).

This image also includes a small scaled map that shows other fault lines in Turkey. Within the last century there were many earthquakes along this fault line, the sizes and locations of these earthquakes can be seen on the Fault lines & Earthquakes image. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey, leading to the creation of the Black Sea.

Turkey is also prone to very severe earthquakes. To the east is found a more mountainous landscape, home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates (Fırat), Tigris (Dicle) and the Araks (Aras), as well as Lake Van (Van Gölü) and Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı), Turkey's highest point at 5,137 m. The Anatolian peninsula, Anatolia (Anadolu) consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, in between the Köroğlu and East-Black Sea mountain range to the north and the Taurus Mountains (Toros Dağları) to the south. It is considered that Turkey is in Europe not in Asia because of political and cultural reasons.

Turkey forms a bridge between Europe and Asia, with the division between the two running from the Black Sea (Karadeniz) to the north down along the Bosporus (Istanbul Boğazı) strait through the Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi) and the Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı) strait to the Aegean Sea (Ege Denizi) and the larger Mediterranean Sea (Akdeniz) to the south. This region comprises approximately 1/6 of Turkey's total land area. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. Turkey is generally divided into seven regions: the Marmara, the Aegean, the Mediterranean, Central Anatolia, East Anatolia, Southeast Anatolia and the Black Sea region.

The land borders of Turkey total 2,573 kilometres, and the coastlines (including islands) total another 8,333 kilometres. Many geographers consider Turkey politically and culturally in Europe, although it is a trancontiental country between Asia and Europe. The area of Turkey inclusive of lakes is 814,578 square kilometres, of which 790,200 are in Asia and 24,378 are located in Europe. It is roughly rectangular in shape and is 1,660 kilometers wide.

The territory of Turkey extends from 36° to 42° N and from 26° to 45° E. However, the picture of Ataturk was placed back in because of public pressure. This action led to significant debate in the TBMM Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi. Recently, the picture of Ataturk was removed from the logo of the Turkish Armed Forces following a modernization prodecure.

Currently, 45,000 troops are stationed in Turkish-recognised Northern Cyprus. The Turkish Armed forces, with a combined troop strength of 680,000 people, is the second largest standing force in NATO after the United States. Towards the end of the 1980s, a restructuring process was initiated in the Turkish Armed Forces. After becoming a member of the NATO Alliance on February 18, 1952, the Turkish Republic initiated a comprehensive modernization program for its Armed Forces.

The Commander-in-Chief is Chief General Staff General Hilmi Özkök. In wartime, both have law enforcement and military functions. of Internal Affairs in peacetime and are subordinate to the Army and Navy Commands respectively. The Gendarmerie and Coast Guard operate as the parts of Dept.

Turkish Armed Forces (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri TSK) consists of the Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry) and Air Force. Please refer to the article "foreign relations of Turkey" for details. However, Turkey's attitude and far-from-desirable treatment towards its large Kurdish population are quite the contrast to its very noble recited aspirations... These entail, inter-alia, membership in the NATO Alliance and full integration with the European Union, taking the lead in regional cooperation processes, promoting good neighbourly relations and economic cooperation, extending humanitarian aid and assistance to the less fortunate, participating in peace-keeping operations and contributing to the resolution of disputes as well as post-conflict reconciliation and reconstruction efforts.

As detailed in the article "foreign relations of Turkey", Turkey pursues its stated objective by following a principled and proactive foreign policy that employs a broad spectrum of peaceful means. In this geopolitical region, the determining factor of Turkey's policies is its democratic and secular political system, its choice of a robust, free, market economy (Customs Union with the EU) and a social tradition of reconciling the modern society with cultural identity, and guided through the legacy of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's policy of "Peace at Home and Peace Abroad". Some of these conflicts are result of the complications that arose at the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, and some are as old as Anatolian history. The modern Turkish Republic, which emerged from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire, is pursuing peaceful policies in a region that has many conflicts.

Turkey also accepts as legally binding any decisions on international agreements. Turkey accepts the European Court of Human Rights' decisions as a higher court decision. The court decisions and documents (case info, expert reports, etc) will be accessible via the Internet. Turkey is adapting a new national "Judicial Networking System" (UYAP).

The High Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors is the principal body charged with responsibility for ensuring judicial integrity, and determines professional judges acceptance and court assignments. If there is a need to inspect a judge, that can only be performed with the Ministry of Justice's permission, in which case a special task force of justice experts and senior judges is formed. The child courts have their own structure. However, the retirement age restrictions do apply.

Except with their own consent, no judge or prosecutor can be dismissed, have his/her powers restricted, or be forced to retire. Judge and prosecution structures are secured by the constitution. When a case is closed to public, the court has to publish the reason. All courts are open to public.

Any conviction in a criminal case can be taken to a court of Appeals for judicial review. Three-judge courts of first instance have jurisdiction over major civil suits and serious crimes. It has jurisdiction over misdemeanors and petty crimes, with penalties ranging from small fines to brief prison sentences. This court has a single judge.

For minor civil complaints and offenses, justices of the peace take the case. Turkish courts have no jury system; judges render decisions after establishing the facts in each case based on evidence presented by lawyers and prosecutors. The Judicial system is highly structured. The courts, which are independent in discharging their duties, must explain each ruling on the basis of the provisions of the Constitution, the laws, jurisprudence, and their personal convictions.

There is no organisation, person, or institution which can interfere in the running of the courts, and the executive and legislative structures must obey the courts' decisions. The freedom and independence of the Judicial System is protected within the constitution. To be elected, they must win at least 10% of the vote in the province from which they are running. Independent candidates may run.

To be represented in Parliament, a party must win at least 10% of the national vote in a national parliamentary election. The Grand National Assembly is elected every five years. Parliament - Legislative power rests in the 550-seat Grand National Assembly "Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi", representing 81 provinces. The Prime Minister is elected by the parliament with a vote of trust to his government.

The PM and Ministers have to be parliamentarians. Executive power - Executive power rests in the Prime Minister "Başbakan" and the Council of Ministers "Bakanlar Kurulu". The President does not have to be a member of parliament. A president is elected every seven years by the Grand National Assembly.

Head of State - The function of Head of State is performed by the President "Cumhurbaşkanı". Its constitution is called 'Anayasa' (Main Law). Main Articles: Politics of Turkey, Constitution of Turkey Turkey's political system is based on separation of powers. Even if these periods have distinct characteristics, some issues do repeat in every period with subtle differences.

The least disputed classification is based on three global periods: the war of independence, the single-party period, and the multi-party period. There are many different ways of classifying the history of Turkey. In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne recognised the sovereignty of a new Turkish Republic, Kemal was granted the name Atatürk (meaning father of Turks) by the National Assembly and would become the republic's first President. This was followed by the abolition of the Sultan's office by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on November 1, 1922, thus ending 631 years of Ottoman rule.

By September 18th, 1922 the invading Entente armies were repelled and the country was liberated. This national movement against the victorious Allies of World War I revoked the terms of the treaty which sought to carve up the Ottoman Empire. The war mobilised every available part of Turkish society -- this would become the foundation of the Turkish nation. The war of liberation began in protest to the Mondros Armistice and the Treaty of Sevres, under the command of Mustafa Kemal Pasha.

Even though official history of the state begins on May 19, 1919, with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's onset of the Independence War, the issues and unique answers of the republic's history cannot be understood without the background of the Ottoman Empire, the spirit of people who fought to build the state, or the history of the land (Anatolia) that unites everything in it. The rich history of people and the land laid the foundations of the current republic. They were superseded by the Ottoman dynasty in the late 13th and early 14th centuries -- this empire lasted until 1923. The origins of modern Turkey can be traced back to the arrival of Turkish tribes in Anatolia in the 11th century, under the Seljuks.

The Republic of Turkey was established on October 29, 1923 from the remnants of the Ottoman Empire. . In October 2005, the European Union opened accession negotiations with Ankara. Turkey is a member state of the United Nations, NATO, OSCE, OECD, OIC and the Council of Europe.

This system has been interrupted by several coups. The Republic of Turkey is a democratic laic constitutional republic, whose political system was established in 1923. Turkey borders eight countries: Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; Georgia, Armenia and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhichevan and to the northeast; Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Because of its geographical position between Europe and Asia and three seas, Turkey has been a historical crossroads, the homeland of and battleground between several great civilizations, and a centre of commerce.

Some geographers consider Turkey to be, also a part of Europe due to certain cultural, political and historical characteristics. Anatolia is situated between the Black Sea on the north and the Mediterranean Sea to south, with the Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea (both branches of the Mediterranean) to the west. Its straddles the Bosphorus straits that separate Southwest Asia from Southeast Europe. The Republic of Turkey or Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye); , is a bicontinental country located mainly in the Anatolian peninsula, with 3% of its territory located in the Balkan region of Southeastern Europe.

(Turkish: Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh). ^  Atreya, Navita, McDowall, David, Ozbolat, "Asylum Seekers from Turkey: the Dangers They Flee", (Report of a mission to Turkey), Perihan, 28 February 2001). Human rights in Turkey. Holidays in Turkey.

Sports in Turkey. Media in Republic of Turkey. Museums in Republic of Turkey. Festivals in Republic of Turkey.

List of Turkey-related topics.

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