Tile

Mission, or barrel, roof tiles

A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, clay, stone, porcelain or even glass. Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of baked clay. Less precisely, the modern term can refer to any sort of construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game).

Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiles are most often made from ceramic, with a hard glaze finish, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, slate, and reformed ceramic slurry, which is cast in a mould and fired.


Roof tiles

Fancy Japanese roof tiles The largest (6000 m²)
wooden shingle roof
in Europe: Zakopane, Poland

Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as clay, slate, or wood (wooden tiles are called shingles). Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used. Some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze.

Because of their long history, a large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved. These include:

  • Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows. This profile is suitable for stone and wooden tiles, and most recently, solar cells.
  • Roman tiles - flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end at a convex curve at the other, to allow interlocking.
  • Pantiles - with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to interlock. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field.
  • Mission or barrel tiles are semi-cylindrical tiles made by forming clay around a log and laid in alternating columns of convex and concave tiles.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. The tiles are usually hung in parallel rows, with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the nails that hold the row below.

There are also roof tiles for special positions, particularly where the planes of the several pitches meet. They include ridge, hip and valley tiles.

Floor tiles

6"x6" porcelain floor tiles

These are commonly made of ceramic, clay, porcelain or stone. Clay tiles may be painted and glazed. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and oftentimes a latex additive for extra strength. The spaces between the tiles are nowadays filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used.

See Laying tile

Wall tiles

Tilework on the wall of the Bond Street tube station

While ancient Roman building bricks were broader and thinner than modern ones and are therefore usually called tiles, the term wall tile is normally applied to finishing tiles. These are usually ceramic, but other materials such as mirrored glass or polished metal can be used. Wall tiles are usually glazed, and are often patterned by painting or embossing. Pictorial tiles, consisting of many tiles that the installer assembles like a jigsaw puzzle to form a single large picture, are available.

Modern wall tiles are fixed to a wall using a synthetic bonding agent tile adhesive for dry areas, or a cement-based mortar for areas prone to moisture, such as bath or shower walls. The spaces between the tiles are filled with a fine cement called unsanded grout. The excess grout is scraped off with a hard rubber block called a float immediately after applying; further, the grout is wiped again with a moist sponge before it completely hardens. The sponging provides added moisture to strengthen the grout as it cures. Finally, a cloth is rubbed over the wall tile to remove any haze which may remain from residual grout.

Decorative tilework

Ancient mosaic in the British Museum. Typical tilework on buildings in Santarém, Portugal.

Decorative tilework typically takes the form of mosaic upon the walls, floor, or ceiling of a building. Although decorative tilework was known and extensively practiced in the ancient world (as evidenced in the magnificent mosaics of Pompeii and Herculaneum), it perhaps reached its greatest expression during the Islamic period.

Some places, notably Portugal, have a tradition of tilework on buildings that continues today.

In the United States, decorative tiles were in vogue, especially in southern California, in the 1920s and 1930s. Prominent among art tile makers during this period was Ernest A. Batchelder.

Islamic tilework

Tilework of Hazrat Masoumeh shrine, Qom. First constructed in the late 8th century.

Perhaps because of the tenets of Moslem law (sharia) which disavow religious icons and images in favor of more abstract and universal representations of the divine, many consider decorative tilework to have reached a pinnacle of expression and detail during the Islamic period. Palaces, public buildings, and mosques were heavily decorated with dense, often massive mosaics and friezes of astonishing complexity. As both the influence and the extent of Islam spread during the Middle Ages this artistic tradition was carried along, finding expression from the gardens and courtyards of Málaga in Moorish Spain to the mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.

The mathematics of tiling

Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps. These shapes are said to tessellate (from the Latin tessera, 'tile'). For detailed information on tilings see the tessellation page.

History of tiles

Tiles were developed as a product of earthenware pottery, either as an alternative use for fragments of broken pottery (called potsherds) or as an independent invention. Tiles have been used in construction for at least 4000 years, by the Romans, Greeks, Babylonians, Phoenicians and many other cultures.


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Tiles have been used in construction for at least 4000 years, by the Romans, Greeks, Babylonians, Phoenicians and many other cultures. [5]. Tiles were developed as a product of earthenware pottery, either as an alternative use for fragments of broken pottery (called potsherds) or as an independent invention. High demand for UCLA apparel has inspired the licensing of its trademark to UCLA brand stores throughout East Asia. For detailed information on tilings see the tessellation page. This trend may arise from the school's academic reputation and popular images of the Southern California lifestyle, emphasizing freedom in a land of perpetual sunshine. These shapes are said to tessellate (from the Latin tessera, 'tile'). The UCLA name also doubles as an overseas clothing and accessories brand; in certain Asian countries, it is considered fashionable to adorn oneself with the UCLA brand name.

Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps. This is a peripheral enterprise, as UCLA does not have a hotel management program, so it serves no direct educational purpose. As both the influence and the extent of Islam spread during the Middle Ages this artistic tradition was carried along, finding expression from the gardens and courtyards of Málaga in Moorish Spain to the mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. Besides operating the usual dormitories and apartment buildings, UCLA also runs a small, full-service, on-campus hotel, the UCLA Guest House, and a full-service conference center, the UCLA Conference Center, in the San Bernardino Mountains near Lake Arrowhead. Palaces, public buildings, and mosques were heavily decorated with dense, often massive mosaics and friezes of astonishing complexity. [4]. Perhaps because of the tenets of Moslem law (sharia) which disavow religious icons and images in favor of more abstract and universal representations of the divine, many consider decorative tilework to have reached a pinnacle of expression and detail during the Islamic period. News and World Report has ranked UCLA Medical Center as the best hospital in the Western United States for 16 consecutive years, and placed it among its honor roll of best hospitals in the United States.

Batchelder. As of 2005, U.S. Prominent among art tile makers during this period was Ernest A. In 1981, the UCLA Medical Center made history when an assistant professor named Michael Gottlieb first diagnosed an unknown affliction later to be called AIDS. In the United States, decorative tiles were in vogue, especially in southern California, in the 1920s and 1930s. In addition, the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine uses two Los Angeles County hospitals as teaching hospitals: Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and Olive View-UCLA Medical Center. Some places, notably Portugal, have a tradition of tilework on buildings that continues today. The UCLA Medical Center is actually part of a larger healthcare system, UCLA Healthcare, which also operates a hospital in Santa Monica and seven primary care clinics throughout Los Angeles County.

Although decorative tilework was known and extensively practiced in the ancient world (as evidenced in the magnificent mosaics of Pompeii and Herculaneum), it perhaps reached its greatest expression during the Islamic period. The UCLA Dance Marathon is an annual event on campus with hundreds of student dancers committed to raising money and joining together to support the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation. Decorative tilework typically takes the form of mosaic upon the walls, floor, or ceiling of a building. Spring Sing is an annually held show of student talent at the Los Angeles Tennis Center on campus. Finally, a cloth is rubbed over the wall tile to remove any haze which may remain from residual grout. The annual event is planned and predominately staffed by the Cultural Affairs Commission (CAC) of the Undergraduate Students Association Council (USAC),a branch of ASUCLA. The sponging provides added moisture to strengthen the grout as it cures. The UCLA Jazz Reggae Festival gathers musicians from both genres for a two day concert held every year over the Memorial Day weekend.

The excess grout is scraped off with a hard rubber block called a float immediately after applying; further, the grout is wiped again with a moist sponge before it completely hardens. The Los Angeles Times Festival of Books, a two-day book fair held the last weekend of April, is the largest annual gathering of publishers and authors in the country and free to the public. The spaces between the tiles are filled with a fine cement called unsanded grout. The Lexus Gauntlet is the name given to a competition between UCLA and USC in the 18 varsity sports that both compete in head-to-head; in 2005, UCLA won the Lexus Gauntlet Trophy. Modern wall tiles are fixed to a wall using a synthetic bonding agent tile adhesive for dry areas, or a cement-based mortar for areas prone to moisture, such as bath or shower walls. UCLA shares a traditional sports rivalry with the nearby University of Southern California. Pictorial tiles, consisting of many tiles that the installer assembles like a jigsaw puzzle to form a single large picture, are available. In the 2004 Athens games, UCLA sent 56 athletes, more than any other university, who won 19 medals.

Wall tiles are usually glazed, and are often patterned by painting or embossing. UCLA has medaled in every Olympics they have participated in. These are usually ceramic, but other materials such as mirrored glass or polished metal can be used. Women's sports: Golf (2), Gymnastics (5), Softball (10), Track & Field (5), Volleyball (3), Water Polo (3). While ancient Roman building bricks were broader and thinner than modern ones and are therefore usually called tiles, the term wall tile is normally applied to finishing tiles. Men's sports: Football (1), Golf (1), Gymnastics (2), Soccer (4), Swimming (1), Tennis (16), Track & Field (8), Volleyball (18), Water Polo (8). See Laying tile
. In addition to its basketball championships, UCLA has won NCAA Division I championships in the following events:.

The spaces between the tiles are nowadays filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used. Past rosters of UCLA basketball teams have been filled with such greats such as Jackie Robinson, Gail Goodrich, Kareem Abdul Jabbar, Bill Walton, Baron Davis and Reggie Miller. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and oftentimes a latex additive for extra strength. From 1971 to 1974, UCLA men's basketball won an unprecedented 88 consecutive games. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Under legendary coach John Wooden, UCLA men's basketball teams won 10 NCAA championships in 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, and 1975, and an 11th was added under then-coach Jim Harrick in 1995. Clay tiles may be painted and glazed. Among these championships, some of the more notable victories are in men's basketball.

These are commonly made of ceramic, clay, porcelain or stone. As of 2005, UCLA has won 118 national championships, including 97 NCAA championships, more than any other university. They include ridge, hip and valley tiles. He would dub the baby blue uniform "Powder Keg Blue," powder blue with an explosive kick. There are also roof tiles for special positions, particularly where the planes of the several pitches meet. Sanders figured that the baby blue would look better on the field and in film. The tiles are usually hung in parallel rows, with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the nails that hold the row below. The navy blue was changed to a lighter shade of blue.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. Sanders added a gold loop on the shoulders -- the UCLA Stripe. These include:. When Red Sanders came to UCLA to coach football in 1949 he redesigned the uniforms. Because of their long history, a large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved. The Bruin mascots are Joe and Josephine Bruin, and the fight songs are Sons of Westwood and The Mighty Bruins. Some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze. The men's and women's basketball and volleyball teams play at Pauley Pavilion on campus.

Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used. The Bruin football team plays home games at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California; the team won a national title in 1954. Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as clay, slate, or wood (wooden tiles are called shingles). Two notable sports facilities serve as home venues for UCLA sports. . The Bruins participate in NCAA Division I-A as part of the Pacific Ten Conference.
. The school's sports teams are called the Bruins, with colors true-blue and gold.

Tiles are most often made from ceramic, with a hard glaze finish, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, slate, and reformed ceramic slurry, which is cast in a mould and fired. In the 1990s, student activists tended to focus on university and statewide concerns, such as union recognition, the expansion of the Chicano/a Studies Center, Proposition 187, which denied social services to undocumented immigrants, and Proposition 209, which ended affirmative action in California. Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Campus political debate in the 1980s centered primarily on the South African government's apartheid policies, the U.S.'s Central American policy, as well as the implementation of affirmative action in the state. Less precisely, the modern term can refer to any sort of construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game). This demonstration and many others at UC campuses throughout the state caused then-Governor Ronald Reagan to shut down the state's colleges and universities for the first time in California's history. The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of baked clay. Chancellor Young declared a State of Emergency and summoned the LAPD on campus; 74 arrests were made and 12 people reported injuries.

Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, or other objects such as tabletops. A fire caused $5,000 worth of damage, destroying part of Murphy Hall. A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, clay, stone, porcelain or even glass. On May 5, 1970 students protesting the Kent State shootings marched through campus and vandalized several buildings, including an ROTC building. Mission or barrel tiles are semi-cylindrical tiles made by forming clay around a log and laid in alternating columns of convex and concave tiles. Eight months later, the regents again dismissed Davis from the UCLA faculty.[3]. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field. Young complied a state superior court order overruling the regents' decision by restoring course credit to Davis's class.

Pantiles - with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to interlock. On October 22, Vice Chancellor Charles E. Roman tiles - flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end at a convex curve at the other, to allow interlocking. The overflowing audience gave the 25-year-old professor a standing ovation. This profile is suitable for stone and wooden tiles, and most recently, solar cells. Outraged faculty threatened to withhold grades if Davis was not reinstated, and nearly 2,000 students crammed into Royce Hall's auditorium when Davis delivered her first lecture despite the regents' decision to remove credit for the class. Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows. Later in 1969, the UC regents fired Angela Davis, a radical feminist and lecturer in the Philosophy Department, for openly identifying as a member of the Communist Party.

Later, it was reported that members of the FBI had infiltrated both groups and exacerbated tensions between them as part of the COINTELPRO program. On January 17, 1969 UCLA students and Black Panther Party members John Huggins, 23, and Bunchy Carter, 26, were slain in Campbell Hall by members of United Slaves, a rival black power organization headed by Maulana Karenga. During the 1969-1970 academic year, various activist organizations were infiltrated by federal agents who provoked conflicts between them. The protests escalated as the war continued.

The protests at UCLA began in 1967, when over 500 students protested the recruitment of graduates by Dow Chemicals, which produced napalm, an incendiary chemical used in the war. While student activism at UCLA in the 1940s demonstrated support for the Allied effort in World War II, in the 1960s the UCLA campus emerged as a staging area for massive protests against the Vietnam War. The crowd dispersed before any arrests were made, and University President Robert Sproul later reinstated the students.[2]. The activist tradition of UCLA can be traced to 1934, when Provost Ernest Moore declared UCLA "the worst hotbed of communism in the U.S," and suspended 5 members of the student government for allegedly “using their offices to assist the revolutionary activities of the National Student League, a Communist organization which has bedeviled the University for some months.” Over 3,000 students gathered to protest in Royce Quad, and campus police officers, attempting to silence the speakers, were thrown into some bushes.

In 1995, 2001, and 2004, Mother Jones magazine named UCLA in its annual listing of the Top 10 Activist Campuses, reflecting the rallying spirit of its student bodies over the years. [1] Gore would also later join the faculty of UCLA as a visiting professor in the School of Public Policy and Social Research, Department of Policy Studies, family-centered community building, in 2001. On January 11, 1994, then-Vice-President Al Gore further articulated the goals of the Clinton administration in the development of the "Information Superhighway" at UCLA's Royce Hall. This act would prove pivotal towards the development of the Internet during the 1990s; in particular it led to the development of the MOSAIC web browser, which was funded by the High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative.

This report was presented to Congress and was so influential on then-Senator Al Gore that it proved to be the foundation for what would be passed as the High Performance Computing Act of 1991, written and developed by Gore. In 1988, Kleinrock also chaired a group which produced the report Toward a National Research Network. This work proved foundational for their later development of the Transmission Control Protocol - TCP/IP protocol. He would later team with Bob Kahn in the writing of the seminal 1974 paper A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication.

Turing Award laureate Vinton Cerf was a doctoral student in the computer science department under Kleinrock in early 1970s and also worked on the ARPANET. Kleinrock's lab in Boelter Hall sent the first online message ever. Interface Message Processors at both sites served as the backbone of the first Internet. ARPANET, the world's first electronic computer network, was established on November 21, 1969 between nodes at Leonard Kleinrock's lab at UCLA and Douglas Engelbart's lab at Stanford Research Institute, in Menlo Park, CA.

The average weighted GPA and SAT score for an admitted freshman was 4.25 and 1347, respectively. In 2004, 42,207 prospective students applied to UCLA for the 2005-2006 academic year, more than any other American university, and 11,338 applicants were accepted - a 26.9% acceptance rate. News and World Report, America's Best Graduate Schools. UCLA's oldest operating unit, the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies (GSEIS), was ranked 2nd among American graduate schools of education in the 2006 edition of U.S.

The UCLA Library, which holds over 8 million volumes, ranks among the top 10 in the United States. In addition, the Washington Monthly ranked UCLA 2nd in its 2005 rankings of the Top National Universities. In 2005, UCLA was ranked 14th in the world and 12th in North America by an annual listing of the Top 500 World Universities published by the Institute of Higher Education in Shanghai, China. Twelve departments were ranked in the top 10:.

programs examined by the National Research Council, UCLA had 31 ranked in the top 20 in terms of overall academic quality, third best in the United States. Of the 36 Ph.D. UCLA has a very distinguished academic program; in most surveys, it is invariably ranked among the best institutions of higher education on a national and global scale. The California NanoSystems Institute is another project that was created out of a partnership with the University of California, Santa Barbara to pioneer innovations in the field of nanotechnology.

In 2005, UCLA announced its five-year plan to establish the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Medicine; the state of California is rare in its public funding of research with new embryonic stem cell lines. The health-related schools, with the UCLA Medical Center and associated research centers, are collectively known as the UCLA Center for Health Sciences. UCLA is organized into the following schools and colleges:. There are many facilities with local buses.

The university has given priority in allocation of parking spaces to staff and some students, regardless of living distances. Yet, the university continues to suffer from a severe parking shortage which is further compounded by Southern California's regional housing shortage. The campus has a large number of parking garages, both above-ground and below-ground. He was the first individual of non-European background and the first UCLA alumnus to be so honored in the history of the Prize.

A bust of him, on the entrance to Bunche Hall, overlooks the Sculpture Garden. The tallest building on campus is named after Ralph Bunche, an African-American alumnus, who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating an armistice agreement between the Jews and Arabs in Palestine. In order to accommodate UCLA's rapidly growing student population, multiple construction and renovation projects are in progress, including expansions of the life sciences and engineering research complexes. The Hill is linked to the remainder of campus by a heavily traveled pathway called Bruin Walk, which bisects the campus.

Morgan Center, the James West Alumni Center, and Pauley Pavilion stand at the center of the campus. Ackerman Union, the John Wooden Center, the Arthur Ashe Health and Wellness Center, the Student Activities Center, Kerckhoff Hall, the J.D. Weyburn Terrace enables UCLA to provide housing to approximately fifty percent of incoming graduate and professional students. The new complex is located on the western edge of Westwood, a few blocks from the main UCLA campus, and was completed before the Fall term in 2005.

In 2002, the university began building a new graduate housing complex, Weyburn Terrace, in order to recruit top graduate students from around the world because there had been no university-operated graduate housing on or near the main campus since 2001. Students are currently guaranteed three years of on-campus housing, but the Housing Master Plan aims to guarantee housing to all undergraduates for four years by 2010. Housing facilities also include four restaurants and three boutique-style eateries. Undergraduate housing for nearly 8,000 residents is spread across 14 complexes on a ridge on the western side of the campus, which is called "the Hill." Student life on the Hill is under the care of the Office of Residential Life (ORL).

The campus is in a constant state of change with multiple construction projects, including new residence areas, teaching and laboratory space, and a new hospital. South Campus is home to the physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, psychology, mathematical sciences, all health-related fields, and the UCLA Medical Center. North Campus is centered around oak tree-lined Dickson Court. North Campus is home to the arts, humanities, social sciences, law, and business programs.

North Campus is the original campus core with its buildings being more old-fashioned in appearance and clad in imported Italian brick. The campus is informally divided into North Campus and South Campus, which are both on the eastern half of the university's land. It is located in the residential area of Westwood and bordered by Bel Air, Beverly Hills, and Brentwood. The University campus offers broads, green lawns, sculpture gardens and fountains, museums, and a mix of architectural styles.

The campus is quite close, but not adjacent to the San Diego Freeway. The campus currently comprises 163 buildings across 419 acres (1.7 km²) in the western part of Los Angeles, north of the Westwood shopping district and just south of Sunset Boulevard. The rare books and manuscripts collection includes some of the world's largest collections of English literature, history, and fine printing. In 1934, upon the death of William Andrews Clark, Jr., UCLA received its first major bequest, and still one of the most generous in its history, the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library.

In 1933, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree, and in 1936, the doctorate. The first classes on the new 400 acre (1.6 km²) campus were held in 1929 in its four original buildings. It has since simply been known around the world as "UCLA." Also in 1927, the state broke ground at a new campus on the chaparral-covered hills of a real estate development called Westwood. In 1927, the school was renamed the "University of California at Los Angeles." The word 'at' was officially replaced by a comma in 1958, in line with other UC campuses.

Appropriate legislation was signed into law on May 23, 1919 which turned the school into the Southern Branch of the University of California (SBUC) and added its general undergraduate program, the College of Letters and Science. In 1917, Director Ernest Carroll Moore suggested that the State Normal School at Los Angeles should be added as the second campus of the University of California. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in Hollywood. The new facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their teaching technique on real children.

The State Normal School at Los Angeles opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. In March 1881, after heavy lobbying by Los Angeles residents, the California Legislature authorized the creation of a second State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California. . University of California, Los Angeles.

It is the second-oldest campus in the University of California system and the largest university in terms of enrollment in the state of California. The University of California, Los Angeles, popularly known as UCLA, is a public, coeducational university located in the residential area of Westwood within the city of Los Angeles. Notable UCLA faculty. Notable UCLA alumni.

Aerospace Engineering (10). Classics (9). Chemistry (9). Anthropology (8).

Political Science (8). Geography (8). Philosophy (6). History (6).

Sociology (5). Physiology (4). Psychology (4). Linguistics (3).

School of Public Health. School of Dentistry. School of Nursing. Neuropsychiatric Institute.

Jules Stein Eye Institute. David Geffen School of Medicine. School of Theater Film and Television. School of Public Affairs.

Anderson School of Management. School of Law. The Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science. Graduate School of Education and Information Studies.

School of the Arts and Architecture. The Graduate Division of Letters and Sciences. College of Letters and Sciences.

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