Thomas Kinkade

Kinkade with copy of his painting "Coming Home" presented to USO in October 2005.

Thomas Kinkade (born 1958-01-19 in Sacramento, California) is an American painter most widely known for his mass-produced prints. He is marketed as the "Painter of Light", a phrase he has trademarked.

His prints and paintings are distinguished by their glowing, highlights and vibrant pastel colors. Rendered in a impressionist style cross-pollinated with American Scene Painting values, his works often portray bucolic, idyllic settings such as gardens, streams, stone cottages, and Main Streets. He has also depicted various Christian themes including the Holy Cross and churches.

Kinkade claims to be placing emphasis on the value of simple pleasures and that his intent is to communicate inspirational, life-affirming messages through his work. A self-described "devout Christian" (all of his children have the middle name "Christian" [1]), Kinkade has said he gains his inspiration from his religious beliefs and that his work is intended to contain a larger moral dimension. Many pictures contain specific chapter-and-verse allusions to certain [Bible] passages.

Kinkade is reportedly America's most-collected living artist [2]. Relatedly, he is often criticized for the extent to which he has commercialized his art (for example, selling his prints on the QVC home shopping network). Others have complained that his paintings are merely kitsch and are without substance.

There also has been a Thomas Kinkade themed community of homes, The Village at Hiddenbrooke.

Biography

Kinkade grew up in the small town of Placerville, California, graduated from high school in 1976, and attended the University of California, Berkeley and the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena. On 1982-05-02, he married his childhood sweetheart, Nanette.

He spent a summer on a sketching tour with a college friend, producing a popular instructional book, The Artist's Guide to Sketching. The success of the book landed the two young artists at Ralph Bakshi Studios creating background art for the 1983 animated feature film Fire and Ice. While working on the film, Kinkade began to explore the depiction of light and of imagined worlds. After the film, Kinkade earned his living as a painter, selling his originals in galleries throughout California.

His works are sold by mail order and in dedicated retail outlets as high-quality prints, often using texturizing techniques on real canvas to make the surface of the finished prints mimic the raised surface of the original painting. Some of the prints also feature light effects that are painted onto the print surface by hand by "skilled craftsmen", touches which add to the illusion of light and the resemblance to an original work of art. Kincaid's images are also used extensively on other merchandise such as calendars and greeting cards.

Criticism

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Joan Didion echoes a popular complaint that Kinkade's houses seem to be burning internally:

She goes on to make more serious complaints, comparing the "Kinkade Glow" to the luminism of 19th-century painter Albert Bierstadt, who sentimentalized the infamous Donner Pass in his Donner Lake from the Summit. Didion worries that Kinkade's own treatment of the Sierra Nevada likewise mocks the tragedy of the Yosemite Miwok Indians in The Mountains Declare His Glory.

References

  • Didion, Joan (2003). Where I Was From. Westminster: Knopf.

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Didion worries that Kinkade's own treatment of the Sierra Nevada likewise mocks the tragedy of the Yosemite Miwok Indians in The Mountains Declare His Glory. The incidence of twinning among cattle is about 1-4%, and research is underway to improve the odds of twinning, which can be more profitable for the breeder if complications can be sidestepped or managed. She goes on to make more serious complaints, comparing the "Kinkade Glow" to the luminism of 19th-century painter Albert Bierstadt, who sentimentalized the infamous Donner Pass in his Donner Lake from the Summit. Multiple births are common in many animal species, such as cats, sheep, and ferrets. Joan Didion echoes a popular complaint that Kinkade's houses seem to be burning internally:. In this case, although the twins did come from the same egg, it is incorrect to refer to them as genetically identical, since they have different karyotypes. Kincaid's images are also used extensively on other merchandise such as calendars and greeting cards. When monozygotic twins are born with different genders it is because of chromosomal birth defects.

Some of the prints also feature light effects that are painted onto the print surface by hand by "skilled craftsmen", touches which add to the illusion of light and the resemblance to an original work of art. The probability of this is so vanishingly small (only 3 documented cases) that multiples having different genders is universally accepted as a sound basis for a clinical determination that in utero multiples are not monozygotic. His works are sold by mail order and in dedicated retail outlets as high-quality prints, often using texturizing techniques on real canvas to make the surface of the finished prints mimic the raised surface of the original painting. Among monozygotic twins, in extremely rare cases, twins have been born with opposite sexes (one male, one female). After the film, Kinkade earned his living as a painter, selling his originals in galleries throughout California. One 1992 study estimates that the frequency of heteropaternal superfecundation among dizygotic twins whose parents were involved in paternity suits was approximately 2.4%; see the references section, below, for more details. While working on the film, Kinkade began to explore the depiction of light and of imagined worlds. This can lead to the possibility of a woman carrying fraternal twins with different fathers (that is, half-siblings).

The success of the book landed the two young artists at Ralph Bakshi Studios creating background art for the 1983 animated feature film Fire and Ice. Among fraternal twins, in rare cases, the eggs are fertilised at different times with two or more acts of sexual intercourse, either within one menstrual cycle (superfecundation) or, even more rarely, later on in the pregnancy (superfetation). He spent a summer on a sketching tour with a college friend, producing a popular instructional book, The Artist's Guide to Sketching. There are some patterns of twinning that are exceedingly rare: while they have been reported to happen, they are so unusual that most obstetricians or midwives may go their entire careers without encountering a single case. On 1982-05-02, he married his childhood sweetheart, Nanette. Twins that have been separated early in life and raised in separate households are especially sought-after for these studies, which have been invaluable in the exploration of human nature. Kinkade grew up in the small town of Placerville, California, graduated from high school in 1976, and attended the University of California, Berkeley and the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena. Twin studies are studies that assess identical (monozygotic) twins for medical, genetic, or psychological characteristics to try to isolate genetic influence from environmental influence.

. Many fertility treatments have no effect on the likelihood of multiple births. There also has been a Thomas Kinkade themed community of homes, The Village at Hiddenbrooke. Some other treatments such as the drug Clomid can stimulate a woman to release multiple eggs, allowing the possibility of multiples. Others have complained that his paintings are merely kitsch and are without substance. With in vitro fertilisation (IVF), this is primarily due to the insertion of multiple embryos into the uterus. Relatedly, he is often criticized for the extent to which he has commercialized his art (for example, selling his prints on the QVC home shopping network). This can vary depending on what types of fertility treatments are used.

Kinkade is reportedly America's most-collected living artist [2]. Women undergoing certain fertility treatments may have a greater chance of multiple births. Many pictures contain specific chapter-and-verse allusions to certain [Bible] passages. Dizygotic twin pregnancies are slightly more likely when the following factors are present in the woman:. A self-described "devout Christian" (all of his children have the middle name "Christian" [1]), Kinkade has said he gains his inspiration from his religious beliefs and that his work is intended to contain a larger moral dimension. Some evidence suggests that the environment of the womb causes the zygote to split in most cases. Kinkade claims to be placing emphasis on the value of simple pleasures and that his intent is to communicate inspirational, life-affirming messages through his work. Fewer than 20 families have been described with an inherited tendency towards monozygotic twinning (people in these families have nearly a 50% chance of delivering monozygotic twins).

He has also depicted various Christian themes including the Holy Cross and churches. The cause of monozygotic twinning is unknown. Rendered in a impressionist style cross-pollinated with American Scene Painting values, his works often portray bucolic, idyllic settings such as gardens, streams, stone cottages, and Main Streets. Multiple pregnancies are usually delivered before the full term of 40 weeks gestation: the average length of pregnancy is around 36 weeks for twins, 34 weeks for triplets and 32 weeks for quadruplets. His prints and paintings are distinguished by their glowing, highlights and vibrant pastel colors. Before the advent of ovulation-stimulating drugs, triplets were quite rare (approximately 1 in 8000 births) and higher order births so rare as to be almost unheard of. He is marketed as the "Painter of Light", a phrase he has trademarked. If there are three, they are called triplets; four, quadruplets; five, quintuplets; six, sextuplets, seven, septuplets, and so on.

Thomas Kinkade (born 1958-01-19 in Sacramento, California) is an American painter most widely known for his mass-produced prints. Sometimes multiple births may involve more than two fetuses. Where I Was From. Westminster: Knopf. Nevertheless, the rate of identical twins remains at about 1 in 250 across the globe, further suggesting that pregnancies resulting in identical twins occur randomly. Didion, Joan (2003). Thus, approximately 6% of children born in the US in 2001 were twins. In 2001, for the first time ever in the US, the twinning rate exceeded 3% of all births.

The widespread use of fertility drugs causing hyperovulation (stimulated release of multiple eggs by the mother) has caused what some call an "epidemic of multiple births". The rate of twinning varies greatly among ethnic groups, ranging as high as about 6% for the Yoruba or 10% for a tiny Brazilian village (see [1]). Historically, about 1 in 80 human births (1.2%) has been the result of a twin pregnancy. Similar to vanishing twin.

Occasionally, a woman will suffer a miscarriage early in pregnancy, yet the pregnancy will continue; one twin was miscarried but the other was able to be carried to term. A chimera may arise either from identical twin fetuses (where it would be impossible to detect), or from dizygotic fetuses, which could be identified by chromosomal comparisons from various parts of the body. A chimera is a person who is a completely normal human with no extra parts, but some of the parts actually came from his or her twin. Sometimes the parasitic twin just becomes an almost indistinguishable part of the other.

One fetus acts as a parasite towards the other. Sometimes one twin fetus will fail to develop completely and continue to cause problems for its surviving twin. This condition occurs in about 1 in 100,000 pregnancies. This occurs where the single zygote of identical twins fails to separate completely.

Conjoined twins are monozygotic twins, whose bodies are joined together at birth. Early obstetric ultrasonography exams sometimes reveal an "extra" fetus, which fails to develop and instead disintegrates and vanishes. Researchers suspect that more pregnancies start out as multiples than come to term that way. Such conditions are usually associated with a higher incidence of other birth defects.

This is where some or all of the organs will be on the opposite side of the body, such as the heart being on the right(Dextrocardia). One mirror may or may not have situs inversus. They result from a late split of the fertilized egg at around 9-12 days. The incidence of mirror twinning is comparatively rare.

These are identical twins with opposite features, that is one may be right handed and the other may be left handed; hair will whorl in the opposite direction, and so on. Some percentage of monozygotic twins are called "mirror twins" or mirror image twins. (Fraga, et al., 2005). Twins who had spent their lives apart (such as those adopted by two different sets of parents at birth) had the greatest difference.

50-year-old twins had over 3 times the epigenetic difference that the 3-year-old twins had. The number of differences between identical twins increases with age. A study of 80 pairs of twins ranging in age from 3 to 74 showed that the youngest twins have relatively few epigenetic differences. This is called epigenetic modification.

Identical twins have identical DNA but differing environmental influences throughout their lives affect which genes are switched on or off. There are usually obvious signs of differences when the identical twins are observed separately or together. Twins are unique individuals that establish their own individual likes and dislikes. Many identical twins spend most of their time together (especially as children), so people often assume that they will behave alike just as they look alike; however, this is not the case.

They develop their own individual personalities to enable themselves to be identified as individual persons. Identical twins can behave as differently as any other siblings (a matter of much interest to psychologists). The exact cause for the splitting of a zygote or embryo is unknown. While it was originally thought that identical twins do not run in families, but occur more or less randomly, some recent research has suggested that a genetic predisposition may exist.

As they mature, identical twins often become less alike because of lifestyle choices or external influences such as scars. Examination of details such as fingerprints can tell them apart. (On extremely rare occasions, an original XXY zygote may form monozygotic boy/girl twins by dropping the Y chromosome for one twin and the extra X chromosome for the other.) Monozygotic twins generally look alike, although sometimes they appear as mirror images of each other. Monozygotic twins are genetically identical unless there has been a mutation in development, and they are almost always the same gender.

About 50% of mono-mono twins die from umbilical cord entanglement. These twins may develop such that blood passes disproportionately from one twin to the other through connecting blood vessels within their shared placenta, leading to twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Monochorionic twins, sharing one placenta, usually also share the placental blood supply. For example, the umbilical cords of monoamniotic twins can become entangled, reducing or interrupting the blood supply to the developing fetus.

Sharing the same amnion (or the same amnion and placenta) can cause complications in pregnancy. Twinning after 12 days post-fertilization will typically result in conjoined twins. Twinning between 8 to 12 days after fertilization will usually result in monochorionic-monoamniotic ("mono-mono") twins. Twinning between 4 to 8 days after fertilization typically results in monochorionic-diamniotic ("mono-di") twins.

Zygotes that twin at the earliest stages will be diamniotic and dichorionic ("di-di"). The later in pregnancy that twinning occurs, the more structures will be shared. This condition does not occur for fraternal twins. Also note that any monochorionic or monoamniotic twins are identical twins.

All monoamniotic twins are monochorionic. Diamniotic identical twins may share the same placenta (known as monochorionic) or not (dichorionic). Depending on the stage at which the zygote divides, identical twins may share the same amnion (in which case they are known as monoamniotic) or not (diamniotic). The two embryos develop into fetuses sharing the same womb.

Identical twins occur when a single egg is fertilized to form one zygote (monozygotic) but the zygote then divides into two separate embryos. However, it is only the female that has any influence on the chances of having fraternal twins as the male cannot make her release more than one ovum. Studies show that there is a genetic basis for fraternal twinning—that is, non-identical twins do run in families. Dizygotic twins may be a different sex or the same sex, just as with any other siblings.

Dizygotic twins, like any siblings, have a very small chance of having the exact same chromosome profile, but most likely have a number of different chromosomes that distinguish them. The two eggs form two zygotes, and these twins are therefore also known as dizygotic as well as "biovular" twins. Fraternal twins (commonly known as "non-identical twins") usually occur when two fertilized eggs are implanted in the uterine wall at the same time. .

Since some premature births often have health consequence to the babies, twins birth are often handled with special procedures. Due to the limited size of the mother's womb, multiple pregnancy is much less likely to carry to full term than singleton birth (twins usually around 34 to 36 weeks). A fetus alone in the womb is called a singleton. The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and are usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day.

Several previous pregnancies. Greater than average height and weight. Between the age of 30 and 40 years. She is of African descent.

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