The Yardbirds

The Yardbirds were an early British rock band, noted for spawning the careers of several of rock music's most famous guitarists, including Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page.

Formed originally as the Metropolitan Blues Quartet in 1962–63 in London, the Yardbirds first achieved notice on the burgeoning British blues scene (or "rhythm and blues," as the British music press alluded to it) when they took over as the house band at the Crawdaddy Club in London—succeeding the Rolling Stones. With a repertoire drawn more from the Delta-soaked Chicago blues titans Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Sonny Boy Williamson II, and Elmore James than the more commercially-minded Chuck Berry and Jimmy Reed influences of the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds began to build a following of their own in London before very long. Their inexperience and their less-than-stellar musicianship was obvious but their commitment was just as powerful, as they hammered away at versions of such blues classics as "Smokestack Lightning," "Got Love If You Want It," "Here 'Tis," "Baby What's Wrong," "Good Morning Little School Girl," "Boom Boom," "I Wish You Would," "Done Somebody Wrong," and "Rollin' and Tumblin'."

They made their first significant lineup addition when singer/harmonica player Keith Relf, rhythm guitarist Chris Dreja, bassist Paul Samwell-Smith, and drummer Jim McCarty, replaced original lead guitarist Anthony (Top) Topham with a very boyish-looking art student named Eric Clapton in late 1963. Clapton already knew what he was doing with his instrument; his solo turns, while far enough from the gripping little gems for which he became famous enough soon enough, already set him apart from most of his peers among the British blues clubbers. Between his sleek guitar playing and Keith Relf's improving harmonica style, the group could at least boast two attractive players that made listeners overlook their still-incomplete rhythmic attack. And, of critical importance, Crawdaddy Club impresario Giorgio Gomelsky—who had all but discovered the Rolling Stones but thought it beyond his range to become their manager—learned enough from his previous miss to become the Yardbirds' manager and, as it turned out, first producer.

Under Gomelsky's guidance, the Yardbirds got themselves signed to EMI's Columbia label in early 1964; they set a precedent of a sort when their first album turned out to be a live album, Five Live Yardbirds, recorded at the legendary Marquee Club in London. The group was well enough reputed that none other than blues legend Sonny Boy Williamson himself invited the group to tour England and Germany with him, a union that survives to this day on a live album memorable for Williamson's trouper-like adaptation of his deep troubador style of blues to the Yardbirds' raw, unpolished rock and roll version. ("Those English kids," Williamson said famously of the Yardbirds and other British blues groups like the Animals and the Stones, "want to play the blues so bad—and they play the blues so bad," though he had a personal affection for the Yardbirds' members and even thought of moving to England permanently, until the illness that resulted in his early 1965 death.)

The quintet went from there to cut several singles, including "I Wish You Would," but it was "For Your Love," a Graham Gouldman composition that was anything but the blues, which put the band to their highest chart position yet in England—and their first major hit in the United States, when it was released there in 1965. It also prompted Eric Clapton—at the time a no-holds-barred blues purist—to leave the group and join with John Mayall's Blues Breakers. The loss could have been devastating to the Yardbirds; Clapton had already shown the striking, stabbingly virtuosic style he would later expand and deepen with Mayall and unfurl as a full-fledged virtuoso statement with the improvisational Cream. Clapton recommended Jimmy Page, a studio guitarist he had known (and with whom he would soon cut a series of stirring blues guitar duets, including "Tribute to Elmore" and "Draggin' My Tail"), as his replacement, but Page—uncertain at the time about giving up his lucrative studio work—recommended in turn one Jeff Beck, whose fleet-fingered style and bent for experimentation pushed the Yardbirds to the direction from which they became widely credited for opening the door to "psychedelic" rock.

The Yardbirds in 1965 and 1966 issued a pair of albums in the U.S., slapped together somewhat haphazardly from their British recordings, For Your Love (which included a delightful early take of "Hang On, Sloopy"—they'd gotten hold of a demo of the song before the McCoys had their chartbusting crack at it a year later, and their patented doubletime "rave up" version is a treat) and Havin' A Rave Up With The Yardbirds, half of which came from Five Live Yardbirds.

Beck's tenure in the group, meanwhile, produced a number of memorable recordings, from single hits like "Heart Full of Soul," "I'm A Man," and "Shapes of Things" to the Yardbirds album (known more popularly as Roger the Engineer, and first issued in the U.S. in a bowdlerised version called Over Under Sideways Down), and established him as a top-rank guitarist whose experiments with fuzz tone, feedback, and distortion jolted British rock forward with a bold drop kick. In addition, the Yardbirds began serious experiments with things like adapting Gregorian chant ("Still I'm Sad," "Turn Into Earth," Hot House of Omagarashid," "Farewell," "Ever Since The World Began") and various European folk styles into their blues and rock rooted music, and this gained them a new reputation among the hipster underground even as their commercial appeal had begun already to wane.

It was prior to the sessions that produced Yardbirds that Paul Samwell-Smith decided to quit the group for touring purposes and move behind the boards to co-produce them with new manager, Simon Napier-Bell. Jimmy Page re-entered the picture here, playing bass until rhythm guitarist Chris Dreja could become comfortable with that instrument, and then teaming with Beck for tantalising twin-guitar attacks that proved short-enough lived: Beck either quit or was fired from the group in mid-1966, and the Yardbirds continued as a quartet for the remainder of their career. (Almost the only pronounced examples of what the Beck-Page tandem could have been came on a single, "Happenings Ten Years Time Ago," and their half-crazed version of "The Train Kept A-Rollin'," an even crazier rendition of which turned up in the Antonioni film Blow-Up as "Stroll On".) Page was just as bent toward experimentation as Beck, particularly his striking technique of scraping a violin or cello bow across his guitar strings to induce a round of odd and surreal sounds, and his dextrous use of a wah-wah pedal. He also proved an adept fingerstyle guitarist, the shimmering "White Summer," an Indian-influence instrumental composition, joining his full-out hard rock grinder, "I'm Confused" as curlicues to the Yardbirds' unexpectedly forthcoming transmutation.

Increasing chart indifference, record company pressure (their British home label pressed hitmaking producer Mickie Most upon them in a failed bid to re-ignite their commercial success), and drug-related problems meant that by 1967 the Yardbirds' days were numbered. Or were they? After the failure of their final album (the badly-produced Little Games) and their reduction to small venues for touring, the group agreed to split in early 1968.

But Jimmy Page, left with both the rights to the band's name and a touring commitment yet fulfilled in Europe, was compelled to put a new lineup together to make that commitment. Billed as the New Yardbirds, they made the tour, found themselves clicking together decently enough, and then repaired home to England to produce, in a very short time, a very new album by a somewhat different group, although much of the sound derived from Page's sonic experiments (and a baby brother composition to his earlier "White Summer" called "Black Mountain Side"—not to mention a polished rewrite of "I'm Confused," called "Dazed and Confused") with the last edition of the Yardbirds: Led Zeppelin.

The remaining Yardbirds didn't exactly go gently into that good grey night. Paul Samwell-Smith, who had gone on to fame as Cat Stevens' producer in 1970, helped vocalist Relf and drummer McCarty organise a new group devoted to experimentation between rock, folk, and classical forms—Renaissance.

Keith Relf resurfaced in the late 1970s with a new quartet, Armageddon, a hybrid of hard, thrusting rock and folk that included former Renaissance mate Louis Cenammo. They recorded one promising album before Relf was killed in an electrocution accident in his home. Meanwhile, Jim McCarty, Paul Samwell-Smith (who had remained Cat Stevens' producer to the day Stevens converted to Islam and withdrew from pop music entirely), and Chris Dreja offered a nucleus in the 1980s for a short-enough lived but fun-enough kind of Yardbirds semi-reunion called Box of Frogs, which occasionally included Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page plus various friends with whom they'd all recorded over the years.

The Yardbirds were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990. All six living musicians who had been part of the group's heyday—including Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page, who had never (contrary to numerous misidentifications over the years) played in the group together (the confusion may have stemmed from a 1971 Epic Records anthology, Yardbirds Featuring Performances By: Jeff Beck, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page, a set which fell out of print and became a very expensive collectors' item for many years)—appeared at the ceremony. "I suppose," Jeff Beck cracked at the ceremony, "I should say thank you, but they fired me—so fuck 'em!"

In 2003, a new album, Birdland, was released under the Yardbirds name by a lineup including Chris Dreja, Jim McCarty, and new members Gypie Mayo (lead guitar, backing vocals), John Idan (bass, lead vocals) and Alan Glen (harmonica, backing vocals). Jeff Beck reunites with his former bandmates on one track.


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Jeff Beck reunites with his former bandmates on one track.
. In 2003, a new album, Birdland, was released under the Yardbirds name by a lineup including Chris Dreja, Jim McCarty, and new members Gypie Mayo (lead guitar, backing vocals), John Idan (bass, lead vocals) and Alan Glen (harmonica, backing vocals). Please see NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05. "I suppose," Jeff Beck cracked at the ceremony, "I should say thank you, but they fired me—so fuck 'em!". Last season played in parentheses. All six living musicians who had been part of the group's heyday—including Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page, who had never (contrary to numerous misidentifications over the years) played in the group together (the confusion may have stemmed from a 1971 Epic Records anthology, Yardbirds Featuring Performances By: Jeff Beck, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page, a set which fell out of print and became a very expensive collectors' item for many years)—appeared at the ceremony. This decision was met with some criticism, as some teams, such as Alabama and Auburn, who traditionally have a bye week on Thanksgiving weekend, will have to play eight games consecutively some seasons.

The Yardbirds were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990. In spring 2005, the NCAA ruled that teams could schedule 12 regular-season games beginning in the 2006 season. Meanwhile, Jim McCarty, Paul Samwell-Smith (who had remained Cat Stevens' producer to the day Stevens converted to Islam and withdrew from pop music entirely), and Chris Dreja offered a nucleus in the 1980s for a short-enough lived but fun-enough kind of Yardbirds semi-reunion called Box of Frogs, which occasionally included Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page plus various friends with whom they'd all recorded over the years. A series of all-star bowl games round out the season for the balance of January, including the East-West Shrine Game, the Senior Bowl (for many decades the official final game of the season), the Hula Bowl, and the Gridiron Classic (in recent years, the Hula and Gridiron have alternated as the final game of the season). They recorded one promising album before Relf was killed in an electrocution accident in his home. This is then followed by a series of bowl games that showcase (usually) the top college team in a particular conference, as well as the consensus "national champion", which is determined not by a true playoff, but by a controversial confederation of voters, broadcast networks, bowls and conferences known as the Bowl Championship Series. Keith Relf resurfaced in the late 1970s with a new quartet, Armageddon, a hybrid of hard, thrusting rock and folk that included former Renaissance mate Louis Cenammo. The college post-season is ushered in by the annual presentation of the Heisman Trophy Award, considered the most prestigious award in all of college football, given to the top player of the year as determined by a panel consisting of media voters and former winners of the award.

Paul Samwell-Smith, who had gone on to fame as Cat Stevens' producer in 1970, helped vocalist Relf and drummer McCarty organise a new group devoted to experimentation between rock, folk, and classical forms—Renaissance. The regular season then continues through early December (generally ending with the annual Army-Navy Game). The remaining Yardbirds didn't exactly go gently into that good grey night. Until 2003, the regular season was officially ushered in by the Kickoff Classic, held in recent years in New Jersey (although other pre-season games such as the Eddie Robinson Classic and the Pigskin Classic have also been played), but recent NCAA policy changes have eliminated some of these games, and so the season now largely starts out with regular games. Billed as the New Yardbirds, they made the tour, found themselves clicking together decently enough, and then repaired home to England to produce, in a very short time, a very new album by a somewhat different group, although much of the sound derived from Page's sonic experiments (and a baby brother composition to his earlier "White Summer" called "Black Mountain Side"—not to mention a polished rewrite of "I'm Confused," called "Dazed and Confused") with the last edition of the Yardbirds: Led Zeppelin. Division 1A college football begins two to three weeks earlier than the NFL, towards the end of August. But Jimmy Page, left with both the rights to the band's name and a touring commitment yet fulfilled in Europe, was compelled to put a new lineup together to make that commitment. It was not until the post-World War II era that the pro game achieved ascendancy in the eyes of the average American sports fan.

Or were they? After the failure of their final album (the badly-produced Little Games) and their reduction to small venues for touring, the group agreed to split in early 1968. Innovations in strategy and style of play originated in college football and spread to the pro game gradually. Increasing chart indifference, record company pressure (their British home label pressed hitmaking producer Mickie Most upon them in a failed bid to re-ignite their commercial success), and drug-related problems meant that by 1967 the Yardbirds' days were numbered. Prior to the founding of the National Football League, and for a few decades thereafter, college football was the predominant venue for American football. He also proved an adept fingerstyle guitarist, the shimmering "White Summer," an Indian-influence instrumental composition, joining his full-out hard rock grinder, "I'm Confused" as curlicues to the Yardbirds' unexpectedly forthcoming transmutation. Another was the banning of "mass momentum" plays (many of which, like the infamous "flying wedge", were sometimes literally deadly). (Almost the only pronounced examples of what the Beck-Page tandem could have been came on a single, "Happenings Ten Years Time Ago," and their half-crazed version of "The Train Kept A-Rollin'," an even crazier rendition of which turned up in the Antonioni film Blow-Up as "Stroll On".) Page was just as bent toward experimentation as Beck, particularly his striking technique of scraping a violin or cello bow across his guitar strings to induce a round of odd and surreal sounds, and his dextrous use of a wah-wah pedal. One of the rules changes to emerge from this attempt at alleviating the violence of the sport was the introduction of the forward pass.

Jimmy Page re-entered the picture here, playing bass until rhythm guitarist Chris Dreja could become comfortable with that instrument, and then teaming with Beck for tantalising twin-guitar attacks that proved short-enough lived: Beck either quit or was fired from the group in mid-1966, and the Yardbirds continued as a quartet for the remainder of their career. The response to this was the formation of what became the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which set rules governing the sport. It was prior to the sessions that produced Yardbirds that Paul Samwell-Smith decided to quit the group for touring purposes and move behind the boards to co-produce them with new manager, Simon Napier-Bell. President Theodore Roosevelt threatened, in 1906, to ban the sport following a series of player deaths from injuries suffered during games. In addition, the Yardbirds began serious experiments with things like adapting Gregorian chant ("Still I'm Sad," "Turn Into Earth," Hot House of Omagarashid," "Farewell," "Ever Since The World Began") and various European folk styles into their blues and rock rooted music, and this gained them a new reputation among the hipster underground even as their commercial appeal had begun already to wane. It also became increasingly violent. in a bowdlerised version called Over Under Sideways Down), and established him as a top-rank guitarist whose experiments with fuzz tone, feedback, and distortion jolted British rock forward with a bold drop kick. The game increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th century.

Beck's tenure in the group, meanwhile, produced a number of memorable recordings, from single hits like "Heart Full of Soul," "I'm A Man," and "Shapes of Things" to the Yardbirds album (known more popularly as Roger the Engineer, and first issued in the U.S. The teams agreed to play under compromise rules, and from this meeting the game of football began to evolve in both the United States and Canada. The Yardbirds in 1965 and 1966 issued a pair of albums in the U.S., slapped together somewhat haphazardly from their British recordings, For Your Love (which included a delightful early take of "Hang On, Sloopy"—they'd gotten hold of a demo of the song before the McCoys had their chartbusting crack at it a year later, and their patented doubletime "rave up" version is a treat) and Havin' A Rave Up With The Yardbirds, half of which came from Five Live Yardbirds. The two teams were used to playing different brands of football — the McGill team played a rugby-style game, while Harvard played a soccer-style game. Clapton recommended Jimmy Page, a studio guitarist he had known (and with whom he would soon cut a series of stirring blues guitar duets, including "Tribute to Elmore" and "Draggin' My Tail"), as his replacement, but Page—uncertain at the time about giving up his lucrative studio work—recommended in turn one Jeff Beck, whose fleet-fingered style and bent for experimentation pushed the Yardbirds to the direction from which they became widely credited for opening the door to "psychedelic" rock. The development of the American game can be traced to a meeting between the Harvard University and McGill University football teams in 1874. The loss could have been devastating to the Yardbirds; Clapton had already shown the striking, stabbingly virtuosic style he would later expand and deepen with Mayall and unfurl as a full-fledged virtuoso statement with the improvisational Cream. The rules of that game were the 1863 rules of the English Football Association, the basis of the modern form of soccer.

It also prompted Eric Clapton—at the time a no-holds-barred blues purist—to leave the group and join with John Mayall's Blues Breakers. As the score would seemingly indicate, the game bore little resemblance to the game of today. The quintet went from there to cut several singles, including "I Wish You Would," but it was "For Your Love," a Graham Gouldman composition that was anything but the blues, which put the band to their highest chart position yet in England—and their first major hit in the United States, when it was released there in 1965. Rutgers won, by a score of 6 to 4. ("Those English kids," Williamson said famously of the Yardbirds and other British blues groups like the Animals and the Stones, "want to play the blues so bad—and they play the blues so bad," though he had a personal affection for the Yardbirds' members and even thought of moving to England permanently, until the illness that resulted in his early 1965 death.). The first game played between teams representing different colleges or universities was played on November 6, 1869 between Rutgers University and Princeton University, at College Field (now the site of the College Avenue Gymnasium), New Brunswick, New Jersey. The group was well enough reputed that none other than blues legend Sonny Boy Williamson himself invited the group to tour England and Germany with him, a union that survives to this day on a live album memorable for Williamson's trouper-like adaptation of his deep troubador style of blues to the Yardbirds' raw, unpolished rock and roll version. College football remains extremely popular today among students, alumni, and other fans of the sport.

Under Gomelsky's guidance, the Yardbirds got themselves signed to EMI's Columbia label in early 1964; they set a precedent of a sort when their first album turned out to be a live album, Five Live Yardbirds, recorded at the legendary Marquee Club in London. College football was the venue through which American football first gained popularity in the United States. And, of critical importance, Crawdaddy Club impresario Giorgio Gomelsky—who had all but discovered the Rolling Stones but thought it beyond his range to become their manager—learned enough from his previous miss to become the Yardbirds' manager and, as it turned out, first producer. NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05. Between his sleek guitar playing and Keith Relf's improving harmonica style, the group could at least boast two attractive players that made listeners overlook their still-incomplete rhythmic attack. Bowl Championship Series. They made their first significant lineup addition when singer/harmonica player Keith Relf, rhythm guitarist Chris Dreja, bassist Paul Samwell-Smith, and drummer Jim McCarty, replaced original lead guitarist Anthony (Top) Topham with a very boyish-looking art student named Eric Clapton in late 1963. Clapton already knew what he was doing with his instrument; his solo turns, while far enough from the gripping little gems for which he became famous enough soon enough, already set him apart from most of his peers among the British blues clubbers. Doak Walker Award.

Their inexperience and their less-than-stellar musicianship was obvious but their commitment was just as powerful, as they hammered away at versions of such blues classics as "Smokestack Lightning," "Got Love If You Want It," "Here 'Tis," "Baby What's Wrong," "Good Morning Little School Girl," "Boom Boom," "I Wish You Would," "Done Somebody Wrong," and "Rollin' and Tumblin'.". Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award. With a repertoire drawn more from the Delta-soaked Chicago blues titans Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Sonny Boy Williamson II, and Elmore James than the more commercially-minded Chuck Berry and Jimmy Reed influences of the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds began to build a following of their own in London before very long. Jim Thorpe Award. Formed originally as the Metropolitan Blues Quartet in 1962–63 in London, the Yardbirds first achieved notice on the burgeoning British blues scene (or "rhythm and blues," as the British music press alluded to it) when they took over as the house band at the Crawdaddy Club in London—succeeding the Rolling Stones. Mosi Tatupu Award. The Yardbirds were an early British rock band, noted for spawning the careers of several of rock music's most famous guitarists, including Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page. Dave Rimington Trophy.

Walter Payton Award. Outland Trophy. Davey O'Brien Award. Bronko Nagurski Trophy.

Maxwell Award. Manning Award. Lombardi Award. Harlon Hill Trophy.

Heisman Trophy. Lou Groza Award. Grantland Rice Award. Gagliardi Trophy.

Dick Butkus Award. Buck Buchanan Award. Fred Biletnikoff Award. Chuck Bednarik Award.

College Football All-America Teams: originally selected by Walter Camp. Shrine Bowl - Little Rock, Arkansas (1948). Seattle Bowl - Seattle, Washington (2001 -2002). San Diego East-West Christmas Classic - San Diego, California (1921 - 1922).

Salad Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona (1948 - 1952). Raisin Bowl - Fresno, California (1946 - 1949). Presidential Cup Bowl - College Park, Maryland (1950). Pasadena Bowl - Pasadena, California (1967 - 1971).

Oil Bowl - Houston, Texas (1946 - 1947). Oahu Classic - Honolulu, Hawaii (1998 - 2000). Mercy Bowl - Los Angeles, California (1961; 1971). Los Angeles Christmas Festival - Los Angeles, California (1924).

Harbor Bowl - San Diego, California (1947 - 1949). Great Lakes Bowl - Cleveland, Ohio (1947). Gotham Bowl - New York, New York (1961 - 1962). Garden State Bowl - East Rutherford, New Jersey (1978 - 1981).

Freedom Bowl - Anaheim, California (1984 - 1994). Fort Worth Classic - Fort Worth, Texas (1921). Dixie Classic - Dallas, Texas (1922, 1925, 1934). Dixie Bowl - Birmingham, Alabama (1948 - 1949).

Delta Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee (1948 - 1949). Cherry Bowl - Pontiac, Michigan (1984 - 1985). Camellia Bowl - Lafayette, Louisiana (1948). California Bowl - Fresno, California (1981 - 1991).

Bluegrass Bowl - Louisville, Kentucky (1958). Bluebonnet Bowl - Houston, Texas (1959 - 1987). Bacardi Bowl - Havana, Cuba (1937). Aviation Bowl - Dayton, Ohio (1961).

Aloha Classic - Honolulu, Hawaii (1982 – 2000). All-American Bowl - Birmingham, Alabama (1977 - 1990) (formerly Hall of Fame Classic). Sun Bowl - El Paso, Texas, (since 1936) (originally Sun Bowl, later John Hancock Bowl). Sugar Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 1935).

Silicon Valley Football Classic - San Jose, California, (since 2000). Senior Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida (1950), Mobile, Alabama (since 1951). Rose Bowl - Pasadena, California, (1902, continuously since 1916). Peach Bowl - Atlanta, Georgia, (since 1968).

Outback Bowl - Tampa, Florida, (since 1986) (was Hall of Fame Bowl). Orange Bowl - Miami, Florida, (since 1946). New Orleans Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 2001). Music City Bowl - Nashville, Tennessee, (since 1998).

MPC Computers Bowl - Boise, Idaho, (since 1997) (was Humanitarian Bowl). Motor City Bowl - Detroit, Michigan, (since 1997). Liberty Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee, (since 1959). Las Vegas Bowl - Las Vegas, Nevada, (since 1992).

Insight Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona, (since 1989) (was Copper Bowl). Independence Bowl - Shreveport, Louisiana, (since 1976). Hula Bowl - Hawaii (different cities since 1946). Holiday Bowl - San Diego, California, (since 1978).

Houston Bowl- Houston, Texas, (since 2000). Hawaii Bowl- Honolulu, Hawaii, (since 2002). GMAC Bowl - Mobile, Alabama, (since 1999). Gator Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida, (since 1946).

Fort Worth Bowl - Fort Worth, Texas, (since 2003). Fiesta Bowl - Tempe, Arizona, (since 1971). Emerald Bowl - San Francisco, California, (since 2002) (was San Francisco Bowl). East-West Shrine Game - Stanford, California (1925-2000), San Francisco, California (since 2001).

Cotton Bowl - Dallas, Texas, (since 1937). Continental Tire Bowl - Charlotte, North Carolina, (since 2002). Champs Sports Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1990). Capital One Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1947) (was Tangerine Bowl and Florida Citrus Bowl).

Blue-Gray Football Classic - Montgomery, Alabama (1938-2001), Troy, Alabama (since 2003). Alamo Bowl - San Antonio, Texas, (since 1993). Xavier University (Cincinnati) (1973). University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (1974).

Wichita State University (1986). University of Vermont (1974). University of Texas at Arlington (1985). Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (1966).

Stetson University (1956). Siena College (2003). Seton Hall University (1981). Santa Clara University (1992).

University of San Francisco (1971). Mary's College of California (2003). St. Saint Louis University (1949).

Joseph's University (1939). St. John's University, New York (2002). St.

Francis College (New York) (1935). St. Bonaventure University (1951). St.

Rider University (1951). Providence College (1941). University of Portland (1949). Pepperdine University (1961).

University of the Pacific (1995). The school has never sponsored football since becoming an independent institution in 1962. At that time, Old Dominion was a two-year division of The College of William and Mary. Old Dominion University (1941)

    .

    Niagara University (1950). Mount Saint Mary's University (1950). Mercer University (unknown). University of Maryland Eastern Shore (1979).

    Marquette University (1960). Manhattan College (1942). 1930). Loyola University Chicago (c.

    Loyola Marymount University (1951). Loyola College in Maryland (1933). Long Island University (1940). Lamar University (1989).

    University of Illinois, Chicago (1973). High Point University (1950). Gonzaga University (1941). George Washington University (1966).

    Fairfield University (2002). University of Evansville (1997). East Tennessee State University (2003). Drexel University (1973).

    University of Detroit Mercy (1964). 1938). DePaul University (c. University of Denver (1960).

    Creighton University (1942). College of Charleston (1938). Centenary College of Louisiana (1947). Canisius College (2002).

    1953). Campbell University (c. California State University, Northridge (2001). California State University, Long Beach (1991).

    California State University, Fullerton (1992). University of California, Santa Barbara (1991). University of California, Riverside (1975). Bradley University (1970).

    Boston University (1997). Birmingham-Southern College (c. 1941). American University (unknown). Yankee Conference.

    Wisconsin State University Conference. Southwest Conference. Skyline Conference. Pacific Coast Athletic Association.

    Nebraska-Iowa Athletic Conference. Nebraska Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Missouri Valley Conference. Indiana Collegiate Athletic Conference.

    Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Big West Conference. Big Eight Conference. Big Seven Conference.

    Big Six Conference. NAIA independent schools. Upper Midwest Athletic Conference. Mid-States Football Association.

    Mid-South Conference. Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference. Heart of America Athletic Conference. Great Plains Athletic Conference.

    Frontier Conference. Dakota Athletic Conference. Central States Football League. NCAA Division III independent schools.

    Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. USA South Athletic Conference. Upstate Collegiate Athletic Association. University Athletic Association.

    Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference. Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Presidents' Athletic Conference. Old Dominion Athletic Conference.

    Ohio Athletic Conference. Northwest Athletic Conference. North Coast Athletic Conference. New Jersey Athletic Conference.

    New England Small College Athletic Conference. New England Football Conference. Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Midwest Conference.

    Middle Atlantic Corporation. Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Illini-Badger Football Conference.

    Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference. Freedom Football Conference. Centennial Conference. College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin.

    Atlantic Central Football Conference. American Southwest Conference. NCAA Division II independent schools. West Virginia Intercollegiate Athletic Conference.

    Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. South Atlantic Conference. Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference. Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference.

    Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference. North Central Conference. Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Lone Star Conference.

    Gulf South Conference. Great Northwest Athletic Conference. Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Eastern Conference.

    Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. NCAA Division I-AA Independent Schools. Southwestern Athletic Conference. Southland Conference.

    Southern Conference. Pioneer Football League. Patriot League. Ohio Valley Conference.

    Northeast Conference. Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference. Ivy League.

    Great West Football Conference. Gateway Football Conference. Big South Conference. Big Sky Conference.

    Atlantic Ten Conference. NCAA Division I-A Independent Schools. Western Athletic Conference. Sun Belt Conference.

    Southeastern Conference. Pacific Ten Conference. Mountain West Conference. Mid-American Conference.

    Conference USA. Big Twelve Conference. Big Ten Conference. Big East Conference.

    Atlantic Coast Conference. NAIA national football championship. NCAA Division III national football championship. NCAA Division II national football championship.

    NCAA Division I-AA national football championship. NCAA Division I-A national football champions.

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