Grateful Dead

The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band. Formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, "Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions," the Grateful Dead were known for their unique and eclectic songwriting style—which fused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues, country, and jazz—and for live performances of long modal jams.

Some of the band's fans followed the band from concert to concert for years. These so-called Deadheads were renowned for their dedication to the band's music. Many followers referred to the band simply as The Dead.

The Grateful Dead's career began under the name "The Warlocks" in Palo Alto, California, but as another band was already recording under that name (interestingly, it was the future Velvet Underground), the band had to change its name in order to get a recording contract. Eventually, they moved to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. Many bands from this area, such as Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother & the Holding Company, and Santana, went on to national fame, giving San Francisco an image as a center for the hippie counterculture of the era. (Also see entry for the San Francisco Sound.) Of these bands, the Grateful Dead had members with arguably the highest level of musicianship, including banjo and guitar player Jerry Garcia, blues musician "Pigpen" McKernan, the classically trained Phil Lesh and drummer Bill Kreutzmann [1]. The Grateful Dead most embodied "all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came, therefore, to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country" [2].

The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen at random from a dictionary. Some claim it was a Funk & Wagnalls, others an Oxford Dictionary, but according to Phil Lesh, in his biography (pp. 62), "...Jer (Garcia) picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...(and)...In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'"

The Grateful Dead became the de facto resident band of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters, with the early sound heavily influenced by Kesey's LSD-soaked Acid Tests, as well as R&B. Their musical influences varied widely with input from the psychedelic music of the era, combined with blues, jazz, rock and roll, and bluegrass. These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world." [3].

Membership

De facto bandleader Jerry Garcia was the lead guitarist for the band—-although he was often seen both by the public and the media as 'leader' or a primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, he was reluctant to be seen that way, especially since Garcia and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output. Jerry was a native of San Francisco and grew up in the Excelsior District. One of the main influences on his musical style was bluegrass music, and Garcia also performed-—on banjo, his other great instrumental love-—in the bluegrass band Old and in the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. Classically-trained trumpeter Phil Lesh played bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar. Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards, harmonica and was also a group vocalist until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. All of the previously mentioned Grateful Dead members shared in vocal performance of songs, although none of them had a particularly strong or tuneful voice. Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in 1968 was joined by a second drummer, New York native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. Hart quit the Grateful Dead in 1971, embarrassed by the financial misdealings of his father, Dead money manager Lenny Hart, and leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. Hart rejoined the Dead for good in 1975. Tom "TC" Constanten played keyboards alongside Pigpen from 1968 to 1970. Two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Dead as a backing vocalist. Keith and Donna left the band in 1979, and Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist. Keith Godchaux died in a car accident in 1980. Brent Mydland was the keyboardist for the Dead for 11 years until his death in 1990. He became the third Dead keyboardist to die. Almost immediately, former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick joined on keyboards and vocals. For a year and a half, Welnick was often joined by special guest Bruce Hornsby on piano. Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists. Owsley "Bear" Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD.

Touring

Early photo of the band at their communal home in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, late 60's.

The Grateful Dead are well-known for their near constant touring throughout their long career in music. They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as Deadheads, many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. In their early years, the band was also dedicated to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music and health care to all comers; they were the "first among equals in giving unselfishly of themselves to hippie culture, performing 'more free concerts than any band in the history of music'" [4].

Original lineup of The Grateful Dead, 1971.

With the exception of 1975, when the band was on "hiatus" and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead toured regularly around the USA from the winter of 1965 until July 9, 1995—with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978. (They also appeared at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the even more famous Woodstock Festival in 1969; their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen.)

Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that had been initially played in concert. The band was famous for its extended jams, which showcased both individual improvisation as well as a distinctive "group-mind" improvisation where each of the band members improvised individually, while still blending together as a cohesive musical unit, often engaging in extended improvisational flights of fancy. A hallmark of their concert sets were continuous sets of music where each song would blend into the next (a segue). Musically this may be illustrated in that the band not only improvised within the form of a song, yet also improvised with the forms.

Wall of Sound

The Wall of Sound was an enormous sound system designed specifically for the Grateful Dead. The band were never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played, so in their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a PA and monitor system for them. Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical issues. After Stanley was placed in jail for LSD production in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but ultimately found them to be less reliable than the systems conceived by their former soundman. In 1971, the band purchased their first solid sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year; Healy was a more superior engineer than Stanley and would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993.

The desire driving the development of the Wall of Sound was for a distortion-free sound system that could serve as its own monitor system. After Owsley Stanley was released from prison in late 1972, he, along with Dan Healey, Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead's sound crew, and Ron Wickersham, Rick Turner, and John Curl of Alembic Inc accomplished this by essentially combining eleven separate sound systems. Vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, and piano each had their own channel and set of speakers. Phil Lesh's bass was quadraphonic, each of the four strings having its own channel and set of speakers. One channel amplified the bass drum, and two channels amplified the other drums and cymbals in stereo. Because each speaker was producing the sound of just one instrument or vocalist, the sound was exceptionally clear and intermodulation distortion between instruments was nonexistent.

The Wall of Sound was designed to act as its own monitor system, and it was therefore assembled behind the band so the members could hear exactly what their audience was hearing. Because of this, a special microphone system had to be designed to prevent feedback. The Dead used matched pairs of condenser microphones spaced 60mm apart and run out-of-phase. The vocalist sang into the top microphone, and the lower mic picked up whatever other sound was present in the stage environment. The signals were summed, the sound that was common to both mics (the sound from the Wall) was cancelled, and only the vocals were amplified.

The Wall of Sound used 89 300-Watt solid state and three 350-Watt tube amplifiers to produce 26,400 total Watts RMS of audio power. It was capable of producing acceptable sound at a quarter mile, and excellent sound for up to six hundred feet, when the sound began to be distorted by wind. It was the largest portable sound system ever built (although "portable" is a relative term). Four semi trucks and 21 crew members were required to haul and set up the 75-ton Wall.

Though the initial framework and a rudimentary form of the system was unveiled in February 1973 (ominously, every speaker tweeter blew as the band began their first number), the Grateful Dead did not begin to tour with the full system until a year later in 1974. The Wall of Sound was very efficient for its day, but it did have its pitfalls in addition to its sheer size. Synthesist Ned Lagin, who toured with the group throughout much of 1974, never received his own dedicated input into the system, and was forced to use the vocal subsystem for amplification. Because this was often switched to the vocal mikes, many of Lagin's parts were lost in the mix. The Wall's quadraphonic format never translated well to soundboard tapes made during the period, as the sound was compressed into an unnatural stereo format and suffers from a pronounced tinniness.

The rising cost of fuel and personnel, as well as friction among many of the newer crew members (and associated hangers-on), contributed to the band's 1974 "retirement." The Wall of Sound was disassembled, and when the Dead began touring again in 1976, it was with a more logistically practical sound system.

'

Two Grateful Dead icons rolled into one

Steal Your Face

The band's skull-and-lightning-bolt icon is called Steal Your Face, a sanitized version of the icon's original name, Skull Fuck, which was a direct reflection both of the anti-establishment sensibilities of the times and of the Grateful Dead's role as a voice for the "hippies." Garcia and McKernan are said to have been tripping on ancient icons from the Aztec or Mayan visual lexicon, particularly the celebration of Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) and to have exclaimed, "Fuck they're all skulls... Bitchin'!!" Kelly/Mouse Studios then began including the icon in most of the band's posters and graphics.

Deadheads

Many of their fans, commonly referred to as Deadheads, would follow the band on tour. In contrast to many other bands, the Grateful Dead encouraged their fans to tape their shows. For many years, almost all of their shows would have dedicated taping sections. The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes. In the 1980s, the band scored a top 40 hit with the song "Touch of Grey" (from In the Dark), which garnered a much younger and more mainstream fandom that was considered sharply different from the traditional Deadheads. These new followers were deemed "Touchheads" by the more established fans, a reference to their relative inexperience with the band. The late 1980s and 90s saw the Grateful Dead attracting a huge following that left many long time deadheads in doubt as to whether people were coming out for shows to see the band, or simply to be part of the atmosphere. Whatever their differences, the deadheads are often considered to be the most devoted fans in the rock world.

The parking lot of a Grateful Dead concert was as much a part of the event as the concert itself. One could find items for sale at many cars in the lot, from grilled cheese sandwiches to "kind" brews and nitrous balloons. (Some deadheads would earn their entire touring budget selling such items.) Concertgoers typically congregated in the lot for hours before a show, playing guitar, hacky sacking and getting high. After the show, a deadhead with the post-show munchies could probably find a grilled cheese sandwich made on a camping stove at the door of a VW bus by a friendly hippie.

Live releases

Late lineup of The Grateful Dead, mid-90s.

Starting in 1991, the Grateful Dead released numerous live concerts from their archives in two concurrent series: the From the Vault releases are multi-track remixes, whereas the Dick's Picks series (named for the band's late archivist, Dick Latvala) are based on two-track mixes made at the time of the recording. There have been at least 36 Dick's Picks releases as of November 2005. A series of videos began to trickle out of "The Vault", starting with View From the Vault (recorded in Pittsburgh on July 8, 1990 at Three Rivers Stadium) and View from the Vault II (recorded in Washington, DC on June 14, 1991 at RFK Stadium); these releases are accompanied by the simultaneous release of multi-disc soundtrack CDs of the same shows represented on the videos. All three series of releases continue to this day.

In the summer of 2005 the Dead began offering downloadable versions of both their existing live releases, and a new internet-only series, The Grateful Dead Download Series, that is available exclusively through both their own GDStore.com (which offers the albums in both 256 kbit/s mp3 files and FLAC files -- a preferred audio standard for those who archive Dead and other fan-made live recordings on the Internet) and the iTunes Music Store (which offers them in their 128 kbit/s AAC format). Not surprisingly, these Internet-only albums have met with the same success as their CD-based brethren.

In November of 2005, the Dead's management outraged fans by asking the operators of the popular Internet Archive (archive.org) to stop making concerts available for download, and to offer only streamcast recordings instead. The band's spokesman, Dennis McNally, claimed such a repository "doesn't represent Grateful Dead values" because it doesn't foster one-to-one connections between fans. However, David Gans, host of a syndicated radio program, "The Grateful Dead Hour," speculates that the band is motivated by money, noting "when they were making $50 million a year on the road, there wasn't a lot of pressure to monetize their archives."[5]

The removal of the Dead's concerts from Archive.org created a storm of protest, in addition to a rapidly spreading boycott of the band's remaining commercial products. Several days after the announcement that the concerts had been removed, Brewster Kahle of Archive.Org made a cryptic announcement that audience tapes of the concerts would again become available, though so-called board tapes would only be available as streaming audio. Kahle claimed that the whole affair had been a "misunderstanding," but John Perry Barlow, one of the band's lyricists, claimed that concerts had been restored after several members of the band had backed away from their earlier opposition after realizing they had created a public relations "catastrophe."

History

The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands like the Beatles and Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York "folk-rock" band The Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric." Gradually, many of the East-Coast American folk musicians, formerly luminaries of the coffee-house scene, were moving in the electric direction. It was natural for Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir, each of whom had been immersed in the American folk-music revival of the late 1950s and early '60s, to be open-minded toward electric guitars. But the new Dead music was also naturally different from bands like Dylan's or the Spoonful, partly because their fellow musician Phil Lesh came out of a schooled classical and electronic-music background, while Ron "Pigpen" McKernan was a no-nonsense deep blues lover and drummer Bill Kreutzmann had a jazz background. Listening to their first LP (The Grateful Dead, Warner Brothers, 1967), one is also reminded that it was recorded only a few years after the big "surfing music" craze; that California rock-music sound seeped in, to some degree, as well.

The cover of the 1970 album American Beauty

The Grateful Dead’s early music (in the mid 1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. This was natural, because they played psychedelic dances, open-air park events, and closed-street Haight-Ashbury block parties. The Dead were not inclined to fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country/western. Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and more, frequently melding several of them. Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes—a form of psychedelia that might run the gamut from strange to exotically beautiful. Most connoisseurs believe that the Grateful Dead's true spirit was rarely well captured in studio performance.

The early records reflected the Dead's live repertoire — lengthy instrumental jams with guitar solos by Garcia, best exemplified by "Dark Star" — but, lacking the energy of the shows, did not sell well. The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture more of their essence, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures.

Dissolution and Continuation of the band

Following Garcia's death in 1995, the remaining members formally decided to disband. Though some of them occasionally toured through the late 1990s under the name "The Other Ones", they mainly chose to pursue various solo projects, most notably Bob Weir's Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends and Mickey Hart's music for the 1996 Olympics. The remaining members occasionally got together under the pseudonym Crusader Rabbit Stealth Band during the late 1990s, infrequently playing unannounced shows. The mid-2002 fall tour of The Other Ones, with Bob, Bill, Phil and Mickey, was so successful and satisfying that the band decided the name was no longer appropriate. On February 14, 2003, (as they said) "reflecting the reality that [was]," they renamed themselves The Dead, reflecting the abbreviated form of the band name that fans had long used and keeping "Grateful" retired out of respect for Garcia. The members would continue to tour on and off through the end of their 2004 Summer Tour, the "Wave That Flag" tour, named after a lyric from the song, "U.S. Blues." The band accepted Warren Haynes as their new lead guitarist. Haynes is best known for his work with Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band. The band did not tour in 2005, due to a fight between Bob Weir and Phil Lesh over how they believe certain things happened in the history of the band. Their inability to reconcile these differences kept Deadheads from seeing a tour to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Grateful Dead, and also made the annual celebration honoring Jerry Garcia seem a little flat, as his own bandmates couldn't put aside their differences to take the stage together in his honor. As of now, any future plans are unknown, and are largely contingent on Weir and Lesh making up.

Bandmembers

  • Jerry Garcia - lead guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Bob Weir - rhythm guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Phil Lesh - bass, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Bill Kreutzmann - drums (1965 - 1995)
  • Mickey Hart - drums (1967 - 1971, 1975 - 1995)
  • Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, vocals, harmonica, percussion (1965 - 1973)
  • Tom Constanten - keyboards (1968 - 1970)
  • Keith Godchaux - keyboards (1971 - 1979)
  • Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals (1972 - 1979)
  • Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals (1979 - 1990)
  • Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals (1990 - 1995)


Discography

  • The Grateful Dead (1967: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan)
  • Anthem of the Sun (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Two from the Vault (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Aoxomoxoa (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten)
  • Live/Dead (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten)
  • History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Workingman's Dead (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • American Beauty (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Grateful Dead (aka Skull & Roses) (1971: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan)
  • Hundred Year Hall (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Europe '72 (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Skeletons from the Closet (Best of the Grateful Dead) (1973: compilation)
  • Wake of the Flood (1973: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Grateful Dead From the Mars Hotel (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Steal Your Face (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • One From the Vault (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Blues for Allah (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Terrapin Station (1977: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • What a Long Strange Trip It's Been (1977: compilation)
  • Shakedown Street (1978: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Go to Heaven (1980: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Reckoning (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dead Set (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • In the Dark (1987: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Built to Last (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dylan & The Dead (live, with Bob Dylan) (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dozin' at the Knick (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Without a Net (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Infrared Roses (1991: live compilation)
  • Grayfolded (1996: live compilation)
  • Grateful Dead 1977-1995 (1996: compilation)
  • The Arista Years (1996: compilation)
  • Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997: live compilation)
  • So Many Roads 1965-1995 (1999: boxed set)
  • The Golden Road (2001: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Warner Brothers Records, 1967-1972)
  • Postcards of the Hanging (2002: live compilation)
  • The Very Best of The Grateful Dead (2003: compilation)
  • Beyond Description (2004: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Grateful Dead Records and Arista Records, 1973-1989)
  • Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005)
  • The Complete Fillmore West 1969 (2005: boxed set, live)

Dick's Picks

The above list does not include the Dick's Picks series of concert recordings taken from the band's archives, selected by archivist Dick Latvala and, after his death, David Lemieux. Started in 1993, as of January 14, 2006 there are thirty-six volumes in the series, each covering a part or all of one or more concerts. About three new volumes were being released each year.

  • Vol. 1: December 19, 1973 from Tampa, Florida
  • Vol. 2: October 31, 1971 from the Ohio Theatre, Columbus, Ohio
  • Vol. 3: May 22, 1977 from the Hollywood Sportatorium, Hollywood, Florida
  • Vol. 4: February 13 and 14, 1970 from the Fillmore East, New York City
  • Vol. 5: December 26, 1979 from the Oakland Arena, Oakland, California
  • Vol. 6: October 14, 1983 from the Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut
  • Vol. 7: September 1974 from the Alexandra Palace, London, England
  • Vol. 8: May 2, 1970 from Harpur College, Binghamton, New York
  • Vol. 9: September 16, 1990 from Madison Square Garden, New York City
  • Vol. 10: December 29 and 30, 1977 from the Winterland, San Francisco, California
  • Vol. 11: September 27, 1972 from the Stanley Theater, Jersey City, New Jersey
  • Vol. 12: June 26, 1974 from the Providence Civic Center, Providence, Rhode Island and June 28, 1974 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 13: May 6, 1981 from the Nassau Coliseum, Long Island, New York
  • Vol. 14: November 30 and December 2, 1973 from the Boston Music Hall (now Symphony Hall), Boston, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 15: September 3, 1977 from the Raceway Park, Englishtown, New Jersey
  • Vol. 16: November 8, 1969 from the Fillmore, San Francisco, California
  • Vol. 17: September 25, 1991 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts with two songs from March 31, 1991
  • Vol. 18: February 3, 1978 from the Dane County Coliseum, Madison, Wisconsin and February 5, 1978 from the Uni-Dome, Cedar Falls, Iowa
  • Vol. 19: October 19, 1973 from the Fairgrounds Arena, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
  • Vol. 20: September 25, 1976 from the Capital Center, Landover, Maryland and September 28, 1976 from the Onondaga County War Memorial, Syracuse, New York
  • Vol. 21: November 1, 1985, from the Richmond Coliseum, Richmond, Virginia and some tracks from September 2, 1980
  • Vol. 22: February 23 and 24, 1968 from the Kings Beach Bowl, Lake Tahoe, California
  • Vol. 23: September 17, 1972 from the Baltimore Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland
  • Vol. 24: March 23, 1974 from the Cow Palace, Daly City, California
  • Vol. 25: May 10, 1978 from the Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New Haven, Connecticut and May 11, 1978 from the Springfield Civic Center, Springfield, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 26: April 26, 1969 from the Electric Theater, Chicago, Illinois and April 27, 1969 from the Labor Temple, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • Vol. 27: December 16, 1992 from the Oakland Coliseum Arena, Oakland, California
  • Vol. 28: February 26, 1973 from the Pershing Municipal Auditorium, Lincoln, Nebraska and February 28, 1973 from the Salt Palace, Salt Lake City, Utah
  • Vol. 29: May 19, 1977 from the Fox Theatre, Atlanta, Georgia and May 21, 1977 from the Lakeland Civic Arena, Lakeland, Florida
  • Vol. 30: March 28, 1972 from the Academy of Music, New York City and March 25, 1972 (including five songs with Bo Diddley)
  • Vol. 31: August 4 and 5, 1974 from the Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and August 6, 1974 from the Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey
  • Vol. 32: August 7, 1982 from the Alpine Valley, East Troy, Wisconsin
  • Vol. 33: October 9 and 10, 1976 from the Oakland Stadium, Oakland, California (one of Bill Graham's Days on the Green)
  • Vol. 34: November 5, 1977 from the Community War Memorial, Rochester, New York with bonus tracks of November 2, 1977 from the Seneca College Field House, Toronto, Ontario
  • Vol. 35: August 7, 1971 from San Diego, California and August 24, 1971 from Chicago, Illinois with bonus tracks of August 6, 1971 from the Palladium, Hollywood, California
  • Vol. 36: September 21, 1972 from the Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Volume 15 and later are released in the HDCD format.


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Volume 15 and later are released in the HDCD format. Topps made its first foray into the world of games in July 2003 by acquiring the game company WizKids for $28.4 million in cash. About three new volumes were being released each year. The Topps Pokémon cards were purely for entertainment and collecting, but a new niche of collectible card games was also developing during this period (a Pokémon trading card game was produced simultaneously by Wizards of the Coast). Started in 1993, as of January 14, 2006 there are thirty-six volumes in the series, each covering a part or all of one or more concerts. Pokémon cards would accomplish the same feat for a few years starting in 1999. The above list does not include the Dick's Picks series of concert recordings taken from the band's archives, selected by archivist Dick Latvala and, after his death, David Lemieux. For a period beginning in 1973, the Wacky Packages stickers managed to outsell Topps baseball cards, becoming the first product to do so since the company's early days as purely a gum and candy maker.


. Although baseball cards have been Topps's most consistently profitable item, certain fads have occasionally produced spikes in popularity for non-sports items. As of now, any future plans are unknown, and are largely contingent on Weir and Lesh making up. Kennedy. Their inability to reconcile these differences kept Deadheads from seeing a tour to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Grateful Dead, and also made the annual celebration honoring Jerry Garcia seem a little flat, as his own bandmates couldn't put aside their differences to take the stage together in his honor. Topps has also covered celebrities and other cultural phenomena ranging from The Beatles to the life story of John F. The band did not tour in 2005, due to a fight between Bob Weir and Phil Lesh over how they believe certain things happened in the history of the band. Examples of the latter include The Waltons, The Mod Squad, Emergency!, Welcome Back Kotter, Mork and Mindy, and many others.

Haynes is best known for his work with Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band. Topps has also issued trading card series for movies, including the Star Wars and Star Trek series, and a number of popular television programs. Blues." The band accepted Warren Haynes as their new lead guitarist. Among Topps's most notable achievements in this area have been Wacky Packages, a takeoff on various household consumer products, and a series of stickers called Garbage Pail Kids, a parody of the Cabbage Patch Kids dolls. The members would continue to tour on and off through the end of their 2004 Summer Tour, the "Wave That Flag" tour, named after a lyric from the song, "U.S. These artistic talents carried over into more general efforts at parody as well. On February 14, 2003, (as they said) "reflecting the reality that [was]," they renamed themselves The Dead, reflecting the abbreviated form of the band name that fans had long used and keeping "Grateful" retired out of respect for Garcia. The 1962 Mars Attacks cards, sketched by Wood and Powell and painted by Norman Saunders, later inspired a Tim Burton movie.

The mid-2002 fall tour of The Other Ones, with Bob, Bill, Phil and Mickey, was so successful and satisfying that the band decided the name was no longer appropriate. Drawing on their previous work, these artists were adept at things like mixing humor and horror, as with the Funny Monsters cards in 1959. The remaining members occasionally got together under the pseudonym Crusader Rabbit Stealth Band during the late 1990s, infrequently playing unannounced shows. Some artists might work only on a project or two; others were regulars, like Art Spiegelman, who worked for Topps for over twenty years. Though some of them occasionally toured through the late 1990s under the name "The Other Ones", they mainly chose to pursue various solo projects, most notably Bob Weir's Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends and Mickey Hart's music for the 1996 Olympics. They also brought in others from the underground comix movement, including Bill Griffith and Kim Deitch. Following Garcia's death in 1995, the remaining members formally decided to disband. Topps creative directors Woody Gelman and Len Brown capitalized by hiring a number of artists from the industry, such as Jack Davis, Wally Wood, and Bob Powell.

These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures. The shift from sports to other topics better suited the creative instincts of the artists and coincided with turmoil in the comic book industry over regulation by the Comics Code Authority. The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture more of their essence, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. Many Topps artists came from the world of comics and continued to work in that field as well. The early records reflected the Dead's live repertoire — lengthy instrumental jams with guitar solos by Garcia, best exemplified by "Dark Star" — but, lacking the energy of the shows, did not sell well. Topps has continued to create collectible cards and stickers on a variety of subjects, often centered around movies, TV shows, musicians, and other entertainment phenomena. Most connoisseurs believe that the Grateful Dead's true spirit was rarely well captured in studio performance. For example, the Space Race prompted a set of "Space Cards" in 1958.

Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes—a form of psychedelia that might run the gamut from strange to exotically beautiful. As its sports products relied more on photography, Topps redirected its artistic efforts toward editorial trading cards on themes inspired by popular culture. Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and more, frequently melding several of them. Under pressure by shareholders, the company considered selling off its confectionery business in 2005, but was unable to find a buyer to meet its price and decided to cut management expenses instead. The Dead were not inclined to fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country/western. One particular focus has been lollipops, such as Ring Pops. This was natural, because they played psychedelic dances, open-air park events, and closed-street Haight-Ashbury block parties. In recent years, Topps has added more candy items without gum.

The Grateful Dead’s early music (in the mid 1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. Sales declined significantly in the 1970s, however, when this relatively hard gum was challenged by Bubble Yum, a new, softer form of bubblegum from Lifesavers. Listening to their first LP (The Grateful Dead, Warner Brothers, 1967), one is also reminded that it was recorded only a few years after the big "surfing music" craze; that California rock-music sound seeped in, to some degree, as well. For quite a few years, the company stuck within familiar confines, and virtually all of these products involved gum in some way. But the new Dead music was also naturally different from bands like Dylan's or the Spoonful, partly because their fellow musician Phil Lesh came out of a schooled classical and electronic-music background, while Ron "Pigpen" McKernan was a no-nonsense deep blues lover and drummer Bill Kreutzmann had a jazz background. Even though baseball cards became the company's primary focus during this period, Topps still developed a variety of candy items. It was natural for Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir, each of whom had been immersed in the American folk-music revival of the late 1950s and early '60s, to be open-minded toward electric guitars. In 1953, Topps began selling smaller penny pieces with the Bazooka Joe comic strip on the wrapper as an added attraction.

Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York "folk-rock" band The Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric." Gradually, many of the East-Coast American folk musicians, formerly luminaries of the coffee-house scene, were moving in the electric direction. Unlike the gum sold with baseball cards, it was of better quality and capable of selling on its own merit. Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. Bazooka was introduced in 1947 as a bar of gum that sold for five cents. The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands like the Beatles and Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. The longest-lived Topps product line remains Bazooka bubblegum, small pieces of gum in patriotic red, white, and blue packaging. Kahle claimed that the whole affair had been a "misunderstanding," but John Perry Barlow, one of the band's lyricists, claimed that concerts had been restored after several members of the band had backed away from their earlier opposition after realizing they had created a public relations "catastrophe.". Its best-selling title was The X-Files, based on the Fox TV show.

Several days after the announcement that the concerts had been removed, Brewster Kahle of Archive.Org made a cryptic announcement that audience tapes of the concerts would again become available, though so-called board tapes would only be available as streaming audio. Topps Comics specialized in licensed titles, particularly movie and television series tie-ins, though it also published a smattering of such original series as Cadillacs and Dinosaurs and several based on concepts by then-retired industry legend Jack Kirby. The removal of the Dead's concerts from Archive.org created a storm of protest, in addition to a rapidly spreading boycott of the band's remaining commercial products. This division of the company published comic books from 1993 — during the first half-decade's comics-industry boom, which attacted many investors and new companies — through 1998. However, David Gans, host of a syndicated radio program, "The Grateful Dead Hour," speculates that the band is motivated by money, noting "when they were making $50 million a year on the road, there wasn't a lot of pressure to monetize their archives."[5]. In imitation of Bowman and other competitors, Topps eventually also began producing trading cards and other collectibles for a variety of topics unrelated to sports. The band's spokesman, Dennis McNally, claimed such a repository "doesn't represent Grateful Dead values" because it doesn't foster one-to-one connections between fans. Other gum and candy products followed.

In November of 2005, the Dead's management outraged fans by asking the operators of the popular Internet Archive (archive.org) to stop making concerts available for download, and to offer only streamcast recordings instead. Originally, Topps was purely a gum company, and its first product was simply called "Topps gum". Not surprisingly, these Internet-only albums have met with the same success as their CD-based brethren. In a more recent addition to its lineup, Topps began producing cards for soccer in 1996, in partnership with Major League Soccer. In the summer of 2005 the Dead began offering downloadable versions of both their existing live releases, and a new internet-only series, The Grateful Dead Download Series, that is available exclusively through both their own GDStore.com (which offers the albums in both 256 kbit/s mp3 files and FLAC files -- a preferred audio standard for those who archive Dead and other fan-made live recordings on the Internet) and the iTunes Music Store (which offers them in their 128 kbit/s AAC format). Topps finally returned to basketball cards in 1992, several years after its competitors. All three series of releases continue to this day. It started again in 1969 and continued until 1982, then abandoned the market for another decade.

A series of videos began to trickle out of "The Vault", starting with View From the Vault (recorded in Pittsburgh on July 8, 1990 at Three Rivers Stadium) and View from the Vault II (recorded in Washington, DC on June 14, 1991 at RFK Stadium); these releases are accompanied by the simultaneous release of multi-disc soundtrack CDs of the same shows represented on the videos. Topps first sold cards for basketball in 1957, but stopped after one season. There have been at least 36 Dick's Picks releases as of November 2005. This ultimately left the sport to Upper Deck, which emerged as the sole licensee when the league resumed play. Starting in 1991, the Grateful Dead released numerous live concerts from their archives in two concurrent series: the From the Vault releases are multi-track remixes, whereas the Dick's Picks series (named for the band's late archivist, Dick Latvala) are based on two-track mixes made at the time of the recording. However, anticipating the 2004-05 NHL lockout, Topps allowed its license for hockey to expire after the 2003-04 season. After the show, a deadhead with the post-show munchies could probably find a grilled cheese sandwich made on a camping stove at the door of a VW bus by a friendly hippie. Topps then acquired the rights to use the O-Pee-Chee name on sports cards after that company was sold to Nestlé.

(Some deadheads would earn their entire touring budget selling such items.) Concertgoers typically congregated in the lot for hours before a show, playing guitar, hacky sacking and getting high. O-Pee-Chee had already obtained a license to print Topps baseball cards for the Canadian market, and for a number of years the two companies would produce often-identical cards for both sports, but each under its own brand for its respective market. One could find items for sale at many cars in the lot, from grilled cheese sandwiches to "kind" brews and nitrous balloons. After Parkhurst disappeared from the market in the 1960s, Topps then reached an agreement with O-Pee-Chee, another Canadian company, to jointly produce hockey cards. The parking lot of a Grateful Dead concert was as much a part of the event as the concert itself. Topps did not make a serious effort to take on Parkhurst Products, the leading Canadian hockey card manufacturer, for a couple more years. Whatever their differences, the deadheads are often considered to be the most devoted fans in the rock world. at the time (Boston Bruins, Chicago Blackhawks, Detroit Red Wings, and New York Rangers).

The late 1980s and 90s saw the Grateful Dead attracting a huge following that left many long time deadheads in doubt as to whether people were coming out for shows to see the band, or simply to be part of the atmosphere. After football, its next venture was into ice hockey, with a 1954 set featuring players from the four National Hockey League franchises located in the U.S. These new followers were deemed "Touchheads" by the more established fans, a reference to their relative inexperience with the band. Topps also makes cards for other major American professional sports. In the 1980s, the band scored a top 40 hit with the song "Touch of Grey" (from In the Dark), which garnered a much younger and more mainstream fandom that was considered sharply different from the traditional Deadheads. The situation continued until growth in the sports card market generally prompted two new companies, Pro Set and Score, to start making football cards in 1989. The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes. In spite of the lack of competition, or perhaps to preempt it, Topps also created two sets of cards for the short-lived United States Football League in the 1980s.

For many years, almost all of their shows would have dedicated taping sections. After the AFL-NFL Merger was agreed to, Topps became the only major football card manufacturer beginning in 1968. In contrast to many other bands, the Grateful Dead encouraged their fans to tape their shows. Although more competitive for a time, the football card market was never as lucrative, so the other companies did not fight as hard over it. Many of their fans, commonly referred to as Deadheads, would follow the band on tour. Philadelphia Gum then secured the NFL rights for 1964, forcing Topps to go for the AFL and leaving Fleer with no product in either baseball or football. Bitchin'!!" Kelly/Mouse Studios then began including the icon in most of the band's posters and graphics. Fleer produced a set for the AFL in 1960, then featured both leagues for one year before focusing on the AFL again.

The band's skull-and-lightning-bolt icon is called Steal Your Face, a sanitized version of the icon's original name, Skull Fuck, which was a direct reflection both of the anti-establishment sensibilities of the times and of the Grateful Dead's role as a voice for the "hippies." Garcia and McKernan are said to have been tripping on ancient icons from the Aztec or Mayan visual lexicon, particularly the celebration of Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) and to have exclaimed, "Fuck they're all skulls.. However, the emergence of the American Football League in 1960 to compete with the established National Football League also allowed Topps's competitors, beginning with Fleer, to make inroads. '. Since then, Topps has sold football cards every season. The rising cost of fuel and personnel, as well as friction among many of the newer crew members (and associated hangers-on), contributed to the band's 1974 "retirement." The Wall of Sound was disassembled, and when the Dead began touring again in 1976, it was with a more logistically practical sound system. After buying out Bowman, Topps took over the market the following year. The Wall's quadraphonic format never translated well to soundboard tapes made during the period, as the sound was compressed into an unnatural stereo format and suffers from a pronounced tinniness. For football cards Bowman dominated the field, and Topps did not try again until 1955, when it released an All-American set with a mix of active players and retired stars.

Because this was often switched to the vocal mikes, many of Lagin's parts were lost in the mix. In addition to baseball, Topps also produced cards for American football in 1951, which are known as the Magic set. Synthesist Ned Lagin, who toured with the group throughout much of 1974, never received his own dedicated input into the system, and was forced to use the vocal subsystem for amplification. The 1964 set issued cards for 2 then-recently-dead players--Ken Hubbs of the Cubs with a different "In Memoriam" front design compared the the standard cards, and Colts pitcher Jim Umbricht's regular card with a special note on its back about his April 1964 death (from cancer). The Wall of Sound was very efficient for its day, but it did have its pitfalls in addition to its sheer size. The 1959 set had card 550 as "Symbol Of Courage - Roy Campanella", with a color photo of the paralyzed former Dodger in his wheelchair and a black-and-white photo of him in uniform inserted to the upper left. Though the initial framework and a rudimentary form of the system was unveiled in February 1973 (ominously, every speaker tweeter blew as the band began their first number), the Grateful Dead did not begin to tour with the full system until a year later in 1974. On rare occasions, Topps issued special cards for players who had either died or had been injured.

Four semi trucks and 21 crew members were required to haul and set up the 75-ton Wall. It involved the clearly-readable obscenity on the bottom of the bat of Orioles infielder Billy Ripken. It was the largest portable sound system ever built (although "portable" is a relative term). The most celebrated error in baseball-card history was not printed by Topps, but by competitor Fleer in 1989. It was capable of producing acceptable sound at a quarter mile, and excellent sound for up to six hundred feet, when the sound began to be distorted by wind. The photo's cropping captured only the last 3 letters of one sign, so that the word "ASS" appears in vivid letters behind Sadecki. The Wall of Sound used 89 300-Watt solid state and three 350-Watt tube amplifiers to produce 26,400 total Watts RMS of audio power. The full-figure pitching-pose of Sadecki is normal; the problem was with the advertising signs on the outfield fence that he posed in front of.

The signals were summed, the sound that was common to both mics (the sound from the Wall) was cancelled, and only the vocals were amplified. The prime example of this was the Topps 1964 card for Cardinals' pitcher Ray Sadecki (#147). The vocalist sang into the top microphone, and the lower mic picked up whatever other sound was present in the stage environment. Yet another class of card is the "unintentional error," in which something in the photo makes it look as if an actual error has occurred. The Dead used matched pairs of condenser microphones spaced 60mm apart and run out-of-phase. This gives the card a "3-D" look. Because of this, a special microphone system had to be designed to prevent feedback. An interesting type of error is the print separation.

The Wall of Sound was designed to act as its own monitor system, and it was therefore assembled behind the band so the members could hear exactly what their audience was hearing. These are generally considered "ghost cards". Because each speaker was producing the sound of just one instrument or vocalist, the sound was exceptionally clear and intermodulation distortion between instruments was nonexistent. Another error type is when the back stats are overprinted on the front of the card. One channel amplified the bass drum, and two channels amplified the other drums and cymbals in stereo. Anticipating that possibility, Topps substituted the term "Washington Nat'l League" onto early-series Padres' cards, since the nickname of the potentially re-located team was not known. Phil Lesh's bass was quadraphonic, each of the four strings having its own channel and set of speakers. This came about when there was a strong possibility that the San Diego Padres might move to Washington after the 1973 season.

Vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, and piano each had their own channel and set of speakers. The 1974 "Washington Nat'l League" cards are considered errors too, but were corrected during the run. After Owsley Stanley was released from prison in late 1972, he, along with Dan Healey, Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead's sound crew, and Ron Wickersham, Rick Turner, and John Curl of Alembic Inc accomplished this by essentially combining eleven separate sound systems. In addition, misspelled words/names, print blotches, missing border sections, and different colored backgrounds (like the 1973 manager cards) are all considered errors although relatively few of these are corrected. The desire driving the development of the Wall of Sound was for a distortion-free sound system that could serve as its own monitor system. Another type of card that is considered an error is the blankback (or blankfront) Most likely however, these are first run proofs from the company not intended for distribution. The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year; Healy was a more superior engineer than Stanley and would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993. It is possible to find a centered back and off center front.

Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. Most wrongbacks have the backs off center. In 1971, the band purchased their first solid sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. This occurs when the sheet is mated with a back which is up side down or reversed. After Stanley was placed in jail for LSD production in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but ultimately found them to be less reliable than the systems conceived by their former soundman. Another type of error is the "wrongback." You can find these in just about any year. Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical issues. The Reniff card's number was still incorrect in this second printing, so a third, corrected one of his was produced, resulting in 1 'true' Reniff card and 2 errors (each error card with a different photograph).

The band were never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played, so in their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a PA and monitor system for them. All remaining photos were re-cropped for the re-printing (e.g., some photos were moved a bit to one side, and others moved up or down), thus giving every card in the series an error card. The Wall of Sound was an enormous sound system designed specifically for the Grateful Dead. The entire series was re-printed and re-distributed, with the photo inks in proper proportion and with 8 photos replaced with different poses (Reniff's among them). Musically this may be illustrated in that the band not only improvised within the form of a song, yet also improvised with the forms. All the photos were somewhat out of focus, and card number 159 (Yankees Pitcher Hal Reniff) was incorrectly numbered as 139. A hallmark of their concert sets were continuous sets of music where each song would blend into the next (a segue). The set's entire second series (the 87 cards numbered 110 through 196) was first printed and distributed without the proper amount of ink for the photographs; the result has been known ever since as the "Green Tint" series, for the sky and dirt in the backgrounds of some cards are decidedly green, rather than blue or brown.

The band was famous for its extended jams, which showcased both individual improvisation as well as a distinctive "group-mind" improvisation where each of the band members improvised individually, while still blending together as a cohesive musical unit, often engaging in extended improvisational flights of fancy. The Topps 1962 baseball set saw the 'grandaddy' of all error situations. Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that had been initially played in concert. The result was that said cards occur in two variations, based on the back color. (They also appeared at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the even more famous Woodstock Festival in 1969; their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen.). The photographs and information on the cards themselves were not in error. With the exception of 1975, when the band was on "hiatus" and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead toured regularly around the USA from the winter of 1965 until July 9, 1995—with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978. Certain cards were printed on two different types of cardstock; one produced a white back, and the other a darker gray.

In their early years, the band was also dedicated to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music and health care to all comers; they were the "first among equals in giving unselfishly of themselves to hippie culture, performing 'more free concerts than any band in the history of music'" [4]. One example of "variations" happened in the 1959 and 1960 Topps baseball sets. They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as Deadheads, many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. Some errors are corrected and re-printed within the print runs of the same set, resulting in an "Error Card;" others are not corrected, and are referred to among collectors as "Uncorrected Errors.". The Grateful Dead are well-known for their near constant touring throughout their long career in music. Topps and other card publishers were not immune to production 'glitches,' and such mistakes gave collectors unusual items to seek for their collections. Owsley "Bear" Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD. In 1993, Topps finally managed again to incorporate a player photo on the back as well as the front of the card, after some competitors had been doing so for a number of years.

Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists. These appeared on card backs as late as 1982, but gradually declined in the prominence of their placement and the proportion of cards on which they appeared. For a year and a half, Welnick was often joined by special guest Bruce Hornsby on piano. This primarily involved using various types of cartoons drawn by its stable of artists. Almost immediately, former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick joined on keyboards and vocals. Before statistics, biographical information, and commentary became the dominant element on the backs of cards, Topps also featured artwork there. He became the third Dead keyboardist to die. These problems diminished as Topps's selection of photographs gradually improved.

Brent Mydland was the keyboardist for the Dead for 11 years until his death in 1990. In a few cases, a misidentification meant that the player didn't even appear in the picture. Keith Godchaux died in a car accident in 1980. The photos were sometimes out of focus or included several players, making it difficult to pick out the player who was supposed to be featured on the card. Keith and Donna left the band in 1979, and Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist. When used for the cards of individual players, some of the early action photography had awkward results. In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Dead as a backing vocalist. Since that time, Topps has mixed game photography with posed shots in its sets.

Two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. Starting in 1960 a few cards showed true game action, primarily highlights from the World Series, but the photographs were either in black-and-white or hand-tinted color until 1971. Tom "TC" Constanten played keyboards alongside Pigpen from 1968 to 1970. In the absence of real action photography, Topps still occasionally used artwork to depict action on a handful of cards. Hart rejoined the Dead for good in 1975. (Cards for 'rookies' were also prepared by airbrushing over their minor-league uniforms in photos.). Hart quit the Grateful Dead in 1971, embarrassed by the financial misdealings of his father, Dead money manager Lenny Hart, and leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. Another was to paint out, by airbrush, the former team logo on both cap and uniform, or to paint on their new team cap logo.

Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in 1968 was joined by a second drummer, New York native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. One way was to show the player without any team cap. All of the previously mentioned Grateful Dead members shared in vocal performance of songs, although none of them had a particularly strong or tuneful voice. Topps used various ways to cope with players changing teams before the company could issue a card of them in their new uniform. Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards, harmonica and was also a group vocalist until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. Photographs did not appear in sharp focus and natural color until 1962. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar. If using such a prop, the player might pose in a position as if he were in the act of batting, pitching, or fielding.

Classically-trained trumpeter Phil Lesh played bass guitar. From 1957 on, virtually all cards were posed photographs, either as a head shot or together with a typical piece of equipment like a bat or glove. One of the main influences on his musical style was bluegrass music, and Garcia also performed-—on banjo, his other great instrumental love-—in the bluegrass band Old and in the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. The close-up head shots of some individual players were reused each year. Jerry was a native of San Francisco and grew up in the Excelsior District. For 1956, the close-up tinted photo was placed against a tinted full-background 'game-action' photo of the player. De facto bandleader Jerry Garcia was the lead guitarist for the band—-although he was often seen both by the public and the media as 'leader' or a primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, he was reluctant to be seen that way, especially since Garcia and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output. The same basic format was used in 1955, this time with the full-length photo also hand-tinted.

. After starting out with simple portraits, in 1954 Topps put two pictures on the front of the card--a hand-tinted 'color' close-up photo of the player's head, and the other a black-and-white full-length pose. These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world." [3]. The cards themselves had been in color from the beginning, though for the first few years this was done by using artist's portraits of players rather than actual photographs. Their musical influences varied widely with input from the psychedelic music of the era, combined with blues, jazz, rock and roll, and bluegrass. Although the 1971 set was an aborted experiment in terms of putting photos on card backs, that year was also a landmark in terms of baseball card photography, as Topps for the first time included cards showing color photographs from actual games. The Grateful Dead became the de facto resident band of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters, with the early sound heavily influenced by Kesey's LSD-soaked Acid Tests, as well as R&B. The practice of showing complete career statistics became permanent in 1963, except for one year, 1971, when Topps sacrificed the full statistics in order to put a player photo on the back of the card as well.

62), "...Jer (Garcia) picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...(and)...In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'". Over the next few years, Topps alternated between this format and merely showing the past season plus career totals. Some claim it was a Funk & Wagnalls, others an Oxford Dictionary, but according to Phil Lesh, in his biography (pp. For the first time in 1957, Topps put full year-by-year statistics for the player's entire career on the back of the card. The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen at random from a dictionary. Bowman promptly imitated this by putting statistics on its own cards where it had previously only had biographical information. The Grateful Dead most embodied "all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came, therefore, to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country" [2]. the 1951 season for cards in the 1952 set) and another with the player's lifetime totals.

(Also see entry for the San Francisco Sound.) Of these bands, the Grateful Dead had members with arguably the highest level of musicianship, including banjo and guitar player Jerry Garcia, blues musician "Pigpen" McKernan, the classically trained Phil Lesh and drummer Bill Kreutzmann [1]. The cards originally had one line for statistics from the most recent year (i.e. Many bands from this area, such as Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother & the Holding Company, and Santana, went on to national fame, giving San Francisco an image as a center for the hippie counterculture of the era. It also had some pedagogical benefit by encouraging youngsters to take an interest in the underlying math. Eventually, they moved to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. Those who played with baseball cards could study the numbers and use them as the basis for comparing players, trading cards with friends, or playing imaginary baseball games. The Grateful Dead's career began under the name "The Warlocks" in Palo Alto, California, but as another band was already recording under that name (interestingly, it was the future Velvet Underground), the band had to change its name in order to get a recording contract. While baseball cards themselves had been around for years, including statistics was a relative novelty that fascinated many collectors.

Many followers referred to the band simply as The Dead. At the time, complete and reliable baseball statistics for all players were not widely available, so Topps actually compiled the information itself from published box scores. These so-called Deadheads were renowned for their dedication to the band's music. One of the features that contributed significantly to Topps's success beginning with the 1952 set was providing player statistics. Some of the band's fans followed the band from concert to concert for years. Some of these were the company's own innovations, while some were ideas borrowed from others that Topps helped popularize. Formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, "Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions," the Grateful Dead were known for their unique and eclectic songwriting style—which fused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues, country, and jazz—and for live performances of long modal jams. In addition to establishing a standard size, Topps developed various design elements that are considered typical of baseball cards.

The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band. Although Topps did not invent the concept of baseball cards, its dominance in the field basically allowed the company to define people's expectations of what a baseball card would look like. 36: September 21, 1972 from the Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The amount of the transaction was not disclosed, but Topps charged a $3.7 million after-tax loss on its books in connection with the sale. Vol. This undertaking was not very successful, however, and Topps unloaded the site on Naxcom in January 2006. 35: August 7, 1971 from San Diego, California and August 24, 1971 from Chicago, Illinois with bonus tracks of August 6, 1971 from the Palladium, Hollywood, California. The purchase was for $5.7 million cash in August 2001 after Topps had earlier committed to invest in a round of venture capital financing for the company.

Vol. Topps also acquired ThePit.com, a startup company that earlier in 2000 had launched a site for online stock-market style card trading. 34: November 5, 1977 from the Community War Memorial, Rochester, New York with bonus tracks of November 2, 1977 from the Seneca College Field House, Toronto, Ontario. After a sale, the cards are held in a climate-controlled warehouse unless the buyer requests delivery, and the cards can be traded online without changing hands except in the virtual sense. Vol. The quantity sold depends on how many people offer to buy, but is limited to a certain maximum. 33: October 9 and 10, 1976 from the Oakland Stadium, Oakland, California (one of Bill Graham's Days on the Green). These cards are sold exclusively online through individual "IPOs" in which the card is offered for a week at the IPO price.

Vol. Working in partnership with eBay, Topps launched a new brand of sports cards called etopps in December 2000. 32: August 7, 1982 from the Alpine Valley, East Troy, Wisconsin. Although most of its products were distributed through retail stores and hobby shops, Topps also attempted to establish itself online, where a significant secondary market for sports cards was developing. Vol. The union announced that for 2006, licenses would only be granted to Topps and Upper Deck, the number of different products would be limited, and players would not appear on cards before reaching the major leagues. 31: August 4 and 5, 1974 from the Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and August 6, 1974 from the Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey. The resulting glut of different baseball sets caused the MLBPA to take drastic measures as the market for them deteriorated.

Vol. Topps continued adding more sets and trying to distinguish them from each other, as did its competitors. 30: March 28, 1972 from the Academy of Music, New York City and March 25, 1972 (including five songs with Bo Diddley). The initial Topps effort at producing a premium line of cards, in 1991, was called Stadium Club. Vol. Following Topps's example, other manufacturers now began to diversify their product lines into different sets, each catering to a different niche of the market. 29: May 19, 1977 from the Fox Theatre, Atlanta, Georgia and May 21, 1977 from the Lakeland Civic Arena, Lakeland, Florida. Also beginning in 1989 with the entry of Upper Deck into the market, card companies began to develop higher-end cards using improved technology.

Vol. As a further step in this race, Topps resurrected its former competitor Bowman as a subsidiary brand in 1989, with Bowman sets similarly chosen to include a lot of young players with bright prospects. 28: February 26, 1973 from the Pershing Municipal Auditorium, Lincoln, Nebraska and February 28, 1973 from the Salt Palace, Salt Lake City, Utah. This card from the 1984 squad appeared in Topps's regular 1985 set, but by the next Olympic cycle the team's cards had been migrated to the "Traded" set. Vol. Olympic baseball team and thus produced the first card of Mark McGwire, one that would become quite valuable to collectors. 27: December 16, 1992 from the Oakland Coliseum Arena, Oakland, California. For example, Topps obtained a license to produce cards featuring the U.S.

Vol. Increasingly, they also included highly touted minor league players who had yet to play in the major leagues. 26: April 26, 1969 from the Electric Theater, Chicago, Illinois and April 27, 1969 from the Labor Temple, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Since a "rookie card" is typically the most valuable for any given player, the companies now competed to be the first to produce a card of players who might be future stars. Vol. In order to fill out a 132-card set (the number of cards that fit on a single sheet of the uncut cardboard used in the production process), it would contain a number of rookie players who had just reached the major leagues and not previously appeared on a card. 25: May 10, 1978 from the Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New Haven, Connecticut and May 11, 1978 from the Springfield Civic Center, Springfield, Massachusetts. While "Traded" or "Update" sets were originally conceived to deal with players who changed teams, they became increasingly important for another reason.

Vol. In response to the competition, Topps began regularly issuing additional "Traded" sets featuring players who had changed teams since the main set was issued, following up on an idea it had experimented with a few years earlier. 24: March 23, 1974 from the Cow Palace, Daly City, California. Other manufacturers later followed, but Topps remains one of the leading brands in the baseball card hobby. Vol. Fleer and Donruss began making large, widely distributed sets to compete directly with Topps, although they still avoided packaging their cards with gum. 23: September 17, 1972 from the Baltimore Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland. The Topps monopoly on baseball cards was finally broken by a lawsuit that let Fleer and another company, Donruss, enter the market in 1981.

Vol. Topps appears not to have considered the Kellogg's cards a threat and took no action to stop them. 22: February 23 and 24, 1968 from the Kings Beach Bowl, Lake Tahoe, California. The Kellogg's sets contained fewer cards than Topps sets, and the cards served as an incentive to buy the cereal rather than being the intended focus of the purchase, as tended to be the case for cards distributed with smaller items like candy or gum. Vol. A semblance of competition returned to the baseball card market in the 1970s when Kellogg's began producing "3-D" cards and inserting them in boxes of breakfast cereal (originally Corn Flakes, later Raisin Bran and other brands). 21: November 1, 1985, from the Richmond Coliseum, Richmond, Virginia and some tracks from September 2, 1980. In addition, Topps is the only manufacturer able to produce cards of players who worked as replacement players during the 1994-95 baseball strike, since they are barred from union membership and participation in the group licensing program.

Vol. Topps, however, can negotiate individually and was belatedly able to create a 2004 card of Bonds. 20: September 25, 1976 from the Capital Center, Landover, Maryland and September 28, 1976 from the Onondaga County War Memorial, Syracuse, New York. On the other hand, if a player opts out of group licensing, as Barry Bonds did in 2004, then manufacturers who depend on the MLBPA system will have no way of including him. Vol. Players who decline to sign individual contracts will not have Topps cards even when the group licensing system allows other manufacturers to produce cards of the player, as happened with Alex Rodriguez early in his career. 19: October 19, 1973 from the Fairgrounds Arena, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The difference has occasionally affected whether specific players are included in particular sets.

Vol. This contrasts with other manufacturers, who all obtain group licenses from the MLBPA. 18: February 3, 1978 from the Dane County Coliseum, Madison, Wisconsin and February 5, 1978 from the Uni-Dome, Cedar Falls, Iowa. As a byproduct of this history, Topps continues to use individual player contracts as the basis for its baseball card sets today. Vol. Although Fleer declined the proposal, by the end of the year Topps had agreed to double its payments to each player from $125 to $250, and also to begin paying players a percentage of Topps's overall sales. 17: September 25, 1991 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts with two songs from March 31, 1991. After continued discussions went nowhere, the union before the 1968 season asked its members to stop signing renewals on these contracts, and offered Fleer the exclusive rights to market cards of most players (with gum) starting in 1973.

Vol. At this time, Topps had every major league player under contract, generally for five years plus renewal options, so Shorin declined. 16: November 8, 1969 from the Fillmore, San Francisco, California. MLBPA executive director Marvin Miller then approached Joel Shorin, the president of Topps, about renegotiating these contracts. Vol. After initially putting players on Coca-Cola bottlecaps, the union concluded that the Topps contracts did not pay players adequately for their rights. 15: September 3, 1977 from the Raceway Park, Englishtown, New Jersey. Struggling to raise funds, the MLBPA discovered that it could generate significant income by pooling the publicity rights of its members and offering companies a group license to use their images on various products.

Vol. That same year, however, Topps faced an attempt to undermine its position from the nascent players' union, the Major League Baseball Players Association. 14: November 30 and December 2, 1973 from the Boston Music Hall (now Symphony Hall), Boston, Massachusetts. The decision gave Topps an effective monopoly of the baseball card market. Vol. However, Fleer chose not to pursue such options and instead sold its remaining player contracts to Topps for $395,000 in 1966. 13: May 6, 1981 from the Nassau Coliseum, Long Island, New York. The Commission concluded that because the contracts only covered the sale of cards with gum, competition was still possible by selling cards with other small, low-cost products.

Vol. A hearing examiner ruled against Topps in 1965, but the Commission reversed this decision on appeal. 12: June 26, 1974 from the Providence Civic Center, Providence, Rhode Island and June 28, 1974 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts. Stymied, Fleer turned its efforts to supporting an administrative complaint filed by the Federal Trade Commission, alleging that Topps was engaging in unfair competition through its aggregation of exclusive contracts. Vol. However, Topps held onto the rights of most players and the set was not particularly successful. 11: September 27, 1972 from the Stanley Theater, Jersey City, New Jersey. Two of these sets were produced before Fleer finally tried a 67-card set of currently active players in 1963.

Vol. Williams retired the next year, so Fleer began adding around him other mostly retired players in a Baseball Greats series, which was sold with gum. 10: December 29 and 30, 1977 from the Winterland, San Francisco, California. Fleer signed star Ted Williams to an exclusive contract in 1959 and sold a set of cards oriented around him. Vol. The next company to challenge Topps was Fleer, another gum manufacturer. 9: September 16, 1990 from Madison Square Garden, New York City. This left Topps as the dominant producer of baseball cards for a number of years.

Vol. The competition, both for consumer attention and player contracts, continued until 1956, when Topps bought out Bowman. 8: May 2, 1970 from Harpur College, Binghamton, New York. As the contract situation was sorted out, several Topps sets during these years had a few "missing" cards, where the numbering of the set skips several numbers because they had been assigned to players whose cards could not legally be distributed. Vol. The contract issue proved more difficult because it turned on the dates when a given player signed contracts with each company, and whether the player's contract with one company had an exception for his contract with the other. 7: September 1974 from the Alexandra Palace, London, England. The court rejected Bowman's attempt to claim a trademark on the word "baseball" in connection with the sale of gum, and disposed of the unfair competition claim because Topps had made no attempt to pass its cards off as being made by Bowman.

Vol. The lawsuit alleged infringement on Bowman's trademarks, unfair competition, and contractual interference. 6: October 14, 1983 from the Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut. federal court. Vol. Bowman responded by adding chewing gum "or confections" to the exclusivity language of its 1951 contracts, and also sued Topps in U.S. 5: December 26, 1979 from the Oakland Arena, Oakland, California. Topps also tried to establish exclusive rights through its contracts by having players agree not to grant similar rights to others, or renew existing contracts except where specifically noted in the contract.

Vol. However, because Bowman had signed many players in 1950 to contracts for that year, plus a renewal option for one year, Topps included in its own contracts the rights to sell cards with gum starting in 1952 (as it ultimately did). 4: February 13 and 14, 1970 from the Fillmore East, New York City. To avoid the language of Bowman's existing contracts, Topps sold its 1951 cards with caramel candy instead of gum. Vol. The language of these contracts focused particularly on the rights to sell cards with chewing gum, which had already been established in the 1930s as a popular product to pair with baseball cards. 3: May 22, 1977 from the Hollywood Sportatorium, Hollywood, Florida. Bowman had become the primary maker of baseball cards and driven out several competitors by signing its players to exclusive contracts.

Vol. This promptly brought Topps into furious competition with Bowman Gum, another company producing baseball cards. 2: October 31, 1971 from the Ohio Theatre, Columbus, Ohio. The later acquisition of rights to additional players allowed Topps to release its second series. Vol. Topps first became active in this process through an agent called Players Enterprises in July 1950, in preparation for its first 1951 set. 1: December 19, 1973 from Tampa, Florida. During this period, baseball card manufacturers generally obtained the rights to depict players on merchandise by signing individual players to contracts for the purpose.

Vol. It was finally dropped from baseball card packs in 1992. The Complete Fillmore West 1969 (2005: boxed set, live). In fact, the gum eventually became a hindrance because it tended to stain the cards, thus impairing their value to collectors who wanted to keep them in pristine condition. Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005). The combination of baseball cards and bubblegum was popular among young boys, and given the mediocre quality of the gum, the cards quickly became the primary attraction. Beyond Description (2004: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Grateful Dead Records and Arista Records, 1973-1989). The last series in 1952 started with card #311, which is Topps' first card of Mickey Mantle and remains the most valuable Topps card ever.

The Very Best of The Grateful Dead (2003: compilation). As a result, cards with higher numbers from this period are rarer than low numbers in the same set, and collectors will pay significantly higher prices for them. Postcards of the Hanging (2002: live compilation). In later years, Topps either printed series in smaller quantities late in the season or destroyed excess cards. The Golden Road (2001: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Warner Brothers Records, 1967-1972). Topps was left with a substantial amount of surplus stock in 1952, which it largely disposed of by dumping many cards into the Atlantic. So Many Roads 1965-1995 (1999: boxed set). However, the later series did not sell as well, as the baseball season wore on and popular attention began to turn towards football.

Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997: live compilation). The cards were released in several series over the course of the baseball season, a practice Topps would continue with its baseball cards until 1974. The Arista Years (1996: compilation). This set became a landmark in the baseball card industry, and today the company considers this its first true baseball card set. Grateful Dead 1977-1995 (1996: compilation). (In 1957, Topps shrank the dimensions of its cards slightly, to 2-1/2 inches by 3-1/2 inches, setting a standard that remains the basic format for most sports cards produced in the United States.) The cards now had a color portrait on one side, with statistical and biographical information on the other. Grayfolded (1996: live compilation). The company also decided that its playing card model was too small (2 inches by 2-5/8 inches) and changed the dimensions to 2-5/8 inches by 3-5/8 inches with square corners.

Infrared Roses (1991: live compilation). Topps changed its approach in 1952, this time creating a much larger (407 total) set of baseball cards and packaging them with its signature product, bubblegum. Without a Net (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). The other side featured the portrait of a player within a baseball diamond in the center, and in opposite corners a picture of a baseball together with the event for that card, such as "fly out" or "single". Dozin' at the Knick (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Also like playing cards, the cards had rounded corners and were blank on one side, which was colored either red or blue (hence the names given to these sets). Dylan & The Dead (live, with Bob Dylan) (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Each set contained 52 cards, like a deck of playing cards, and in fact the cards could be used to play a game that would simulate the events of a baseball game.

Built to Last (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). In 1951, Topps produced its first baseball cards in two different sets known today as Red Backs and Blue Backs. In the Dark (1987: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Management was left in the hands of the Shorin family throughout all of these maneuverings. Dead Set (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). In this incarnation, the company was incorporated in Delaware for legal purposes, but company headquarters remained in New York. Reckoning (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). The new ownership group again made Topps into a publicly traded company in 1987, now renamed to The Topps Company, Inc.

Go to Heaven (1980: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). The company returned to private ownership when it was acquired in a leveraged buyout led by Forstmann Little & Company in 1984. Godchaux). After being privately held for several decades, Topps offered stock to the public for the first time in 1972 with the assistance of investment banking firm White, Weld & Co. Godchaux/D. In 1994, the headquarters would move to One Whitehall Street in Manhattan. Shakedown Street (1978: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Corporate offices remained at 254 36th Street in New York, a location in the Brooklyn waterfront district by the Gowanus Expressway.

What a Long Strange Trip It's Been (1977: compilation). The entire company originally operated out of Brooklyn, but production facilities were moved to a plant in Duryea, Pennsylvania in 1965. Godchaux). It later incorporated under New York law in 1947. Godchaux/D. The company began its existence as Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., a partnership between the four Shorin brothers. Terrapin Station (1977: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Topps then added baseball cards as a product, which quickly became its primary emphasis.

Godchaux). Starting in 1950, the company decided to try increasing gum sales by packaging them together with trading cards featuring Western character Hopalong Cassidy. Godchaux/D. Topps's most successful early product was Bazooka bubblegum, which was packaged with a small comic on the wrapper. Blues for Allah (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. At the time, chewing gum was still a relative novelty sold in individual pieces. Godchaux). The chosen field was the manufacture of chewing gum, selected after going into the produce business was considered and rejected.

Godchaux/D. To do this, they relaunched the company as Topps, with the name meant to indicate that it would be "tops" in its field. One From the Vault (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Shorin's sons, Abram, Ira, Philip, and Joseph, decided to focus on a new product but take advantage of the company's existing distribution channels. Godchaux). American Leaf Tobacco encountered difficulties as World War I cut off Turkish supplies of tobacco to the United States, and later as a result of the Great Depression. Godchaux/D. (American Leaf Tobacco should not be confused with the American Tobacco Company, which monopolized US-grown tobacco during this period.).

Steal Your Face (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. imported tobacco to the United States and sold it to other tobacco companies. Godchaux). Founded in 1890 by Morris Shorin, the American Leaf Tobacco Co. Godchaux/D. Topps itself was founded in 1938, but the company can trace its roots back to an earlier firm, American Leaf Tobacco. Grateful Dead From the Mars Hotel (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. .

Godchaux). It is best known as a leading producer of baseball cards and other sports-related trading cards. Godchaux/D. The Topps Company, Inc. NASDAQ: TOPP is a publicly traded company based in New York City that manufactures candy and collectibles. Wake of the Flood (1973: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. New York: Warner Books. Skeletons from the Closet (Best of the Grateful Dead) (1973: compilation). Topps Baseball Cards: The complete picture collection, a 40 year history.

Godchaux). Slocum, Frank & Red Foley (1990). Godchaux/D. ISBN 0-312-32222-4. Europe '72 (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Martin's Press. Godchaux). New York: St.

Godchaux/D. The Numbers Game: Baseball's Lifelong Fascination with Statistics. Hundred Year Hall (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Schwarz, Alan (2004). Grateful Dead (aka Skull & Roses) (1971: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan). Chicago Reader, 25 June 2004. American Beauty (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). "Culture Jamming for the Swingset Set".

Workingman's Dead (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). Schwartz, Ben. History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). 1953). Live/Dead (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten). 904 (E.D.N.Y. Aoxomoxoa (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten). Topps Chewing Gum Co., 112 F.Supp.

Two from the Vault (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). v. Anthem of the Sun (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). Haelan Laboratories, Inc. The Grateful Dead (1967: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan). 1953). Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals (1990 - 1995). Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., 202 F.2d 866 (2d Cir.

Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals (1979 - 1990). v. Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals (1972 - 1979). Haelan Laboratories, Inc. Keith Godchaux - keyboards (1971 - 1979). 1981). Tom Constanten - keyboards (1968 - 1970). Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., 658 F.2d 139 (3d Cir.

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, vocals, harmonica, percussion (1965 - 1973). v. Mickey Hart - drums (1967 - 1971, 1975 - 1995). Fleer Corp. Bill Kreutzmann - drums (1965 - 1995). 1980). Phil Lesh - bass, vocals (1965 - 1995). Pa.

Bob Weir - rhythm guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995). 485 (E.D. Jerry Garcia - lead guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995). Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., 501 F.Supp. v. Fleer Corp.

ISBN 0-316-10429-9. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. The Great American Baseball Card Flipping, Trading and Bubble Gum Book. Harris (1973).

& Fred C. Boyd, Brendan C. 1952). 944 (E.D.N.Y.

Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., 103 F.Supp. v. Bowman Gum, Inc.

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