Grateful Dead

The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band. Formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, "Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions," the Grateful Dead were known for their unique and eclectic songwriting style—which fused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues, country, and jazz—and for live performances of long modal jams.

Some of the band's fans followed the band from concert to concert for years. These so-called Deadheads were renowned for their dedication to the band's music. Many followers referred to the band simply as The Dead.

The Grateful Dead's career began under the name "The Warlocks" in Palo Alto, California, but as another band was already recording under that name (interestingly, it was the future Velvet Underground), the band had to change its name in order to get a recording contract. Eventually, they moved to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. Many bands from this area, such as Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother & the Holding Company, and Santana, went on to national fame, giving San Francisco an image as a center for the hippie counterculture of the era. (Also see entry for the San Francisco Sound.) Of these bands, the Grateful Dead had members with arguably the highest level of musicianship, including banjo and guitar player Jerry Garcia, blues musician "Pigpen" McKernan, the classically trained Phil Lesh and drummer Bill Kreutzmann [1]. The Grateful Dead most embodied "all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came, therefore, to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country" [2].

The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen at random from a dictionary. Some claim it was a Funk & Wagnalls, others an Oxford Dictionary, but according to Phil Lesh, in his biography (pp. 62), "...Jer (Garcia) picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...(and)...In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'"

The Grateful Dead became the de facto resident band of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters, with the early sound heavily influenced by Kesey's LSD-soaked Acid Tests, as well as R&B. Their musical influences varied widely with input from the psychedelic music of the era, combined with blues, jazz, rock and roll, and bluegrass. These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world." [3].

Membership

De facto bandleader Jerry Garcia was the lead guitarist for the band—-although he was often seen both by the public and the media as 'leader' or a primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, he was reluctant to be seen that way, especially since Garcia and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output. Jerry was a native of San Francisco and grew up in the Excelsior District. One of the main influences on his musical style was bluegrass music, and Garcia also performed-—on banjo, his other great instrumental love-—in the bluegrass band Old and in the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. Classically-trained trumpeter Phil Lesh played bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar. Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards, harmonica and was also a group vocalist until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. All of the previously mentioned Grateful Dead members shared in vocal performance of songs, although none of them had a particularly strong or tuneful voice. Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in 1968 was joined by a second drummer, New York native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. Hart quit the Grateful Dead in 1971, embarrassed by the financial misdealings of his father, Dead money manager Lenny Hart, and leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. Hart rejoined the Dead for good in 1975. Tom "TC" Constanten played keyboards alongside Pigpen from 1968 to 1970. Two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Dead as a backing vocalist. Keith and Donna left the band in 1979, and Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist. Keith Godchaux died in a car accident in 1980. Brent Mydland was the keyboardist for the Dead for 11 years until his death in 1990. He became the third Dead keyboardist to die. Almost immediately, former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick joined on keyboards and vocals. For a year and a half, Welnick was often joined by special guest Bruce Hornsby on piano. Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists. Owsley "Bear" Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD.

Touring

Early photo of the band at their communal home in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, late 60's.

The Grateful Dead are well-known for their near constant touring throughout their long career in music. They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as Deadheads, many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. In their early years, the band was also dedicated to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music and health care to all comers; they were the "first among equals in giving unselfishly of themselves to hippie culture, performing 'more free concerts than any band in the history of music'" [4].

Original lineup of The Grateful Dead, 1971.

With the exception of 1975, when the band was on "hiatus" and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead toured regularly around the USA from the winter of 1965 until July 9, 1995—with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978. (They also appeared at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the even more famous Woodstock Festival in 1969; their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen.)

Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that had been initially played in concert. The band was famous for its extended jams, which showcased both individual improvisation as well as a distinctive "group-mind" improvisation where each of the band members improvised individually, while still blending together as a cohesive musical unit, often engaging in extended improvisational flights of fancy. A hallmark of their concert sets were continuous sets of music where each song would blend into the next (a segue). Musically this may be illustrated in that the band not only improvised within the form of a song, yet also improvised with the forms.

Wall of Sound

The Wall of Sound was an enormous sound system designed specifically for the Grateful Dead. The band were never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played, so in their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a PA and monitor system for them. Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical issues. After Stanley was placed in jail for LSD production in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but ultimately found them to be less reliable than the systems conceived by their former soundman. In 1971, the band purchased their first solid sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year; Healy was a more superior engineer than Stanley and would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993.

The desire driving the development of the Wall of Sound was for a distortion-free sound system that could serve as its own monitor system. After Owsley Stanley was released from prison in late 1972, he, along with Dan Healey, Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead's sound crew, and Ron Wickersham, Rick Turner, and John Curl of Alembic Inc accomplished this by essentially combining eleven separate sound systems. Vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, and piano each had their own channel and set of speakers. Phil Lesh's bass was quadraphonic, each of the four strings having its own channel and set of speakers. One channel amplified the bass drum, and two channels amplified the other drums and cymbals in stereo. Because each speaker was producing the sound of just one instrument or vocalist, the sound was exceptionally clear and intermodulation distortion between instruments was nonexistent.

The Wall of Sound was designed to act as its own monitor system, and it was therefore assembled behind the band so the members could hear exactly what their audience was hearing. Because of this, a special microphone system had to be designed to prevent feedback. The Dead used matched pairs of condenser microphones spaced 60mm apart and run out-of-phase. The vocalist sang into the top microphone, and the lower mic picked up whatever other sound was present in the stage environment. The signals were summed, the sound that was common to both mics (the sound from the Wall) was cancelled, and only the vocals were amplified.

The Wall of Sound used 89 300-Watt solid state and three 350-Watt tube amplifiers to produce 26,400 total Watts RMS of audio power. It was capable of producing acceptable sound at a quarter mile, and excellent sound for up to six hundred feet, when the sound began to be distorted by wind. It was the largest portable sound system ever built (although "portable" is a relative term). Four semi trucks and 21 crew members were required to haul and set up the 75-ton Wall.

Though the initial framework and a rudimentary form of the system was unveiled in February 1973 (ominously, every speaker tweeter blew as the band began their first number), the Grateful Dead did not begin to tour with the full system until a year later in 1974. The Wall of Sound was very efficient for its day, but it did have its pitfalls in addition to its sheer size. Synthesist Ned Lagin, who toured with the group throughout much of 1974, never received his own dedicated input into the system, and was forced to use the vocal subsystem for amplification. Because this was often switched to the vocal mikes, many of Lagin's parts were lost in the mix. The Wall's quadraphonic format never translated well to soundboard tapes made during the period, as the sound was compressed into an unnatural stereo format and suffers from a pronounced tinniness.

The rising cost of fuel and personnel, as well as friction among many of the newer crew members (and associated hangers-on), contributed to the band's 1974 "retirement." The Wall of Sound was disassembled, and when the Dead began touring again in 1976, it was with a more logistically practical sound system.

'

Two Grateful Dead icons rolled into one

Steal Your Face

The band's skull-and-lightning-bolt icon is called Steal Your Face, a sanitized version of the icon's original name, Skull Fuck, which was a direct reflection both of the anti-establishment sensibilities of the times and of the Grateful Dead's role as a voice for the "hippies." Garcia and McKernan are said to have been tripping on ancient icons from the Aztec or Mayan visual lexicon, particularly the celebration of Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) and to have exclaimed, "Fuck they're all skulls... Bitchin'!!" Kelly/Mouse Studios then began including the icon in most of the band's posters and graphics.

Deadheads

Many of their fans, commonly referred to as Deadheads, would follow the band on tour. In contrast to many other bands, the Grateful Dead encouraged their fans to tape their shows. For many years, almost all of their shows would have dedicated taping sections. The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes. In the 1980s, the band scored a top 40 hit with the song "Touch of Grey" (from In the Dark), which garnered a much younger and more mainstream fandom that was considered sharply different from the traditional Deadheads. These new followers were deemed "Touchheads" by the more established fans, a reference to their relative inexperience with the band. The late 1980s and 90s saw the Grateful Dead attracting a huge following that left many long time deadheads in doubt as to whether people were coming out for shows to see the band, or simply to be part of the atmosphere. Whatever their differences, the deadheads are often considered to be the most devoted fans in the rock world.

The parking lot of a Grateful Dead concert was as much a part of the event as the concert itself. One could find items for sale at many cars in the lot, from grilled cheese sandwiches to "kind" brews and nitrous balloons. (Some deadheads would earn their entire touring budget selling such items.) Concertgoers typically congregated in the lot for hours before a show, playing guitar, hacky sacking and getting high. After the show, a deadhead with the post-show munchies could probably find a grilled cheese sandwich made on a camping stove at the door of a VW bus by a friendly hippie.

Live releases

Late lineup of The Grateful Dead, mid-90s.

Starting in 1991, the Grateful Dead released numerous live concerts from their archives in two concurrent series: the From the Vault releases are multi-track remixes, whereas the Dick's Picks series (named for the band's late archivist, Dick Latvala) are based on two-track mixes made at the time of the recording. There have been at least 36 Dick's Picks releases as of November 2005. A series of videos began to trickle out of "The Vault", starting with View From the Vault (recorded in Pittsburgh on July 8, 1990 at Three Rivers Stadium) and View from the Vault II (recorded in Washington, DC on June 14, 1991 at RFK Stadium); these releases are accompanied by the simultaneous release of multi-disc soundtrack CDs of the same shows represented on the videos. All three series of releases continue to this day.

In the summer of 2005 the Dead began offering downloadable versions of both their existing live releases, and a new internet-only series, The Grateful Dead Download Series, that is available exclusively through both their own GDStore.com (which offers the albums in both 256 kbit/s mp3 files and FLAC files -- a preferred audio standard for those who archive Dead and other fan-made live recordings on the Internet) and the iTunes Music Store (which offers them in their 128 kbit/s AAC format). Not surprisingly, these Internet-only albums have met with the same success as their CD-based brethren.

In November of 2005, the Dead's management outraged fans by asking the operators of the popular Internet Archive (archive.org) to stop making concerts available for download, and to offer only streamcast recordings instead. The band's spokesman, Dennis McNally, claimed such a repository "doesn't represent Grateful Dead values" because it doesn't foster one-to-one connections between fans. However, David Gans, host of a syndicated radio program, "The Grateful Dead Hour," speculates that the band is motivated by money, noting "when they were making $50 million a year on the road, there wasn't a lot of pressure to monetize their archives."[5]

The removal of the Dead's concerts from Archive.org created a storm of protest, in addition to a rapidly spreading boycott of the band's remaining commercial products. Several days after the announcement that the concerts had been removed, Brewster Kahle of Archive.Org made a cryptic announcement that audience tapes of the concerts would again become available, though so-called board tapes would only be available as streaming audio. Kahle claimed that the whole affair had been a "misunderstanding," but John Perry Barlow, one of the band's lyricists, claimed that concerts had been restored after several members of the band had backed away from their earlier opposition after realizing they had created a public relations "catastrophe."

History

The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands like the Beatles and Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York "folk-rock" band The Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric." Gradually, many of the East-Coast American folk musicians, formerly luminaries of the coffee-house scene, were moving in the electric direction. It was natural for Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir, each of whom had been immersed in the American folk-music revival of the late 1950s and early '60s, to be open-minded toward electric guitars. But the new Dead music was also naturally different from bands like Dylan's or the Spoonful, partly because their fellow musician Phil Lesh came out of a schooled classical and electronic-music background, while Ron "Pigpen" McKernan was a no-nonsense deep blues lover and drummer Bill Kreutzmann had a jazz background. Listening to their first LP (The Grateful Dead, Warner Brothers, 1967), one is also reminded that it was recorded only a few years after the big "surfing music" craze; that California rock-music sound seeped in, to some degree, as well.

The cover of the 1970 album American Beauty

The Grateful Dead’s early music (in the mid 1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. This was natural, because they played psychedelic dances, open-air park events, and closed-street Haight-Ashbury block parties. The Dead were not inclined to fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country/western. Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and more, frequently melding several of them. Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes—a form of psychedelia that might run the gamut from strange to exotically beautiful. Most connoisseurs believe that the Grateful Dead's true spirit was rarely well captured in studio performance.

The early records reflected the Dead's live repertoire — lengthy instrumental jams with guitar solos by Garcia, best exemplified by "Dark Star" — but, lacking the energy of the shows, did not sell well. The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture more of their essence, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures.

Dissolution and Continuation of the band

Following Garcia's death in 1995, the remaining members formally decided to disband. Though some of them occasionally toured through the late 1990s under the name "The Other Ones", they mainly chose to pursue various solo projects, most notably Bob Weir's Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends and Mickey Hart's music for the 1996 Olympics. The remaining members occasionally got together under the pseudonym Crusader Rabbit Stealth Band during the late 1990s, infrequently playing unannounced shows. The mid-2002 fall tour of The Other Ones, with Bob, Bill, Phil and Mickey, was so successful and satisfying that the band decided the name was no longer appropriate. On February 14, 2003, (as they said) "reflecting the reality that [was]," they renamed themselves The Dead, reflecting the abbreviated form of the band name that fans had long used and keeping "Grateful" retired out of respect for Garcia. The members would continue to tour on and off through the end of their 2004 Summer Tour, the "Wave That Flag" tour, named after a lyric from the song, "U.S. Blues." The band accepted Warren Haynes as their new lead guitarist. Haynes is best known for his work with Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band. The band did not tour in 2005, due to a fight between Bob Weir and Phil Lesh over how they believe certain things happened in the history of the band. Their inability to reconcile these differences kept Deadheads from seeing a tour to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Grateful Dead, and also made the annual celebration honoring Jerry Garcia seem a little flat, as his own bandmates couldn't put aside their differences to take the stage together in his honor. As of now, any future plans are unknown, and are largely contingent on Weir and Lesh making up.

Bandmembers

  • Jerry Garcia - lead guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Bob Weir - rhythm guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Phil Lesh - bass, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Bill Kreutzmann - drums (1965 - 1995)
  • Mickey Hart - drums (1967 - 1971, 1975 - 1995)
  • Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, vocals, harmonica, percussion (1965 - 1973)
  • Tom Constanten - keyboards (1968 - 1970)
  • Keith Godchaux - keyboards (1971 - 1979)
  • Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals (1972 - 1979)
  • Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals (1979 - 1990)
  • Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals (1990 - 1995)


Discography

  • The Grateful Dead (1967: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan)
  • Anthem of the Sun (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Two from the Vault (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Aoxomoxoa (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten)
  • Live/Dead (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten)
  • History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Workingman's Dead (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • American Beauty (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Grateful Dead (aka Skull & Roses) (1971: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan)
  • Hundred Year Hall (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Europe '72 (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Skeletons from the Closet (Best of the Grateful Dead) (1973: compilation)
  • Wake of the Flood (1973: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Grateful Dead From the Mars Hotel (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Steal Your Face (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • One From the Vault (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Blues for Allah (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Terrapin Station (1977: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • What a Long Strange Trip It's Been (1977: compilation)
  • Shakedown Street (1978: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Go to Heaven (1980: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Reckoning (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dead Set (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • In the Dark (1987: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Built to Last (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dylan & The Dead (live, with Bob Dylan) (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dozin' at the Knick (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Without a Net (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Infrared Roses (1991: live compilation)
  • Grayfolded (1996: live compilation)
  • Grateful Dead 1977-1995 (1996: compilation)
  • The Arista Years (1996: compilation)
  • Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997: live compilation)
  • So Many Roads 1965-1995 (1999: boxed set)
  • The Golden Road (2001: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Warner Brothers Records, 1967-1972)
  • Postcards of the Hanging (2002: live compilation)
  • The Very Best of The Grateful Dead (2003: compilation)
  • Beyond Description (2004: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Grateful Dead Records and Arista Records, 1973-1989)
  • Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005)
  • The Complete Fillmore West 1969 (2005: boxed set, live)

Dick's Picks

The above list does not include the Dick's Picks series of concert recordings taken from the band's archives, selected by archivist Dick Latvala and, after his death, David Lemieux. Started in 1993, as of January 14, 2006 there are thirty-six volumes in the series, each covering a part or all of one or more concerts. About three new volumes were being released each year.

  • Vol. 1: December 19, 1973 from Tampa, Florida
  • Vol. 2: October 31, 1971 from the Ohio Theatre, Columbus, Ohio
  • Vol. 3: May 22, 1977 from the Hollywood Sportatorium, Hollywood, Florida
  • Vol. 4: February 13 and 14, 1970 from the Fillmore East, New York City
  • Vol. 5: December 26, 1979 from the Oakland Arena, Oakland, California
  • Vol. 6: October 14, 1983 from the Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut
  • Vol. 7: September 1974 from the Alexandra Palace, London, England
  • Vol. 8: May 2, 1970 from Harpur College, Binghamton, New York
  • Vol. 9: September 16, 1990 from Madison Square Garden, New York City
  • Vol. 10: December 29 and 30, 1977 from the Winterland, San Francisco, California
  • Vol. 11: September 27, 1972 from the Stanley Theater, Jersey City, New Jersey
  • Vol. 12: June 26, 1974 from the Providence Civic Center, Providence, Rhode Island and June 28, 1974 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 13: May 6, 1981 from the Nassau Coliseum, Long Island, New York
  • Vol. 14: November 30 and December 2, 1973 from the Boston Music Hall (now Symphony Hall), Boston, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 15: September 3, 1977 from the Raceway Park, Englishtown, New Jersey
  • Vol. 16: November 8, 1969 from the Fillmore, San Francisco, California
  • Vol. 17: September 25, 1991 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts with two songs from March 31, 1991
  • Vol. 18: February 3, 1978 from the Dane County Coliseum, Madison, Wisconsin and February 5, 1978 from the Uni-Dome, Cedar Falls, Iowa
  • Vol. 19: October 19, 1973 from the Fairgrounds Arena, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
  • Vol. 20: September 25, 1976 from the Capital Center, Landover, Maryland and September 28, 1976 from the Onondaga County War Memorial, Syracuse, New York
  • Vol. 21: November 1, 1985, from the Richmond Coliseum, Richmond, Virginia and some tracks from September 2, 1980
  • Vol. 22: February 23 and 24, 1968 from the Kings Beach Bowl, Lake Tahoe, California
  • Vol. 23: September 17, 1972 from the Baltimore Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland
  • Vol. 24: March 23, 1974 from the Cow Palace, Daly City, California
  • Vol. 25: May 10, 1978 from the Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New Haven, Connecticut and May 11, 1978 from the Springfield Civic Center, Springfield, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 26: April 26, 1969 from the Electric Theater, Chicago, Illinois and April 27, 1969 from the Labor Temple, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • Vol. 27: December 16, 1992 from the Oakland Coliseum Arena, Oakland, California
  • Vol. 28: February 26, 1973 from the Pershing Municipal Auditorium, Lincoln, Nebraska and February 28, 1973 from the Salt Palace, Salt Lake City, Utah
  • Vol. 29: May 19, 1977 from the Fox Theatre, Atlanta, Georgia and May 21, 1977 from the Lakeland Civic Arena, Lakeland, Florida
  • Vol. 30: March 28, 1972 from the Academy of Music, New York City and March 25, 1972 (including five songs with Bo Diddley)
  • Vol. 31: August 4 and 5, 1974 from the Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and August 6, 1974 from the Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey
  • Vol. 32: August 7, 1982 from the Alpine Valley, East Troy, Wisconsin
  • Vol. 33: October 9 and 10, 1976 from the Oakland Stadium, Oakland, California (one of Bill Graham's Days on the Green)
  • Vol. 34: November 5, 1977 from the Community War Memorial, Rochester, New York with bonus tracks of November 2, 1977 from the Seneca College Field House, Toronto, Ontario
  • Vol. 35: August 7, 1971 from San Diego, California and August 24, 1971 from Chicago, Illinois with bonus tracks of August 6, 1971 from the Palladium, Hollywood, California
  • Vol. 36: September 21, 1972 from the Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Volume 15 and later are released in the HDCD format.


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Volume 15 and later are released in the HDCD format. The Turbo-charged engines took over the F1 field and ended the Ford Cosworth DFV era in the mid 1980s. About three new volumes were being released each year. The project's high cost was compensated for by its performance, and led to other engine manufacturers following suit. Started in 1993, as of January 14, 2006 there are thirty-six volumes in the series, each covering a part or all of one or more concerts. Renault was the first manufacturer to apply turbo technology in the F1 field, in 1977. The above list does not include the Dick's Picks series of concert recordings taken from the band's archives, selected by archivist Dick Latvala and, after his death, David Lemieux. In Formula 1, in the so called "Turbo Era" of 1977 and onwards, engines with a capacity of 1500 cc could achieve anywhere from 1000 to 1500 hp (746 to 1119 kW) (Renault, Honda, BMW).


. Pontiac also introduced a turbo in 1980 and Volvo Cars followed in 1981. As of now, any future plans are unknown, and are largely contingent on Weir and Lesh making up. Buick was the first GM division to bring back the turbo, in 1977, followed by the famed Mercedes-Benz 300D and Saab 99 in 1978. Their inability to reconcile these differences kept Deadheads from seeing a tour to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Grateful Dead, and also made the annual celebration honoring Jerry Garcia seem a little flat, as his own bandmates couldn't put aside their differences to take the stage together in his honor. BMW led the resurgence of the automobile turbo with the 1973 2002 Turbo, with Porsche following with the 911 Turbo, introduced at the 1974 Paris Motor Show. The band did not tour in 2005, due to a fight between Bob Weir and Phil Lesh over how they believe certain things happened in the history of the band. Turbos were also leading at Le Mans in 1976.

Haynes is best known for his work with Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band. The Offy turbo peaked at over 1,000 hp in 1973, while Porsche dominated the Can-Am series with a 1100 hp 917/30. Blues." The band accepted Warren Haynes as their new lead guitarist. Offenhauser's turbocharged engines returned to Indianapolis in 1966, with victories coming in 1968. The members would continue to tour on and off through the end of their 2004 Summer Tour, the "Wave That Flag" tour, named after a lyric from the song, "U.S. Both of these engines were abandoned within a few years, and GM's next turbo engine came more than two decades later. On February 14, 2003, (as they said) "reflecting the reality that [was]," they renamed themselves The Dead, reflecting the abbreviated form of the band name that fans had long used and keeping "Grateful" retired out of respect for Garcia. Its Turbo Jetfire was a 215 in³ (3.5 L) V8, while the Corvair engine was a 140 in³ (2.3 L) flat-6.

The mid-2002 fall tour of The Other Ones, with Bob, Bill, Phil and Mickey, was so successful and satisfying that the band decided the name was no longer appropriate. The Oldsmobile is often recognized as the first, since it came out a few months earlier than the Corvair. The remaining members occasionally got together under the pseudonym Crusader Rabbit Stealth Band during the late 1990s, infrequently playing unannounced shows. The A-body Oldsmobile Cutlass and Chevrolet Corvair were both fitted with turbochargers in 1962. Though some of them occasionally toured through the late 1990s under the name "The Other Ones", they mainly chose to pursue various solo projects, most notably Bob Weir's Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends and Mickey Hart's music for the 1996 Olympics. The first production turbocharged automobile engines came from General Motors. Following Garcia's death in 1995, the remaining members formally decided to disband. The turbocharger hit the automobile world in 1952 when Fred Agabashian qualified for pole position at the Indianapolis 500 and led for 100 miles before tire shards disabled the blower.

These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures. Turbo-Diesel trucks were produced in Europe and America (notably by Cummins) after 1949. The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture more of their essence, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. It is important to note that turbosupercharged aircraft engines actually utilized a gear-driven centrifugal type supercharger in series with a turbocharger. The early records reflected the Dead's live repertoire — lengthy instrumental jams with guitar solos by Garcia, best exemplified by "Dark Star" — but, lacking the energy of the shows, did not sell well. Aircraft such as the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and B-29 Superfortress all used exhaust driven "turbo-superchargers" to increase high altitude engine power. Most connoisseurs believe that the Grateful Dead's true spirit was rarely well captured in studio performance. The primary purpose behind most aircraft-based applications was to increase the altitude at which the airplane can fly, by compensating for the lower atmospheric pressure present at high altitude.

Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes—a form of psychedelia that might run the gamut from strange to exotically beautiful. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1930s prior to World War II. Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and more, frequently melding several of them. The engine was tested at Pike's Peak in Colorado at 14,000 feet to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power losses usually experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of altitude. The Dead were not inclined to fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country/western. One of the first applications of a turbocharger to a non-Diesel engine came when General Electric engineer, Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine. This was natural, because they played psychedelic dances, open-air park events, and closed-street Haight-Ashbury block parties. Diesel ships and locomotives with turbochargers began appearing in the 1920s.

The Grateful Dead’s early music (in the mid 1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. His patent for the internal combustion turbocharger was applied for in 1905. Listening to their first LP (The Grateful Dead, Warner Brothers, 1967), one is also reminded that it was recorded only a few years after the big "surfing music" craze; that California rock-music sound seeped in, to some degree, as well. The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer, Alfred Buchi, who had been working on steam turbines. But the new Dead music was also naturally different from bands like Dylan's or the Spoonful, partly because their fellow musician Phil Lesh came out of a schooled classical and electronic-music background, while Ron "Pigpen" McKernan was a no-nonsense deep blues lover and drummer Bill Kreutzmann had a jazz background. On September 21, 2005, Foresight Vehicle announced the first known implementation of such unit for automobiles, under the name TIGERS (Turbo-generator Integrated Gas Energy Recovery System).[2]. It was natural for Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir, each of whom had been immersed in the American folk-music revival of the late 1950s and early '60s, to be open-minded toward electric guitars. Turbo-Alternator[1] is a form of turbocharger that generates electricity instead of boosting engine's air flow.

Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York "folk-rock" band The Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric." Gradually, many of the East-Coast American folk musicians, formerly luminaries of the coffee-house scene, were moving in the electric direction. Special attention to engine cooling and component strength is required because of the increased combustion heat and power. Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. Most applications produced by the major manufacturers (Beech, Cessna, Piper and others) increase the maximum engine intake air pressure by as much as 35%. The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands like the Beatles and Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. For this reason, such aircraft are sometimes refered to as being turbo-normalised. Kahle claimed that the whole affair had been a "misunderstanding," but John Perry Barlow, one of the band's lyricists, claimed that concerts had been restored after several members of the band had backed away from their earlier opposition after realizing they had created a public relations "catastrophe.". In aftermarket applications, aircraft turbochargers sometimes do not overboost the engine, but rather compress ambient air to sea-level pressure.

Several days after the announcement that the concerts had been removed, Brewster Kahle of Archive.Org made a cryptic announcement that audience tapes of the concerts would again become available, though so-called board tapes would only be available as streaming audio. As the aircraft climbs, the wastegate is gradually closed, maintaining the manifold pressure at or above sea-level. The removal of the Dead's concerts from Archive.org created a storm of protest, in addition to a rapidly spreading boycott of the band's remaining commercial products. In the interests of engine longevity, the wastegate is usually kept open, or nearly so, at sea-level to keep from overboosting the engine. However, David Gans, host of a syndicated radio program, "The Grateful Dead Hour," speculates that the band is motivated by money, noting "when they were making $50 million a year on the road, there wasn't a lot of pressure to monetize their archives."[5]. The wastegate is controlled manually, or by a pneumatic/hydraulic control system, or, as is becoming more and more common, by a flight computer. The band's spokesman, Dennis McNally, claimed such a repository "doesn't represent Grateful Dead values" because it doesn't foster one-to-one connections between fans. Most modern turbocharged aircraft use an adjustable wastegate.

In November of 2005, the Dead's management outraged fans by asking the operators of the popular Internet Archive (archive.org) to stop making concerts available for download, and to offer only streamcast recordings instead. Small car turbos are increasingly being used as the basis for small jet engines used for flying model aircraft—though the conversion is a highly specialised job—one not without its dangers. Not surprisingly, these Internet-only albums have met with the same success as their CD-based brethren. Contemporary examples of turbocharged performance cars include the Dodge SRT-4, Volkswagen GTI, Subaru Impreza WRX, Mazda RX-7, Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution, and the Porsche 911 Turbo. In the summer of 2005 the Dead began offering downloadable versions of both their existing live releases, and a new internet-only series, The Grateful Dead Download Series, that is available exclusively through both their own GDStore.com (which offers the albums in both 256 kbit/s mp3 files and FLAC files -- a preferred audio standard for those who archive Dead and other fan-made live recordings on the Internet) and the iTunes Music Store (which offers them in their 128 kbit/s AAC format). The Porsche 944 utilized a turbo unit in the 944 Turbo (Porsche internal model number 951), to great advantage, bringing its 0-100 km/h (0-60 mph) times very close to its contemporary non-turbo "big brother", the Porsche 928. All three series of releases continue to this day. Saab has been the leading car maker using turbochargers in production cars, starting with the 1978 Saab 99.

A series of videos began to trickle out of "The Vault", starting with View From the Vault (recorded in Pittsburgh on July 8, 1990 at Three Rivers Stadium) and View from the Vault II (recorded in Washington, DC on June 14, 1991 at RFK Stadium); these releases are accompanied by the simultaneous release of multi-disc soundtrack CDs of the same shows represented on the videos. Small cars in particular benefit from this technology, as there is often little room to fit a larger-output (and physically larger) engine. There have been at least 36 Dick's Picks releases as of November 2005.
Today, turbocharging is most commonly used on two types of engines: Gasoline engines in high-performance automobiles and diesel engines in work trucks. Starting in 1991, the Grateful Dead released numerous live concerts from their archives in two concurrent series: the From the Vault releases are multi-track remixes, whereas the Dick's Picks series (named for the band's late archivist, Dick Latvala) are based on two-track mixes made at the time of the recording. Diesels are particularly suitable for turbocharging for several reasons:. After the show, a deadhead with the post-show munchies could probably find a grilled cheese sandwich made on a camping stove at the door of a VW bus by a friendly hippie. In fact, for current automotive applications, non-turbocharged diesel engines are becoming increasingly rare.

(Some deadheads would earn their entire touring budget selling such items.) Concertgoers typically congregated in the lot for hours before a show, playing guitar, hacky sacking and getting high. Turbocharging is very common on diesel engines in conventional automobiles, in trucks, for marine and heavy machinery applications. One could find items for sale at many cars in the lot, from grilled cheese sandwiches to "kind" brews and nitrous balloons. Many diesel engines do not have any wastegate because the amount of exhaust energy is controlled directly by the amount of fuel injected into the engine, and slight variations in boost pressure do not make a difference for the engine. The parking lot of a Grateful Dead concert was as much a part of the event as the concert itself. This is limited to keep the turbo inside its design operating range by controlling the wastegate which shunts the exhaust gases away from the exhaust side turbine. Whatever their differences, the deadheads are often considered to be the most devoted fans in the rock world. Boost refers to the increased manifold pressure that is generated by the intake side turbine.

The late 1980s and 90s saw the Grateful Dead attracting a huge following that left many long time deadheads in doubt as to whether people were coming out for shows to see the band, or simply to be part of the atmosphere. On modern diesel engines, this problem is virtually eliminated by utilising a variable geometry turbocharger. These new followers were deemed "Touchheads" by the more established fans, a reference to their relative inexperience with the band. Race cars often utilise anti-lag to completely eliminate lag at the cost of reduced turbocharger life. In the 1980s, the band scored a top 40 hit with the song "Touch of Grey" (from In the Dark), which garnered a much younger and more mainstream fandom that was considered sharply different from the traditional Deadheads. Putting your foot down at 1200 engine rpm and having no boost until 2000 engine rpm is an example of boost threshold and not lag. The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes. Newer turbocharger and engine developments have caused boost thresholds to steadily decline to where day-to-day use feels perfectly natural.

For many years, almost all of their shows would have dedicated taping sections. The boost threshold of a turbo system describes the minimum turbo rpm at which the turbo is physically able to supply the requested boost level. In contrast to many other bands, the Grateful Dead encouraged their fans to tape their shows. Lag is not to be confused with the boost threshold, however many publications still make this basic mistake. Many of their fans, commonly referred to as Deadheads, would follow the band on tour. An example of this is the current BMW E60 5-Series 535d. Bitchin'!!" Kelly/Mouse Studios then began including the icon in most of the band's posters and graphics. Sequential turbochargers are usually much more complicated than single or twin-turbocharger systems because they require what amount to three sets of pipes-intake and wastegate pipes for the two turbochargers as well as valves to control the direction of the exhaust gases.

The band's skull-and-lightning-bolt icon is called Steal Your Face, a sanitized version of the icon's original name, Skull Fuck, which was a direct reflection both of the anti-establishment sensibilities of the times and of the Grateful Dead's role as a voice for the "hippies." Garcia and McKernan are said to have been tripping on ancient icons from the Aztec or Mayan visual lexicon, particularly the celebration of Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) and to have exclaimed, "Fuck they're all skulls.. Such combinations are referred to as "sequential turbos". '. Being individually smaller they do not suffer from excessive lag and having the second turbo operating at a higher rpm range allows it to get to full rotational speed before it is required. The rising cost of fuel and personnel, as well as friction among many of the newer crew members (and associated hangers-on), contributed to the band's 1974 "retirement." The Wall of Sound was disassembled, and when the Dead began touring again in 1976, it was with a more logistically practical sound system. Below this rpm, both exhaust and air inlet of the secondary turbo are closed . The Wall's quadraphonic format never translated well to soundboard tapes made during the period, as the sound was compressed into an unnatural stereo format and suffers from a pronounced tinniness. Early designs would have one turbocharger active up to a certain rpm, after which both turbochargers are active.

Because this was often switched to the vocal mikes, many of Lagin's parts were lost in the mix. A typical arrangement for this is to have one turbo active across the entire rev range of the engine and one coming on-line at higher rpm. Synthesist Ned Lagin, who toured with the group throughout much of 1974, never received his own dedicated input into the system, and was forced to use the vocal subsystem for amplification. Some car makers combat lag by using two small turbos (like Toyota, Subaru, Maserati, Mazda, and Audi). The Wall of Sound was very efficient for its day, but it did have its pitfalls in addition to its sheer size. Such an arrangement of turbos is typically referred to as a "twin turbo" setup. Though the initial framework and a rudimentary form of the system was unveiled in February 1973 (ominously, every speaker tweeter blew as the band began their first number), the Grateful Dead did not begin to tour with the full system until a year later in 1974. The two smaller turbos produce the same (or more) aggregate amount of boost as a larger single turbo, but since they are smaller they reach their optimal rpm, and thus optimal boost delivery, faster.

Four semi trucks and 21 crew members were required to haul and set up the 75-ton Wall. Other setups, most notably in V-type engines, utilize two identically-sized but smaller turbos, each fed by a separate set of exhaust streams from the engine. It was the largest portable sound system ever built (although "portable" is a relative term). Turbine clipping is measured and specified in degrees. It was capable of producing acceptable sound at a quarter mile, and excellent sound for up to six hundred feet, when the sound began to be distorted by wind. The amount a turbine wheel is and can be clipped is highly application-specific. The Wall of Sound used 89 300-Watt solid state and three 350-Watt tube amplifiers to produce 26,400 total Watts RMS of audio power. This imparts less impedance onto the flow of exhaust gasses at low rpm, allowing the vehicle to retain more of its low-end torque, but also pushes the effective boost rpm to a slightly higher level.

The signals were summed, the sound that was common to both mics (the sound from the Wall) was cancelled, and only the vocals were amplified. By clipping a minute portion off the tip of each blade of the turbine wheel, less restriction is imposed upon the escaping exhaust gases. The vocalist sang into the top microphone, and the lower mic picked up whatever other sound was present in the stage environment. Another common method of equalizing turbo lag, is to have the turbine wheel "clipped", or to reduce the surface area of the turbine wheel's rotating blades. The Dead used matched pairs of condenser microphones spaced 60mm apart and run out-of-phase. Lag is also reduced by using a precision bearing rather than a fluid bearing, this reduces friction rather than rotational inertia but contributes to faster acceleration of the turbo's rotating assembly. Because of this, a special microphone system had to be designed to prevent feedback. Increasing the upper-deck air pressure and improving the wastegate response help but there are cost increases and reliability disadvantages that car manufacturers are not happy about.

The Wall of Sound was designed to act as its own monitor system, and it was therefore assembled behind the band so the members could hear exactly what their audience was hearing. Another way to reduce lag is to change the aspect ratio of the turbine by reducing the diameter and increasing the gas-flow path-length. Because each speaker was producing the sound of just one instrument or vocalist, the sound was exceptionally clear and intermodulation distortion between instruments was nonexistent. Unfortunately, their relative fragility limits the maximum boost they can supply. One channel amplified the bass drum, and two channels amplified the other drums and cymbals in stereo. Ceramic turbines are a big help in this direction. Phil Lesh's bass was quadraphonic, each of the four strings having its own channel and set of speakers. Lag can be reduced by lowering the rotational inertia of the turbine, for example by using lighter parts to allow the spool-up to happen more quickly.

Vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, and piano each had their own channel and set of speakers. Conversely on light loads or at low rpm a turbocharger supplies less boost and the engine is more efficient than a supercharged engine. After Owsley Stanley was released from prison in late 1972, he, along with Dan Healey, Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead's sound crew, and Ron Wickersham, Rick Turner, and John Curl of Alembic Inc accomplished this by essentially combining eleven separate sound systems. (Centrifugal superchargers do not build boost at low RPM's like a positive displacement supercharger will). The desire driving the development of the Wall of Sound was for a distortion-free sound system that could serve as its own monitor system. The directly-driven compressor in a positive-displacement supercharger does not suffer this problem. The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year; Healy was a more superior engineer than Stanley and would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993. This is symptomatic of the time taken for the exhaust system driving the turbine to come to high pressure and for the turbine rotor to overcome its rotational inertia and reach the speed necessary to supply boost pressure.

Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. A lag is sometimes felt by the driver of a turbocharged vehicle as a delay between pushing on the accelerator pedal and feeling the turbo kick-in. In 1971, the band purchased their first solid sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. Diesel engines are usually much kinder to turbos because their exhaust gas temperature is much lower than that of gasoline engines and because most operators allow the engine to idle and do not switch it off immediately after heavy use. After Stanley was placed in jail for LSD production in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but ultimately found them to be less reliable than the systems conceived by their former soundman. In custom applications utilising tubular headers rather than cast iron manifolds, the need for a cooldown period is reduced because the lighter headers store much less heat than heavy cast iron manifolds. Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical issues. It is still a good idea to not shut the engine off while the turbo and manifold are still glowing.

The band were never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played, so in their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a PA and monitor system for them. The water boils in the cartridge when the engine is shut off and forms a natural recirculation to drain away the heat. The Wall of Sound was an enormous sound system designed specifically for the Grateful Dead. Turbos with watercooled bearing cartridges have a protective barrier against coking. Musically this may be illustrated in that the band not only improvised within the form of a song, yet also improvised with the forms. A turbo timer is a device designed to keep an automotive engine running for a pre-specified period of time, in order to execute this cool-down period automatically. A hallmark of their concert sets were continuous sets of music where each song would blend into the next (a segue). Even small particles of burnt oil will accumulate and lead to choking the oil supply and failure.

The band was famous for its extended jams, which showcased both individual improvisation as well as a distinctive "group-mind" improvisation where each of the band members improvised individually, while still blending together as a cohesive musical unit, often engaging in extended improvisational flights of fancy. Not doing this will also result in the critical oil supply to the turbocharger being severed when the engine stops while the turbine housing and exhaust manifold are still very hot, leading to coking (burning) of the lubricating oil trapped in the unit when the heat soaks into the bearings and later, failure of the supply of oil when the engine is next started causing rapid bearing wear and failure. Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that had been initially played in concert. This lets the turbo rotating assembly cool from the lower exhaust gas temperatures. (They also appeared at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the even more famous Woodstock Festival in 1969; their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen.). Saab, in its owner manuals, recommends a period of just 30 seconds. With the exception of 1975, when the band was on "hiatus" and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead toured regularly around the USA from the winter of 1965 until July 9, 1995—with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978. After high speed operation of the engine it is important to let the engine run at idle speed for one to three minutes before turning off the engine.

In their early years, the band was also dedicated to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music and health care to all comers; they were the "first among equals in giving unselfishly of themselves to hippie culture, performing 'more free concerts than any band in the history of music'" [4]. The use of synthetic oils is recommended in turbo engines. They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as Deadheads, many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. Replacing a turbo that lets go and sheds its blades will be expensive. The Grateful Dead are well-known for their near constant touring throughout their long career in music. As long as the oil supply is clean and the exhaust gas does not become overheated (lean mixtures or retarded spark timing on a gasoline engine) a turbocharger can be very reliable but care of the unit is important. Owsley "Bear" Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD. Turbocharger manufacturer Aerocharger uses the term 'Variable Area Turbine Nozzle' (VATN) to describe this type of turbine nozzle.

Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists. This type of turbine is called a Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT). For a year and a half, Welnick was often joined by special guest Bruce Hornsby on piano. It utilised a turbo from Garrett, called the VNT-25 because it uses the same compressor and shaft as the more common Garrett T-25. Almost immediately, former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick joined on keyboards and vocals. The first car manufacturer to use these turbos was the limited-production 1989 Shelby CSX-VNT. He became the third Dead keyboardist to die. The vanes are controlled by a membrane identical to the one on a wastegate but the level of control required is a bit different.

Brent Mydland was the keyboardist for the Dead for 11 years until his death in 1990. In many setups these turbos don't even need a wastegate. Keith Godchaux died in a car accident in 1980. These turbochargers have minimal amount of lag, have a low boost threshold, and are very efficient at higher engine speeds. Keith and Donna left the band in 1979, and Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist. Some turbochargers utilise a set of vanes in the exhaust housing to maintain a constant gas velocity across the turbine, the same kind of control as used on power plant turbines. In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Dead as a backing vocalist. Another method of raising the boost pressure is through the use of check and bleed valves to keep the pressure at the membrane lower than the pressure within the system.

Two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. This solenoid can be controlled by Automatic Performance Control, the engine's electronic control unit or an after market boost control computer. Tom "TC" Constanten played keyboards alongside Pigpen from 1968 to 1970. The wastegate is opened and closed by the compressed air from turbo (the upper-deck pressure) and can be raised by using a solenoid to regulate the pressure fed to the wastegate membrane. Hart rejoined the Dead for good in 1975. This regulates the rotational speed of the turbine and the output of the compressor. Hart quit the Grateful Dead in 1971, embarrassed by the financial misdealings of his father, Dead money manager Lenny Hart, and leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. To manage the upper-deck air pressure the turbocharger's exhaust gas flow is regulated with a wastegate that bypasses excess exhaust gas entering the turbocharger's turbine.

Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in 1968 was joined by a second drummer, New York native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. Turbochargers with foil bearings are in development which eliminates the need for bearing cooling or oil delivery systems. All of the previously mentioned Grateful Dead members shared in vocal performance of songs, although none of them had a particularly strong or tuneful voice. Some car makers use water cooled turbochargers for added bearing life. Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards, harmonica and was also a group vocalist until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. Lower friction means the turbo shaft can be made of lighter materials, reducing so-called turbo lag or boost lag. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar. Some turbochargers use incredibly precise ball bearings that offer less friction than a fluid bearing but these are also suspended in fluid-dampened cavities.

Classically-trained trumpeter Phil Lesh played bass guitar. The oil is usually taken from the engine-oil circuit and usually needs to be cooled by an oil cooler before it circulates through the engine. One of the main influences on his musical style was bluegrass music, and Garcia also performed-—on banjo, his other great instrumental love-—in the bluegrass band Old and in the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. These feature a flowing layer of oil that suspends and cools the moving parts. Jerry was a native of San Francisco and grew up in the Excelsior District. Such high rotation speeds would cause problems for standard ball bearings leading to failure so most turbo-chargers use fluid bearings. De facto bandleader Jerry Garcia was the lead guitarist for the band—-although he was often seen both by the public and the media as 'leader' or a primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, he was reluctant to be seen that way, especially since Garcia and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output. A turbo spins very fast; most peak between 80,000 and 150,000 rpm (using low inertia turbos, 190,000 rpm) depending on size, weight of the rotating parts, boost pressure developed and compressor design.

. Compressed air from a turbo may be (and most commonly is, on petrol engines) cooled before it is fed into the cylinders, using an intercooler or a charge air cooler (a heat-exchange device). These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world." [3]. It is not uncommon for a turbocharger to be pushing out air that is 90 °C (200°F). Their musical influences varied widely with input from the psychedelic music of the era, combined with blues, jazz, rock and roll, and bluegrass. When a gas is compressed, its temperature rises. The Grateful Dead became the de facto resident band of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters, with the early sound heavily influenced by Kesey's LSD-soaked Acid Tests, as well as R&B. The pumping-effect heating can be alleviated by aftercooling (sometimes called intercooling).

62), "...Jer (Garcia) picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...(and)...In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'". The higher temperature is a volumetric efficiency downgrade for both types of engine. Some claim it was a Funk & Wagnalls, others an Oxford Dictionary, but according to Phil Lesh, in his biography (pp. This increase in charge temperature is a limiting factor for petrol engines that can only tolerate a limited increase in charge temperature before detonation occurs. The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen at random from a dictionary. A main disadvantage of high boost pressures for internal combustion engines is that compressing the inlet air increases its temperature. The Grateful Dead most embodied "all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came, therefore, to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country" [2]. This last factor makes turbocharging aircraft engines considerably advantageous—and was the original reason for development of the device.

(Also see entry for the San Francisco Sound.) Of these bands, the Grateful Dead had members with arguably the highest level of musicianship, including banjo and guitar player Jerry Garcia, blues musician "Pigpen" McKernan, the classically trained Phil Lesh and drummer Bill Kreutzmann [1]. However, for operation at altitude, the power recovery of a turbocharger makes a big difference to total power output of both engine types. Many bands from this area, such as Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother & the Holding Company, and Santana, went on to national fame, giving San Francisco an image as a center for the hippie counterculture of the era. This disadvantage does not apply to specifically designed turbocharged diesel engines. Eventually, they moved to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. A disadvantage in gasoline engines is that the compression ratio should be lowered (so as not to exceed maximum compression pressure and to prevent engine knocking) which reduces engine efficiency when operating at low power. The Grateful Dead's career began under the name "The Warlocks" in Palo Alto, California, but as another band was already recording under that name (interestingly, it was the future Velvet Underground), the band had to change its name in order to get a recording contract. This engine rpm is referred to as the boost threshold.

Many followers referred to the band simply as The Dead. Because it is a centrifugal pump, a typical turbocharger, depending on design, will only start to deliver boost from a certain rpm where the engine starts producing enough exhaust gas to spin the turbocharger fast enough to make pressure. These so-called Deadheads were renowned for their dedication to the band's music. For automobile use, typical boost pressure is in the general area of 80 kPa (11.6 lbf/in²), but it can be much more. Some of the band's fans followed the band from concert to concert for years. However, there are some parasitic losses due to heat and exhaust backpressure from the turbine, so turbochargers are generally only about 80% efficient, at peak efficiency, because it takes some work for the engine to push those gases through the turbocharger turbine (which is acting as a restriction in the exhaust) and the now-compressed intake air has been heated, reducing its density. Formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, "Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions," the Grateful Dead were known for their unique and eclectic songwriting style—which fused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues, country, and jazz—and for live performances of long modal jams. For example, at 100% efficiency a turbocharger providing 101 kPa (14.7 lbf/in²) of boost would effectively double the amount of air entering the engine because the total pressure is twice atmospheric pressure.

The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band. The energy from the extra fuel leads to more overall engine power. 36: September 21, 1972 from the Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The increase in pressure is called "boost" and is measured in pascals, bars or lbf/in². Vol. The additional fuel is provided by the proper tuning of the fuel injectors or carburetor. 35: August 7, 1971 from San Diego, California and August 24, 1971 from Chicago, Illinois with bonus tracks of August 6, 1971 from the Palladium, Hollywood, California. This greatly improves the volumetric efficiency of the engine, and thereby creates more power.

Vol. The compressor increases the pressure of the air entering the engine, so a greater mass of oxygen enters the combustion chamber in the same time interval (an increase in fuel is required to keep the mixture the same air to fuel ratio). 34: November 5, 1977 from the Community War Memorial, Rochester, New York with bonus tracks of November 2, 1977 from the Seneca College Field House, Toronto, Ontario. But because of "turbo lag" (see below), engines with mechanical superchargers are typically more responsive. Vol. Because the turbine of a turbocharger is in-itself a heat engine, a turbocharger equipped engine will normally compress the intake air more efficiently than a mechanical supercharger. 33: October 9 and 10, 1976 from the Oakland Stadium, Oakland, California (one of Bill Graham's Days on the Green). The term supercharger is very often used when referring to a mechanically driven turbocharger, which is most often driven from the engine's crankshaft by means of a belt (otherwise, and in many aircraft engines, by a geartrain), whereas a turbocharger is exhaust-driven, the name turbocharger being a contraction of the earlier "turbosupercharger".

Vol. The compressor and turbine spin on the same shaft, similar to a turbojet aircraft engine. 32: August 7, 1982 from the Alpine Valley, East Troy, Wisconsin. A turbocharger also has a turbine that powers the compressor using wasted energy from the exhaust gases. Vol. All superchargers have a gas compressor in the intake tract of the engine which compresses the intake air above atmospheric pressure, greatly increasing the volumetric efficiency beyond that of naturally-aspirated engines. 31: August 4 and 5, 1974 from the Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and August 6, 1974 from the Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey. A turbocharger is an exhaust gas driven supercharger.

Vol. . 30: March 28, 1972 from the Academy of Music, New York City and March 25, 1972 (including five songs with Bo Diddley). A key advantage of turbochargers is that they offer a considerable increase in engine power with only a slight increase in weight. Vol. A turbocharger is an exhaust gas driven compressor used in internal-combustion engines to increase the power output of the engine by increasing the mass of oxygen entering the engine. 29: May 19, 1977 from the Fox Theatre, Atlanta, Georgia and May 21, 1977 from the Lakeland Civic Arena, Lakeland, Florida. For other meanings of turbo, see turbo (disambiguation).

Vol. This article describes the internal combustion engine component often known as a turbo. 28: February 26, 1973 from the Pershing Municipal Auditorium, Lincoln, Nebraska and February 28, 1973 from the Salt Palace, Salt Lake City, Utah. Automobile magazine (February 2006).. Vol. Happy 100th Birthday to the Turbocharger. 27: December 16, 1992 from the Oakland Coliseum Arena, Oakland, California. Don Sherman.

Vol. The higher intake charge temperatures of forced-induction engines reduces the amount of compression that is possible with a gasoline/petrol engine, whereas diesel engines are far less sensitive to this. 26: April 26, 1969 from the Electric Theater, Chicago, Illinois and April 27, 1969 from the Labor Temple, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Gasoline/petrol engines differ from this in that both fuel and air are introduced during the intake cycle and both are compressed during the compression cycle. Vol. Diesel engines blow nothing but air into the cylinders during cylinder charging, squirting fuel into the cylinder only after the intake valve has closed and compression has begun. 25: May 10, 1978 from the Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New Haven, Connecticut and May 11, 1978 from the Springfield Civic Center, Springfield, Massachusetts. Diesel engines have a narrower band of engine speeds at which they operate, thus making the operating characteristics of the turbocharger over that "rev range" less of a compromise than on a gasoline-powered engine.

Vol. Gasoline engines often require extensive modification for turbocharging. 24: March 23, 1974 from the Cow Palace, Daly City, California. Diesel engines require more robust construction because they already run at very high compression ratio and at high temperatures so they generally require little additional reinforcement to be able to cope with the addition of the turbocharger. Vol. Naturally-aspirated diesels have lower power-to-weight ratios compared to gasoline engines; turbocharging will improve this P:W ratio. 23: September 17, 1972 from the Baltimore Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

Vol. 22: February 23 and 24, 1968 from the Kings Beach Bowl, Lake Tahoe, California. Vol. 21: November 1, 1985, from the Richmond Coliseum, Richmond, Virginia and some tracks from September 2, 1980.

Vol. 20: September 25, 1976 from the Capital Center, Landover, Maryland and September 28, 1976 from the Onondaga County War Memorial, Syracuse, New York. Vol. 19: October 19, 1973 from the Fairgrounds Arena, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Vol. 18: February 3, 1978 from the Dane County Coliseum, Madison, Wisconsin and February 5, 1978 from the Uni-Dome, Cedar Falls, Iowa. Vol. 17: September 25, 1991 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts with two songs from March 31, 1991.

Vol. 16: November 8, 1969 from the Fillmore, San Francisco, California. Vol. 15: September 3, 1977 from the Raceway Park, Englishtown, New Jersey.

Vol. 14: November 30 and December 2, 1973 from the Boston Music Hall (now Symphony Hall), Boston, Massachusetts. Vol. 13: May 6, 1981 from the Nassau Coliseum, Long Island, New York.

Vol. 12: June 26, 1974 from the Providence Civic Center, Providence, Rhode Island and June 28, 1974 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts. Vol. 11: September 27, 1972 from the Stanley Theater, Jersey City, New Jersey.

Vol. 10: December 29 and 30, 1977 from the Winterland, San Francisco, California. Vol. 9: September 16, 1990 from Madison Square Garden, New York City.

Vol. 8: May 2, 1970 from Harpur College, Binghamton, New York. Vol. 7: September 1974 from the Alexandra Palace, London, England.

Vol. 6: October 14, 1983 from the Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut. Vol. 5: December 26, 1979 from the Oakland Arena, Oakland, California.

Vol. 4: February 13 and 14, 1970 from the Fillmore East, New York City. Vol. 3: May 22, 1977 from the Hollywood Sportatorium, Hollywood, Florida.

Vol. 2: October 31, 1971 from the Ohio Theatre, Columbus, Ohio. Vol. 1: December 19, 1973 from Tampa, Florida.

Vol. The Complete Fillmore West 1969 (2005: boxed set, live). Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005). Beyond Description (2004: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Grateful Dead Records and Arista Records, 1973-1989).

The Very Best of The Grateful Dead (2003: compilation). Postcards of the Hanging (2002: live compilation). The Golden Road (2001: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Warner Brothers Records, 1967-1972). So Many Roads 1965-1995 (1999: boxed set).

Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997: live compilation). The Arista Years (1996: compilation). Grateful Dead 1977-1995 (1996: compilation). Grayfolded (1996: live compilation).

Infrared Roses (1991: live compilation). Without a Net (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Dozin' at the Knick (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Dylan & The Dead (live, with Bob Dylan) (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland).

Built to Last (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). In the Dark (1987: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Dead Set (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Reckoning (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland).

Go to Heaven (1980: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Shakedown Street (1978: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K.

What a Long Strange Trip It's Been (1977: compilation). Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Terrapin Station (1977: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K.

Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Blues for Allah (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux).

Godchaux/D. One From the Vault (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux). Godchaux/D.

Steal Your Face (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Grateful Dead From the Mars Hotel (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K.

Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Wake of the Flood (1973: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Skeletons from the Closet (Best of the Grateful Dead) (1973: compilation).

Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Europe '72 (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux).

Godchaux/D. Hundred Year Hall (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Grateful Dead (aka Skull & Roses) (1971: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan). American Beauty (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan).

Workingman's Dead (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). Live/Dead (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten). Aoxomoxoa (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten).

Two from the Vault (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). Anthem of the Sun (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). The Grateful Dead (1967: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan). Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals (1990 - 1995).

Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals (1979 - 1990). Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals (1972 - 1979). Keith Godchaux - keyboards (1971 - 1979). Tom Constanten - keyboards (1968 - 1970).

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, vocals, harmonica, percussion (1965 - 1973). Mickey Hart - drums (1967 - 1971, 1975 - 1995). Bill Kreutzmann - drums (1965 - 1995). Phil Lesh - bass, vocals (1965 - 1995).

Bob Weir - rhythm guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995). Jerry Garcia - lead guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995).

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