Grateful Dead

The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band. Formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, "Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions," the Grateful Dead were known for their unique and eclectic songwriting style—which fused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues, country, and jazz—and for live performances of long modal jams.

Some of the band's fans followed the band from concert to concert for years. These so-called Deadheads were renowned for their dedication to the band's music. Many followers referred to the band simply as The Dead.

The Grateful Dead's career began under the name "The Warlocks" in Palo Alto, California, but as another band was already recording under that name (interestingly, it was the future Velvet Underground), the band had to change its name in order to get a recording contract. Eventually, they moved to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. Many bands from this area, such as Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother & the Holding Company, and Santana, went on to national fame, giving San Francisco an image as a center for the hippie counterculture of the era. (Also see entry for the San Francisco Sound.) Of these bands, the Grateful Dead had members with arguably the highest level of musicianship, including banjo and guitar player Jerry Garcia, blues musician "Pigpen" McKernan, the classically trained Phil Lesh and drummer Bill Kreutzmann [1]. The Grateful Dead most embodied "all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came, therefore, to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country" [2].

The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen at random from a dictionary. Some claim it was a Funk & Wagnalls, others an Oxford Dictionary, but according to Phil Lesh, in his biography (pp. 62), "...Jer (Garcia) picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...(and)...In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'"

The Grateful Dead became the de facto resident band of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters, with the early sound heavily influenced by Kesey's LSD-soaked Acid Tests, as well as R&B. Their musical influences varied widely with input from the psychedelic music of the era, combined with blues, jazz, rock and roll, and bluegrass. These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world." [3].

Membership

De facto bandleader Jerry Garcia was the lead guitarist for the band—-although he was often seen both by the public and the media as 'leader' or a primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, he was reluctant to be seen that way, especially since Garcia and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output. Jerry was a native of San Francisco and grew up in the Excelsior District. One of the main influences on his musical style was bluegrass music, and Garcia also performed-—on banjo, his other great instrumental love-—in the bluegrass band Old and in the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. Classically-trained trumpeter Phil Lesh played bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar. Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards, harmonica and was also a group vocalist until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. All of the previously mentioned Grateful Dead members shared in vocal performance of songs, although none of them had a particularly strong or tuneful voice. Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in 1968 was joined by a second drummer, New York native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. Hart quit the Grateful Dead in 1971, embarrassed by the financial misdealings of his father, Dead money manager Lenny Hart, and leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. Hart rejoined the Dead for good in 1975. Tom "TC" Constanten played keyboards alongside Pigpen from 1968 to 1970. Two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Dead as a backing vocalist. Keith and Donna left the band in 1979, and Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist. Keith Godchaux died in a car accident in 1980. Brent Mydland was the keyboardist for the Dead for 11 years until his death in 1990. He became the third Dead keyboardist to die. Almost immediately, former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick joined on keyboards and vocals. For a year and a half, Welnick was often joined by special guest Bruce Hornsby on piano. Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists. Owsley "Bear" Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD.

Touring

Early photo of the band at their communal home in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, late 60's.

The Grateful Dead are well-known for their near constant touring throughout their long career in music. They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as Deadheads, many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. In their early years, the band was also dedicated to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music and health care to all comers; they were the "first among equals in giving unselfishly of themselves to hippie culture, performing 'more free concerts than any band in the history of music'" [4].

Original lineup of The Grateful Dead, 1971.

With the exception of 1975, when the band was on "hiatus" and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead toured regularly around the USA from the winter of 1965 until July 9, 1995—with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978. (They also appeared at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the even more famous Woodstock Festival in 1969; their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen.)

Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that had been initially played in concert. The band was famous for its extended jams, which showcased both individual improvisation as well as a distinctive "group-mind" improvisation where each of the band members improvised individually, while still blending together as a cohesive musical unit, often engaging in extended improvisational flights of fancy. A hallmark of their concert sets were continuous sets of music where each song would blend into the next (a segue). Musically this may be illustrated in that the band not only improvised within the form of a song, yet also improvised with the forms.

Wall of Sound

The Wall of Sound was an enormous sound system designed specifically for the Grateful Dead. The band were never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played, so in their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a PA and monitor system for them. Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical issues. After Stanley was placed in jail for LSD production in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but ultimately found them to be less reliable than the systems conceived by their former soundman. In 1971, the band purchased their first solid sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year; Healy was a more superior engineer than Stanley and would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993.

The desire driving the development of the Wall of Sound was for a distortion-free sound system that could serve as its own monitor system. After Owsley Stanley was released from prison in late 1972, he, along with Dan Healey, Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead's sound crew, and Ron Wickersham, Rick Turner, and John Curl of Alembic Inc accomplished this by essentially combining eleven separate sound systems. Vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, and piano each had their own channel and set of speakers. Phil Lesh's bass was quadraphonic, each of the four strings having its own channel and set of speakers. One channel amplified the bass drum, and two channels amplified the other drums and cymbals in stereo. Because each speaker was producing the sound of just one instrument or vocalist, the sound was exceptionally clear and intermodulation distortion between instruments was nonexistent.

The Wall of Sound was designed to act as its own monitor system, and it was therefore assembled behind the band so the members could hear exactly what their audience was hearing. Because of this, a special microphone system had to be designed to prevent feedback. The Dead used matched pairs of condenser microphones spaced 60mm apart and run out-of-phase. The vocalist sang into the top microphone, and the lower mic picked up whatever other sound was present in the stage environment. The signals were summed, the sound that was common to both mics (the sound from the Wall) was cancelled, and only the vocals were amplified.

The Wall of Sound used 89 300-Watt solid state and three 350-Watt tube amplifiers to produce 26,400 total Watts RMS of audio power. It was capable of producing acceptable sound at a quarter mile, and excellent sound for up to six hundred feet, when the sound began to be distorted by wind. It was the largest portable sound system ever built (although "portable" is a relative term). Four semi trucks and 21 crew members were required to haul and set up the 75-ton Wall.

Though the initial framework and a rudimentary form of the system was unveiled in February 1973 (ominously, every speaker tweeter blew as the band began their first number), the Grateful Dead did not begin to tour with the full system until a year later in 1974. The Wall of Sound was very efficient for its day, but it did have its pitfalls in addition to its sheer size. Synthesist Ned Lagin, who toured with the group throughout much of 1974, never received his own dedicated input into the system, and was forced to use the vocal subsystem for amplification. Because this was often switched to the vocal mikes, many of Lagin's parts were lost in the mix. The Wall's quadraphonic format never translated well to soundboard tapes made during the period, as the sound was compressed into an unnatural stereo format and suffers from a pronounced tinniness.

The rising cost of fuel and personnel, as well as friction among many of the newer crew members (and associated hangers-on), contributed to the band's 1974 "retirement." The Wall of Sound was disassembled, and when the Dead began touring again in 1976, it was with a more logistically practical sound system.

'

Two Grateful Dead icons rolled into one

Steal Your Face

The band's skull-and-lightning-bolt icon is called Steal Your Face, a sanitized version of the icon's original name, Skull Fuck, which was a direct reflection both of the anti-establishment sensibilities of the times and of the Grateful Dead's role as a voice for the "hippies." Garcia and McKernan are said to have been tripping on ancient icons from the Aztec or Mayan visual lexicon, particularly the celebration of Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) and to have exclaimed, "Fuck they're all skulls... Bitchin'!!" Kelly/Mouse Studios then began including the icon in most of the band's posters and graphics.

Deadheads

Many of their fans, commonly referred to as Deadheads, would follow the band on tour. In contrast to many other bands, the Grateful Dead encouraged their fans to tape their shows. For many years, almost all of their shows would have dedicated taping sections. The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes. In the 1980s, the band scored a top 40 hit with the song "Touch of Grey" (from In the Dark), which garnered a much younger and more mainstream fandom that was considered sharply different from the traditional Deadheads. These new followers were deemed "Touchheads" by the more established fans, a reference to their relative inexperience with the band. The late 1980s and 90s saw the Grateful Dead attracting a huge following that left many long time deadheads in doubt as to whether people were coming out for shows to see the band, or simply to be part of the atmosphere. Whatever their differences, the deadheads are often considered to be the most devoted fans in the rock world.

The parking lot of a Grateful Dead concert was as much a part of the event as the concert itself. One could find items for sale at many cars in the lot, from grilled cheese sandwiches to "kind" brews and nitrous balloons. (Some deadheads would earn their entire touring budget selling such items.) Concertgoers typically congregated in the lot for hours before a show, playing guitar, hacky sacking and getting high. After the show, a deadhead with the post-show munchies could probably find a grilled cheese sandwich made on a camping stove at the door of a VW bus by a friendly hippie.

Live releases

Late lineup of The Grateful Dead, mid-90s.

Starting in 1991, the Grateful Dead released numerous live concerts from their archives in two concurrent series: the From the Vault releases are multi-track remixes, whereas the Dick's Picks series (named for the band's late archivist, Dick Latvala) are based on two-track mixes made at the time of the recording. There have been at least 36 Dick's Picks releases as of November 2005. A series of videos began to trickle out of "The Vault", starting with View From the Vault (recorded in Pittsburgh on July 8, 1990 at Three Rivers Stadium) and View from the Vault II (recorded in Washington, DC on June 14, 1991 at RFK Stadium); these releases are accompanied by the simultaneous release of multi-disc soundtrack CDs of the same shows represented on the videos. All three series of releases continue to this day.

In the summer of 2005 the Dead began offering downloadable versions of both their existing live releases, and a new internet-only series, The Grateful Dead Download Series, that is available exclusively through both their own GDStore.com (which offers the albums in both 256 kbit/s mp3 files and FLAC files -- a preferred audio standard for those who archive Dead and other fan-made live recordings on the Internet) and the iTunes Music Store (which offers them in their 128 kbit/s AAC format). Not surprisingly, these Internet-only albums have met with the same success as their CD-based brethren.

In November of 2005, the Dead's management outraged fans by asking the operators of the popular Internet Archive (archive.org) to stop making concerts available for download, and to offer only streamcast recordings instead. The band's spokesman, Dennis McNally, claimed such a repository "doesn't represent Grateful Dead values" because it doesn't foster one-to-one connections between fans. However, David Gans, host of a syndicated radio program, "The Grateful Dead Hour," speculates that the band is motivated by money, noting "when they were making $50 million a year on the road, there wasn't a lot of pressure to monetize their archives."[5]

The removal of the Dead's concerts from Archive.org created a storm of protest, in addition to a rapidly spreading boycott of the band's remaining commercial products. Several days after the announcement that the concerts had been removed, Brewster Kahle of Archive.Org made a cryptic announcement that audience tapes of the concerts would again become available, though so-called board tapes would only be available as streaming audio. Kahle claimed that the whole affair had been a "misunderstanding," but John Perry Barlow, one of the band's lyricists, claimed that concerts had been restored after several members of the band had backed away from their earlier opposition after realizing they had created a public relations "catastrophe."

History

The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands like the Beatles and Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York "folk-rock" band The Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric." Gradually, many of the East-Coast American folk musicians, formerly luminaries of the coffee-house scene, were moving in the electric direction. It was natural for Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir, each of whom had been immersed in the American folk-music revival of the late 1950s and early '60s, to be open-minded toward electric guitars. But the new Dead music was also naturally different from bands like Dylan's or the Spoonful, partly because their fellow musician Phil Lesh came out of a schooled classical and electronic-music background, while Ron "Pigpen" McKernan was a no-nonsense deep blues lover and drummer Bill Kreutzmann had a jazz background. Listening to their first LP (The Grateful Dead, Warner Brothers, 1967), one is also reminded that it was recorded only a few years after the big "surfing music" craze; that California rock-music sound seeped in, to some degree, as well.

The cover of the 1970 album American Beauty

The Grateful Dead’s early music (in the mid 1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. This was natural, because they played psychedelic dances, open-air park events, and closed-street Haight-Ashbury block parties. The Dead were not inclined to fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country/western. Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and more, frequently melding several of them. Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes—a form of psychedelia that might run the gamut from strange to exotically beautiful. Most connoisseurs believe that the Grateful Dead's true spirit was rarely well captured in studio performance.

The early records reflected the Dead's live repertoire — lengthy instrumental jams with guitar solos by Garcia, best exemplified by "Dark Star" — but, lacking the energy of the shows, did not sell well. The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture more of their essence, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures.

Dissolution and Continuation of the band

Following Garcia's death in 1995, the remaining members formally decided to disband. Though some of them occasionally toured through the late 1990s under the name "The Other Ones", they mainly chose to pursue various solo projects, most notably Bob Weir's Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends and Mickey Hart's music for the 1996 Olympics. The remaining members occasionally got together under the pseudonym Crusader Rabbit Stealth Band during the late 1990s, infrequently playing unannounced shows. The mid-2002 fall tour of The Other Ones, with Bob, Bill, Phil and Mickey, was so successful and satisfying that the band decided the name was no longer appropriate. On February 14, 2003, (as they said) "reflecting the reality that [was]," they renamed themselves The Dead, reflecting the abbreviated form of the band name that fans had long used and keeping "Grateful" retired out of respect for Garcia. The members would continue to tour on and off through the end of their 2004 Summer Tour, the "Wave That Flag" tour, named after a lyric from the song, "U.S. Blues." The band accepted Warren Haynes as their new lead guitarist. Haynes is best known for his work with Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band. The band did not tour in 2005, due to a fight between Bob Weir and Phil Lesh over how they believe certain things happened in the history of the band. Their inability to reconcile these differences kept Deadheads from seeing a tour to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Grateful Dead, and also made the annual celebration honoring Jerry Garcia seem a little flat, as his own bandmates couldn't put aside their differences to take the stage together in his honor. As of now, any future plans are unknown, and are largely contingent on Weir and Lesh making up.

Bandmembers

  • Jerry Garcia - lead guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Bob Weir - rhythm guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Phil Lesh - bass, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Bill Kreutzmann - drums (1965 - 1995)
  • Mickey Hart - drums (1967 - 1971, 1975 - 1995)
  • Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, vocals, harmonica, percussion (1965 - 1973)
  • Tom Constanten - keyboards (1968 - 1970)
  • Keith Godchaux - keyboards (1971 - 1979)
  • Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals (1972 - 1979)
  • Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals (1979 - 1990)
  • Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals (1990 - 1995)


Discography

  • The Grateful Dead (1967: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan)
  • Anthem of the Sun (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Two from the Vault (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Aoxomoxoa (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten)
  • Live/Dead (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten)
  • History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Workingman's Dead (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • American Beauty (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Grateful Dead (aka Skull & Roses) (1971: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan)
  • Hundred Year Hall (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Europe '72 (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Skeletons from the Closet (Best of the Grateful Dead) (1973: compilation)
  • Wake of the Flood (1973: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Grateful Dead From the Mars Hotel (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Steal Your Face (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • One From the Vault (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Blues for Allah (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Terrapin Station (1977: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • What a Long Strange Trip It's Been (1977: compilation)
  • Shakedown Street (1978: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Go to Heaven (1980: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Reckoning (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dead Set (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • In the Dark (1987: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Built to Last (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dylan & The Dead (live, with Bob Dylan) (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dozin' at the Knick (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Without a Net (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Infrared Roses (1991: live compilation)
  • Grayfolded (1996: live compilation)
  • Grateful Dead 1977-1995 (1996: compilation)
  • The Arista Years (1996: compilation)
  • Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997: live compilation)
  • So Many Roads 1965-1995 (1999: boxed set)
  • The Golden Road (2001: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Warner Brothers Records, 1967-1972)
  • Postcards of the Hanging (2002: live compilation)
  • The Very Best of The Grateful Dead (2003: compilation)
  • Beyond Description (2004: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Grateful Dead Records and Arista Records, 1973-1989)
  • Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005)
  • The Complete Fillmore West 1969 (2005: boxed set, live)

Dick's Picks

The above list does not include the Dick's Picks series of concert recordings taken from the band's archives, selected by archivist Dick Latvala and, after his death, David Lemieux. Started in 1993, as of January 14, 2006 there are thirty-six volumes in the series, each covering a part or all of one or more concerts. About three new volumes were being released each year.

  • Vol. 1: December 19, 1973 from Tampa, Florida
  • Vol. 2: October 31, 1971 from the Ohio Theatre, Columbus, Ohio
  • Vol. 3: May 22, 1977 from the Hollywood Sportatorium, Hollywood, Florida
  • Vol. 4: February 13 and 14, 1970 from the Fillmore East, New York City
  • Vol. 5: December 26, 1979 from the Oakland Arena, Oakland, California
  • Vol. 6: October 14, 1983 from the Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut
  • Vol. 7: September 1974 from the Alexandra Palace, London, England
  • Vol. 8: May 2, 1970 from Harpur College, Binghamton, New York
  • Vol. 9: September 16, 1990 from Madison Square Garden, New York City
  • Vol. 10: December 29 and 30, 1977 from the Winterland, San Francisco, California
  • Vol. 11: September 27, 1972 from the Stanley Theater, Jersey City, New Jersey
  • Vol. 12: June 26, 1974 from the Providence Civic Center, Providence, Rhode Island and June 28, 1974 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 13: May 6, 1981 from the Nassau Coliseum, Long Island, New York
  • Vol. 14: November 30 and December 2, 1973 from the Boston Music Hall (now Symphony Hall), Boston, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 15: September 3, 1977 from the Raceway Park, Englishtown, New Jersey
  • Vol. 16: November 8, 1969 from the Fillmore, San Francisco, California
  • Vol. 17: September 25, 1991 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts with two songs from March 31, 1991
  • Vol. 18: February 3, 1978 from the Dane County Coliseum, Madison, Wisconsin and February 5, 1978 from the Uni-Dome, Cedar Falls, Iowa
  • Vol. 19: October 19, 1973 from the Fairgrounds Arena, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
  • Vol. 20: September 25, 1976 from the Capital Center, Landover, Maryland and September 28, 1976 from the Onondaga County War Memorial, Syracuse, New York
  • Vol. 21: November 1, 1985, from the Richmond Coliseum, Richmond, Virginia and some tracks from September 2, 1980
  • Vol. 22: February 23 and 24, 1968 from the Kings Beach Bowl, Lake Tahoe, California
  • Vol. 23: September 17, 1972 from the Baltimore Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland
  • Vol. 24: March 23, 1974 from the Cow Palace, Daly City, California
  • Vol. 25: May 10, 1978 from the Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New Haven, Connecticut and May 11, 1978 from the Springfield Civic Center, Springfield, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 26: April 26, 1969 from the Electric Theater, Chicago, Illinois and April 27, 1969 from the Labor Temple, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • Vol. 27: December 16, 1992 from the Oakland Coliseum Arena, Oakland, California
  • Vol. 28: February 26, 1973 from the Pershing Municipal Auditorium, Lincoln, Nebraska and February 28, 1973 from the Salt Palace, Salt Lake City, Utah
  • Vol. 29: May 19, 1977 from the Fox Theatre, Atlanta, Georgia and May 21, 1977 from the Lakeland Civic Arena, Lakeland, Florida
  • Vol. 30: March 28, 1972 from the Academy of Music, New York City and March 25, 1972 (including five songs with Bo Diddley)
  • Vol. 31: August 4 and 5, 1974 from the Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and August 6, 1974 from the Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey
  • Vol. 32: August 7, 1982 from the Alpine Valley, East Troy, Wisconsin
  • Vol. 33: October 9 and 10, 1976 from the Oakland Stadium, Oakland, California (one of Bill Graham's Days on the Green)
  • Vol. 34: November 5, 1977 from the Community War Memorial, Rochester, New York with bonus tracks of November 2, 1977 from the Seneca College Field House, Toronto, Ontario
  • Vol. 35: August 7, 1971 from San Diego, California and August 24, 1971 from Chicago, Illinois with bonus tracks of August 6, 1971 from the Palladium, Hollywood, California
  • Vol. 36: September 21, 1972 from the Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Volume 15 and later are released in the HDCD format.


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Volume 15 and later are released in the HDCD format. Turin is surrounded by several smaller cities in the Province of Turin such as Grugliasco, Rivoli, Chivasso, Venaria, Settimo Torinese, Orbassano, Moncalieri, Avigliana, Buttigliera Alta, Gassino Torinese, Nichelino, Collegno and others, that make up one of Italy's primary metropolitan areas. About three new volumes were being released each year. Turin produces a typical chocolate, named Gianduiotto after Gianduia, a local Commedia dell'arte mask, and many other kinds of chocolate in a host of confectioneries all around the city. Started in 1993, as of January 14, 2006 there are thirty-six volumes in the series, each covering a part or all of one or more concerts. It was in Turin that Doret invented at the end of the 18th century a revolutionary machine that could make solid chocolate as we eat it now. The above list does not include the Dick's Picks series of concert recordings taken from the band's archives, selected by archivist Dick Latvala and, after his death, David Lemieux. Turin is the birth place of solid chocolate.


. Turin was also the city where the FISA (international rowing federation) was born in 1892. As of now, any future plans are unknown, and are largely contingent on Weir and Lesh making up. Among those who lost their lives was Valentino Mazzola, father of Ferruccio and Sandro Mazzola (who were also later to be football champions). Their inability to reconcile these differences kept Deadheads from seeing a tour to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Grateful Dead, and also made the annual celebration honoring Jerry Garcia seem a little flat, as his own bandmates couldn't put aside their differences to take the stage together in his honor. team (at that time the most important in Europe and aka Grande Torino) hit the church of Superga, on the Turin hills. The band did not tour in 2005, due to a fight between Bob Weir and Phil Lesh over how they believe certain things happened in the history of the band. In a terrible air accident in 1949, a plane carrying the whole Torino F.C.

Haynes is best known for his work with Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band. Turin has also hosted two summer Universiade the first in 1959 and 1970, in 2007 it will host the first Winter Universiade. Blues." The band accepted Warren Haynes as their new lead guitarist. and Juventus, and is the host of the 2006 Winter Olympics. The members would continue to tour on and off through the end of their 2004 Summer Tour, the "Wave That Flag" tour, named after a lyric from the song, "U.S. The city is famous for two very sucessful football teams, Torino F.C. On February 14, 2003, (as they said) "reflecting the reality that [was]," they renamed themselves The Dead, reflecting the abbreviated form of the band name that fans had long used and keeping "Grateful" retired out of respect for Garcia. From April 2006 to April 2007 Turin will host a festival called "Signs of Writing" composed of events, meetings, seminars, debates, letters, and performances.

The mid-2002 fall tour of The Other Ones, with Bob, Bill, Phil and Mickey, was so successful and satisfying that the band decided the name was no longer appropriate. After Alexandria, Madrid, New Delhi, Antwerp and Montreal, Turin has been chosen by UNESCO as World Book Capital for the year 2006 because of its activity of book and reading promotion, especially with the International Book Fair, one of the most important fairs in Europe of its kind. The remaining members occasionally got together under the pseudonym Crusader Rabbit Stealth Band during the late 1990s, infrequently playing unannounced shows. The city is also famous for being the film set of the 1969 classic film The Italian Job starring Michael Caine - it is possible to visit all the locations on a special tour - and Deep Red (1975), directed by Italian horror filmmaker Dario Argento. Though some of them occasionally toured through the late 1990s under the name "The Other Ones", they mainly chose to pursue various solo projects, most notably Bob Weir's Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends and Mickey Hart's music for the 1996 Olympics. Superga can be reached by means of the Superga Rack Railway from the suburb of Sassi. Following Garcia's death in 1995, the remaining members formally decided to disband. In the hills above the city is the basilica church of Superga, from where there is a splendid panorama of Turin against a backdrop of the snow-capped Alps.

These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures. In 1997, this complex of historical buildings was recognised as a world heritage site by Unesco. The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture more of their essence, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. Some of these (first and foremost Rivoli, the location of the Museum of the same name) host events, exhibitions and cultural initiatives not only of local interest. The early records reflected the Dead's live repertoire — lengthy instrumental jams with guitar solos by Garcia, best exemplified by "Dark Star" — but, lacking the energy of the shows, did not sell well. The Hunting Lodge by Juvarra can be admired in Stupinigi and there is also the royal estate in Pollenzo. Most connoisseurs believe that the Grateful Dead's true spirit was rarely well captured in studio performance. In the area around the city, the castles of Rivoli, Moncalieri, Venaria, Agliè, Racconigi, and Govone can be visited.

Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes—a form of psychedelia that might run the gamut from strange to exotically beautiful. Torino is home to Palazzo Chiablese, the Royal Armoury, the Royal Library, Palazzo Madama, Palazzo Carignano, Villa della Regina, and the Valentino Castle. Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and more, frequently melding several of them. In addition to the Royal Palace, the official residence of the Savoys until 1865, the circuit includes palaces, residences and castles in the city centre and in the surrounding towns. The Dead were not inclined to fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country/western. Turin offers a circuit of great historical and architectural interest: the Savoy Residences. This was natural, because they played psychedelic dances, open-air park events, and closed-street Haight-Ashbury block parties. The Museo Egizio has the most important collection of Egyptian antiquities in the world after the Cairo Museum.

The Grateful Dead’s early music (in the mid 1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. The Cathedral of St John the Baptist houses the Shroud of Turin, an old linen cloth with an imprint of a man, which is believed by many to be the cloth that covered Jesus in his grave. Listening to their first LP (The Grateful Dead, Warner Brothers, 1967), one is also reminded that it was recorded only a few years after the big "surfing music" craze; that California rock-music sound seeped in, to some degree, as well. One of its main symbols is the Mole Antonelliana, which hosts the National Cinema Museum of Italy. But the new Dead music was also naturally different from bands like Dylan's or the Spoonful, partly because their fellow musician Phil Lesh came out of a schooled classical and electronic-music background, while Ron "Pigpen" McKernan was a no-nonsense deep blues lover and drummer Bill Kreutzmann had a jazz background. A project to build an underground system was ready in the seventies, with government funding for it and for similar projects in Milan and Rome; whilst the other two cities went ahead with the projects, Turin local gorvernment lead by major Diego Novelli shelved the proposal as it believed it to be too costly and unnecessary, but that only meant more funding for Rome and Milan. It was natural for Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir, each of whom had been immersed in the American folk-music revival of the late 1950s and early '60s, to be open-minded toward electric guitars. In fact, the main street in the town centre ('Via Roma') runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era (when 'Via Roma' was built); the tunnel was supposed to host the underground line but is now used as an underground car park.

Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York "folk-rock" band The Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric." Gradually, many of the East-Coast American folk musicians, formerly luminaries of the coffee-house scene, were moving in the electric direction. This underground transportation project has historical importance for Turin, as the town has dreamed of an underground line for decades, the first project dating as far back as the twenties. Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. This first leg of the subway system links the nearby town of Collegno with the 'Porta Susa' station in Turin's town centre; the next leg extending the service to the 'Porta Nuova' railway station is expected by June 2007. The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands like the Beatles and Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. This project is expected to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the town, but its first phase was finished in time for the Olympic Games (inaugurated on 4 February 2006 and opened to the public the day after). Kahle claimed that the whole affair had been a "misunderstanding," but John Perry Barlow, one of the band's lyricists, claimed that concerts had been restored after several members of the band had backed away from their earlier opposition after realizing they had created a public relations "catastrophe.". The other major project is the construction of a subway line based on the VAL system.

Several days after the announcement that the concerts had been removed, Brewster Kahle of Archive.Org made a cryptic announcement that audience tapes of the concerts would again become available, though so-called board tapes would only be available as streaming audio. The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be covered by a major boulevard; the town rail station on this line will become the main station of Turin ('Porta Susa'). The removal of the Dead's concerts from Archive.org created a storm of protest, in addition to a rapidly spreading boycott of the band's remaining commercial products. One is the 'Spina' ('spine') which includes the doubling of a major railroad crossing the town. However, David Gans, host of a syndicated radio program, "The Grateful Dead Hour," speculates that the band is motivated by money, noting "when they were making $50 million a year on the road, there wasn't a lot of pressure to monetize their archives."[5]. Some of the work sites deal with general improvements to car traffic, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two projects are of major importance and will change the shape of the town radically. The band's spokesman, Dennis McNally, claimed such a repository "doesn't represent Grateful Dead values" because it doesn't foster one-to-one connections between fans. Although this activity has increased as a result of the 2006 Winter Olympics, parts of it had long been planned.

In November of 2005, the Dead's management outraged fans by asking the operators of the popular Internet Archive (archive.org) to stop making concerts available for download, and to offer only streamcast recordings instead. The town currently has a large number of rail and road work sites. Not surprisingly, these Internet-only albums have met with the same success as their CD-based brethren. Most of these industries have moved to other parts of Italy, but Turin still hosts the National Museum of Cinema. In the summer of 2005 the Dead began offering downloadable versions of both their existing live releases, and a new internet-only series, The Grateful Dead Download Series, that is available exclusively through both their own GDStore.com (which offers the albums in both 256 kbit/s mp3 files and FLAC files -- a preferred audio standard for those who archive Dead and other fan-made live recordings on the Internet) and the iTunes Music Store (which offers them in their 128 kbit/s AAC format). Turin is also the birthplace of major aspects of the Italian economy, such as telecommunications Telecom Italia, television (Rai, National TV channel) and cinema. All three series of releases continue to this day. The future European launcher projects beyond Ariane 5 will also be managed from Turin, by the new NGL company, a subsidiary of EADS (70%) and Finmeccanica (30%).

A series of videos began to trickle out of "The Vault", starting with View From the Vault (recorded in Pittsburgh on July 8, 1990 at Three Rivers Stadium) and View from the Vault II (recorded in Washington, DC on June 14, 1991 at RFK Stadium); these releases are accompanied by the simultaneous release of multi-disc soundtrack CDs of the same shows represented on the videos. Some major elements of the International Space Station, such as the Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules, were produced in Turin. There have been at least 36 Dick's Picks releases as of November 2005. It is also a center for aerospace industry, with Alenia. Starting in 1991, the Grateful Dead released numerous live concerts from their archives in two concurrent series: the From the Vault releases are multi-track remixes, whereas the Dick's Picks series (named for the band's late archivist, Dick Latvala) are based on two-track mixes made at the time of the recording. Other companies founded in Turin are Invicta, founded 1821, Lavazza, Martini, Kappa and the chocolate factory Caffarel. After the show, a deadhead with the post-show munchies could probably find a grilled cheese sandwich made on a camping stove at the door of a VW bus by a friendly hippie. The city is home to the famous Lingotto building, which was at one time the largest car factory in the world, and is now a convention centre, concert hall, art gallery, shopping centre and hotel.

(Some deadheads would earn their entire touring budget selling such items.) Concertgoers typically congregated in the lot for hours before a show, playing guitar, hacky sacking and getting high. Today the city is a major industrial centre, known particularly as home to the headquarters and main production lines of the car company Fiat. One could find items for sale at many cars in the lot, from grilled cheese sandwiches to "kind" brews and nitrous balloons. The population remains overwhelmingly Italian (96.1%), but there are groups like Romanian: 2.3%, Moroccans: 1.5%, Peruvians: 0.5%, Albanian: 0.4%, and others. The parking lot of a Grateful Dead concert was as much a part of the event as the concert itself. The city has seen a rise in immigrants, including the suburban areas. Whatever their differences, the deadheads are often considered to be the most devoted fans in the rock world. Around 16.4% of the population are under 14 years over age, while those in retirement age number 18.8%.

The late 1980s and 90s saw the Grateful Dead attracting a huge following that left many long time deadheads in doubt as to whether people were coming out for shows to see the band, or simply to be part of the atmosphere. The city of Turin grew by 0.88% during the last 3 years, which was attributed to a somewhat low birth rate, contributing to an aging population. These new followers were deemed "Touchheads" by the more established fans, a reference to their relative inexperience with the band. Three major rivers pass through the city: the Po and two of its tributaries, the Dora Riparia (from the Celtic duria meaning "water," later changed to "Duria Minor" by the Romans), and the Stura di Lanzo and Sangone. In the 1980s, the band scored a top 40 hit with the song "Touch of Grey" (from In the Dark), which garnered a much younger and more mainstream fandom that was considered sharply different from the traditional Deadheads. It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps and on the southern front by the hills of Monferrato. The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes. Turin is located in northwest Italy.

For many years, almost all of their shows would have dedicated taping sections. See also: List of mayors of Turin. In contrast to many other bands, the Grateful Dead encouraged their fans to tape their shows. Sergio Chiamparino, the current mayor, belongs to the center-left coalition. Many of their fans, commonly referred to as Deadheads, would follow the band on tour. The mayor of Turin is directly elected every 5 years. Bitchin'!!" Kelly/Mouse Studios then began including the icon in most of the band's posters and graphics. In 2006, Turin was the home of the Olympics.

The band's skull-and-lightning-bolt icon is called Steal Your Face, a sanitized version of the icon's original name, Skull Fuck, which was a direct reflection both of the anti-establishment sensibilities of the times and of the Grateful Dead's role as a voice for the "hippies." Garcia and McKernan are said to have been tripping on ancient icons from the Aztec or Mayan visual lexicon, particularly the celebration of Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) and to have exclaimed, "Fuck they're all skulls.. The 2005 population is 908,000. '. In the '80's the first industrial crisis hit the city and its population began to decline (and continues to, while the metropolitan area grows). The rising cost of fuel and personnel, as well as friction among many of the newer crew members (and associated hangers-on), contributed to the band's 1974 "retirement." The Wall of Sound was disassembled, and when the Dead began touring again in 1976, it was with a more logistically practical sound system. The population reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at 1.5 millions in 1975. The Wall's quadraphonic format never translated well to soundboard tapes made during the period, as the sound was compressed into an unnatural stereo format and suffers from a pronounced tinniness. After WWII Turin was rapidly rebuilt and its industries greatly developed, which caused waves of immigration mainly from the southern regions of Italy.

Because this was often switched to the vocal mikes, many of Lagin's parts were lost in the mix. After WWI the conflicts between worker and industrialists began, the first strikes took place and in 1920 the Lingotto factory was occupied. Synthesist Ned Lagin, who toured with the group throughout much of 1974, never received his own dedicated input into the system, and was forced to use the vocal subsystem for amplification. By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants. The Wall of Sound was very efficient for its day, but it did have its pitfalls in addition to its sheer size. The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often considered the pinnacle for Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the Exposition again in 1911. Though the initial framework and a rudimentary form of the system was unveiled in February 1973 (ominously, every speaker tweeter blew as the band began their first number), the Grateful Dead did not begin to tour with the full system until a year later in 1974. (Since 1870 the capital has been Rome.) Turin reacted to the loss of importance, beginning a rapid industrialization: in 1899 FIAT was founded and Lancia in 1909.

Four semi trucks and 21 crew members were required to haul and set up the 75-ton Wall. In 1865 the capital was moved to Florence. It was the largest portable sound system ever built (although "portable" is a relative term). In 1861, Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed United Italy. It was capable of producing acceptable sound at a quarter mile, and excellent sound for up to six hundred feet, when the sound began to be distorted by wind. The Museo Egizio, the Mole Antonelliana, the Gran Madre church and Vittorio Veneto square were built in this period. The Wall of Sound used 89 300-Watt solid state and three 350-Watt tube amplifiers to produce 26,400 total Watts RMS of audio power. The city now had 250,000 inhabitants.

The signals were summed, the sound that was common to both mics (the sound from the Wall) was cancelled, and only the vocals were amplified. The Fréjus Tunnel was opened and made Turin an important communication node. The vocalist sang into the top microphone, and the lower mic picked up whatever other sound was present in the stage environment. In the 19th century, after brief occupation by Napoleon, the city began to actively pursue the unification of Italy. The Dead used matched pairs of condenser microphones spaced 60mm apart and run out-of-phase. Now the capitol of a European kingdom, Turin had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time. Because of this, a special microphone system had to be designed to prevent feedback. After the subsequent treaty of Utrecht, the Kingdom of Sardinia was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy and the architect Filippo Juvarra began a major redesign of the city.

The Wall of Sound was designed to act as its own monitor system, and it was therefore assembled behind the band so the members could hear exactly what their audience was hearing. In 1706 the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. Because each speaker was producing the sound of just one instrument or vocalist, the sound was exceptionally clear and intermodulation distortion between instruments was nonexistent. Piazza San Carlo, via Po and the Royal Palace (Palazzo Reale) were built in this period. One channel amplified the bass drum, and two channels amplified the other drums and cymbals in stereo. Emanuele Filiberto (Iron Head) made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Phil Lesh's bass was quadraphonic, each of the four strings having its own channel and set of speakers. Many of the garden and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned; the University was also founded during this period.

Vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, and piano each had their own channel and set of speakers. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants. After Owsley Stanley was released from prison in late 1972, he, along with Dan Healey, Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead's sound crew, and Ron Wickersham, Rick Turner, and John Curl of Alembic Inc accomplished this by essentially combining eleven separate sound systems. After the fall of the Roman empire the city was conquered by the Lombards, then the Franks; it was then ruled by the Bishops. The desire driving the development of the Wall of Sound was for a distortion-free sound system that could serve as its own monitor system. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high walls. The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year; Healy was a more superior engineer than Stanley and would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city.

Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. (probably 28 B.C.), the Romans created a military camp (Castra Taurinorum), later dedicated to Augustus (Augusta Taurinorum). In 1971, the band purchased their first solid sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. In the first century B.C. After Stanley was placed in jail for LSD production in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but ultimately found them to be less reliable than the systems conceived by their former soundman. The area was settled by the Taurini in pre-Roman times. Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical issues. The Italian name, Torino, happens to mean "little bull" in Italian; hence the coat of arms and the symbol of the city.

The band were never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played, so in their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a PA and monitor system for them. The name of Turin comes from Tau, a Celtic word that means mountains. The Wall of Sound was an enormous sound system designed specifically for the Grateful Dead. . Musically this may be illustrated in that the band not only improvised within the form of a song, yet also improvised with the forms. Turin is currently hosting the 2006 Winter Olympics. A hallmark of their concert sets were continuous sets of music where each song would blend into the next (a segue). mi), and one of the most populous, with 2,236,941 inhabitants at the 2004 census.

The band was famous for its extended jams, which showcased both individual improvisation as well as a distinctive "group-mind" improvisation where each of the band members improvised individually, while still blending together as a cohesive musical unit, often engaging in extended improvisational flights of fancy. The province is one of the largest in Italy, with 6,830 square kilometres (2,637 sq. Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that had been initially played in concert. The population of Turin city is 908,000 (2004 census), but with its metropolitan area totals about 1.7 million inhabitants. (They also appeared at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the even more famous Woodstock Festival in 1969; their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen.). Turin (Italian: Torino; Piedmontese: Turin) is a major industrial city in north-western Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the west bank of the Po River. With the exception of 1975, when the band was on "hiatus" and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead toured regularly around the USA from the winter of 1965 until July 9, 1995—with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978. Elio Vittorini.

In their early years, the band was also dedicated to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music and health care to all comers; they were the "first among equals in giving unselfishly of themselves to hippie culture, performing 'more free concerts than any band in the history of music'" [4]. Germain Sommeiller. They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as Deadheads, many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. Ascanio Sobrero. The Grateful Dead are well-known for their near constant touring throughout their long career in music. Emilio Salgari. Owsley "Bear" Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD. Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists. Cesare Pavese. For a year and a half, Welnick was often joined by special guest Bruce Hornsby on piano. Vilfredo Pareto. Almost immediately, former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick joined on keyboards and vocals. Friedrich Nietzsche. He became the third Dead keyboardist to die. Giulio Natta.

Brent Mydland was the keyboardist for the Dead for 11 years until his death in 1990. Joseph de Maistre. Keith Godchaux died in a car accident in 1980. Tulse Luper. Keith and Donna left the band in 1979, and Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist. Cesare Lombroso. In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Dead as a backing vocalist. Antonio Gramsci.

Two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. Natalia Ginzburg. Tom "TC" Constanten played keyboards alongside Pigpen from 1968 to 1970. Guido Fubini. Hart rejoined the Dead for good in 1975. Erasmus. Hart quit the Grateful Dead in 1971, embarrassed by the financial misdealings of his father, Dead money manager Lenny Hart, and leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. Luigi Einaudi.

Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in 1968 was joined by a second drummer, New York native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. Umberto Eco. All of the previously mentioned Grateful Dead members shared in vocal performance of songs, although none of them had a particularly strong or tuneful voice. Renato Dulbecco. Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards, harmonica and was also a group vocalist until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. Francesco Cirio. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar. Gaspare Campari.

Classically-trained trumpeter Phil Lesh played bass guitar. Italo Calvino. One of the main influences on his musical style was bluegrass music, and Garcia also performed-—on banjo, his other great instrumental love-—in the bluegrass band Old and in the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. Francesco Faà di Bruno. Jerry was a native of San Francisco and grew up in the Excelsior District. John Bosco. De facto bandleader Jerry Garcia was the lead guitarist for the band—-although he was often seen both by the public and the media as 'leader' or a primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, he was reluctant to be seen that way, especially since Garcia and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output. St.

. Edmondo de Amicis. These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world." [3]. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy (1820-1878) - King of Piedmont and the first King of the united Italy. Their musical influences varied widely with input from the psychedelic music of the era, combined with blues, jazz, rock and roll, and bluegrass. Umberto Tozzi (1952- ) - Singer. The Grateful Dead became the de facto resident band of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters, with the early sound heavily influenced by Kesey's LSD-soaked Acid Tests, as well as R&B. Massimo Taparelli, marquis d'Azeglio (1798-1866) - Statesman, novelist and painter.

62), "...Jer (Garcia) picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...(and)...In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'". Piero Sraffa (1898-1983) Influential economist. Some claim it was a Funk & Wagnalls, others an Oxford Dictionary, but according to Phil Lesh, in his biography (pp. Tullio Regge (1931- ) Physicist. The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen at random from a dictionary. Aurelio Peccei (1908-1984) Founder of the Club of Rome. The Grateful Dead most embodied "all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came, therefore, to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country" [2]. Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932) Mathematician.

(Also see entry for the San Francisco Sound.) Of these bands, the Grateful Dead had members with arguably the highest level of musicianship, including banjo and guitar player Jerry Garcia, blues musician "Pigpen" McKernan, the classically trained Phil Lesh and drummer Bill Kreutzmann [1]. Adriano Olivetti (1901-1960) Businessman. Many bands from this area, such as Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother & the Holding Company, and Santana, went on to national fame, giving San Francisco an image as a center for the hippie counterculture of the era. Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909- ) Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine. Eventually, they moved to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. Alessandro Martini (1812-1905) Businessman in vermouth industry. The Grateful Dead's career began under the name "The Warlocks" in Palo Alto, California, but as another band was already recording under that name (interestingly, it was the future Velvet Underground), the band had to change its name in order to get a recording contract. Salvador Edward Luria (1912-1991) - Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine.

Many followers referred to the band simply as The Dead. Primo Levi (1919-1987) - Philosopher and writer. These so-called Deadheads were renowned for their dedication to the band's music. Carlo Levi (1902-1975) - Painter. Some of the band's fans followed the band from concert to concert for years. Luigi Lavazza (1859-1949) - Inventor and businessman of coffee. Formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, "Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions," the Grateful Dead were known for their unique and eclectic songwriting style—which fused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues, country, and jazz—and for live performances of long modal jams. Vincenzo Lancia (1881-1937) - Sportsman and businessman, founder of Lancia.

The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band. Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813) - Mathematician. 36: September 21, 1972 from the Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Piero Gobetti (1901-1926) - Intellectual. Vol. Sonia Gandhi (1946- ) - Politician. 35: August 7, 1971 from San Diego, California and August 24, 1971 from Chicago, Illinois with bonus tracks of August 6, 1971 from the Palladium, Hollywood, California. Galileo Ferraris (1847-1897) - Physicist and electrical engineer.

Vol. Robert Fano (1917- ) - Engineer. 34: November 5, 1977 from the Community War Memorial, Rochester, New York with bonus tracks of November 2, 1977 from the Seneca College Field House, Toronto, Ontario. Antonio Benedetto Carpano (1764-1815) - Inventor of vermouth and apéritif. Vol. Pierre Paul Caffarel (1795-1850) - Inventor of chocolate and businessman. 33: October 9 and 10, 1976 from the Oakland Stadium, Oakland, California (one of Bill Graham's Days on the Green). Norberto Bobbio (1909-2004) - Historian and philosopher.

Vol. Camillo Benso, count of Cavour - Politician (Italian unification). 32: August 7, 1982 from the Alpine Valley, East Troy, Wisconsin. Giuseppe Marc'Antonio Baretti (1719-1789) - Critic. Vol. Alessandro Baricco (1958- ) - writer. 31: August 4 and 5, 1974 from the Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and August 6, 1974 from the Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey. Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856) - Physicist.

Vol. Gianni Agnelli (1921-2003) - Chairman director of FIAT and very influential Italian. 30: March 28, 1972 from the Academy of Music, New York City and March 25, 1972 (including five songs with Bo Diddley). Giovanni Agnelli (1866-1945) - Founder of FIAT. Vol. Istituto Europeo di Design (Turin) / http://www.ied.it/. 29: May 19, 1977 from the Fox Theatre, Atlanta, Georgia and May 21, 1977 from the Lakeland Civic Arena, Lakeland, Florida. Politecnico di Torino (Turin) / http://www.polito.it/.

Vol. University of Turin (Università degli Studi di Torino) / http://www.unito.it/. 28: February 26, 1973 from the Pershing Municipal Auditorium, Lincoln, Nebraska and February 28, 1973 from the Salt Palace, Salt Lake City, Utah. Vol. 27: December 16, 1992 from the Oakland Coliseum Arena, Oakland, California.

Vol. 26: April 26, 1969 from the Electric Theater, Chicago, Illinois and April 27, 1969 from the Labor Temple, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Vol. 25: May 10, 1978 from the Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New Haven, Connecticut and May 11, 1978 from the Springfield Civic Center, Springfield, Massachusetts.

Vol. 24: March 23, 1974 from the Cow Palace, Daly City, California. Vol. 23: September 17, 1972 from the Baltimore Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

Vol. 22: February 23 and 24, 1968 from the Kings Beach Bowl, Lake Tahoe, California. Vol. 21: November 1, 1985, from the Richmond Coliseum, Richmond, Virginia and some tracks from September 2, 1980.

Vol. 20: September 25, 1976 from the Capital Center, Landover, Maryland and September 28, 1976 from the Onondaga County War Memorial, Syracuse, New York. Vol. 19: October 19, 1973 from the Fairgrounds Arena, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Vol. 18: February 3, 1978 from the Dane County Coliseum, Madison, Wisconsin and February 5, 1978 from the Uni-Dome, Cedar Falls, Iowa. Vol. 17: September 25, 1991 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts with two songs from March 31, 1991.

Vol. 16: November 8, 1969 from the Fillmore, San Francisco, California. Vol. 15: September 3, 1977 from the Raceway Park, Englishtown, New Jersey.

Vol. 14: November 30 and December 2, 1973 from the Boston Music Hall (now Symphony Hall), Boston, Massachusetts. Vol. 13: May 6, 1981 from the Nassau Coliseum, Long Island, New York.

Vol. 12: June 26, 1974 from the Providence Civic Center, Providence, Rhode Island and June 28, 1974 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts. Vol. 11: September 27, 1972 from the Stanley Theater, Jersey City, New Jersey.

Vol. 10: December 29 and 30, 1977 from the Winterland, San Francisco, California. Vol. 9: September 16, 1990 from Madison Square Garden, New York City.

Vol. 8: May 2, 1970 from Harpur College, Binghamton, New York. Vol. 7: September 1974 from the Alexandra Palace, London, England.

Vol. 6: October 14, 1983 from the Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut. Vol. 5: December 26, 1979 from the Oakland Arena, Oakland, California.

Vol. 4: February 13 and 14, 1970 from the Fillmore East, New York City. Vol. 3: May 22, 1977 from the Hollywood Sportatorium, Hollywood, Florida.

Vol. 2: October 31, 1971 from the Ohio Theatre, Columbus, Ohio. Vol. 1: December 19, 1973 from Tampa, Florida.

Vol. The Complete Fillmore West 1969 (2005: boxed set, live). Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005). Beyond Description (2004: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Grateful Dead Records and Arista Records, 1973-1989).

The Very Best of The Grateful Dead (2003: compilation). Postcards of the Hanging (2002: live compilation). The Golden Road (2001: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Warner Brothers Records, 1967-1972). So Many Roads 1965-1995 (1999: boxed set).

Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997: live compilation). The Arista Years (1996: compilation). Grateful Dead 1977-1995 (1996: compilation). Grayfolded (1996: live compilation).

Infrared Roses (1991: live compilation). Without a Net (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Dozin' at the Knick (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Dylan & The Dead (live, with Bob Dylan) (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland).

Built to Last (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). In the Dark (1987: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Dead Set (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Reckoning (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland).

Go to Heaven (1980: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Shakedown Street (1978: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K.

What a Long Strange Trip It's Been (1977: compilation). Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Terrapin Station (1977: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K.

Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Blues for Allah (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux).

Godchaux/D. One From the Vault (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux). Godchaux/D.

Steal Your Face (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Grateful Dead From the Mars Hotel (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K.

Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Wake of the Flood (1973: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Skeletons from the Closet (Best of the Grateful Dead) (1973: compilation).

Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Europe '72 (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux).

Godchaux/D. Hundred Year Hall (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Grateful Dead (aka Skull & Roses) (1971: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan). American Beauty (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan).

Workingman's Dead (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). Live/Dead (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten). Aoxomoxoa (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten).

Two from the Vault (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). Anthem of the Sun (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). The Grateful Dead (1967: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan). Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals (1990 - 1995).

Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals (1979 - 1990). Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals (1972 - 1979). Keith Godchaux - keyboards (1971 - 1979). Tom Constanten - keyboards (1968 - 1970).

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, vocals, harmonica, percussion (1965 - 1973). Mickey Hart - drums (1967 - 1971, 1975 - 1995). Bill Kreutzmann - drums (1965 - 1995). Phil Lesh - bass, vocals (1965 - 1995).

Bob Weir - rhythm guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995). Jerry Garcia - lead guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995).

07-28-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.