Grateful Dead

The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band. Formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, "Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions," the Grateful Dead were known for their unique and eclectic songwriting style—which fused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues, country, and jazz—and for live performances of long modal jams.

Some of the band's fans followed the band from concert to concert for years. These so-called Deadheads were renowned for their dedication to the band's music. Many followers referred to the band simply as The Dead.

The Grateful Dead's career began under the name "The Warlocks" in Palo Alto, California, but as another band was already recording under that name (interestingly, it was the future Velvet Underground), the band had to change its name in order to get a recording contract. Eventually, they moved to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. Many bands from this area, such as Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother & the Holding Company, and Santana, went on to national fame, giving San Francisco an image as a center for the hippie counterculture of the era. (Also see entry for the San Francisco Sound.) Of these bands, the Grateful Dead had members with arguably the highest level of musicianship, including banjo and guitar player Jerry Garcia, blues musician "Pigpen" McKernan, the classically trained Phil Lesh and drummer Bill Kreutzmann [1]. The Grateful Dead most embodied "all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came, therefore, to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country" [2].

The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen at random from a dictionary. Some claim it was a Funk & Wagnalls, others an Oxford Dictionary, but according to Phil Lesh, in his biography (pp. 62), "...Jer (Garcia) picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...(and)...In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'"

The Grateful Dead became the de facto resident band of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters, with the early sound heavily influenced by Kesey's LSD-soaked Acid Tests, as well as R&B. Their musical influences varied widely with input from the psychedelic music of the era, combined with blues, jazz, rock and roll, and bluegrass. These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world." [3].

Membership

De facto bandleader Jerry Garcia was the lead guitarist for the band—-although he was often seen both by the public and the media as 'leader' or a primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, he was reluctant to be seen that way, especially since Garcia and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output. Jerry was a native of San Francisco and grew up in the Excelsior District. One of the main influences on his musical style was bluegrass music, and Garcia also performed-—on banjo, his other great instrumental love-—in the bluegrass band Old and in the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. Classically-trained trumpeter Phil Lesh played bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar. Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards, harmonica and was also a group vocalist until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. All of the previously mentioned Grateful Dead members shared in vocal performance of songs, although none of them had a particularly strong or tuneful voice. Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in 1968 was joined by a second drummer, New York native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. Hart quit the Grateful Dead in 1971, embarrassed by the financial misdealings of his father, Dead money manager Lenny Hart, and leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. Hart rejoined the Dead for good in 1975. Tom "TC" Constanten played keyboards alongside Pigpen from 1968 to 1970. Two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Dead as a backing vocalist. Keith and Donna left the band in 1979, and Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist. Keith Godchaux died in a car accident in 1980. Brent Mydland was the keyboardist for the Dead for 11 years until his death in 1990. He became the third Dead keyboardist to die. Almost immediately, former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick joined on keyboards and vocals. For a year and a half, Welnick was often joined by special guest Bruce Hornsby on piano. Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists. Owsley "Bear" Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD.

Touring

Early photo of the band at their communal home in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, late 60's.

The Grateful Dead are well-known for their near constant touring throughout their long career in music. They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as Deadheads, many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. In their early years, the band was also dedicated to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music and health care to all comers; they were the "first among equals in giving unselfishly of themselves to hippie culture, performing 'more free concerts than any band in the history of music'" [4].

Original lineup of The Grateful Dead, 1971.

With the exception of 1975, when the band was on "hiatus" and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead toured regularly around the USA from the winter of 1965 until July 9, 1995—with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978. (They also appeared at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the even more famous Woodstock Festival in 1969; their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen.)

Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that had been initially played in concert. The band was famous for its extended jams, which showcased both individual improvisation as well as a distinctive "group-mind" improvisation where each of the band members improvised individually, while still blending together as a cohesive musical unit, often engaging in extended improvisational flights of fancy. A hallmark of their concert sets were continuous sets of music where each song would blend into the next (a segue). Musically this may be illustrated in that the band not only improvised within the form of a song, yet also improvised with the forms.

Wall of Sound

The Wall of Sound was an enormous sound system designed specifically for the Grateful Dead. The band were never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played, so in their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a PA and monitor system for them. Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical issues. After Stanley was placed in jail for LSD production in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but ultimately found them to be less reliable than the systems conceived by their former soundman. In 1971, the band purchased their first solid sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year; Healy was a more superior engineer than Stanley and would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993.

The desire driving the development of the Wall of Sound was for a distortion-free sound system that could serve as its own monitor system. After Owsley Stanley was released from prison in late 1972, he, along with Dan Healey, Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead's sound crew, and Ron Wickersham, Rick Turner, and John Curl of Alembic Inc accomplished this by essentially combining eleven separate sound systems. Vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, and piano each had their own channel and set of speakers. Phil Lesh's bass was quadraphonic, each of the four strings having its own channel and set of speakers. One channel amplified the bass drum, and two channels amplified the other drums and cymbals in stereo. Because each speaker was producing the sound of just one instrument or vocalist, the sound was exceptionally clear and intermodulation distortion between instruments was nonexistent.

The Wall of Sound was designed to act as its own monitor system, and it was therefore assembled behind the band so the members could hear exactly what their audience was hearing. Because of this, a special microphone system had to be designed to prevent feedback. The Dead used matched pairs of condenser microphones spaced 60mm apart and run out-of-phase. The vocalist sang into the top microphone, and the lower mic picked up whatever other sound was present in the stage environment. The signals were summed, the sound that was common to both mics (the sound from the Wall) was cancelled, and only the vocals were amplified.

The Wall of Sound used 89 300-Watt solid state and three 350-Watt tube amplifiers to produce 26,400 total Watts RMS of audio power. It was capable of producing acceptable sound at a quarter mile, and excellent sound for up to six hundred feet, when the sound began to be distorted by wind. It was the largest portable sound system ever built (although "portable" is a relative term). Four semi trucks and 21 crew members were required to haul and set up the 75-ton Wall.

Though the initial framework and a rudimentary form of the system was unveiled in February 1973 (ominously, every speaker tweeter blew as the band began their first number), the Grateful Dead did not begin to tour with the full system until a year later in 1974. The Wall of Sound was very efficient for its day, but it did have its pitfalls in addition to its sheer size. Synthesist Ned Lagin, who toured with the group throughout much of 1974, never received his own dedicated input into the system, and was forced to use the vocal subsystem for amplification. Because this was often switched to the vocal mikes, many of Lagin's parts were lost in the mix. The Wall's quadraphonic format never translated well to soundboard tapes made during the period, as the sound was compressed into an unnatural stereo format and suffers from a pronounced tinniness.

The rising cost of fuel and personnel, as well as friction among many of the newer crew members (and associated hangers-on), contributed to the band's 1974 "retirement." The Wall of Sound was disassembled, and when the Dead began touring again in 1976, it was with a more logistically practical sound system.

'

Two Grateful Dead icons rolled into one

Steal Your Face

The band's skull-and-lightning-bolt icon is called Steal Your Face, a sanitized version of the icon's original name, Skull Fuck, which was a direct reflection both of the anti-establishment sensibilities of the times and of the Grateful Dead's role as a voice for the "hippies." Garcia and McKernan are said to have been tripping on ancient icons from the Aztec or Mayan visual lexicon, particularly the celebration of Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) and to have exclaimed, "Fuck they're all skulls... Bitchin'!!" Kelly/Mouse Studios then began including the icon in most of the band's posters and graphics.

Deadheads

Many of their fans, commonly referred to as Deadheads, would follow the band on tour. In contrast to many other bands, the Grateful Dead encouraged their fans to tape their shows. For many years, almost all of their shows would have dedicated taping sections. The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes. In the 1980s, the band scored a top 40 hit with the song "Touch of Grey" (from In the Dark), which garnered a much younger and more mainstream fandom that was considered sharply different from the traditional Deadheads. These new followers were deemed "Touchheads" by the more established fans, a reference to their relative inexperience with the band. The late 1980s and 90s saw the Grateful Dead attracting a huge following that left many long time deadheads in doubt as to whether people were coming out for shows to see the band, or simply to be part of the atmosphere. Whatever their differences, the deadheads are often considered to be the most devoted fans in the rock world.

The parking lot of a Grateful Dead concert was as much a part of the event as the concert itself. One could find items for sale at many cars in the lot, from grilled cheese sandwiches to "kind" brews and nitrous balloons. (Some deadheads would earn their entire touring budget selling such items.) Concertgoers typically congregated in the lot for hours before a show, playing guitar, hacky sacking and getting high. After the show, a deadhead with the post-show munchies could probably find a grilled cheese sandwich made on a camping stove at the door of a VW bus by a friendly hippie.

Live releases

Late lineup of The Grateful Dead, mid-90s.

Starting in 1991, the Grateful Dead released numerous live concerts from their archives in two concurrent series: the From the Vault releases are multi-track remixes, whereas the Dick's Picks series (named for the band's late archivist, Dick Latvala) are based on two-track mixes made at the time of the recording. There have been at least 36 Dick's Picks releases as of November 2005. A series of videos began to trickle out of "The Vault", starting with View From the Vault (recorded in Pittsburgh on July 8, 1990 at Three Rivers Stadium) and View from the Vault II (recorded in Washington, DC on June 14, 1991 at RFK Stadium); these releases are accompanied by the simultaneous release of multi-disc soundtrack CDs of the same shows represented on the videos. All three series of releases continue to this day.

In the summer of 2005 the Dead began offering downloadable versions of both their existing live releases, and a new internet-only series, The Grateful Dead Download Series, that is available exclusively through both their own GDStore.com (which offers the albums in both 256 kbit/s mp3 files and FLAC files -- a preferred audio standard for those who archive Dead and other fan-made live recordings on the Internet) and the iTunes Music Store (which offers them in their 128 kbit/s AAC format). Not surprisingly, these Internet-only albums have met with the same success as their CD-based brethren.

In November of 2005, the Dead's management outraged fans by asking the operators of the popular Internet Archive (archive.org) to stop making concerts available for download, and to offer only streamcast recordings instead. The band's spokesman, Dennis McNally, claimed such a repository "doesn't represent Grateful Dead values" because it doesn't foster one-to-one connections between fans. However, David Gans, host of a syndicated radio program, "The Grateful Dead Hour," speculates that the band is motivated by money, noting "when they were making $50 million a year on the road, there wasn't a lot of pressure to monetize their archives."[5]

The removal of the Dead's concerts from Archive.org created a storm of protest, in addition to a rapidly spreading boycott of the band's remaining commercial products. Several days after the announcement that the concerts had been removed, Brewster Kahle of Archive.Org made a cryptic announcement that audience tapes of the concerts would again become available, though so-called board tapes would only be available as streaming audio. Kahle claimed that the whole affair had been a "misunderstanding," but John Perry Barlow, one of the band's lyricists, claimed that concerts had been restored after several members of the band had backed away from their earlier opposition after realizing they had created a public relations "catastrophe."

History

The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands like the Beatles and Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York "folk-rock" band The Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric." Gradually, many of the East-Coast American folk musicians, formerly luminaries of the coffee-house scene, were moving in the electric direction. It was natural for Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir, each of whom had been immersed in the American folk-music revival of the late 1950s and early '60s, to be open-minded toward electric guitars. But the new Dead music was also naturally different from bands like Dylan's or the Spoonful, partly because their fellow musician Phil Lesh came out of a schooled classical and electronic-music background, while Ron "Pigpen" McKernan was a no-nonsense deep blues lover and drummer Bill Kreutzmann had a jazz background. Listening to their first LP (The Grateful Dead, Warner Brothers, 1967), one is also reminded that it was recorded only a few years after the big "surfing music" craze; that California rock-music sound seeped in, to some degree, as well.

The cover of the 1970 album American Beauty

The Grateful Dead’s early music (in the mid 1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. This was natural, because they played psychedelic dances, open-air park events, and closed-street Haight-Ashbury block parties. The Dead were not inclined to fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country/western. Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and more, frequently melding several of them. Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes—a form of psychedelia that might run the gamut from strange to exotically beautiful. Most connoisseurs believe that the Grateful Dead's true spirit was rarely well captured in studio performance.

The early records reflected the Dead's live repertoire — lengthy instrumental jams with guitar solos by Garcia, best exemplified by "Dark Star" — but, lacking the energy of the shows, did not sell well. The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture more of their essence, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures.

Dissolution and Continuation of the band

Following Garcia's death in 1995, the remaining members formally decided to disband. Though some of them occasionally toured through the late 1990s under the name "The Other Ones", they mainly chose to pursue various solo projects, most notably Bob Weir's Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends and Mickey Hart's music for the 1996 Olympics. The remaining members occasionally got together under the pseudonym Crusader Rabbit Stealth Band during the late 1990s, infrequently playing unannounced shows. The mid-2002 fall tour of The Other Ones, with Bob, Bill, Phil and Mickey, was so successful and satisfying that the band decided the name was no longer appropriate. On February 14, 2003, (as they said) "reflecting the reality that [was]," they renamed themselves The Dead, reflecting the abbreviated form of the band name that fans had long used and keeping "Grateful" retired out of respect for Garcia. The members would continue to tour on and off through the end of their 2004 Summer Tour, the "Wave That Flag" tour, named after a lyric from the song, "U.S. Blues." The band accepted Warren Haynes as their new lead guitarist. Haynes is best known for his work with Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band. The band did not tour in 2005, due to a fight between Bob Weir and Phil Lesh over how they believe certain things happened in the history of the band. Their inability to reconcile these differences kept Deadheads from seeing a tour to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Grateful Dead, and also made the annual celebration honoring Jerry Garcia seem a little flat, as his own bandmates couldn't put aside their differences to take the stage together in his honor. As of now, any future plans are unknown, and are largely contingent on Weir and Lesh making up.

Bandmembers

  • Jerry Garcia - lead guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Bob Weir - rhythm guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Phil Lesh - bass, vocals (1965 - 1995)
  • Bill Kreutzmann - drums (1965 - 1995)
  • Mickey Hart - drums (1967 - 1971, 1975 - 1995)
  • Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, vocals, harmonica, percussion (1965 - 1973)
  • Tom Constanten - keyboards (1968 - 1970)
  • Keith Godchaux - keyboards (1971 - 1979)
  • Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals (1972 - 1979)
  • Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals (1979 - 1990)
  • Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals (1990 - 1995)


Discography

  • The Grateful Dead (1967: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan)
  • Anthem of the Sun (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Two from the Vault (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Aoxomoxoa (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten)
  • Live/Dead (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten)
  • History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Workingman's Dead (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • American Beauty (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan)
  • Grateful Dead (aka Skull & Roses) (1971: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan)
  • Hundred Year Hall (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Europe '72 (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Skeletons from the Closet (Best of the Grateful Dead) (1973: compilation)
  • Wake of the Flood (1973: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Grateful Dead From the Mars Hotel (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Steal Your Face (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • One From the Vault (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Blues for Allah (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Terrapin Station (1977: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • What a Long Strange Trip It's Been (1977: compilation)
  • Shakedown Street (1978: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux/D. Godchaux)
  • Go to Heaven (1980: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Reckoning (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dead Set (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • In the Dark (1987: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Built to Last (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dylan & The Dead (live, with Bob Dylan) (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Dozin' at the Knick (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Without a Net (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland)
  • Infrared Roses (1991: live compilation)
  • Grayfolded (1996: live compilation)
  • Grateful Dead 1977-1995 (1996: compilation)
  • The Arista Years (1996: compilation)
  • Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997: live compilation)
  • So Many Roads 1965-1995 (1999: boxed set)
  • The Golden Road (2001: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Warner Brothers Records, 1967-1972)
  • Postcards of the Hanging (2002: live compilation)
  • The Very Best of The Grateful Dead (2003: compilation)
  • Beyond Description (2004: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Grateful Dead Records and Arista Records, 1973-1989)
  • Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005)
  • The Complete Fillmore West 1969 (2005: boxed set, live)

Dick's Picks

The above list does not include the Dick's Picks series of concert recordings taken from the band's archives, selected by archivist Dick Latvala and, after his death, David Lemieux. Started in 1993, as of January 14, 2006 there are thirty-six volumes in the series, each covering a part or all of one or more concerts. About three new volumes were being released each year.

  • Vol. 1: December 19, 1973 from Tampa, Florida
  • Vol. 2: October 31, 1971 from the Ohio Theatre, Columbus, Ohio
  • Vol. 3: May 22, 1977 from the Hollywood Sportatorium, Hollywood, Florida
  • Vol. 4: February 13 and 14, 1970 from the Fillmore East, New York City
  • Vol. 5: December 26, 1979 from the Oakland Arena, Oakland, California
  • Vol. 6: October 14, 1983 from the Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut
  • Vol. 7: September 1974 from the Alexandra Palace, London, England
  • Vol. 8: May 2, 1970 from Harpur College, Binghamton, New York
  • Vol. 9: September 16, 1990 from Madison Square Garden, New York City
  • Vol. 10: December 29 and 30, 1977 from the Winterland, San Francisco, California
  • Vol. 11: September 27, 1972 from the Stanley Theater, Jersey City, New Jersey
  • Vol. 12: June 26, 1974 from the Providence Civic Center, Providence, Rhode Island and June 28, 1974 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 13: May 6, 1981 from the Nassau Coliseum, Long Island, New York
  • Vol. 14: November 30 and December 2, 1973 from the Boston Music Hall (now Symphony Hall), Boston, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 15: September 3, 1977 from the Raceway Park, Englishtown, New Jersey
  • Vol. 16: November 8, 1969 from the Fillmore, San Francisco, California
  • Vol. 17: September 25, 1991 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts with two songs from March 31, 1991
  • Vol. 18: February 3, 1978 from the Dane County Coliseum, Madison, Wisconsin and February 5, 1978 from the Uni-Dome, Cedar Falls, Iowa
  • Vol. 19: October 19, 1973 from the Fairgrounds Arena, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
  • Vol. 20: September 25, 1976 from the Capital Center, Landover, Maryland and September 28, 1976 from the Onondaga County War Memorial, Syracuse, New York
  • Vol. 21: November 1, 1985, from the Richmond Coliseum, Richmond, Virginia and some tracks from September 2, 1980
  • Vol. 22: February 23 and 24, 1968 from the Kings Beach Bowl, Lake Tahoe, California
  • Vol. 23: September 17, 1972 from the Baltimore Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland
  • Vol. 24: March 23, 1974 from the Cow Palace, Daly City, California
  • Vol. 25: May 10, 1978 from the Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New Haven, Connecticut and May 11, 1978 from the Springfield Civic Center, Springfield, Massachusetts
  • Vol. 26: April 26, 1969 from the Electric Theater, Chicago, Illinois and April 27, 1969 from the Labor Temple, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • Vol. 27: December 16, 1992 from the Oakland Coliseum Arena, Oakland, California
  • Vol. 28: February 26, 1973 from the Pershing Municipal Auditorium, Lincoln, Nebraska and February 28, 1973 from the Salt Palace, Salt Lake City, Utah
  • Vol. 29: May 19, 1977 from the Fox Theatre, Atlanta, Georgia and May 21, 1977 from the Lakeland Civic Arena, Lakeland, Florida
  • Vol. 30: March 28, 1972 from the Academy of Music, New York City and March 25, 1972 (including five songs with Bo Diddley)
  • Vol. 31: August 4 and 5, 1974 from the Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and August 6, 1974 from the Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey
  • Vol. 32: August 7, 1982 from the Alpine Valley, East Troy, Wisconsin
  • Vol. 33: October 9 and 10, 1976 from the Oakland Stadium, Oakland, California (one of Bill Graham's Days on the Green)
  • Vol. 34: November 5, 1977 from the Community War Memorial, Rochester, New York with bonus tracks of November 2, 1977 from the Seneca College Field House, Toronto, Ontario
  • Vol. 35: August 7, 1971 from San Diego, California and August 24, 1971 from Chicago, Illinois with bonus tracks of August 6, 1971 from the Palladium, Hollywood, California
  • Vol. 36: September 21, 1972 from the Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Volume 15 and later are released in the HDCD format.


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Volume 15 and later are released in the HDCD format. Similarly, many American high schools maintain extensive sports programs, and in some areas of the country, high school football and basketball competitions are major local events. About three new volumes were being released each year. American colleges often support wide-ranging sports programs, including track and field and more eclectic sports such as water polo. Started in 1993, as of January 14, 2006 there are thirty-six volumes in the series, each covering a part or all of one or more concerts. American college sports are nearly as popular as professional sports, particularly college football and college basketball. The above list does not include the Dick's Picks series of concert recordings taken from the band's archives, selected by archivist Dick Latvala and, after his death, David Lemieux. During times of extreme popularity certain teams have been (unofficially) crowned "America's team." The New York Yankees, the Chicago Bulls and the Dallas Cowboys are examples of teams that have reached this status.


. For details see United States at the Olympics. As of now, any future plans are unknown, and are largely contingent on Weir and Lesh making up. topped the medals table with a record 103 medals (35 gold, 39 silver and 29 bronze). Their inability to reconcile these differences kept Deadheads from seeing a tour to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Grateful Dead, and also made the annual celebration honoring Jerry Garcia seem a little flat, as his own bandmates couldn't put aside their differences to take the stage together in his honor. The United States generally fares fairly well in the Olympics especially the Summer Olympics: in 2004, the U.S. The band did not tour in 2005, due to a fight between Bob Weir and Phil Lesh over how they believe certain things happened in the history of the band. Eight Olympic Games have been hosted in the U.S., more than in any other nation.

Haynes is best known for his work with Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band. Snowboarding is the only one of the three to become an Olympic event, beginning with the Winter Olympics in 1998. Blues." The band accepted Warren Haynes as their new lead guitarist. Skateboarding and snowboarding are completely modern American inventions, and all three have given rise to national competitions and a large dedicated subculture. The members would continue to tour on and off through the end of their 2004 Summer Tour, the "Wave That Flag" tour, named after a lyric from the song, "U.S. While first practiced by native Hawaiians, Americans were almost solely responsible for creating surfboarding's worldwide popularity. On February 14, 2003, (as they said) "reflecting the reality that [was]," they renamed themselves The Dead, reflecting the abbreviated form of the band name that fans had long used and keeping "Grateful" retired out of respect for Garcia. The three popular board-based recreational sports - surfboarding, skateboarding and snowboarding were created in The United States.

The mid-2002 fall tour of The Other Ones, with Bob, Bill, Phil and Mickey, was so successful and satisfying that the band decided the name was no longer appropriate. The United States also developed a unique shooting sport in the 1980s called cowboy action shooting. The remaining members occasionally got together under the pseudonym Crusader Rabbit Stealth Band during the late 1990s, infrequently playing unannounced shows. Several organizations (such as the National Rifle Association) maintain national leagues or participate in international leagues such as the ISSF. Though some of them occasionally toured through the late 1990s under the name "The Other Ones", they mainly chose to pursue various solo projects, most notably Bob Weir's Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends and Mickey Hart's music for the 1996 Olympics. Competitions on marksmanship and other firearm related skills are a regular feature at many shooting ranges. Following Garcia's death in 1995, the remaining members formally decided to disband. The number of gun owners in America has given widespread popularity to shooting sports as an amateur pastime.

These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures. Other combat sports based on Asian martial arts, such as karate competitions, maintain large national leagues and hold frequent competitions. The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture more of their essence, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. The United States has produced many champion boxers who have become public figures in their own right. The early records reflected the Dead's live repertoire — lengthy instrumental jams with guitar solos by Garcia, best exemplified by "Dark Star" — but, lacking the energy of the shows, did not sell well. In the 20th century, the United States became the center of the two most popular Western combat sports—boxing, which is popular as both a spectator sport and a gambling event, and professional wrestling, which is more scripted entertainment than a true sport. Most connoisseurs believe that the Grateful Dead's true spirit was rarely well captured in studio performance. Grand Prix and the Indy 500 currently take place at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes—a form of psychedelia that might run the gamut from strange to exotically beautiful. However, the visually similar Indy 500 is the nation's most famous racing event, and both the U.S. Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and more, frequently melding several of them. is the United States Grand Prix. The Dead were not inclined to fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country/western. The only Formula One event currently in the U.S. This was natural, because they played psychedelic dances, open-air park events, and closed-street Haight-Ashbury block parties. market.

The Grateful Dead’s early music (in the mid 1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. Formula One, while dominant in the rest of the world, has only made limited inroads into the U.S. Listening to their first LP (The Grateful Dead, Warner Brothers, 1967), one is also reminded that it was recorded only a few years after the big "surfing music" craze; that California rock-music sound seeped in, to some degree, as well. The most popular form of auto racing is NASCAR. But the new Dead music was also naturally different from bands like Dylan's or the Spoonful, partly because their fellow musician Phil Lesh came out of a schooled classical and electronic-music background, while Ron "Pigpen" McKernan was a no-nonsense deep blues lover and drummer Bill Kreutzmann had a jazz background. Open). It was natural for Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir, each of whom had been immersed in the American folk-music revival of the late 1950s and early '60s, to be open-minded toward electric guitars. The United States hosts some of the premier events in other sports such as golf (including three of the four majors), and tennis (the U.S.

Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York "folk-rock" band The Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric." Gradually, many of the East-Coast American folk musicians, formerly luminaries of the coffee-house scene, were moving in the electric direction. Other European sports such as polo and cricket, while not popular, do attract players and have established leagues. Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. Rugby Union has also established itself as a popular sport with a loyal following. The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands like the Beatles and Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. Horse racing is popular as a gambling event and the United States hosts several world renowned horse racing events, including the Kentucky Derby. Kahle claimed that the whole affair had been a "misunderstanding," but John Perry Barlow, one of the band's lyricists, claimed that concerts had been restored after several members of the band had backed away from their earlier opposition after realizing they had created a public relations "catastrophe.". The United States also hosts large followings of traditional European sporting events.

Several days after the announcement that the concerts had been removed, Brewster Kahle of Archive.Org made a cryptic announcement that audience tapes of the concerts would again become available, though so-called board tapes would only be available as streaming audio. The majority of the world's highest paid athletes play team sports in America [5]. The removal of the Dead's concerts from Archive.org created a storm of protest, in addition to a rapidly spreading boycott of the band's remaining commercial products. Professional sports in America is very big business and its athletes are very well compensated. However, David Gans, host of a syndicated radio program, "The Grateful Dead Hour," speculates that the band is motivated by money, noting "when they were making $50 million a year on the road, there wasn't a lot of pressure to monetize their archives."[5]. did host the World Cup in 1994. The band's spokesman, Dennis McNally, claimed such a repository "doesn't represent Grateful Dead values" because it doesn't foster one-to-one connections between fans. Nevertheless, the U.S.

In November of 2005, the Dead's management outraged fans by asking the operators of the popular Internet Archive (archive.org) to stop making concerts available for download, and to offer only streamcast recordings instead. in contrast to its extreme popularity in most other countries. Not surprisingly, these Internet-only albums have met with the same success as their CD-based brethren. Although it is currently one of the most played sports amongst American youth, soccer does not have a particularly large following in the U.S. In the summer of 2005 the Dead began offering downloadable versions of both their existing live releases, and a new internet-only series, The Grateful Dead Download Series, that is available exclusively through both their own GDStore.com (which offers the albums in both 256 kbit/s mp3 files and FLAC files -- a preferred audio standard for those who archive Dead and other fan-made live recordings on the Internet) and the iTunes Music Store (which offers them in their 128 kbit/s AAC format). Ice hockey is also popular in the U.S., especially in the Upper Midwest and Northeast. All three series of releases continue to this day. American football, baseball (often called "The National Pastime"), auto racing (especially NASCAR), and basketball, are the top four main sports in America.

A series of videos began to trickle out of "The Vault", starting with View From the Vault (recorded in Pittsburgh on July 8, 1990 at Three Rivers Stadium) and View from the Vault II (recorded in Washington, DC on June 14, 1991 at RFK Stadium); these releases are accompanied by the simultaneous release of multi-disc soundtrack CDs of the same shows represented on the videos. The major team sports in America are home-grown. There have been at least 36 Dick's Picks releases as of November 2005. Others include Duluth, Minnesota, Houston, Texas; Charleston, South Carolina; Savannah, Georgia; Miami, Florida; Portland, Oregon; San Francisco, California; Boston, Massachusetts; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Seattle, Washington; plus, outside the contiguous forty-eight states, Anchorage, Alaska, and Honolulu, Hawaii.
. Starting in 1991, the Grateful Dead released numerous live concerts from their archives in two concurrent series: the From the Vault releases are multi-track remixes, whereas the Dick's Picks series (named for the band's late archivist, Dick Latvala) are based on two-track mixes made at the time of the recording. There are several major seaports in the United States; the three busiest are the Port of Los Angeles, California; the Port of Long Beach, California; and the Port of New York and New Jersey. After the show, a deadhead with the post-show munchies could probably find a grilled cheese sandwich made on a camping stove at the door of a VW bus by a friendly hippie. In terms of cargo, in the same year, twelve of the world's thirty busiest airports were in the U.S., including the world's busiest, Memphis International Airport.

(Some deadheads would earn their entire touring budget selling such items.) Concertgoers typically congregated in the lot for hours before a show, playing guitar, hacky sacking and getting high. In terms of passengers, seventeen of the world's thirty busiest airports in 2004 were in the U.S., including the world's busiest, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. One could find items for sale at many cars in the lot, from grilled cheese sandwiches to "kind" brews and nitrous balloons. Air travel is the preferred means of travel for long distances. The parking lot of a Grateful Dead concert was as much a part of the event as the concert itself. The regional rail and bus networks that extend into Long Island, New Jersey, Upstate New York, and Connecticut are among the most heavily used in the world. Whatever their differences, the deadheads are often considered to be the most devoted fans in the rock world. The largest of them, New York City, operates one of the world's most heavily used subway systems.

The late 1980s and 90s saw the Grateful Dead attracting a huge following that left many long time deadheads in doubt as to whether people were coming out for shows to see the band, or simply to be part of the atmosphere. Some cities still provide usable mass-transit systems. These new followers were deemed "Touchheads" by the more established fans, a reference to their relative inexperience with the band. Passenger rail service is provided by Amtrak, which serves forty-six of the lower forty-eight states. In the 1980s, the band scored a top 40 hit with the song "Touch of Grey" (from In the Dark), which garnered a much younger and more mainstream fandom that was considered sharply different from the traditional Deadheads. There is also a transcontinental rail system, which is used for moving freight across the lower forty-eight states. The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes. Eisenhower and modeled after the German Autobahn.

For many years, almost all of their shows would have dedicated taping sections. These highways were commissioned in the 1950s by President Dwight D. In contrast to many other bands, the Grateful Dead encouraged their fans to tape their shows. To link its vast territory, the United States built a network of high-capacity, high-speed highways, of which the most important element is the Interstate Highway system. Many of their fans, commonly referred to as Deadheads, would follow the band on tour. cities through a subsidiary called National City Lines. Bitchin'!!" Kelly/Mouse Studios then began including the icon in most of the band's posters and graphics. The automobile industry was quick to attain influence in government and media alike, and was also the force behind the dismantling of the electric rail transport systems or trolleys in over 40 U.S.

The band's skull-and-lightning-bolt icon is called Steal Your Face, a sanitized version of the icon's original name, Skull Fuck, which was a direct reflection both of the anti-establishment sensibilities of the times and of the Grateful Dead's role as a voice for the "hippies." Garcia and McKernan are said to have been tripping on ancient icons from the Aztec or Mayan visual lexicon, particularly the celebration of Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) and to have exclaimed, "Fuck they're all skulls.. urban areas has taken place around the concept of creating cities and residential areas to suit the needs of road vehicles. '. Because the automobile industry took off very early in United States (when compared to other Western nations) much of the development of U.S. The rising cost of fuel and personnel, as well as friction among many of the newer crew members (and associated hangers-on), contributed to the band's 1974 "retirement." The Wall of Sound was disassembled, and when the Dead began touring again in 1976, it was with a more logistically practical sound system.
. The Wall's quadraphonic format never translated well to soundboard tapes made during the period, as the sound was compressed into an unnatural stereo format and suffers from a pronounced tinniness. But by doing so it, unlike other nations, leaves some of its young citizenry in substantial debt, although many upper and middle-class students' parents foot the bill, while lower-class students generally receive mostly grants.

Because this was often switched to the vocal mikes, many of Lagin's parts were lost in the mix. It does however, provide financial aid in the form of grants and loans to eligible students for university education. Synthesist Ned Lagin, who toured with the group throughout much of 1974, never received his own dedicated input into the system, and was forced to use the vocal subsystem for amplification. It should be noted that the United States is one of the few industrialized countries to not provide a free university education to its citizenry. The Wall of Sound was very efficient for its day, but it did have its pitfalls in addition to its sheer size. American colleges and universities range from highly competitive schools, both private (such as Harvard University and Princeton University) and public (such as the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Virginia), to hundreds of high-quality local community colleges with open admission policies. Though the initial framework and a rudimentary form of the system was unveiled in February 1973 (ominously, every speaker tweeter blew as the band began their first number), the Grateful Dead did not begin to tour with the full system until a year later in 1974. It is not uncommon for students to join the workforce or the military before attending college; both the military and many private employers may subsidize post-secondary education.

Four semi trucks and 21 crew members were required to haul and set up the 75-ton Wall. Tuition at private universities tends to be much higher than at public universities. It was the largest portable sound system ever built (although "portable" is a relative term). Public universities receive funding from the federal and state government but students still pay tuition, which can vary depending on the university, state, and whether the student is a resident of the state or not. It was capable of producing acceptable sound at a quarter mile, and excellent sound for up to six hundred feet, when the sound began to be distorted by wind. After high school, students may choose to continue their schooling at a public/state university or a private university. The Wall of Sound used 89 300-Watt solid state and three 350-Watt tube amplifiers to produce 26,400 total Watts RMS of audio power. Public schools are highly decentralized with funding and curriculum decisions taking place mostly at the local level through school boards.

The signals were summed, the sound that was common to both mics (the sound from the Wall) was cancelled, and only the vocals were amplified. Parents may educate their own children at home (with varying degrees of state oversight), send their children to a public school, which is funded with tax money, or to a private school, where parents must pay tuition. The vocalist sang into the top microphone, and the lower mic picked up whatever other sound was present in the stage environment. In most states, all students must attend mandatory schooling starting with kindergarten, which children normally enter at age 5, and following through 12th grade, which is normally completed at age 18 (although in some states, students are permitted to drop out upon the age of 16 with the permission of their parents/guardians). The Dead used matched pairs of condenser microphones spaced 60mm apart and run out-of-phase. However, the federal government, through the Department of Education, is involved with funding of some programs and exerts some influence through its ability to control funding. Because of this, a special microphone system had to be designed to prevent feedback. In the United States, education is a state, not federal, responsibility, and the laws and standards vary considerably.

The Wall of Sound was designed to act as its own monitor system, and it was therefore assembled behind the band so the members could hear exactly what their audience was hearing.
. Because each speaker was producing the sound of just one instrument or vocalist, the sound was exceptionally clear and intermodulation distortion between instruments was nonexistent. The ten largest cities, based on the United States Census Bureau's 2004 estimates, are as follows:. One channel amplified the bass drum, and two channels amplified the other drums and cymbals in stereo. Note that some cities not listed (such as Atlanta, Boston, Las Vegas, Miami, New Orleans, Seattle, San Francisco and Washington, D.C.) are still considered important on the basis of other factors and issues, including culture, economics, heritage, and politics. Phil Lesh's bass was quadraphonic, each of the four strings having its own channel and set of speakers. metro area populations, although the top three would be unchanged.

Vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, and piano each had their own channel and set of speakers. A different ranking is evident when considering U.S. After Owsley Stanley was released from prison in late 1972, he, along with Dan Healey, Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead's sound crew, and Ron Wickersham, Rick Turner, and John Curl of Alembic Inc accomplished this by essentially combining eleven separate sound systems. The figures expressed below are for populations within city limits. The desire driving the development of the Wall of Sound was for a distortion-free sound system that could serve as its own monitor system. The United States has dozens of major cities, including 11 of the 55 global cities of all types — with three "alpha" global cities: New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year; Healy was a more superior engineer than Stanley and would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993. territory.

Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. As of 2004, the United States was the home of approximately 336 languages (spoken or signed), of which 176 are indigenous to U.S. In 1971, the band purchased their first solid sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. The primary signed language is American Sign Language (ASL). After Stanley was placed in jail for LSD production in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but ultimately found them to be less reliable than the systems conceived by their former soundman. Spanish is the first language of Puerto Rico. Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical issues. German is the primary spoken language in some areas of the Amish.

The band were never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played, so in their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a PA and monitor system for them. Spanish and German follows English as the second-most spoken languages primarily due to the influence of Latin American, German, Austrian and Swiss immigrants. The Wall of Sound was an enormous sound system designed specifically for the Grateful Dead. Twenty-seven individual states have adopted English as their official language, and three of those—Hawaii, Louisiana, and New Mexico—have also adopted a second official language (Hawaiian, French and Spanish, respectively). Musically this may be illustrated in that the band not only improvised within the form of a song, yet also improvised with the forms. English is the language generally used for official pronouncements, though there is legislation that assists non-English speakers, such as the Voting Rights Language Assistance Act of 1992, which prohibits covered States and political subdivisions from providing English-only voting materials. A hallmark of their concert sets were continuous sets of music where each song would blend into the next (a segue). The United States does not have an official language at the federal level.

The band was famous for its extended jams, which showcased both individual improvisation as well as a distinctive "group-mind" improvisation where each of the band members improvised individually, while still blending together as a cohesive musical unit, often engaging in extended improvisational flights of fancy. Many holidays recognize events or people of importance to the nation's history; as such, they represent significant cultural observance. Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that had been initially played in concert. American holidays are variously national and local. (They also appeared at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the even more famous Woodstock Festival in 1969; their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen.). This development is a result of both contributions by private philanthropists and government funding. With the exception of 1975, when the band was on "hiatus" and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead toured regularly around the USA from the winter of 1965 until July 9, 1995—with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978. plays host to the gamut of human intellectual and artistic endeavor in nearly every major city, offering classical and popular music; historical, scientific and art research centers and museums; dance performances, musicals and plays; outdoor art projects and internationally significant architecture.

In their early years, the band was also dedicated to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music and health care to all comers; they were the "first among equals in giving unselfishly of themselves to hippie culture, performing 'more free concerts than any band in the history of music'" [4]. Nearing the mid-point of its third century of nationhood, the U.S. They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as Deadheads, many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. This is in stark contrast to the early days of the republic, when the country was viewed by Europeans as an agricultural backwater with little to offer the culturally advanced world centers of Asia and Europe. The Grateful Dead are well-known for their near constant touring throughout their long career in music. movies (primarily embodied in Hollywood) and television shows can be seen almost anywhere except the most totalitarian places. Owsley "Bear" Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD. U.S.

Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists. New York, Seattle, and San Francisco are worldwide leaders in graphic design and New York and Los Angeles compete with major European cities in the fashion industry. For a year and a half, Welnick was often joined by special guest Bruce Hornsby on piano. Another export of the last 20 years is hip hop music, which began in New York and is growing in influence as it branches into the fashion, food and drink, and movie industries. Almost immediately, former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick joined on keyboards and vocals. Nashville is the center of the country music industry. He became the third Dead keyboardist to die. New York City is a hub for international operatic and instrumental music as well as the world-famed Broadway plays and musicals.

Brent Mydland was the keyboardist for the Dead for 11 years until his death in 1990. Many famous Western classical musicians and ensembles find their home in the U.S. Keith Godchaux died in a car accident in 1980. music is heard all over the world, and it is the sire of such forms as blues and jazz and had a primary hand in the shaping of modern rock and roll and popular music culture. Keith and Donna left the band in 1979, and Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist. U.S. In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Dead as a backing vocalist. popular culture has a significant influence on the rest of the world, especially the Western world.

Two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. U.S. Tom "TC" Constanten played keyboards alongside Pigpen from 1968 to 1970. Medical bills are the most common reason for personal bankruptcy in the United States, and it is estimated that roughly 45 Million Americans have no health coverage. Hart rejoined the Dead for good in 1975. It should also be noted that providing emergency care if needed is required by law of any licensed emergency care facility regardless of the patient's ability to pay. Hart quit the Grateful Dead in 1971, embarrassed by the financial misdealings of his father, Dead money manager Lenny Hart, and leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist. Health insurance in the United States is traditionally a benefit of employment, and in many cases this is mandated by law.

Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in 1968 was joined by a second drummer, New York native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. Even so, government spending on health care is the highest of any country in the world with major programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. All of the previously mentioned Grateful Dead members shared in vocal performance of songs, although none of them had a particularly strong or tuneful voice. Unlike in most western countries, the government does not provide universal health insurance for all citizens. Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards, harmonica and was also a group vocalist until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. The United States has several public health problems: widespread obesity, unhealthy diets, progressing HIV-AIDS epidemic and cigarette smoking among over quarter of the population. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar. The largest Sikh populations in the United States are in California, New York, New Mexico and Oregon.

Classically-trained trumpeter Phil Lesh played bass guitar. Sikhs first arrived in 1896 and today there are about 600,000 to 1 million in United States. One of the main influences on his musical style was bluegrass music, and Garcia also performed-—on banjo, his other great instrumental love-—in the bluegrass band Old and in the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. This reflects a growing diversification of religious belief in the United States over the last few decades. Jerry was a native of San Francisco and grew up in the Excelsior District. According to census figures and related polls, neo-paganism is the fastest growing organized religion in the United States though its numbers of adherents are rated below 800,000 in the United States as of 2000. De facto bandleader Jerry Garcia was the lead guitarist for the band—-although he was often seen both by the public and the media as 'leader' or a primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, he was reluctant to be seen that way, especially since Garcia and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output. The rest of the country for the most part has a complex mixture of various Christian groups.

. In the Southern states, Baptists are the largest group, followed by Methodists; Roman Catholics are dominant in the Northeast and in large parts of the Midwest due to their being settled by descendants of Catholic immigrants from Europe (such as Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Poland) or other parts of North America (mainly Quebec and Puerto Rico). These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world." [3]. However, this rate is not uniform across the country; attendance is more common in the Bible Belt—composed largely of Southern and Midwestern states—than in the Northeast and West Coast. Their musical influences varied widely with input from the psychedelic music of the era, combined with blues, jazz, rock and roll, and bluegrass. According to a 2004 Gallup poll, about 44% of Americans attend a religious service at least once a week. The Grateful Dead became the de facto resident band of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters, with the early sound heavily influenced by Kesey's LSD-soaked Acid Tests, as well as R&B. The United States is noteworthy among developed nations for its relatively high level of religiosity.

62), "...Jer (Garcia) picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...(and)...In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'". The largest single sect of Christianity in the United States is Roman Catholicism (about 26%), followed by the Baptist Christian faith (about 18%). Some claim it was a Funk & Wagnalls, others an Oxford Dictionary, but according to Phil Lesh, in his biography (pp. The other 18 % is comprised of people of no religion and other religions, such as Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism. The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen at random from a dictionary. About 2 % of Americans follow Judaism. The Grateful Dead most embodied "all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came, therefore, to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country" [2]. While Christianity is growing in America, it is not growing as fast as the general population resulting in a 10 % decline from 90 % as recently as 1990.

(Also see entry for the San Francisco Sound.) Of these bands, the Grateful Dead had members with arguably the highest level of musicianship, including banjo and guitar player Jerry Garcia, blues musician "Pigpen" McKernan, the classically trained Phil Lesh and drummer Bill Kreutzmann [1]. There is no official Religion in the United States, but polls estimate that 80 % of Americans are Christians of various denominations. Many bands from this area, such as Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother & the Holding Company, and Santana, went on to national fame, giving San Francisco an image as a center for the hippie counterculture of the era. For example, a dual ancestry person was counted in the Italian and the Irish ancestry group or a biracial person was counted in the White and Black groups. Eventually, they moved to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. For the first time ever, American citizens were able to list all of the racial, ethnic, or ancestry groups which they felt was appropriate for them. The Grateful Dead's career began under the name "The Warlocks" in Palo Alto, California, but as another band was already recording under that name (interestingly, it was the future Velvet Underground), the band had to change its name in order to get a recording contract. About 35% live on Indian reservations.

Many followers referred to the band simply as The Dead. Indigenous peoples in the United States, such as American Indians and Inuit, make up 1% of the population (2000 census). These so-called Deadheads were renowned for their dedication to the band's music. The largest groups are immigrants or descendants of emigrants from the Philippines, China, India, Vietnam, South Korea, and Japan. Some of the band's fans followed the band from concert to concert for years. Most Asian Americans are concentrated on the West Coast and Hawaii. Formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, "Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions," the Grateful Dead were known for their unique and eclectic songwriting style—which fused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues, country, and jazz—and for live performances of long modal jams. Asian Americans, including Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, are a third significant minority (4% of the population in 2000).

The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band. African Americans are spread throughout the country, but their proportional population is largest in the South. 36: September 21, 1972 from the Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Approximately 12.9% (2000 census) of the American people designated themselves as Black alone or in combination with some other race(African American). Vol. People of Mexican descent made up 7.3% of the population in the 2000 census, and this proportion is expected to increase significantly in the coming decades. 35: August 7, 1971 from San Diego, California and August 24, 1971 from Chicago, Illinois with bonus tracks of August 6, 1971 from the Palladium, Hollywood, California. Hispanics comprise 13% of the population (2000 census).

Vol. Hispanics from Mexico and South and Central America are second only to the German-American population. 34: November 5, 1977 from the Community War Memorial, Rochester, New York with bonus tracks of November 2, 1977 from the Seneca College Field House, Toronto, Ontario. Other significant immigrant populations came from eastern and southern Europe and French Canada. Vol. Many immigrants also hail from Slavic countries such as Poland and Russia. 33: October 9 and 10, 1976 from the Oakland Stadium, Oakland, California (one of Bill Graham's Days on the Green). The most frequently stated European ancestries are German (15.2%), Irish (10.8%), English (8.7%), Italian (5.6%) and Scandinavian (3.7%).

Vol. This majority--69% in 2000--decreases each year, and is expected to become a plurality within a few decades. 32: August 7, 1982 from the Alpine Valley, East Troy, Wisconsin. The majority of Americans descend from white European immigrants who arrived after the establishment of the first colonies (most after Reconstruction). Vol. According to the 2000 census, it has 31 ethnic groups with at least one million members each, and numerous others represented in smaller amounts. 31: August 4 and 5, 1974 from the Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and August 6, 1974 from the Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey. The United States is a very racially diverse country.

Vol. The West Coast is now home to approximately half of all American citizens of Asian ancestry (5 of the 10 million; increasing 52.4% in number during the 1990s). 30: March 28, 1972 from the Academy of Music, New York City and March 25, 1972 (including five songs with Bo Diddley). The West Coast has been the residence of choice for immigrating Asians, particularly from China. Vol. Major demographic trends include the mass immigration of Hispanics from Latin America into the Southwest, which is home to 60 % (21 of the 35 million) of the nation's Hispanics (their numbers increased 57.9% nationally in the 1990s). 29: May 19, 1977 from the Fox Theatre, Atlanta, Georgia and May 21, 1977 from the Lakeland Civic Arena, Lakeland, Florida. Between 1990 and 2000, 19 of the 20 fastest-growing states were in these two regions.[4].

Vol. Growth in some parts of the nation have been particularly extreme such as the fastest growing metropolitan area, Las Vegas, Nevada, which went from 273,288 people in 1970 to about 1,650,671 in 2004. 28: February 26, 1973 from the Pershing Municipal Auditorium, Lincoln, Nebraska and February 28, 1973 from the Salt Palace, Salt Lake City, Utah. The fastest growing region is the West, followed by the South. Vol. population continues to drift farther west and south. 27: December 16, 1992 from the Oakland Coliseum Arena, Oakland, California. The mean center of the U.S.

Vol. But you can't get around the fact that this is the most extraordinarily successful economy in history.". 26: April 26, 1969 from the Electric Theater, Chicago, Illinois and April 27, 1969 from the Labor Temple, Minneapolis, Minnesota. It always has. Vol. The former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan remarked that the U.S.’s growing income inequality since the 1970s is, "not the type of thing which a democratic society - a capitalist democratic society - can really accept without addressing."[3] However, Greenspan also noted, "...you can look at the system and say it's got a lot of problems to it, and sure it does. 25: May 10, 1978 from the Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New Haven, Connecticut and May 11, 1978 from the Springfield Civic Center, Springfield, Massachusetts. Regionally, the southern states have the lowest median incomes while the West Coast and New England have the highest.

Vol. Among racial groups; American Indians and Alaska Natives have the lowest median income while Asians have the highest. 24: March 23, 1974 from the Cow Palace, Daly City, California. Approximately one out of every five children in the United States grows up below the official poverty line. Vol. America's poverty line, defined for a family of four as an income of less than $19,157, is at 12.7% of the general population. 23: September 17, 1972 from the Baltimore Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland. (See List of countries by income equality.).

Vol. The richest 10% make 15.9 times as much as the poorest 10%, and the richest 20% make 8.4 times as much as the poorest 20%. 22: February 23 and 24, 1968 from the Kings Beach Bowl, Lake Tahoe, California. The United Nations Development Programme Report 2005 ranks income the United States as the 74th most equal out of 124 countries, as measured by the Gini coefficient. Vol. Twenty-six states are the same as the federal level; two — Ohio and Kansas — are below; and six do not have state laws. 21: November 1, 1985, from the Richmond Coliseum, Richmond, Virginia and some tracks from September 2, 1980. Eighteen states and the District of Columbia have minimum wages higher than the national level ($5.15 per-hour), including the highest, Washington State at $7.35.

Vol. As a result, the United States provides fewer government-delivered social welfare services than most industrialized nations, choosing instead to keep its tax burden lower and relying more heavily on the free market and private charities. 20: September 25, 1976 from the Capital Center, Landover, Maryland and September 28, 1976 from the Onondaga County War Memorial, Syracuse, New York. has increased the use of neoliberal economic policies that reduce government intervention and reduce the size of the welfare state, backing away from the more interventionist Keynesian economic policies that had been in favor since the Great Depression. Vol. Since the 1980s, the U.S. 19: October 19, 1973 from the Fairgrounds Arena, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. It is the largest debtor nation in the world, with total gross foreign liabilities of over $12,000,000 million as of 2004; and it absorbs more than 50% of global savings annually.

Vol. The United States' imports exceed exports by 80%, leading to an annual trade deficit of $700,000 million or 6% of gross domestic product. 18: February 3, 1978 from the Dane County Coliseum, Madison, Wisconsin and February 5, 1978 from the Uni-Dome, Cedar Falls, Iowa. There have been few strikes in recent years. Vol. However union membership has grown rapidly in the public sector, especially among teachers, nurses, police, postal workers, and municipal clerks. 17: September 25, 1991 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts with two songs from March 31, 1991. Since 1970 they have shrunk in the private sector and now cover fewer than 8% of the workers.

Vol. See Labor history of the United States. 16: November 8, 1969 from the Fillmore, San Francisco, California. Labor unions have existed since the 19th century, and grew large and powerful from the 1930s to the 1950s. Vol. In 2003, the United States was ranked as the third most visited tourist destination in the world; its 40,400,000 visitors ranked behind France's 75,000,000 and Spain's 52,500,000. 15: September 3, 1977 from the Raceway Park, Englishtown, New Jersey. More than 50% of total trade is with these four countries.

Vol. The largest trading partner of the United States is Canada (19%), followed by China (12%), Mexico (11%), and Japan (8%). 14: November 30 and December 2, 1973 from the Boston Music Hall (now Symphony Hall), Boston, Massachusetts. The dollar is also the predominant reserve currency in the world, and more than half of global reserves are in dollars. Vol. Many markets are also quoted in dollars, such as those of oil and gold. 13: May 6, 1981 from the Nassau Coliseum, Long Island, New York. Several countries continue to link their currency to the dollar or even use it as a currency (such as Ecuador), although this practice has subsided since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system.

Vol. The Great Plains are known as the "breadbasket" of America for their tremendous agricultural output; the intermountain region serves as a mining hub and natural gas resource; the Pacific Northwest for fish and timber, while Texas is largely associated with the oil industry; and the Southeast is a major hub for both medical research and the textiles industry. 12: June 26, 1974 from the Providence Civic Center, Providence, Rhode Island and June 28, 1974 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts. The Midwest is known for its reliance on manufacturing and heavy industry, with Detroit, Michigan, serving as the center of the American automotive industry. Vol. Silicon Valley is the country's largest high technology hub, while Los Angeles is the most important center for film production. 11: September 27, 1972 from the Stanley Theater, Jersey City, New Jersey. For example, New York City is the center of the American financial, publishing, broadcasting, and advertising industries.

Vol. Economic activity varies greatly from one part of the country to another, with many industries being concentrated in certain cities or regions. 10: December 29 and 30, 1977 from the Winterland, San Francisco, California. The manufacturing sector produces goods such as cars, airplanes, steel, and electronics, among many others. Vol. In agriculture, it is a top producer of, among other crops, corn, soy beans, rice and wheat; the United States is a net exporter of food. 9: September 16, 1990 from Madison Square Garden, New York City. The United States has many natural resources, including oil and gas, metals, and such minerals as gold, soda ash, and zinc.

Vol. economy is now service, which employs roughly three quarters of the work force. 8: May 2, 1970 from Harpur College, Binghamton, New York. The largest sector of the U.S. Vol. (Borrowings as of November 2005 are 8.1 trillion.). 7: September 1974 from the Alexandra Palace, London, England. The cap as of 2004 stands at 8.2 trillion.

Vol. Federal borrowings are subject to borrowing caps to theoretically prevent fiscal irresponsibilty. 6: October 14, 1983 from the Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut. This is financed via taxes and borrowings in the money and capital markets. Vol. As in all market-oriented economies, private individuals and business firms in the US make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. 5: December 26, 1979 from the Oakland Arena, Oakland, California. The United States has the largest single-country economy in the world, with a per-capita annual gross domestic product of $41,747 (as of Q2 2005 [2]).

Vol. The United States often faces criticism from Western governments and NGOs concerning its use of the death penalty, lengthy detention without trial, alleged forced confessions, torture, and mistreatment of prisoners as well as some restrictions on freedoms of speech and the press, as being violations of human rights. 4: February 13 and 14, 1970 from the Fillmore East, New York City. The American military, in terms of physical resources, is actually smaller now than it was twenty years ago, despite being larger than it was five years ago, for example. Vol. It should be noted that the United States' focus on military expenditures has ranged very broadly, due to regularly changing ideologies inherent in its political system. 3: May 22, 1977 from the Hollywood Sportatorium, Hollywood, Florida. defense expenditure is estimated to be greater than the next twelve largest national military budgets combined.

Vol. U.S. 2: October 31, 1971 from the Ohio Theatre, Columbus, Ohio. The 2006 defense budget will amount to nearly $440 billion, the highest ever. Vol. The 2005 defense budget amounted to $401.7 billion, an increase of 4% over 2004 and 35% since 2001, with over 50% being spent in research & development. 1: December 19, 1973 from Tampa, Florida. It is considered dominant on water, land, air, and space.

Vol. The American armed forces are considered to be the most powerful military (of any sort) in the world, and their force projection capabilities are unrivalled. The Complete Fillmore West 1969 (2005: boxed set, live). Military conscription ended in 1973. Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005). The combined United States armed forces comprise 1.4 million active duty personnel, along with several hundred thousand each in the Reserves and the National Guard. Beyond Description (2004: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Grateful Dead Records and Arista Records, 1973-1989). The Coast Guard falls under the jurisdiction of the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime, but is placed under the Department of Defense in times of war.

The Very Best of The Grateful Dead (2003: compilation). Three of the nation's four military branches are administered by the Department of Defense: the Army, the Navy (including the Marine Corps), and the Air Force. Postcards of the Hanging (2002: live compilation). Canada, Germany, and other nations, are participating in the Afghanistan theater but not in Iraq. The Golden Road (2001: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Warner Brothers Records, 1967-1972). The United States currently enjoys a positive relationship with the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, and Poland, among several others, in that these nations are participating as active military allies with, or logistical supporters of, the United States in all theaters. So Many Roads 1965-1995 (1999: boxed set). It has also embarked upon a War on Terrorism.

Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997: live compilation). The United States is currently involved in a war in Iraq, a war in Afghanistan, and an intervention in Haiti. The Arista Years (1996: compilation). The United States presently occupies 702 military bases worldwide in 132 different countries. Grateful Dead 1977-1995 (1996: compilation). The military force of the United States has been decisive in several major foreign wars, most notably World War II and, to a lesser degree, World War I. Grayfolded (1996: live compilation). Traditionally, the greatest military ally of the United States has been the United Kingdom, though the earliest alliance the nation formed was with France (see Franco-American relations).

Infrared Roses (1991: live compilation). Morocco was the first country to recognize the United States of America (1777). Without a Net (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). In 1812, Venezuela, fighting for its independence from Spain, suffered a severe and damaging earthquake, prompting Congress to appropriate $50,000 to help the victims. Dozin' at the Knick (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). The first nation to receive foreign aid from the United States was Venezuela. Dylan & The Dead (live, with Bob Dylan) (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). The same range of opinions is also found within the United States, with many Americans either supporting or strongly criticizing United States foreign policy.

Built to Last (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Reactions towards American foreign policy by other nationalities are often strong, ranging from admiration to fierce criticism. In the Dark (1987: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). The immense military and economic strength of the United States has made its foreign relations an especially important topic in international politics. Dead Set (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). The United States argues this point moot because Cuba apparently ratified the lease post-revolution, and with full sovereignty, when it cashed one rent check in accordance with the disputed treaty. Reckoning (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). The present Cuban government of Fidel Castro disputes this arrangement, claiming Cuba was not truly sovereign at the time of the signing.

Go to Heaven (1980: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). The United States government possesses a lease to this land, which only mutual agreement or United States abandonment of the area can terminate. Godchaux). The United States Navy has held a base at a portion of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, since 1898. Godchaux/D. Seen like this, the Supreme Court in 1901 would have decided in favor of George III of the United Kingdom. Shakedown Street (1978: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. This had been the precisely the quarrel between American colonies and Great Britain that resulted in the founding of the United States.

What a Long Strange Trip It's Been (1977: compilation). Islands gained by the United States in the war against Spain at the turn of the 20th century were no longer to be considered foreign territory; on the other hand, the United States Supreme Court declared that they were not automatically covered by the Constitution and that it was up to Congress to decide what portions of the Constitution, if any, applied to them. Godchaux). The Palmyra Atoll is the United States' only incorporated territory; it is unorganized and uninhabited. Godchaux/D. The United States also holds several other territories, districts, and possessions, notably the federal district of the District of Columbia, which is the nation's capital, and several overseas insular areas, the most significant of which are American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands. Terrapin Station (1977: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. is divided into three distinct sections:.

Godchaux). The U.S. Godchaux/D. The United States–Canadian border is the longest undefended political boundary in the world. Blues for Allah (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. The states are generally divided into smaller administrative regions, including counties, cities and townships. Godchaux). In subsequent years, the number of states grew steadily due to western expansion, the purchase of lands by the national government from other nation states, and the subdivision of existing states, resulting in the current total of 50.

Godchaux/D. Since the Union victory in 1865, the independent status of the individual states has not been broached again by any state, and the status of each state within the union has been deemed by mainstream officials and academics to be settled as being subordinate to the union as a whole. One From the Vault (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Under this new union, the continued status of the individual states as sovereign nation states fell into dispute in 1861, as several states attempted to secede from the union; in response, then-President Abraham Lincoln claimed that such secession was illegal, and the result was the American Civil War. Godchaux). But the national government proved too ineffective, so the administrative structure of the government was vastly reorganized with the United States Constitution of 1789. Godchaux/D. Although considered as sovereigns initially, under the Articles of Confederation of 1781 they entered into a "Perpetual Union" and created a fully sovereign federal state, delegating certain powers to the national Congress, including the right to engage in diplomatic relations and to levy war, while each retaining their individual sovereignty, freedom and independence.

Steal Your Face (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. With the Declaration of Independence, the thirteen colonies proclaimed themselves to be polities modeled after the European states of the time. Godchaux). In other areas, county governments have more power, such as to collect taxes and maintain law enforcement agencies. Godchaux/D. In New England, towns operate in a direct democratic fashion, and in some states, such as Rhode Island and Connecticut, counties have little or no power, existing only as geographic distinctions. Grateful Dead From the Mars Hotel (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. The highest elected official of a town or city is usually the mayor.

Godchaux). These laws concern issues such as traffic, the sale of alcohol, and keeping animals. Godchaux/D. The institutions that are responsible for local government are typically town, city, or county boards, making laws that affect their particular area. Wake of the Flood (1973: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Tribal citizenship (and voting rights) is generally restricted to individuals of Native descent, but tribes are free to set whatever membership requirements they wish. Skeletons from the Closet (Best of the Grateful Dead) (1973: compilation). Tribes are empowered to form their own governments, with power resting in elected tribal councils, elected tribal chairpersons, or religiously appointed leaders (as is the case with pueblos).

Godchaux). Tribal capacity to operate robust governments varies, from a simple council used to manage all aspects of tribal affairs, to large and complex bureaucracies with several branches of government. Godchaux/D. Hundreds of laws, executive orders, and court cases have modified the governmental status of tribes vis-à-vis states, but have kept the two officially distinct. Europe '72 (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Georgia, Indian tribes are considered "domestic dependent nations" that operate as sovereign governments subject to Federal authority but, generally, outside of the influence from state governments. Godchaux). As a result of the Supreme Court case Worcester v.

Godchaux/D. See state court for more information. Hundred Year Hall (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. In some states, supreme and lower court justices are elected by the people; in others, they are appointed, as they are in the federal system. Grateful Dead (aka Skull & Roses) (1971: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan). Each state maintains its own judiciary, with the lowest level typically being county courts, the highest being the state supreme court, though sometimes named differently. American Beauty (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). Of note is the New Hampshire legislature, which is the third-largest legislative body in the English-speaking world, and has one representative for every 3,000 people.

Workingman's Dead (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). Each state also has an elected legislature (bicameral in every state except Nebraska), whose members represent the voters of the state. History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). The highest elected official of each state is the Governor. Live/Dead (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten). There are sometimes great differences in law and procedure between individual states, concerning issues such as property, crime, health, and education. Aoxomoxoa (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten). Each state has its own written constitution, government, and code of laws.

Two from the Vault (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). The state governments have the greatest influence over most Americans' daily lives. Anthem of the Sun (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). A case may be appealed from a state court to a federal court only if there is a federal question (an issue arising under the US Constitution, or laws/treaties of the United States); the supreme court of each state is the final authority on the interpretation of that state's laws and constitution. The Grateful Dead (1967: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan). Separate from, but not entirely independent of, this federal court system are the individual court systems of each state, each dealing with its own laws and having its own judicial rules and procedures. Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals (1990 - 1995). Below the Supreme Court are the courts of appeals, and below them in turn are the district courts, which are the general trial courts for federal law.

Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals (1979 - 1990). The court deals with matters pertaining to the Federal Government and interpretation of the United States Constitution, and can declare legislation or executive action made at any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the law and creating precedent for future law and decisions. Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals (1972 - 1979). The highest court is the Supreme Court, which currently consists of nine justices. Keith Godchaux - keyboards (1971 - 1979). Bush is the 43rd President, currently serving his second term. Tom Constanten - keyboards (1968 - 1970). George W.

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, vocals, harmonica, percussion (1965 - 1973). These departments and department heads have considerable regulatory and political power, and it is they who are responsible for executing federal laws and regulations. Mickey Hart - drums (1967 - 1971, 1975 - 1995). The members of the President's Cabinet are responsible for administering the various departments of state, including the Department of Defense, the Justice Department, and the State Department. Bill Kreutzmann - drums (1965 - 1995). The Vice President is first in the line of succession, and is the President of the Senate ex officio, with the ability to cast a tie-breaking vote. Phil Lesh - bass, vocals (1965 - 1995). (The Constitution does not specify that the State of the Union address be delivered in person; it can be in the form of a letter, as was the practice during most of the 19th century.) Although the President's constitutional role may appear to be constrained, in practice, the office carries enormous prestige that typically eclipses the power of Congress: the Presidency has justifiably been referred to as 'the most powerful office in the world'.

Bob Weir - rhythm guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995). The President makes around 2,000 executive appointments, including members of the Cabinet and ambassadors, which must be approved by the Senate; the President can also issue executive orders and pardons, and has other Constitutional duties, among them the requirement to give a State of the Union address to Congress from time to time (usually once a year). Jerry Garcia - lead guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995). The threat of using this power has had major political ramifications in the cases of Presidents Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon, and Bill Clinton. The ultimate power of Congress over the President is that of impeachment or removal of the elected President through a House vote, a Senate trial, and a Senate vote (by two-thirds majority in favour). Congress can override a presidential veto with a two-thirds majority vote fromboth houses.

After identical copies of a particular bill have been approved by a majority of both Houses of Congress, the President's signature is required to make these bills law; in this respect, the President has the power—only occasionally used—to veto congressional legislation. While the President can directly propose legislation (for instance, the Federal Budjet), he must rely on supporters in Congress to promote and support his or her legislative agenda. Congress can legislate to constrain the President's executive power, even with respect to his or her command of the armed forces; however, this power is used only very rarely—a notable example was the constraint placed on President Richard Nixon's strategy of bombing Cambodia during the Vietnam War. The relationship between the President and the Congress reflects that between the English monarchy and parliament at the time of the framing of the United States Constitution.

The President and Vice President are elected as 'running mates' for four-year terms by the Electoral College, for which each state, as well as the District of Columbia, is allocated a number of seats based on its representation (or ostensible representation, in the case of D.C.) in both houses of Congress. All executive power in the federal government is vested in the President of the United States, although power is often delegated to his/her Cabinet members and other officials. The Constitution also includes the necessary-and-proper clause, which grants Congress the power to "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers.". The powers of Congress are limited to those enumerated in the Constitution; all other powers are reserved to the states and the people.

However, the consent of both Houses is required to make any law. Each House has particular exclusive powers - the Senate must give "advice and consent" to many important Presidential appointments, and the House must introduce any bills for the purpose of raising revenue. There are a total of 100 senators (as there are currently 50 states), who serve six-year terms (one third of the Senate stands for election every two years). House seats are apportioned among the states by population; in contrast, each state has two Senators, regardless of population.

The House of Representatives consists of 435 members, each of whom represents a congressional district and serves for a two-year term. It is bicameral, being comprised of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States. However, in addition to these explicitly stated powers, the federal government—with the assistance of the Supreme Court—has gradually extended their power into such areas as welfare and education, on the basis of the "necessary and proper" and "Commerce" clauses of the Constitution.

All other government powers theoretically repose in the individual states. The Constitution limits the powers of the federal government to defense, foreign affairs, the issuing and management of currency, the management of trade and relations between the states, as well as the protection of human rights. These three branches were designed to apply checks and balances on each other. The federal government is comprised of a Legislative Branch (led by Congress), an Executive Branch (led by the President), and a Judicial Branch (led by the Supreme Court).

Furthermore, the national representation of territories and the federal district of Washington, DC in Congress is limited: residents of the District of Columbia are subject to federal laws and federal taxes but their only Congressional representative is a non-voting delegate. There are some limits, however: felons are disenfranchised and in some states former felons are as well. Today, Americans enjoy almost universal suffrage from the age of 18 regardless of race, sex, or wealth, and both Houses of Congress are directly elected. Now (since 1914), members of both Houses of Congress are directly elected.

Under this original system, the Senate (the "upper house" of Congress) was chosen by a majority vote of their state's legislature. Direct elections were held only for the Federal House of Representatives (the "lower house" of a bicameral parliament, or Congress) and state legislatures, although this varied from state to state. In the early years of the United States, voting was considered a matter for state governments, and was commonly restricted to white men who owned land. Suffrage has changed significantly over time.

Almost all electoral offices are decided in "first-past-the-post" elections, where a specific candidate who earns at least a plurality of the vote is elected to office, rather than a party being elected to a seat to which it may then appoint an official. Officials of each of these levels are either elected by eligible voters via secret ballot or appointed by other elected officials. Each level enjoys certain exclusive powers and obligations, and the precise division of these powers has been a matter of considerable ongoing debate. There are three levels of government: federal, state, and local.

Specifically, the nation operates as a presidential democracy. The United States is an example of a constitutional republic, with a government composed of and operating through a set of limited powers imposed by its design and enumerated in the United States Constitution. Forests line the windward mountains of the Pacific Northwest from Oregon to Alaska. Some parts of California have a Mediterranean climate.

Arid deserts, including the Mojave, extend through the lowlands and valleys of the southwest, from westernmost Texas to California and northward throughout much of Nevada. Rainfall decreases markedly from the humid forests of the Eastern Great Plains to the semi-arid shortgrass prairies on the high plains abutting the Rocky Mountains. Most of the South experiences a subtropical humid climate with mild winters and long, hot, humid summers. Most of the North and East experience a temperate continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters.

The climate varies along with the landscape, from tropical in Hawaii and southern Florida to tundra in Alaska and atop some of the highest mountains. Alaska's tundra, and the volcanic, tropical islands of Hawaii add to the geographic diversity. The United States' landscape is one of the most varied among those of the world's nations: among its many features are temperate forestland and rolling hills, on the east coast; mangrove, in Florida; the Great Plains, in the center of the country; the Mississippi–Missouri river system; the Great Lakes, four of the five of which are shared with Canada; the Rocky Mountains, west of the Great Plains; deserts and temperate coastal zones, west of the Rocky Mountains; and temperate rain forests, in the Pacific northwest. The United States' total area is 3,718,711 square miles (9,631,418 km²), of which land makes up 3,537,438 square miles (9,161,923 km²) and water makes up 181,273 square miles (469,495 km²).

ranks third, and Canada ranks fourth. In total area (which includes inland water and land), only Russia and Canada are larger than the United States; if inland water is excluded, China ranks second, the U.S. (Virginia also donated land, but it was returned in 1847.) The United States also has overseas territories with varying levels of independence and organization. The capital city, Washington, District of Columbia is a federal district located on land donated by the state of Maryland.

The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. Alaska, which is not included in the term contiguous United States, is at the northwestern end of North America, separated from the Lower 48 by Canada. Forty-eight of the states are in the single region between Canada and Mexico; this group is referred to, with varying precision and formality, as the continental or contiguous United States, sometimes abbreviated CONUS, and as the Lower 48. It is otherwise bounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea, in the west; the Arctic Ocean, in the northernmost areas; and the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea, in the eastern and southeastern areas.

The United States shares land borders with Canada (to the north) and Mexico (to the south), and territorial water boundaries with Canada, Russia, the Bahamas, and numerous smaller nations. During this period, the nation also became an industrial power and a center for innovation and technological development. was not a colonial power until it acquired territories in the Spanish-American War, the dominion exercised over land in North America the United States claimed is essentially colonial. Though some would say the U.S.

In other instances, American Indians were removed from their traditional lands by force, with mass extermination of some tribes being driven by US military policy. In some areas, American Indian populations had been reduced by foreign diseases contracted through contact with European settlers, and US settlers acquired those emptied lands. This displacement of American Indians continues to be a matter of contention in the U.S., with many tribes attempting to assert their original claims to various lands. displaced most American Indian nations.

In the process, the U.S. Manifest Destiny was a philosophy that encouraged westward expansion in the United States: as the population of the Eastern states grew and as a steady increase of immigrants entered the country, settlers moved steadily westward across North America. During the 19th century, many new states were added to the union as the nation expanded across the continent. The Civil War effectively ended the question of a state's right to secede, and is widely accepted as a major turning point after which the federal government became more powerful than state governments.

However, full emancipation did not take place until after the end of the war in 1865, the dissolution of the Confederacy, and the Thirteenth Amendment took effect. During the war, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, mandating the freedom of all slaves in states in rebellion. Soon after the war began, four more southern states seceded, and two states had both Union and Confederate governments. The dispute reached a crisis in 1861, when seven southern states seceded 1 from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America, leading to the Civil War.

Several federal laws were passed in an attempt to settle the dispute, including the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850. The northern states had become opposed to slavery, while the southern states saw it as necessary for the continued success of southern agriculture and wanted it expanded to newer territories in the West. By the mid-19th century, a major division over the issue of states' rights and the expansion of slavery came to a head. From early colonial times, there was a shortage of labor, which encouraged unfree labor, particularly indentured servitude and slavery.

After long debate, this was supplanted in 1789 by the Constitution, which formed a more centralized federal government. The first united national political structure was a confederation proposed in 1777, and ratified in 1781 as the Articles of Confederation, making the United States the world's first constitutional federal republic. Before the ratification of a national government, the United States existed as an informal alliance of independent individual colonies with their own laws and sovereignty, while the Second Continental Congress was given the nominal authority by the colonies to make decisions regarding the formation and funding of the Continental Army but not to levy taxes or make federal law. In 1776, the 13 colonies declared their independence from Great Britain and formed the United States.

In 1775, the American Revolutionary War against colonial rule by Britain began. Tensions between Britain and the colonists increased, and the thirteen colonies eventually rebelled against British rule. The colonists widely resented the taxes as they were denied representation in the British Parliament. A tax was imposed on the colonists as it was becoming increasingly difficult for the crown to pay for its military excursions and the defence of the American colonies from native uprisings.

The Proclamation's goal was to force colonists to negotiate with the Native Americans for the lawful purchase of the land and, therefore, to reduce the costly frontier warfare that had erupted over land conflicts. Later that year, the British government under George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that placed a boundary upon the westward expansion of the British North American colonies. The war resulted in France ceding Canada and the Great Lakes region to Britain, and Spain gaining Louisiana in compensation for its loss of Florida to Britain. The British colonists remained relatively undisturbed by their home country until after the French and Indian War when the Kingdom of Great Britain and its North American Colonies fought against France and its North American Colonies.

This was followed by extensive British settlement of the east coast. In 1637, Sweden established a colony at Fort Christina (in what is now Delaware), but lost the settlement to the Dutch in 1655. Within the next two decades, several Dutch settlements, including New Amsterdam (the predecessor to New York City), were established in what are now the states of New York and New Jersey. The first successful English settlement was at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.

During the 1500s and 1600s, the Spanish settled parts of the present-day Southwest and Florida. External visitors including the Norse had arrived before, but it was not until after the discovery voyages of Christopher Columbus in early 1500s that European nations began to explore the land in earnest and settle there permanently. Louis, a city with a population of 41,623 at its peak in AD 1200. Some advanced societies were the Anasazi of the southwest, who inhabited Chaco Canyon (and built sandstone buildings with up to 5 floors), and the Woodland Indians, who built Cahokia, located near present-day St.

before that population was diminished by European contact and the foreign diseases it brought (although both the number of Native Americans originally on the continent and the number who did not survive European immigration are the subject of continued research and thus are open to debate). It is estimated that 2–9 million people lived in the territory now occupied by the U.S. These Native Americans left evidence of their presence in petroglyphs, burial mounds, and other artifacts. American history began with the migration of people from Asia across the Bering land bridge some time prior to 12,000 years ago, possibly following large animals that they hunted into the Americas.

. The date on which each of the fifty states adopted the Constitution is typically regarded as the date that state "entered the Union" to become part of the United States. The structure of the government was profoundly changed in 1789, when the states replaced the Articles of Confederation with the United States Constitution. The country celebrates its founding date as July 4, 1776, when the Second Continental Congress—representing thirteen British colonies—adopted the Declaration of Independence that rejected British authority in favor of self-determination.

is considered a superpower and, particularly after the Cold War, a hyperpower by some. Because of its influence, the U.S. Since the mid-20th century, following World War II, the United States has emerged as a dominant global influence in economic, political, military, scientific, technological, and cultural affairs. of A., America[1], the States, or (poetically) Columbia.

It is also referred to, with varying formality, as the United States, the U.S., the U.S.A., the U.S. It comprises 50 states and one federal district, and has several territories with differing degrees of affiliation. The United States of America is a constitutional federal republic, situated primarily in North America.
September 17, 1787
May 23, 1788
March 4, 1789.

Constitution
 • Completed
 • Ratified
 • Effective. the archipelago of Hawai'i, in the central Pacific Ocean. Alaska, an exclave, which is physically connected only to Canada. the "continental United States," also known as "the Lower 48" and more accurately termed the conterminous, coterminous or contiguous United States.

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