The 4400 is a science fiction program on the USA Network, Space: The Imagination Station and Sky One. It began as a miniseries of five episodes, which aired weekly from July 11 to August 8, 2004; a second season of twelve episodes began airing on June 5, 2005 and concluded on August 28, 2005. Production on thirteen new episodes for a third season has begun for a summer 2006 premiere. It was created and written by Scott Peters and René Echevarria. It stars Joel Gretsch and Jacqueline McKenzie. The theme song of the show is "A Place in Time" written by Robert Phillips & Tim Paruskewitz, performed by Amanda Abizaid. The 4400 is produced by Paramount Network Television in Association with Sky Television for Sky One, Renegade 83 and American Zoetrope for USA Network.
The series is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.
In the pilot episode, what is originally thought to be a comet deposits a group of exactly four thousand, four hundred people in the Seattle, Washington region. All of the 4,400 had disappeared at various points starting from 1941 in a beam of white light. After their return, none have aged, all are disoriented, and they remember nothing between the time of their disappearance and their return.
National Threat Assessment Command
NTAC (National Threat Assessment Command), a division of the Department of Homeland Security, is formed in response to the return of the 4400. There are a multitude of agents assigned to the case. The series mainly follows two of them, as well as their immediate superior:
(A real-life NTAC now exists as well; however, it is specifically part of the Secret Service division of the Department of Homeland Security, and the "C" stands for "Center" instead of "Command".)
The Returnees (The 4400)
Most have trouble trying to get their lives back on track after being separated from their world for years. More significantly, a small number of the returnees begin to manifest paranormal abilities, such as telekinesis, telepathy, precognition, and much stranger ones. In addition, one of the 4400 had become pregnant between her disapperance and return.
At the end of the first season, we learn that the 4400 were abducted, not by aliens, but by someone in Earth's future, and that they were returned in order to prevent some sort of catastrophe.
At the end of the second season, it was revealed that all 4400 had a new neurotransmitter called "promicin" in their brains; it was this which gave some of them their powers. The government, afraid of what this large group would do with such power, secretly dosed all 4400 with a promicin inhibitor. (It worked on the majority of the group, but not those who were later seen with powers.) The inhibitor caused a potentially fatal immune system condition in the returnees, forcing the government to inject all surviving returnees with replacement promicin; it is hinted that all of them will now exhibit powers.
The series follows the lives and stories of a select few of the 4400. The main characters are:
Several other members of the 4400 feature in specific storylines:
The abilities of the 4400 derive from activating dormant neural pathways. Apparently the body produces four main neurotransmitters that control and regulate everything. Every 4400 produces a fifth neurotransmitter called Promicin that enables him or her to use parts of the cerebellum no human has ever had access to. Promicin's behavior and effect are unpredictable, potentially giving any ability.
This plot element uses the "Ten Percent Myth", which modern science has disproven.
The promicin-inhibitor would piggyback on glucose. It entered the brain through facilitated diffusion. It's a binding protein. A serum was created that contained pure promicin. This serum neutralized the charge so the inhibitor isn't able to cross membranes and can be flushed out of the body.
Production of a third season is scheduled to begin in Vancouver in early 2006, and will be premiering in the summer.
Allusions to Scientology
The 4400 Center run by Jordan Collier seems intended to resemble the real-world Church of Scientology. The 4400 Center promises supernatural abilities to those who follow its training through for-pay courses, much as the Church of Scientology promises, though Scientology is not as forthcoming about its promises of supernatural powers. At least one 4400 Center attendee has had his psychological medication confiscated, much as the Church of Scientology is opposed to psychology and its medications. The 4400 Center includes technological devices strapped onto its members during courses, similar to Scientology's E-Meters. The 4400 Center targets celebrities for inclusion and promotes them through the program faster than non-celebrity members; the Church of Scientology definitely intentionally draws celebrities with its "Celebrity Centers". One former member of the 4400 Center accused it of making him take endless for-pay classes until he was bankrupted, at which point he was ejected from the program; Scientology has had similar accusations pointed at it.
Allusions to Judaeo-Christian Texts
The name of the show itself might be an allusion to the belief held by Jehovah's Witnesses that only 144,000 people will be allowed into heaven. The 4400 people who disappear do so in a rapture like fashion. The show's content has subtle Christian undertones, although not in a way that one would take it to be proselytizing. The baby Isabelle, believed by some to be the future savior of mankind, has no qualms about violently killing people who get in her way. While Isabelle might sometimes seem like a Christ-like figure, she is certainly not. In the same vein, Jordan Collier (note his initials JC), whose intentions and methods are also grey, is killed by a sniper, and after his funeral, his body miraculously disappears. He is then reborn (albeit in a currently unknown fashion).
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He is then reborn (albeit in a currently unknown fashion). This model was created to account for chemical phenomena such as bonding, rather than physical phenomena such as atomic spectra. In the same vein, Jordan Collier (note his initials JC), whose intentions and methods are also grey, is killed by a sniper, and after his funeral, his body miraculously disappears. The cubes could share edges or faces to form chemical bonds. While Isabelle might sometimes seem like a Christ-like figure, she is certainly not. Lewis in 1916, had cubical atoms with electrons statically held at the corners. The baby Isabelle, believed by some to be the future savior of mankind, has no qualms about violently killing people who get in her way. Another model of historical interest, proposed by Gilbert N.
The show's content has subtle Christian undertones, although not in a way that one would take it to be proselytizing. Further refinements of quantum theory such as the Dirac equation and quantum field theory made smaller impacts on the theory of atoms. The 4400 people who disappear do so in a rapture like fashion. Even today, these theories are used in the Hartree-Fock quantum chemical method to determine the energy levels of atoms. The name of the show itself might be an allusion to the belief held by Jehovah's Witnesses that only 144,000 people will be allowed into heaven. Together with Wolfgang Pauli's exclusion principle, this allowed study of atoms with great precision when digital computers became available. One former member of the 4400 Center accused it of making him take endless for-pay classes until he was bankrupted, at which point he was ejected from the program; Scientology has had similar accusations pointed at it. In 1925, Erwin Schroedinger developed a full theory of quantum mechanics, described by the Schroedinger equation.
The 4400 Center targets celebrities for inclusion and promotes them through the program faster than non-celebrity members; the Church of Scientology definitely intentionally draws celebrities with its "Celebrity Centers". However, the model was unable to explain multielectron atoms, predict transition rates or describe fine and hyperfine structure. The 4400 Center includes technological devices strapped onto its members during courses, similar to Scientology's E-Meters. The ad hoc Bohr-Sommerfeld model was extremely difficult to use, but it made impressive predictions in agreement with certain spectral properties. At least one 4400 Center attendee has had his psychological medication confiscated, much as the Church of Scientology is opposed to psychology and its medications. Bohr's model was extended by Arnold Sommerfeld in 1916 to include elliptical orbits, using a quantization of generalized momentum. The 4400 Center promises supernatural abilities to those who follow its training through for-pay courses, much as the Church of Scientology promises, though Scientology is not as forthcoming about its promises of supernatural powers. They were not allowed to spiral into the nucleus, because they could not lose energy in a continuous manner; they could only make quantum leaps between fixed energy levels.
The 4400 Center run by Jordan Collier seems intended to resemble the real-world Church of Scientology. In 1913, Niels Bohr used this idea in his Bohr model of the atom, in which the electrons could only orbit the nucleus in particular circular orbits with fixed angular momentum and energy. Production of a third season is scheduled to begin in Vancouver in early 2006, and will be premiering in the summer. Quantum theory revolutionized physics at the beginning of the 20th century when Max Planck and Albert Einstein postulated that light energy is emitted or absorbed in fixed amounts known as quanta. This serum neutralized the charge so the inhibitor isn't able to cross membranes and can be flushed out of the body. Secondly, the model did not explain why excited atoms emit light only in certain discrete spectra. A serum was created that contained pure promicin. Firstly, a moving electric charge emits electromagnetic waves; according to classical electromagnetism, an orbiting charge would steadily lose energy and spiral towards the nucleus, colliding with it in a tiny fraction of a second.
It's a binding protein. The planetary model of the atom still had shortcomings. It entered the brain through facilitated diffusion. The nucleus was later discovered to contain protons, and further experimentation by Rutherford found that the nuclear mass of most atoms surpassed that of the protons it possessed; this led him to postulate the existence of neutrons, whose existence would be proven in 1932 by James Chadwick. The promicin-inhibitor would piggyback on glucose. This led to the planetary model of the atom in which pointlike electrons orbited in the space around a massive compact nucleus like planets orbiting the Sun. This plot element uses the "Ten Percent Myth", which modern science has disproven.. About 1 in 8000 of the alpha particles, however, were heavily deflected (by more than 90 degrees).
Promicin's behavior and effect are unpredictable, potentially giving any ability. Rutherford observed that most of the particles passed straight through the sheet with little deflection (striking a fluorescent screen on the other side). Every 4400 produces a fifth neurotransmitter called Promicin that enables him or her to use parts of the cerebellum no human has ever had access to. In the gold foil experiment, alpha particles (emitted by polonium) were shot through a sheet of gold. Apparently the body produces four main neurotransmitters that control and regulate everything. However, an experiment conducted in 1909 by colleagues of Ernest Rutherford demonstrated that atoms have a most of their mass and positive charge concentrated in a nucleus. The abilities of the 4400 derive from activating dormant neural pathways. At first, it was believed that the electrons were distributed more or less uniformly in a sea of positive charge (the plum pudding model).
Several other members of the 4400 feature in specific storylines:. Physicists later invented a new term for such indivisible units, "elementary particles", since the word atom had come into its common modern use. The main characters are:. Since cathode rays are emitted from matter, this proved that atoms are made up of subatomic particles and are therefore divisible, and not the indivisible atomos postulated by Democritus. The series follows the lives and stories of a select few of the 4400. Thomson published his work proving that cathode rays are made of negatively charged particles (electrons). (It worked on the majority of the group, but not those who were later seen with powers.) The inhibitor caused a potentially fatal immune system condition in the returnees, forcing the government to inject all surviving returnees with replacement promicin; it is hinted that all of them will now exhibit powers. However, in 1897, J.J.
The government, afraid of what this large group would do with such power, secretly dosed all 4400 with a promicin inhibitor. For much of this time, atoms were thought to be the smallest possible division of matter. At the end of the second season, it was revealed that all 4400 had a new neurotransmitter called "promicin" in their brains; it was this which gave some of them their powers. This theory was validated experimentally in 1911 by French physicist Jean Perrin. At the end of the first season, we learn that the 4400 were abducted, not by aliens, but by someone in Earth's future, and that they were returned in order to prevent some sort of catastrophe. In 1905, Albert Einstein theorised that this Brownian motion was caused by the water molecules continuously knocking the grains about, and developed a mathematical theory around it. In addition, one of the 4400 had become pregnant between her disapperance and return. In 1827, biologist Robert Brown observed that pollen grains floating in water constantly jiggled about for no apparent reason.
More significantly, a small number of the returnees begin to manifest paranormal abilities, such as telekinesis, telepathy, precognition, and much stranger ones. Atomic theory conflicted with the theory of infinite divisibility, which states that matter can always be divided into smaller parts. Most have trouble trying to get their lives back on track after being separated from their world for years. 4NO + 2O2 → 4NO2. (A real-life NTAC now exists as well; however, it is specifically part of the Secret Service division of the Department of Homeland Security, and the "C" stands for "Center" instead of "Command".). 4NO + O2 → 2N2O3. The series mainly follows two of them, as well as their immediate superior:. In one combination, these gases formed dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), but when he repeated the combination with double the amount of oxygen (a ratio of 1:2), they instead formed nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
There are a multitude of agents assigned to the case. The experiment in question involved combining nitrous oxide (NO) with oxygen (O2). NTAC (National Threat Assessment Command), a division of the Department of Homeland Security, is formed in response to the return of the 4400. He deduced this after the experimental discovery of the law of multiple proportions — that is, if two elements form more than one compound between them, then the ratios of the masses of the second element which combine with a fixed mass of the first element will be ratios of small whole numbers. . In 1808, John Dalton proposed that an element is composed of atoms of a single, unique type, and that although their shape and structure was immutable, atoms of different elements could combine to form more complex structures (chemical compounds). After their return, none have aged, all are disoriented, and they remember nothing between the time of their disappearance and their return. None of these ideas, however, were founded in scientific experimentation.
All of the 4,400 had disappeared at various points starting from 1941 in a beam of white light. Sometime between the 5th century BC and 1st century CE, Buddhist and Jaina philosophers in ancient India also began developing atomic theories (see Indian atomism). In the pilot episode, what is originally thought to be a comet deposits a group of exactly four thousand, four hundred people in the Seattle, Washington region. For instance, the atoms of a liquid were thought to be smooth, allowing them to slide over each other. The series is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. (See atomism for more details.) The Greeks believed that atoms were all made of the same material but had different shapes and sizes, which determined the physical properties of the material. The 4400 is produced by Paramount Network Television in Association with Sky Television for Sky One, Renegade 83 and American Zoetrope for USA Network. Democritus and Leucippus, Greek philosophers in the 5th century BC, presented the first theory of atoms.
The theme song of the show is "A Place in Time" written by Robert Phillips & Tim Paruskewitz, performed by Amanda Abizaid. The seeding of the interstellar medium by heavy elements eventually allowed the formation of terrestrial planets like the Earth. It stars Joel Gretsch and Jacqueline McKenzie. These stars fused heavier elements through stellar nucleosynthesis during their lives and through supernova nucleosynthesis as they died. It was created and written by Scott Peters and René Echevarria. After Big Bang nucleosynthesis, no heavier elements could be created until the formation of the first stars. Production on thirteen new episodes for a third season has begun for a summer 2006 premiere. These photons are still detectable today in the cosmic microwave background.
It began as a miniseries of five episodes, which aired weekly from July 11 to August 8, 2004; a second season of twelve episodes began airing on June 5, 2005 and concluded on August 28, 2005. This allows most of the photons in the universe to travel unimpeded for billions of years. The 4400 is a science fiction program on the USA Network, Space: The Imagination Station and Sky One. Once atoms become neutral, they only absorb photons of a discrete absorption spectrum. New Zealand: TV3 (New Zealand). This process is called recombination, during which the first neutral atoms took form. Turkey: CNBC-e. It was then cool enough to allow the nuclei to capture electrons.
Brazil: NBC's Universal Channel. Big Bang chronology of the atom continues to approximately 379,000 years after the Big Bang when the cosmic temperature had dropped to just 3,000 K. Norway: TV3. However, although nuclei (fully-ionized atoms) were created, neutral atoms themselves could not form in the intense heat. The Netherlands: Talpa. Hydrogen makes up approximately 75% of the atoms in the universe; helium makes up 24%; and all other elements make up just 1%. United States: USA Network. During this process, nuclei of hydrogen and helium formed abundantly, but almost no elements heavier than lithium.
United Kingdom: Sky One. In models of the Big Bang, Big Bang nucleosynthesis predicts that within one to three minutes of the Big Bang almost all atomic material in the universe was created. Germany: ProSieben. This was produced at CERN in the ATHENA and ATRAP experiments using the Antiproton Decelerator. France: M6. Since antimatter is very difficult to produce and store, only a small amount antihydrogen has ever existed on Earth. Australia: Network Ten. Antimatter can also form atoms, composed of positrons, antiprotons, and antineutrons.
Switzerland: TSR. When electrons deep inside large atoms are knocked out (for example by beta radiation), replacement atoms fall deep into the electric potential of the nucleus, producing high-energy x-rays. Canada: Space. For example, the hyperfine transitions (including the important 21 cm line) produce low-energy radio waves. . Not all parts of the atomic spectrum are in visible light part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Early marketing for the series included stencilled graffiti in public places across San Francisco, Houston, and Boston raising ire among residents. Due to the distinctive spectral lines that each element produces, they are able to tell the chemical composition of distant planets, stars and nebulae.
The second season was aired weekly but taken off air halfway through the season, but continued to air in New Zealand. In spectroscopic analysis, scientists can use a spectrometer to study the atoms in stars and other distant objects. In Australia and New Zealand the first series was shown as a miniseries of 3 episodes. The resulting pattern of gaps is called the absorption spectrum. Vehicles from DaimlerChrysler's Chrysler Group, such as the Dodge Durango and Chrysler 300, appear frequently in the show being driven by members of NTAC. If a set of atoms is illuminated by a continuous spectrum, it will only absorb specific wavelengths (energies) of photon that correspond to the differences in its energy levels. Nate McCullough, disappeared September 8, 2000. When these atoms fall back toward the ground state, they will produce an emission spectrum.
Werner Loecher, disappeared April 19,1973. If a set of atoms is heated (such as in an arc lamp), their electrons will move into excited states. Matthew Lombard, disappeared May 30,1977. Since each element has a unique set of energy levels, each creates its own light pattern unique to itself: its own spectral signature. Rose Woodard, disappeared December 1,1991. An electron in a higher-energy orbital may drop to a lower-energy orbital by emitting a photon. Paranormal abilities: Increases the levels of adrenaline or other hormones (causing elevated levels of rage) in males within a certain radius through sonic means. An electron may move from a lower-energy orbital to a higher-energy orbital by absorbing a photon with energy equal to the difference between the energies of the two levels.
Kim, disappeared February 2, 1998. Normally, an atom is found in its lowest-energy ground state; states with higher energy are called excited states. T.J. Since each element in the periodic table consists of an atom in a unique configuration with different numbers of protons and electrons, each element can also be uniquely described by the energies of its atomic orbitals and the number of electrons within them. Laurel Bryce, disappeared January 7, 1982. Many other types of bonds exist, including:. Sara James, disappeared November 5, 1971. The formation of a bond causes a strong attraction between two atoms, creating molecules or ionic compounds.
(Deceased). This can be achieved one of two ways: an atom can either share electrons with other atoms (a covalent bond), or it can remove electrons from (or donate electrons to) other atoms (an ionic bond). Roger Wolcott, disappeared March 6, 1987. Atoms may fill their valence shells by chemical bonding. Paranormal abilities: Could heal fetuses in utero (but causes progressive damage to self). Fluorine is the most reactive of all elements. Edwin Mayuya, aka Edwin Musinga, doctor, disappeared February 24, 1996. Also, atoms that need only few electrons (such as the halogens) to fill their valence shells are reactive.
(Deceased) Paranormal abilities: sores on hands released plague-like disease (airborne, disappears in about half an hour, goes through biohazard gear). Alkali metals are therefore very reactive, with caesium, rubidium, and francium being the most reactive of all metals. Jean DeLynn Baker, disappeared October 27, 1999. Conversely, atoms with few electrons in their valence shell are more reactive it is. Paranormal abilities: Unlocked artistic potential in certain students in her classes. This means that atoms with full valence shells (the noble gases) are very unreactive. Heather Tobey, school teacher, disappeared March 2, 1974. Every atom is most stable with a full valence shell.
Eric Papequash, disappeared August 5, 1955. Alkali metals contain one electron on their outer shell; alkaline earth metals, two electrons; halogens, seven electrons; and various others. (Deceased) Paranormal abilities: Could revive dead plants. Therefore, elements with the same number of valence electrons are grouped together in the columns of the periodic table of the elements. Mary Deneville, disappeared August 4, 1999. The number of electrons in an atom's outermost shell (the valence shell) governs its bonding behavior. Given to her by the future so she can develop a relationship with Tom Baldwin to sustain him through the "coming troubles.". Atoms that have either lost or gained electrons are called atomic ions (with either positive(+) or negative charge(−), respectively).
Paranormal abilities: Ability to create an alternate reality. These ultra-heavy elements are generally highly unstable and decay quickly. Artist (and debatably museum director). Elements not normally found in nature have been artificially created by nuclear bombardment; as of 2006, elements have been created through atomic number 116 (given the temporary name ununhexium). Alana Mareva, disappeared September 5, 2001. Several elements that do not occur on Earth have been found to be present in stars. He was shot during apprehension, but lived. Most of the elements lighter than uranium (Z=92) have stable-enough isotopes to occur naturally on Earth (with the notable exception of technetium Z=43).
The ability does cause Orson to suffer nosebleeds, and he has shown an inability to control this power. Virtually all elements heavier than hydrogen and helium were created through stellar nucleosynthesis and supernova nucleosynthesis. glass, bones). The elements with atomic number 84 (polonium) and heavier have no stable isotopes and are all radioactive. Paranormal abilities: Telekinesis of a magnitude to cause tremors in immediate vicinity and shatter objects (e.g. Almost all isotopes of each element are radioactive; only a few are stable. Insurance Salesman and partner in Kensington & Bailey. Tritium is an unstable isotope which decays through a process called radioactivity.
Orson Bailey, disappeared June 11, 1979, from Tacoma, WA. The hydrogen isotope which also contains one neutron so is called deuterium or hydrogen-2; the hydrogen isotope with two neutrons is called tritium or hydrogen-3. Paranormal abilities: Saliva contains an agent that rapidly accelerates the metabolism of others. The simplest atom is the hydrogen isotope protium, which has atomic number 1 and atomic mass number 1; it consists of one proton and one electron. A telemarketer. The atomic mass listed for each element in the periodic table is an average of the isotope masses found in nature, weighted by their abundance. Trent Appelbaum, disappeared May 18, 1989. For example, carbon-14 contains 6 protons and 8 neutrons in each atom, for a total mass number of 14.
Paranormal abilities: Is able to hear the thoughts of others. When writing the name of an isotope, the element name is followed by the mass number. A baseball player. These are called the isotopes of an element. Gary Navarro,disappeared January 5, 1973. Each has the same atomic number but a different mass number. Paranormal abilities: Ability to compel others to help her build a device, the plans for which have been planted in her head. Each element can have numerous kinds of atoms with the same number of protons and electrons but varying numbers of neutrons.
A mental patient. The number of neutrons A−Z in an atom has no effect on which element it is. Tess Doerner, disappeared April 3, 1955. The atomic mass A, atomic mass number, or nucleon number of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom of that element, so-called because each proton and neutron has a mass of about 1 amu. Paranormal abilities: Mind control/suggestion via speech. The elements may be sorted according to the periodic table in order of increasing atomic number. Captured and imprisoned in soundproof cell. All atoms with the same atomic number share a wide variety of physical properties and exhibit the same chemical properties.
Oliver Knox, disappeared August 22, 1983, from Friday Harbor, WA, a suspected serial killer. For example, carbon atoms are atoms containing six protons. Paranormal abilities: Enhanced reflexes and strength. The atomic number determines which chemical element the atom is. A supermarket employee (Deceased). Atoms are generally classified by their atomic number Z, which corresponds to the number of protons in the atom. Carl Morrisey, disappeared February 16, 2003, from Seattle, WA. At room temperature, atoms making up gases in the air move at a speed of 500 m/s (about 1100 mph or 1800 km/h).
Note that many of these powers duplicate those from among the 4400. As the temperature of the system is increased, the kinetic energy of the particles in the system is increased, and their speed of motion increases. Paranormal abilities: Telepathic communication (with Lily Moore, Richard Tyler, and Jordan Collier), mind control, materialization projection, alteration (Jordan Collier's injury, Lily Moore's first daughter's spleen) and/or acceleration of biological growth (the growth of berries in one episode and herself in the Season 2 finale), precognition (warned Lily of a bomb before it exploded), telekinesis (the bending trees in the final scene of Season 1). The temperature of a collection of atoms is a measure of the average energy of motion of those atoms; at 0 kelvin (absolute zero) atoms would have no motion. At the end of the season finale she ages considerably and shows up in Shawn's office, naked. This contracts the size of the electron shells, so that more electrons fit in the only a slightly greater volume. As the only 4400 not affected by the ability-inhibitor, she provides blood used to heal Shawn Farrell and consequently all 4400s, activating their abilities. The reason for this is that heavy elements have large positive charge on their nuclei, which strongly attract the electrons to the center of the atom.
Technically not one of "The 4400" returned (she was still in the womb at the time of the count). Their sizes are roughly the same to within a factor of 2. Isabelle Tyler-Moore, born post-return, daughter of Richard Tyler and Lily Moore. Atoms of different elements do vary in size, but the sizes do not scale linearly with the mass of the atom. Also, after being assassinated, he disappears and reappears alive at the very end of the second season finale. Nearly all the mass of an atom is in its nucleus, yet almost all the space in an atom is filled by its electrons. Possibly enhanced power of suggestion over other people, but this could just be a personality trait. If an atom were the size of a stadium, the nucleus would be the size of a marble.
Paranormal abilities: unknown. So the ratio of the size of the hydrogen atom to its nucleus is about 100,000:1. Jordan Collier, disappeared April 10, 2002, from Seattle, WA area, a former real estate mogul. Compare this to the size of the proton (the only particle in the nucleus of the hydrogen atom), which is approximately 10−15 m. Paranormal abilities: precognition. As an example, the size of a hydrogen atom is estimated to be approximately 1.0586×10−10 m (twice the Bohr radius). Maia Rutledge, disappeared March 3, 1946, at age 8, from Crescent City, CA. For any atom, one might use the radius at which the electrons of the valence shell are most likely to be found.
Paranormal abilities: Healer and life taker. For atoms that can form solid crystal lattices, the distance between the centers of adjacent atoms can be easily determined by x-ray diffraction, giving an estimate of the atoms' size. Shawn Farrell, disappeared April 22, 2001, at age 17, from Highland Beach, WA. Since the electron cloud does not have a sharp cutoff, the size of an atom is not easily defined. Paranormal abilities: None Known. These include: electron microscopes (such as in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and x-ray microscopy. Returned pregnant, but not by Brian, rather by Richard Tyler. However, there are ways of detecting the positions of atoms on the surface of a solid or a thin film so as to obtain images.
At time of abduction, married to Brian Moore, mother to Heidi Moore. Atoms are much smaller than the wavelengths of light that human vision can detect, so atoms cannot be seen in any kind of optical microscope. Louis, MO. In nuclear fission, a single large nucleus is divided into two or more smaller nuclei. Lily Moore, disappeared in 1993, at age 26, from St. In nuclear fusion, two light nuclei come together and merge into a single heavier nucleus. Paranormal abilities: apparent telekinesis. Nuclear transformations also take place in nuclear reactions.
Father of Lily Moore's second daughter, Isabelle. When an excited nucleus emits a photon to return to the ground state, the photon has very high energy and is called a gamma ray. At the time, in a relationship with Lily Moore's grandmother, Lily Bonham. However, these transitions typically require thousands of times more energy than electron excitations. Louis, MO. In addition, like the electrons of the atom, the nucleons of nuclei may be pushed into excited states of higher energy. Originally from St. Decays involving electrons or positrons are due to the weak nuclear interaction.
Richard Tyler, disappeared May 11, 1951, at age 29, while in South Korea during the Korean War. Radioactive transformations proceed by a wide variety of modes, but the most common are alpha decay (emission of a helium nucleus) and beta decay (emission of an electron). Ryland is succeeded by Nina Jarvis in season two, but he takes his role back as a guest star on the 11th and 12th (season finale) episodes of season two. When nuclei transformations take place spontaneously, this process is called radioactivity. Dennis Ryland: Baldwin's and Skouris's supervisor and director of the Seattle bureau of NTAC during season one. Nuclei can undergo transformations that affect the number of protons and neutrons they contain, a process called radioactive decay. In the first episode of season 2, Diana adopts Maia Rutledge. The nucleons are held together in the nucleus by the strong nuclear force.
The eight-year old pre-cog Maia asks to move in with her at some point in season 1. The constituent protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus are collectively called nucleons. Diana Skouris: Tom's partner. Electrons with differing s have very slight energy differences called hyperfine splitting. Kyle was in a coma for three years, and after being awoken is troubled by blackouts. Orbitals of differing m are degenerate but may be separated by applying a magnetic field, creating the Zeeman effect. Tom Baldwin: Baldwin's nephew is Shawn Farrell; Shawn was with Baldwin's son Kyle Baldwin during the abduction. In most atoms, orbitals of differing l are not exactly degenerate but separated into a fine structure.
In the illustration, the letters s, p, d and f (corresponding to l = 0, 1, 2, 3) describe the shape of the atomic orbital. Electrons with varying l and m have distinctive shapes denoted by spectroscopic notation. In addition to its principal quantum number n, an electron is distinguished by three other quantum numbers: the azimuthal quantum number l (describing the orbital angular momentum of the electron), the magnetic quantum number m (describing the direction of the angular momentum vector), and the spin quantum number s (describing the direction of the electron's intrinsic angular momentum). An excited atom's electrons will spontaneously fall into lower levels, emitting excess energy as a photons, until it returns to the ground state.
Under some circumstances an electron may be excited to a higher energy level (that is, it absorbs energy from an external source and leaps to a higher shell), leaving a space in a lower shell. In the most stable ground state, an atom's electrons will fill up its shells in order of increasing energy. The occupied shell of greatest n is the valence shell, even if it only has one electron. An electron shell can hold up to 2n2 electrons, where n is the principal quantum number of the shell.
Core electrons (those not in the outer shell) play a role, but it is usually in terms of a secondary effect due to screening of the positive charge in the atomic nucleus. The electrons in the outermost shell, called the valence electrons, have the greatest influence on chemical behavior. Generally, the higher the energy level of a shell, the further away it is from the nucleus. These configurations are determined by the quantum mechanics of electrons in the electric potential of the atom; the principal quantum number determines particular electron shells with distinct energy levels.
Electrons of an atom remain within certain, predictable electron configurations. The chemical behavior of atoms is due to interactions between electrons. Protons and neutrons are bound together in the nucleus by gluons carrying the strong nuclear force. Electrons are bound to the nucleus by photons carrying the electromagnetic force.
The subatomic force carrying particles (called gauge bosons) are also important to atoms. Although they do not occur in ordinary matter, two other heavier generations of quarks and leptons may be generated in high-energy collisions. The proton is composed of two up quarks and one down quark, whereas the neutron is composed of one up quark and two down quarks. Ordinary atoms are composed only of quarks and leptons of the first generation.
Together, the electron and neutrino are both leptons. In addition, the electron is known to have a nearly massless neutral partner called a neutrino. However, protons and neutrons themselves are now known to consist of still smaller particles called quarks. Before 1961, the subatomic particles were thought to consist of only protons, neutrons and electrons.
This nucleus is itself made up of nucleons: positively charged protons and chargeless neutrons. The electrons orbit a small, dense body containing all of the positive charge in the atom, called the atomic nucleus. The first of these to be discovered was the negatively charged electron, which is easily ejected from atoms during ionization. Although the name "atom" was applied at a time when atoms were thought to be indivisible, it is now known that the atom can be broken down into a number of smaller components.
. Molecules are made up of multiple atoms; for example, a molecule of water is a combination of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Atoms are able to bond into molecules and other types of chemical compounds. Atoms are the fundamental building blocks of chemistry, and are conserved in chemical reactions.
The number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus may also change, via nuclear fusion, nuclear fission or radioactive decay. Atoms which have either a deficit or a surplus of electrons are called ions. Electrons that are furthest from the nucleus may be transferred to other nearby atoms or even shared between atoms. Atoms are electrically neutral if they have an equal number of protons and electrons.
Within a single element, the number of neutrons may also vary, determining the isotope of that element. The number of protons in an atom (called the atomic number) determines the element of the atom. Atoms differ in the number of each of the subatomic particles they contain. The electrons form the much larger electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.
Protons and neutrons are both nucleons and make up the dense, massive atomic nucleus. Most atoms are composed of three types of massive subatomic particles which govern their external properties:. This definition must not be confused with that of chemical atoms, since chemical atoms (hereafter "atoms") are composed of smaller subatomic particles. The word atom may also refer to the smallest possible indivisble fundamental particle.
In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek άτομον meaning "indivisible") is the smallest possible particle of a chemical element that retains its chemical properties. van der Waals bonds. hydrogen bonds; and. metallic bonds;.
coordinate covalent bonds;. polar covalent bonds;. neutrons, which have no charge and are about 1838 times more massive than electrons. protons, which have a positive charge and are about 1836 times more massive than electrons; and.
electrons, which have a negative charge and are the least massive of the three;.