The 4400 is a science fiction program on the USA Network, Space: The Imagination Station and Sky One. It began as a miniseries of five episodes, which aired weekly from July 11 to August 8, 2004; a second season of twelve episodes began airing on June 5, 2005 and concluded on August 28, 2005. Production on thirteen new episodes for a third season has begun for a summer 2006 premiere. It was created and written by Scott Peters and René Echevarria. It stars Joel Gretsch and Jacqueline McKenzie. The theme song of the show is "A Place in Time" written by Robert Phillips & Tim Paruskewitz, performed by Amanda Abizaid. The 4400 is produced by Paramount Network Television in Association with Sky Television for Sky One, Renegade 83 and American Zoetrope for USA Network.
The series is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.
In the pilot episode, what is originally thought to be a comet deposits a group of exactly four thousand, four hundred people in the Seattle, Washington region. All of the 4,400 had disappeared at various points starting from 1941 in a beam of white light. After their return, none have aged, all are disoriented, and they remember nothing between the time of their disappearance and their return.
National Threat Assessment Command
NTAC (National Threat Assessment Command), a division of the Department of Homeland Security, is formed in response to the return of the 4400. There are a multitude of agents assigned to the case. The series mainly follows two of them, as well as their immediate superior:
(A real-life NTAC now exists as well; however, it is specifically part of the Secret Service division of the Department of Homeland Security, and the "C" stands for "Center" instead of "Command".)
The Returnees (The 4400)
Most have trouble trying to get their lives back on track after being separated from their world for years. More significantly, a small number of the returnees begin to manifest paranormal abilities, such as telekinesis, telepathy, precognition, and much stranger ones. In addition, one of the 4400 had become pregnant between her disapperance and return.
At the end of the first season, we learn that the 4400 were abducted, not by aliens, but by someone in Earth's future, and that they were returned in order to prevent some sort of catastrophe.
At the end of the second season, it was revealed that all 4400 had a new neurotransmitter called "promicin" in their brains; it was this which gave some of them their powers. The government, afraid of what this large group would do with such power, secretly dosed all 4400 with a promicin inhibitor. (It worked on the majority of the group, but not those who were later seen with powers.) The inhibitor caused a potentially fatal immune system condition in the returnees, forcing the government to inject all surviving returnees with replacement promicin; it is hinted that all of them will now exhibit powers.
The series follows the lives and stories of a select few of the 4400. The main characters are:
Several other members of the 4400 feature in specific storylines:
The abilities of the 4400 derive from activating dormant neural pathways. Apparently the body produces four main neurotransmitters that control and regulate everything. Every 4400 produces a fifth neurotransmitter called Promicin that enables him or her to use parts of the cerebellum no human has ever had access to. Promicin's behavior and effect are unpredictable, potentially giving any ability.
This plot element uses the "Ten Percent Myth", which modern science has disproven.
The promicin-inhibitor would piggyback on glucose. It entered the brain through facilitated diffusion. It's a binding protein. A serum was created that contained pure promicin. This serum neutralized the charge so the inhibitor isn't able to cross membranes and can be flushed out of the body.
Production of a third season is scheduled to begin in Vancouver in early 2006, and will be premiering in the summer.
Allusions to Scientology
The 4400 Center run by Jordan Collier seems intended to resemble the real-world Church of Scientology. The 4400 Center promises supernatural abilities to those who follow its training through for-pay courses, much as the Church of Scientology promises, though Scientology is not as forthcoming about its promises of supernatural powers. At least one 4400 Center attendee has had his psychological medication confiscated, much as the Church of Scientology is opposed to psychology and its medications. The 4400 Center includes technological devices strapped onto its members during courses, similar to Scientology's E-Meters. The 4400 Center targets celebrities for inclusion and promotes them through the program faster than non-celebrity members; the Church of Scientology definitely intentionally draws celebrities with its "Celebrity Centers". One former member of the 4400 Center accused it of making him take endless for-pay classes until he was bankrupted, at which point he was ejected from the program; Scientology has had similar accusations pointed at it.
Allusions to Judaeo-Christian Texts
The name of the show itself might be an allusion to the belief held by Jehovah's Witnesses that only 144,000 people will be allowed into heaven. The 4400 people who disappear do so in a rapture like fashion. The show's content has subtle Christian undertones, although not in a way that one would take it to be proselytizing. The baby Isabelle, believed by some to be the future savior of mankind, has no qualms about violently killing people who get in her way. While Isabelle might sometimes seem like a Christ-like figure, she is certainly not. In the same vein, Jordan Collier (note his initials JC), whose intentions and methods are also grey, is killed by a sniper, and after his funeral, his body miraculously disappears. He is then reborn (albeit in a currently unknown fashion).
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He is then reborn (albeit in a currently unknown fashion). As wages increased, the quantity of apples was toned down to a single fruit. In the same vein, Jordan Collier (note his initials JC), whose intentions and methods are also grey, is killed by a sniper, and after his funeral, his body miraculously disappears. As apples were a very common crop, teachers would often be given baskets of apples by students. While Isabelle might sometimes seem like a Christ-like figure, she is certainly not. This stemmed from the fact that teachers during the 16th to 18th centuries were poorly paid, so parents would compensate the teacher by providing food. The baby Isabelle, believed by some to be the future savior of mankind, has no qualms about violently killing people who get in her way. In the United States, Denmark and Sweden, an apple (polished) is a traditional gift for a teacher.
The show's content has subtle Christian undertones, although not in a way that one would take it to be proselytizing. Apples are said to increase a woman's chances of conception as well as remove birthmarks when rubbed on the skin. The 4400 people who disappear do so in a rapture like fashion. In some places, bobbing for apples is a traditional Halloween activity. The name of the show itself might be an allusion to the belief held by Jehovah's Witnesses that only 144,000 people will be allowed into heaven. Danish folklore says that apples wither around adulterers. One former member of the 4400 Center accused it of making him take endless for-pay classes until he was bankrupted, at which point he was ejected from the program; Scientology has had similar accusations pointed at it. Irish folklore claims that if an apple is peeled into one continuous ribbon and thrown behind a woman's shoulder, it will land in the shape of the future husband's initials.
The 4400 Center targets celebrities for inclusion and promotes them through the program faster than non-celebrity members; the Church of Scientology definitely intentionally draws celebrities with its "Celebrity Centers". Swiss folklore holds that William Tell courageously shot an apple from his son's head with his crossbow, defying a tyrannical ruler and bringing freedom to his people. The 4400 Center includes technological devices strapped onto its members during courses, similar to Scientology's E-Meters. Apple Computer and Apple records have also adopted the apple for their companies. At least one 4400 Center attendee has had his psychological medication confiscated, much as the Church of Scientology is opposed to psychology and its medications. Its logo represents an apple in the constructivist style. The 4400 Center promises supernatural abilities to those who follow its training through for-pay courses, much as the Church of Scientology promises, though Scientology is not as forthcoming about its promises of supernatural powers. The name of the Russian party Yabloko means "apple".
The 4400 Center run by Jordan Collier seems intended to resemble the real-world Church of Scientology. The apple blossom is the state flower of Arkansas and Michigan. Production of a third season is scheduled to begin in Vancouver in early 2006, and will be premiering in the summer. The ancient Kazakh city of Almaty, 'Father of Apples' (Turkic language alma, apple, + ata, father), owes its name to the forests of wild apples (Malus sieversii) found naturally in the area. This serum neutralized the charge so the inhibitor isn't able to cross membranes and can be flushed out of the body. Later, the princess is jostled into coughing up the piece, miraculously returning to life. A serum was created that contained pure promicin. In the European fairy tale Snow White, the titular princess is killed by choking on an apple given to her by her stepmother.
It's a binding protein. According to a popular legend, Isaac Newton, upon witnessing an apple fall from its tree, was inspired to conclude that a similar 'universal gravitation' attracted the moon toward the Earth as well (this legend is discussed in more detail in the article on Isaac Newton). It entered the brain through facilitated diffusion. It is often an attribute associated with Venus who is shown holding it. The promicin-inhibitor would piggyback on glucose. Thus, secular art as well made use of the apple as symbol of love and sexuality. This plot element uses the "Ten Percent Myth", which modern science has disproven.. At times artists would co-opt the apple, as well as other religious symbology, whether for ironic effect or as a stock element of symbolic vocabulary.
Promicin's behavior and effect are unpredictable, potentially giving any ability. Another instance in Roman and Greek mythology is the story of the Pleiades. Every 4400 produces a fifth neurotransmitter called Promicin that enables him or her to use parts of the cerebellum no human has ever had access to. In ancient Greece, throwing an apple at a person's bed was an invitation for sexual intercourse. Apparently the body produces four main neurotransmitters that control and regulate everything. Atalanta, also of Greek mythology, was distracted during a race by three golden apples thrown for that purpose by a suitor, Hippomenes. The abilities of the 4400 derive from activating dormant neural pathways. Another Greek mythological figure, Paris, had to give a golden apple inscribed Kallisti "To the most beautiful one", (which had come from the goddess of discord, Eris) to the most beautiful goddess, thus indirectly causing the Trojan War.
Several other members of the 4400 feature in specific storylines:. In the Old Testament the apple was significant of the fall of man; in the New Testament it is an emblem of the redemption from that fall, and as such is also represented in pictures of the Madonna and Infant Jesus. The main characters are:. This also reflects the evolution of the symbol in religion. The series follows the lives and stories of a select few of the 4400. When held in Adam's hand, the apple symbolises sin. (It worked on the majority of the group, but not those who were later seen with powers.) The inhibitor caused a potentially fatal immune system condition in the returnees, forcing the government to inject all surviving returnees with replacement promicin; it is hinted that all of them will now exhibit powers. When Christ is portrayed holding an apple, he represents the Second Adam who brings life.
The government, afraid of what this large group would do with such power, secretly dosed all 4400 with a promicin inhibitor. It is often used to symbolise the fall into sin, or sin itself. At the end of the second season, it was revealed that all 4400 had a new neurotransmitter called "promicin" in their brains; it was this which gave some of them their powers. Another reason for the adoption of the apple as Christian symbol is that in Latin, the words for "apple" and for "evil" are identical (malum). At the end of the first season, we learn that the 4400 were abducted, not by aliens, but by someone in Earth's future, and that they were returned in order to prevent some sort of catastrophe. Celtic mythology includes a story about Conle who receives an apple which feeds him for a year but also makes him irresistibly desire fairyland. In addition, one of the 4400 had become pregnant between her disapperance and return. The larynx in the human throat has been called Adam's apple because of a notion that it was caused by the forbidden fruit sticking in the throat of Adam.
More significantly, a small number of the returnees begin to manifest paranormal abilities, such as telekinesis, telepathy, precognition, and much stranger ones. This tradition was reflected in artistic renderings of the fall from Eden. Most have trouble trying to get their lives back on track after being separated from their world for years. The influence of the antiquity was still strong, and the pagan symbology was absorbed into the new religion. (A real-life NTAC now exists as well; however, it is specifically part of the Secret Service division of the Department of Homeland Security, and the "C" stands for "Center" instead of "Command".). Though the forbidden fruit in that account is not identified, popular European Christian tradition has held that it was an apple that Eve incited Adam to share with her. The series mainly follows two of them, as well as their immediate superior:. This tradition is also reflected in the book of Genesis.
There are a multitude of agents assigned to the case. The 'fruit-bearing tree' referred to by Tacitus in his description of Norse runic divination may have been the apple, or the rowan. NTAC (National Threat Assessment Command), a division of the Department of Homeland Security, is formed in response to the return of the 4400. In Norse mythology, Iðunn was the keeper of the 'apples of immortality' which kept the Gods young. . One of the Greek hero Heracles' Twelve Labours was to travel to the Garden of the Hesperides and pick the golden apples off the Tree of Life growing at its center. After their return, none have aged, all are disoriented, and they remember nothing between the time of their disappearance and their return. Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical and forbidden fruit.
All of the 4,400 had disappeared at various points starting from 1941 in a beam of white light. A derivative of apple curd, apple milk is widely used throughout Tibet. In the pilot episode, what is originally thought to be a comet deposits a group of exactly four thousand, four hundred people in the Seattle, Washington region. Apples are historically known for producing "apple milk". The series is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 (PMID 14558772). The 4400 is produced by Paramount Network Television in Association with Sky Television for Sky One, Renegade 83 and American Zoetrope for USA Network. Lee said that all apples are high in the critical phytonutrients and that the amount of phenolic compounds in the apple flesh and in the skin vary from year to year, season to season and from growing region to growing region (November/December 2004 issue of the Journal of Food Science).
The theme song of the show is "A Place in Time" written by Robert Phillips & Tim Paruskewitz, performed by Amanda Abizaid. The researchers used red delicious apples grown in New York state to provide the extracts to study the effects of phytochemicals. It stars Joel Gretsch and Jacqueline McKenzie. "Cy" Lee of Cornell University found that the apple phenolics, which are naturally occurring antioxidants found in fresh apples, can protect nerve cells from neurotoxicity induced by oxidative stress. It was created and written by Scott Peters and René Echevarria. Chang Y. Production on thirteen new episodes for a third season has begun for a summer 2006 premiere. A group of chemicals in apples could protect the brain from the type of damage that triggers such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's and Parkinsonism.
It began as a miniseries of five episodes, which aired weekly from July 11 to August 8, 2004; a second season of twelve episodes began airing on June 5, 2005 and concluded on August 28, 2005. They may also help with heart disease, weight loss and controlling cholesterol. The 4400 is a science fiction program on the USA Network, Space: The Imagination Station and Sky One. Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. New Zealand: TV3 (New Zealand). Apples have long been considered healthy, as indicated by the proverb an apple a day keeps the doctor away. Turkey: CNBC-e. Apples are eaten with honey at the Jewish New Year of Rosh Hashanah to symbolise a sweet new year.
Brazil: NBC's Universal Channel. Similar treats in the US are candy apples (coated in a hard shell of crystallised sugar syrup), and caramel apples, coated with cooled caramel. Norway: TV3. In the UK, a toffee apple is a traditional confection made by coating an apple in hot toffee and allowing it to cool. The Netherlands: Talpa. They are also used cooked in meat dishes. United States: USA Network. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly.
United Kingdom: Sky One. Puréed apples are generally known as apple sauce. Germany: ProSieben. They are often eaten baked or stewed, and they can also be dried and eaten or re-consitituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use. France: M6. Apples are an important ingredient in many winter desserts, for example apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. Australia: Network Ten. They make a popular lunchbox fruit as well.
Switzerland: TSR. Apple wine can also be made. Canada: Space. Distilled apple cider produces the spirits applejack and Calvados. . Apples can be canned, juiced, and optionally fermented to produce apple juice, cider, vinegar, and pectin. Early marketing for the series included stencilled graffiti in public places across San Francisco, Houston, and Boston raising ire among residents. Imported apples from New Zealand and other more temperate areas are competing with US production and increasing each year.
The second season was aired weekly but taken off air halfway through the season, but continued to air in New Zealand. In the United States, more than 60% of all the apples sold commercially are grown in Washington state. In Australia and New Zealand the first series was shown as a miniseries of 3 episodes. France, Italy, South Africa and Chile are among the leading apple exporters. Vehicles from DaimlerChrysler's Chrysler Group, such as the Dodge Durango and Chrysler 300, appear frequently in the show being driven by members of NTAC. Turkey is also a leading producer. Nate McCullough, disappeared September 8, 2000. The United States is the third leading producer, accounting for 7.5% of world production.
Werner Loecher, disappeared April 19,1973. Argentina is the second leading producer, with more than 15% of the world production. Matthew Lombard, disappeared May 30,1977. China produced almost half of this total. Rose Woodard, disappeared December 1,1991. 45 million metric tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2002, with a value of about 10 billion USD. Paranormal abilities: Increases the levels of adrenaline or other hormones (causing elevated levels of rage) in males within a certain radius through sonic means. Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock.
Kim, disappeared February 2, 1998. Dwarf trees will bear about 50-100 kg (3-5 bushels) of fruit per year. T.J. A few cultivars, left unpruned, will grow to be extremely large, causing them to bear a great deal of fruit that is difficult to harvest. Laurel Bryce, disappeared January 7, 1982. Apples are harvested using three-point ladders that are designed to fit amongst the branches. Sara James, disappeared November 5, 1971. Mature trees typically bear 100-200 kg (5-10 bushels) of apples each year.
(Deceased). The latest tool in the organic repertoire is to spray a light coating of kaolin clay, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, and also helps prevent apple sun scald. Roger Wolcott, disappeared March 6, 1987. Apples are difficult to grow organically, though a few orchards have done so with commercial success, using disease-resistant cultivars and the very best cultural controls. Paranormal abilities: Could heal fetuses in utero (but causes progressive damage to self). For other Lepidoptera larvae which feed on apple trees, see List of Lepidoptera which feed on Malus. Edwin Mayuya, aka Edwin Musinga, doctor, disappeared February 24, 1996. Others include Apple maggot and codling moth.
(Deceased) Paranormal abilities: sores on hands released plague-like disease (airborne, disappears in about half an hour, goes through biohazard gear). The plum curculio is the most serious insect pest. Jean DeLynn Baker, disappeared October 27, 1999. Among the most serious disease problems are fireblight, a bacterial disease; and Gymnosporangium rust, apple scab, and black spot, three fungal diseases. Paranormal abilities: Unlocked artistic potential in certain students in her classes. White clover is a component of many grass seed mixes, and many bees are poisoned by insecticides while visiting the flowers on the orchard floor. Heather Tobey, school teacher, disappeared March 2, 1974. Nor should bee-attractive plants be allowed to establish in the orchard floor if insecticides are used.
Eric Papequash, disappeared August 5, 1955. Spraying for insect pests must never be done during flowering because it kills pollinators. (Deceased) Paranormal abilities: Could revive dead plants. A trend in orchard management is the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), which reduces needless spraying when pests are not present, or more likely, are being controlled by natural predators. Mary Deneville, disappeared August 4, 1999. Nearly all commercial orchards pursue an aggressive program of chemical sprays to maintain high fruit quality, tree health, and high yields. Given to her by the future so she can develop a relationship with Tom Baldwin to sustain him through the "coming troubles.". The trees are susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial diseases and insect pests.
Paranormal abilities: Ability to create an alternate reality. Good thinning helps even out the cycle, so that a reasonable crop can be grown every year. Artist (and debatably museum director). If the fruit is not thinned when the tree carries a large crop, it may produce very little flower the following year. Alana Mareva, disappeared September 5, 2001. Apples are prone to biennial bearing. He was shot during apprehension, but lived. Apples (or any fruit) planted on a south facing slope in the northern hemisphere (or north facing in the southern hemisphere), will flower early and be particularly vulnerable to spring frost.
The ability does cause Orson to suffer nosebleeds, and he has shown an inability to control this power. Home growers may not have a body of water to help, but can utilise north slopes or other geographical features to retard spring flowering. glass, bones). Areas of the USA, such as the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, the southern shore of Lake Ontario, and around some smaller lakes, where this cooling effect of water, combined with good, well-drained soils, has made apple growing concentrations possible in these areas. Paranormal abilities: Telekinesis of a magnitude to cause tremors in immediate vicinity and shatter objects (e.g. Growing apples near a body of water gives an advantage by slowing spring warm up, which retards flowering until frost is less likely. Insurance Salesman and partner in Kensington & Bailey. If the pistil has turned black, the flower is ruined and will not produce fruit.
Orson Bailey, disappeared June 11, 1979, from Tacoma, WA. Frost damage can be evaluated 24 hours after the frost. Paranormal abilities: Saliva contains an agent that rapidly accelerates the metabolism of others. If the frost is not too severe, the tree can be wetted with water spray before the morning sun hits the flowers, and it may save them. A telemarketer. It is best to plant apples on a slope for air drainage, but not on a south facing slope (in the northern hemisphere) as this will encourage early flowering and increase susceptibility to frost. Trent Appelbaum, disappeared May 18, 1989. A common problem is a late frost that destroys the delicate outer structures of the flower.
Paranormal abilities: Is able to hear the thoughts of others. It generally requires multiple bee visits to deliver sufficient grains of pollen to accomplish complete pollination. A baseball player. Inadequate pollination can result from either a lack of pollinators or pollenizers, or from poor pollinating weather at flowering time. Gary Navarro,disappeared January 5, 1973. Apples having less than 3 seeds will usually not mature and will drop from the trees in the early summer. Paranormal abilities: Ability to compel others to help her build a device, the plans for which have been planted in her head. Well pollinated apples are the best quality, and will have 7 to 10 seeds.
A mental patient. Symptoms of inadequate pollination are small and misshapen apples, slowness to ripen, and low seed count. Tess Doerner, disappeared April 3, 1955. Bumble bee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in enough quantity to be significant pollinators. Paranormal abilities: Mind control/suggestion via speech. Some wild bees such as carpenter bees and other solitary bees may help. Captured and imprisoned in soundproof cell. Home growers may find these more acceptable in suburban locations because they do not sting.
Oliver Knox, disappeared August 22, 1983, from Friday Harbor, WA, a suspected serial killer. Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. Paranormal abilities: Enhanced reflexes and strength. Honeybee hives are most commonly used, and arrangements may be made with a commercial beekeeper who supplies hives for a fee. A supermarket employee (Deceased). During the flowering each season, apple growers usually provide pollinators to carry the pollen. Carl Morrisey, disappeared February 16, 2003, from Seattle, WA. Home growers with a single tree, and no other cultivars in the neighbourhood can do the same on a smaller scale.
Note that many of these powers duplicate those from among the 4400. Growers with old orchard blocks of single cultivars sometimes provide bouquets of crab apple blossoms in drums or pails in the orchard for pollenizers. Paranormal abilities: Telepathic communication (with Lily Moore, Richard Tyler, and Jordan Collier), mind control, materialization projection, alteration (Jordan Collier's injury, Lily Moore's first daughter's spleen) and/or acceleration of biological growth (the growth of berries in one episode and herself in the Season 2 finale), precognition (warned Lily of a bomb before it exploded), telekinesis (the bending trees in the final scene of Season 1). Quality nurseries have pollenizer compatibility lists. At the end of the season finale she ages considerably and shows up in Shawn's office, naked. Some cultivars produce very little pollen, or the pollen is sterile, so these are not good pollenizers. As the only 4400 not affected by the ability-inhibitor, she provides blood used to heal Shawn Farrell and consequently all 4400s, activating their abilities. Orchard blocks may alternate rows of compatible cultivars, or may have periodic crab apple trees, or grafted-on limbs of crab apple.
Technically not one of "The 4400" returned (she was still in the womb at the time of the count). Before planting, it is important to arrange for pollenizers, cultivars of apple or crab apple that provide plentiful, viable and compatible pollen. Isabelle Tyler-Moore, born post-return, daughter of Richard Tyler and Lily Moore. Pollination management is an important component of apple culture. Also, after being assassinated, he disappears and reappears alive at the very end of the second season finale. Apples are self-incompatible and must be cross-pollinated to develop fruit. Possibly enhanced power of suggestion over other people, but this could just be a personality trait. Apples do require good drainage, and heavy soils or flat land should be tilled to make certain that the root systems are never in saturated soil.
Paranormal abilities: unknown. They do require some protection from the wind and should not be planted in low areas that are prone to late spring frosts. Jordan Collier, disappeared April 10, 2002, from Seattle, WA area, a former real estate mogul. Apples are relatively indifferent to soil conditions and will grow in a wide range of pH values and fertility levels. Paranormal abilities: precognition. Good training of limbs and careful nipping of buds growing in the wrong places, are extremely important during this time, to build a good scaffold that will later support a fruit load. Maia Rutledge, disappeared March 3, 1946, at age 8, from Crescent City, CA. After the small tree is planted in the orchard, it must grow for 3-5 years (semi-dwarf) or 4-10 years (standard trees) before it will bear sizable amounts of fruit.
Paranormal abilities: Healer and life taker. Some trees are produced with a dwarfing "interstem" between a standard rootstock and the tree, resulting in two grafts. Shawn Farrell, disappeared April 22, 2001, at age 17, from Highland Beach, WA. Full dwarf trees are often supported of posts or trellises and planted in high density orchards which are much simpler to culture and greatly increase productivity per unit of land. Paranormal abilities: None Known. Dwarf rootstocks are generally more susceptible to damage from wind and cold. Returned pregnant, but not by Brian, rather by Richard Tyler. While many rootstocks are available to commercial grower, those sold to homeowners who want just a few trees are usually one of two cultivars: a standard seedling rootstock that gives a full-size tree, or a semi-dwarf rootstock that produces a somewhat smaller tree.
At time of abduction, married to Brian Moore, mother to Heidi Moore. Rootstocks affect the ultimate size of the tree. Louis, MO. In time, the two sections grow together and produce a healthy tree. Lily Moore, disappeared in 1993, at age 26, from St. The upper stem and branches of the rootstock are cut away and replaced with the scion. Paranormal abilities: apparent telekinesis. Then, a small section of branch called a scion is obtained from a mature apple tree of the desired cultivar.
Father of Lily Moore's second daughter, Isabelle. This is allowed to grow for a year. At the time, in a relationship with Lily Moore's grandmother, Lily Bonham. First, a rootstock is produced either as a seedling or cloned using tissue culture or layering. Louis, MO. These small trees are usually purchased from a nursery where they are produced by grafting or budding. Originally from St. Apple orchards are established by planting two to four year old trees.
Richard Tyler, disappeared May 11, 1951, at age 29, while in South Korea during the Korean War. The sweetness and texture of Honeycrisp have been so popular with consumers that Minnesota orchards have been cutting down their established, productive trees to make room for it, a heretofore unheard of practice. Ryland is succeeded by Nina Jarvis in season two, but he takes his role back as a guest star on the 11th and 12th (season finale) episodes of season two. Its most important introductions have included Haralson (which is the most widely cultivated apple in Minnesota), Wealthy, Honeygold, and Honeycrisp. Dennis Ryland: Baldwin's and Skouris's supervisor and director of the Seattle bureau of NTAC during season one. For example, the Excelsior Experiment Station of the University of Minnesota has, since the 1930s, introduced a steady progression of important hardy apples that are widely grown, both commercially and by backyard orchardists, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin. In the first episode of season 2, Diana adopts Maia Rutledge. Some breeders have crossed ordinary apples with crabapples or unusually hardy apples in order to produce hardier cultivars.
The eight-year old pre-cog Maia asks to move in with her at some point in season 1. Some differ sufficiently from the parent tree to be considered new cultivars. Diana Skouris: Tom's partner. Some bud sports turn out to be improved strains of the parent cultivar. Kyle was in a coma for three years, and after being awoken is troubled by blackouts. Apples can also form bud sports (mutations on a single branch). Tom Baldwin: Baldwin's nephew is Shawn Farrell; Shawn was with Baldwin's son Kyle Baldwin during the abduction. The words "seedling", "pippin", and "kernel" in the name of an apple cultivar suggest that it originated as a seedling.
Most new apple cultivars originate as seedlings, which either arise by chance or are bred by deliberately crossing cultivars with promising characteristics. Seedling apples are different from their parents, sometimes radically. Like most perennial fruits, apples are ordinarily propagated asexually by grafting. In recent years, many apple connoisseurs have come to regard the Red Delicious as inferior to cultivars such as Fuji and Gala due to its merely mild flavour and insufficiently firm texture.
state of Washington made its reputation for apple growing on Red Delicious. As an example, the U.S. Tastes in apples vary from one person to another and have changed over time. Extremely sweet apples with barely any acid flavour are popular in Asia and especially India.
Most North Americans and Europeans favour sweet, subacid apples, but tart apples have a strong minority following. Modern apples are, as a rule, sweeter than older cultivars. Cider apples are typically too tart and astringent to eat fresh, but they give the beverage a rich flavour that dessert apples cannot. Although most cultivars are bred for eating fresh (dessert apples), some are cultivated specifically for cooking (cooking apples) or producing cider.
Many unusual and locally important cultivars with their own unique taste and appearance are out there to discover; apple conservation campaigns have sprung up around the world to preserve such local cultivars from extinction. A few old cultivars are still produced on a large scale, but many have been kept alive by home gardeners and farmers that sell directly to local markets. Many of them have excellent flavour (often better than most modern cultivars), but may have other problems which make them commercially unviable, such as low yield, liability to disease, or poor tolerance for storage or transport. Old cultivars are often oddly shaped, russeted, and have a variety of textures and colours.
Other desired qualities in modern commercial apple breeding are a colourful skin, absence of russeting, ease of shipping, lengthy storage ability, high yields, disease resistance, typical 'Red Delicious' apple shape, long stem (to allow pesticides to penetrate the top of the fruit), and popular flavour. Commercially-popular apple cultivars are soft but crisp. Apples do not flower in tropical climates because they have a chilling requirement. Different cultivars are available for temperate and subtropical climates.
There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. The legendary placename Avalon is thought to come from a Celtic evolution of the same root as the English "apple", as is the name of the town of Avellino, near Naples in Italy. The scientific name malus, on the other hand, comes from the Latin word for apple, and ultimately from the Greek mēlon. The prevailing theory is that "apple" may be one of the most ancient Indo-European words (*abl-) to come down to English in a recognisable form.
The word apple comes from the Old English word aeppel, which in turn has recognisable cognates in a number of the northern branches of the Indo-European language family. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia, as well as in Argentina and in the United States since the arrival of Europeans. To a greater degree than other tree fruit, except possibly citrus, apples store for months while still retaining much of their nutritive value. The apple tree was probably the earliest tree to be cultivated, and apples have remained an important food in all cooler climates.
domestica, mainly for increased cold tolerance. These and other Malus species have been used in some recent breeding programmes to develop apples suitable for growing in climates unsuitable for M. Other species that were previously thought to have made contributions to the genome of the domestic apples are Malus baccata and Malus sylvestris, but there is no hard evidence for this in older apple cultivars. sieversii, recently planted by the US government at a research facility, resist many diseases and pests that affect domestic apples, and are the subject of continuing research to develop new disease-resistant apples.
Some individual M. This tree is still found wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China. It has no common name in English, but is known where it is native as "alma"; in fact, the city where it is thought to originate is called Alma-Ata, or "father of the apples". The wild ancestor of Malus domestica is Malus sieversii.
The leaves are alternately arranged, simple oval with an acute tip and serrated margin, slightly downy below, 5-12 cm long and 3-6 cm broad on a 2-5 cm petiole. It is a small deciduous tree reaching 5-12 m tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown. The apple is a tree and its pomaceous fruit, of species Malus domestica in the rose family Rosaceae, is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits.